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Index Sarcoidosis

Sarcoidosis is a disease involving abnormal collections of inflammatory cells that form lumps known as granulomas. [1]

241 relations: Acid-fastness, Acute myeloblastic leukemia, Acute myeloid leukemia, Adalimumab, African Americans, Alkaline phosphatase, Amenorrhea, Anemia, Angiotensin-converting enzyme, Antibiotic, Anticonvulsant, Antidepressant, Antimetabolite, Antimycobacterial, Apremilast, Arthralgia, Arthritis, Aspirin, Asteroid body, Asymptomatic, Atorvastatin, Autoimmunity, Azathioprine, Bernie Mac, Bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy, Bilirubin, Biopsy, Black people, Borrelia, Bronchoalveolar lavage, BTNL2, Candida (fungus), Catalase, Caucasian race, Cæsar Peter Møller Boeck, CD20, Cervical lymph nodes, Chest radiograph, Chlorambucil, Chloroquine, Cholestasis, Ciclosporin, Cladribine, Clonal anergy, Coeliac disease, Common variable immunodeficiency, Corticosteroid, Crackles, Creatinine, Crohn's disease, ..., Cryptococcus, CT scan, Cyclophosphamide, Cytomegalovirus, Dactylitis, Dermatology, Diabetes insipidus, Differential diagnosis, Disease-modifying antirheumatic drug, Endoscopic ultrasound, Enthesitis, Eosinophilia, Epididymis, Ernest Besnier, Erythema nodosum, Etanercept, Ethnic group, European Americans, Fallopian tube, Fatigue, Fine-needle aspiration, Firefighter, Flow cytometry, French Revolution, Fungus, Galactorrhea, Glucocorticoid, Golimumab, Granuloma, Granulomatosis with polyangiitis, Granulomatous–lymphocytic interstitial lung disease, Greece, Greek language, Grocott's methenamine silver stain, H&E stain, Hairy cell leukemia, Heart block, Heerfordt syndrome, Hemolytic anemia, Hepatomegaly, Histology, HIV, HLA DR3-DQ2, HLA-B7, HLA-DR, HLA-DR15, Human leukocyte antigen, Hydroxychloroquine, Hypercalcaemia, Hypergammaglobulinemia, Hyperprolactinaemia, Hypertension, Ibuprofen, IL-2 receptor, Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, Infection, Infectious mononucleosis, Infliximab, Interferon gamma, Interleukin 10, Interleukin 12, Interleukin 18, Interleukin 2, Interleukin 23, Interleukin 8, Interstitial lung disease, Jaccoud arthropathy, Jörgen Nilsen Schaumann, Jonathan Hutchinson, Larynx, Löfgren syndrome, Leflunomide, Leprosy, Letter to the editor, Leukopenia, London, Lung, Lung cancer, Lupus pernio, Lymph node, Lymphadenopathy, Lymphocytopenia, Lymphoma, Lymphoproliferative disorders, Lysozyme, Macrophage, Maculopapular rash, Maximilien Robespierre, Mediastinum, Medical journal, Mesenchymal stem cell, Methotrexate, Methylphenidate, Micrograph, Microorganism, Minocycline, Modafinil, Monocyte, Monocytosis, Mycobacterium, Mycobacterium avium complex, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycophenolic acid, Myelopathy, Nephrocalcinosis, Neurosarcoidosis, Nicotine, Non-Hodgkin lymphoma, Nonpuerperal mastitis, Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, Opioid, Orchiectomy, Organ (anatomy), Organ transplantation, Ovary, Panniculitis, Papilledema, Paranasal sinuses, Parathyroid hormone, Parenchyma, Parotid gland, Parotitis, Pentoxifylline, Periostitis, Peripheral neuropathy, Peroxidase, Pharynx, Phosphodiesterase 4, Phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor, Pneumonia, Positron emission tomography, Prednisolone, Prednisone, Prolactin, Prostate, Proteinuria, Psoriatic arthritis, Pulmonary fibrosis, Pulmonary hypertension, Quality of life, Quercetin, Rash, Reign of Terror, Rheumatoid nodule, Rheumatology, Rickettsia, Rituximab, Roflumilast, Root of the lung, Sarcoidosis, Scandinavians, Schaumann body, September 11 attacks, Serum amyloid A, Shortness of breath, Skin manifestations of sarcoidosis, Spain, Splenomegaly, Symptom, T cell, T helper cell, Teratology, Testicle, Testicular cancer, Tetracycline antibiotics, Thalidomide, The Lancet, Thrombocytopenia, Tissue (biology), Transaminase, Transforming growth factor beta, Tuberculin, Tuberculosis, Tumor necrosis factor alpha, Tumor necrosis factor superfamily, United Kingdom, Ursodeoxycholic acid, Uterus, Uveitis, Uveoparotitis, Varicella zoster virus, Vitamin D, Vulva, Washington, D.C., Weakness, Weight loss, Wheeze, Wiley-Blackwell, World Trade Center (1973–2001), Xerophthalmia, Xerostomia. Expand index (191 more) »


Acid-fastness is a physical property of certain bacterial and eukaryotic cells, as well as some sub-cellular structures, specifically their resistance to decolorization by acids during laboratory staining procedures.

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Acute myeloblastic leukemia

Acute myeloblastic leukemia is a form of myeloid leukemia affecting myeloblasts.

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Acute myeloid leukemia

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a cancer of the myeloid line of blood cells, characterized by the rapid growth of abnormal cells that build up in the bone marrow and blood and interfere with normal blood cells.

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Adalimumab, sold under the trade name Humira among others, is a medication used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, chronic psoriasis, hidradenitis suppurativa, and juvenile idiopathic arthritis.

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African Americans

African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.

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Alkaline phosphatase

Alkaline phosphatase (ALP, ALKP, ALPase, Alk Phos) or basic phosphatase is a homodimeric protein enzyme of 86 kilodaltons.

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Amenorrhoea is the absence of a menstrual period in a woman of reproductive age.

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Anemia is a decrease in the total amount of red blood cells (RBCs) or hemoglobin in the blood, or a lowered ability of the blood to carry oxygen.

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Angiotensin-converting enzyme

Angiotensin-converting enzyme, or ACE, is a central component of the renin–angiotensin system (RAS), which controls blood pressure by regulating the volume of fluids in the body.

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An antibiotic (from ancient Greek αντιβιοτικά, antibiotiká), also called an antibacterial, is a type of antimicrobial drug used in the treatment and prevention of bacterial infections.

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Anticonvulsants (also commonly known as antiepileptic drugs or as antiseizure drugs) are a diverse group of pharmacological agents used in the treatment of epileptic seizures.

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Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.

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An antimetabolite is a chemical that inhibits the use of a metabolite, which is another chemical that is part of normal metabolism.

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An antimycobacterial is a type of medication used to treat Mycobacteria infections.

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Apremilast, brand name Otezla among others, is a medication for the treatment of certain types of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis.

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Arthralgia (from Greek arthro-, joint + -algos, pain) literally means joint pain; it is a symptom of injury, infection, illnesses (in particular arthritis) or an allergic reaction to medication.

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Arthritis is a term often used to mean any disorder that affects joints.

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Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation.

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Asteroid body

An asteroid body is a microscopic finding seen within the giant cells of granulomas in diseases such as sarcoidosis and foreign-body giant cell reactions.

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In medicine, a disease is considered asymptomatic if a patient is a carrier for a disease or infection but experiences no symptoms.

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Atorvastatin, marketed under the trade name Lipitor among others, is a member of the medication class known as statins, which are used primarily as a lipid-lowering agent and for prevention of events associated with cardiovascular disease.

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Autoimmunity is the system of immune responses of an organism against its own healthy cells and tissues.

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Azathioprine (AZA), sold under the brand name Imuran among others, is an immunosuppressive medication.

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Bernie Mac

Bernard Jeffrey McCullough (October 5, 1957 – August 9, 2008), better known by his stage name Bernie Mac, was an American stand-up comedian, actor, and voice actor.

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Bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy

Bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy is a bilateral enlargement of the lymph nodes of pulmonary hila.

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Bilirubin is a yellow compound that occurs in the normal catabolic pathway that breaks down heme in vertebrates.

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A biopsy is a medical test commonly performed by a surgeon, interventional radiologist, or an interventional cardiologist involving extraction of sample cells or tissues for examination to determine the presence or extent of a disease.

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Black people

Black people is a term used in certain countries, often in socially based systems of racial classification or of ethnicity, to describe persons who are perceived to be dark-skinned compared to other populations.

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Borrelia is a genus of bacteria of the spirochete phylum.

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Bronchoalveolar lavage

Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL; informally, "bronchoalveolar washing") is a medical procedure in which a bronchoscope is passed through the mouth or nose into the lungs and fluid is squirted into a small part of the lung and then collected for examination.

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Butyrophilin-like protein 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the BTNL2 gene.

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Candida (fungus)

Candida is a genus of yeasts and is the most common cause of fungal infections worldwide.

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Catalase is a common enzyme found in nearly all living organisms exposed to oxygen (such as bacteria, plants, and animals).

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Caucasian race

The Caucasian race (also Caucasoid or Europid) is a grouping of human beings historically regarded as a biological taxon, which, depending on which of the historical race classifications used, have usually included some or all of the ancient and modern populations of Europe, the Caucasus, Asia Minor, North Africa, the Horn of Africa, Western Asia, Central Asia and South Asia.

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Cæsar Peter Møller Boeck

Cæsar Peter Møller Boeck (September 28, 1845 – March 17, 1917) was a Norwegian dermatologist born in Lier, Norway.

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B-lymphocyte antigen CD20 or CD20 is an activated-glycosylated phosphoprotein expressed on the surface of all B-cells beginning at the pro-B phase (CD45R+, CD117+) and progressively increasing in concentration until maturity.

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Cervical lymph nodes

Cervical lymph nodes are lymph nodes found in the neck.

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Chest radiograph

A chest radiograph, colloquially called a chest X-ray (CXR), or chest film, is a projection radiograph of the chest used to diagnose conditions affecting the chest, its contents, and nearby structures.

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Chlorambucil, sold under the brand name Leukeran among others, is a chemotherapy medication used to treat chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), Hodgkin lymphoma, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.

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Chloroquine is a medication used to prevent and to treat malaria in areas where malaria is known to be sensitive to its effects.

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Cholestasis is a condition where bile cannot flow from the liver to the duodenum.

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Ciclosporin, also spelled cyclosporine and cyclosporin, is an immunosuppressant medication and natural product.

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Cladribine, sold under the brand name Leustatin among others, is a medication used to treat hairy cell leukemia (HCL, leukemic reticuloendotheliosis) and B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

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Clonal anergy

Anergy is a term in immunobiology that describes a lack of reaction by the body's defense mechanisms to foreign substances, and consists of a direct induction of peripheral lymphocyte tolerance.

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Coeliac disease

Coeliac disease, also spelled celiac disease, is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the small intestine.

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Common variable immunodeficiency

Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is an immune disorder characterized by recurrent infections and low antibody levels, specifically in immunoglobulin (Ig) types IgG, IgM and IgA.

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Corticosteroids are a class of steroid hormones that are produced in the adrenal cortex of vertebrates, as well as the synthetic analogues of these hormones.

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Crackles, crepitations, or rales are the clicking, rattling, or crackling noises that may be made by one or both lungs of a human with a respiratory disease during inhalation.

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Creatinine (or; from flesh) is a breakdown product of creatine phosphate in muscle, and is usually produced at a fairly constant rate by the body (depending on muscle mass).

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Crohn's disease

Crohn's disease is a type of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus.

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Cryptococcus (Greek for "hidden sphere") is a genus of fungi, which grow in culture as yeasts.

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CT scan

A CT scan, also known as computed tomography scan, makes use of computer-processed combinations of many X-ray measurements taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of specific areas of a scanned object, allowing the user to see inside the object without cutting.

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Cyclophosphamide (CP), also known as cytophosphane among other, is a medication used as chemotherapy and to suppress the immune system.

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Cytomegalovirus (CMV) (from the Greek cyto-, "cell", and megalo-, "large") is a genus of viruses in the order Herpesvirales, in the family Herpesviridae, in the subfamily Betaherpesvirinae.

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Dactylitis or sausage digit is inflammation of an entire digit (a finger or toe), and can be painful.

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Dermatology (from ancient Greek δέρμα, derma which means skin and λογία, logia) is the branch of medicine dealing with the skin, nails, hair and its diseases.

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Diabetes insipidus

Diabetes insipidus (DI) is a condition characterized by large amounts of dilute urine and increased thirst.

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Differential diagnosis

In medicine, a differential diagnosis is the distinguishing of a particular disease or condition from others that present similar clinical features.

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Disease-modifying antirheumatic drug

Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) is a category of otherwise unrelated drugs defined by their use in rheumatoid arthritis to slow down disease progression.

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Endoscopic ultrasound

Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) or echo-endoscopy is a medical procedure in which endoscopy (insertion of a probe into a hollow organ) is combined with ultrasound to obtain images of the internal organs in the chest, abdomen and colon.

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Enthesitis is inflammation of the entheses, the sites where tendons or ligaments insert into the bone.

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Eosinophilia is a condition in which the eosinophil count in the peripheral blood exceeds.

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The epididymis (plural: epididymides or) is a tube that connects a testicle to a vas deferens in the male reproductive system.

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Ernest Besnier

Ernest Henri Besnier (21 April 1831 – 15 May 1909, Paris) was a French dermatologist and medical director of the Hôpital Saint-Louis in Paris.

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Erythema nodosum

Erythema nodosum (EN), also known as subacute migratory panniculitis of Vilanova and Piñol, is an inflammatory condition characterized by inflammation of the fat cells under the skin, resulting in tender red nodules or lumps that are usually seen on both shins.

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Etanercept (trade name Enbrel) is a biopharmaceutical that treats autoimmune diseases by interfering with tumor necrosis factor (TNF, a soluble inflammatory cytokine) by acting as a TNF inhibitor.

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Ethnic group

An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.

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European Americans

European Americans (also referred to as Euro-Americans) are Americans of European ancestry.

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Fallopian tube

The Fallopian tubes, also known as uterine tubes or salpinges (singular salpinx), are two very fine tubes lined with ciliated epithelia, leading from the ovaries of female mammals into the uterus, via the uterotubal junction.

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Fatigue is a subjective feeling of tiredness that has a gradual onset.

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Fine-needle aspiration

Fine-needle aspiration (FNA) is a diagnostic procedure used to investigate lumps or masses.

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A firefighter is a rescuer extensively trained in firefighting, primarily to extinguish hazardous fires that threaten life, property and the environment as well as to rescue people and animals from dangerous situations.

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Flow cytometry

In biotechnology, flow cytometry is a laser- or impedance-based, biophysical technology employed in cell counting, cell sorting, biomarker detection and protein engineering, by suspending cells in a stream of fluid and passing them through an electronic detection apparatus.

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French Revolution

The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.

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A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.

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Galactorrhea (also spelled galactorrhoea) (galacto- + -rrhea) or lactorrhea (lacto- + -rrhea) is the spontaneous flow of milk from the breast, unassociated with childbirth or nursing.

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Glucocorticoids are a class of corticosteroids, which are a class of steroid hormones.

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Golimumab (CNTO 148) is a human monoclonal antibody which is used as an immunosuppressive drug and marketed under the brand name Simponi.

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Granuloma is an inflammation found in many diseases.

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Granulomatosis with polyangiitis

Granulomatosis with polyangiitis (GPA), formerly known as Wegener's granulomatosis (WG), is a long-term systemic disorder that involves both granulomatosis and polyangiitis.

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Granulomatous–lymphocytic interstitial lung disease

Granulomatous–lymphocytic interstitial lung disease (GLILD) is a lung complication of common variable immunodeficiency disorders (CVID).

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No description.

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Greek language

Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.

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Grocott's methenamine silver stain

In pathology, the Grocott-Gomori's (or Gömöri) methenamine silver stain, abbreviated GMS, is a popular staining method in histology.

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H&E stain

Hematoxylin and eosin stain or haematoxylin and eosin stain (H&E stain or HE stain) is one of the principal stains in histology.

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Hairy cell leukemia

Hairy cell leukemia is an uncommon hematological malignancy characterized by an accumulation of abnormal B lymphocytes.

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Heart block

Heart block is a disease or inherited condition that causes a fault within the heart's natural pacemaker due to some kind of obstruction (or "block") in the electrical conduction system of the heart.

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Heerfordt syndrome

Heerfordt syndrome, also referred to as uveoparotid fever, Heerfordt–Mylius syndrome, Heerfordt–Waldenström syndrome, and Waldenström's uveoparotitis, is a rare manifestation of sarcoidosis.

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Hemolytic anemia

Hemolytic anemia or haemolytic anaemia is a form of anemia due to hemolysis, the abnormal breakdown of red blood cells (RBCs), either in the blood vessels (intravascular hemolysis) or elsewhere in the human body (extravascular, but usually in the spleen).

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Hepatomegaly is the condition of having an enlarged liver.

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Histology, also microanatomy, is the study of the anatomy of cells and tissues of plants and animals using microscopy.

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The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a lentivirus (a subgroup of retrovirus) that causes HIV infection and over time acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

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HLA DR3-DQ2 is double serotype that specifically recognizes cells from individuals who carry a multigene HLA DR, DQ haplotype.

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HLA-B7 (B7) is an HLA-B serotype.

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HLA-DR is an MHC class II cell surface receptor encoded by the human leukocyte antigen complex on chromosome 6 region 6p21.31.

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HLA-DR15 (DR15) is a HLA-DR serotype that recognizes the DRB1*1501 to *1505 and *1507 gene products.

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Human leukocyte antigen

The human leukocyte antigen (HLA) system or complex is a gene complex encoding the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins in humans.

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Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ), sold under the brand name Plaquenil among others, is a medication used for the prevention and treatment of certain types of malaria. Specifically it is used for chloroquine-sensitive malaria. Other uses include treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and porphyria cutanea tarda. It is taken by mouth. Common side effects include vomiting, headache, changes in vision and muscle weakness. Severe side effects may include allergic reactions. It appears to be safe in pregnancy but this use has not been well studied. Hydroxychloroquine is in the antimalarial and 4-aminoquinoline families of medication. Hydroxychloroquine was approved for medical use in the United States in 1955. It is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines, the most effective and safe medicines needed in a health system. The wholesale cost in the developing world is about $5.40 to 7.44 per month. In the United Kingdom this dose costs the NHS about £5.15. In the United States a month of treatment typically costs less than $25.

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Hypercalcaemia, also spelled hypercalcemia, is a high calcium (Ca2+) level in the blood serum.

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Hypergammaglobulinemia is a medical condition with elevated levels of gamma globulin.

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Hyperprolactinemia or hyperprolactinaemia is the presence of abnormally high levels of prolactin in the blood.

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Hypertension (HTN or HT), also known as high blood pressure (HBP), is a long-term medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is persistently elevated.

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Ibuprofen is a medication in the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) class that is used for treating pain, fever, and inflammation.

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IL-2 receptor

The interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) is a heterotrimeric protein expressed on the surface of certain immune cells, such as lymphocytes, that binds and responds to a cytokine called IL-2.

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Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome

Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) (also known as immune recovery syndrome) is a condition seen in some cases of AIDS or immunosuppression, in which the immune system begins to recover, but then responds to a previously acquired opportunistic infection with an overwhelming inflammatory response that paradoxically makes the symptoms of infection worse.

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Infection is the invasion of an organism's body tissues by disease-causing agents, their multiplication, and the reaction of host tissues to the infectious agents and the toxins they produce.

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Infectious mononucleosis

Infectious mononucleosis (IM, mono), also known as glandular fever, is an infection usually caused by the Epstein–Barr virus (EBV).

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Infliximab (trade names Remicade among others) is a chimeric monoclonal antibody biologic drug that works against tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and is used to treat autoimmune diseases.

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Interferon gamma

Interferon gamma (IFNγ) is a dimerized soluble cytokine that is the only member of the type II class of interferons.

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Interleukin 10

Interleukin 10 (IL-10), also known as human cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor (CSIF), is an anti-inflammatory cytokine.

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Interleukin 12

Interleukin 12 (IL-12) is an interleukin that is naturally produced by dendritic cells, macrophages, neutrophils, and human B-lymphoblastoid cells (NC-37) in response to antigenic stimulation.

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Interleukin 18

Interleukin-18 (IL18, also known as interferon-gamma inducing factor) is a protein which in humans is encoded by the IL18 gene.

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Interleukin 2

Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is an interleukin, a type of cytokine signaling molecule in the immune system.

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Interleukin 23

Interleukin-23 (IL-23) is a heterodimeric cytokine composed of an IL12B (IL-12p40) subunit (that is shared with IL12) and the (IL-23p19) subunit.

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Interleukin 8

Interleukin 8 (IL8 or chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8, CXCL8) is a chemokine produced by macrophages and other cell types such as epithelial cells, airway smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells.

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Interstitial lung disease

Interstitial lung disease (ILD), or diffuse parenchymal lung disease (DPLD), is a group of lung diseases affecting the interstitium (the tissue and space around the air sacs of the lungs).

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Jaccoud arthropathy

Jaccoud arthropathy (JA), Jaccoud deformity or Jaccoud's arthopathy is a chronic non-erosive reversible joint disorder that may occur after repeated bouts of arthritis.

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Jörgen Nilsen Schaumann

Jörgen Nilsen Schaumann (1879 – 1953) was a Swedish dermatologist.

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Jonathan Hutchinson

Sir Jonathan Hutchinson (23 July 1828 – 23 June 1913), was an English surgeon, ophthalmologist, dermatologist, venereologist and pathologist.

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The larynx, commonly called the voice box, is an organ in the top of the neck of tetrapods involved in breathing, producing sound, and protecting the trachea against food aspiration.

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Löfgren syndrome

Lofgren syndrome is a type of acute sarcoidosis that is frequent in Scandinavian, Irish, African and Puerto Rican women.

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Leflunomide (original brand name Arava) is an immunosuppressive disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD), used in active moderate-to-severe rheumatoid arthritis and psoriatic arthritis.

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Leprosy, also known as Hansen's disease (HD), is a long-term infection by the bacterium Mycobacterium leprae or Mycobacterium lepromatosis.

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Letter to the editor

A letter to the editor (sometimes abbreviated LTTE or LTE) is a letter sent to a publication about issues of concern from its readers.

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Leukopenia is a decrease in the number of white blood cells (leukocytes) found in the blood, which places individuals at increased risk of infection.

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London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.

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The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.

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Lung cancer

Lung cancer, also known as lung carcinoma, is a malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.

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Lupus pernio

Lupus pernio is a chronic raised indurated (hardened) lesion of the skin, often purplish in color.

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Lymph node

A lymph node or lymph gland is an ovoid or kidney-shaped organ of the lymphatic system, and of the adaptive immune system, that is widely present throughout the body.

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Lymphadenopathy or adenopathy is disease of the lymph nodes, in which they are abnormal in size, number, or consistency.

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Lymphocytopenia, or lymphopenia, is the condition of having an abnormally low level of lymphocytes in the blood.

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Lymphoma is a group of blood cancers that develop from lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell).

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Lymphoproliferative disorders

Lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs) refer to several conditions in which lymphocytes are produced in excessive quantities.

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Lysozyme, also known as muramidase or N-acetylmuramide glycanhydrolase is an antimicrobial enzyme produced by animals that forms part of the innate immune system.

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Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).

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Maculopapular rash

A maculopapular rash is a type of rash characterized by a flat, red area on the skin that is covered with small confluent bumps.

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Maximilien Robespierre

Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre (6 May 1758 – 28 July 1794) was a French lawyer and politician, as well as one of the best known and most influential figures associated with the French Revolution and the Reign of Terror.

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The mediastinum (from Medieval Latin mediastinus, "midway") is the central compartment of the thoracic cavity surrounded by loose connective tissue, as an undelineated region that contains a group of structures within the thorax.

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Medical journal

A medical journal is a peer-reviewed scientific journal which communicates medical information to physicians and other health professionals.

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Mesenchymal stem cell

Mesenchymal stem cells are multipotent stromal cells that can differentiate into a variety of cell types, including osteoblasts (bone cells), chondrocytes (cartilage cells), myocytes (muscle cells) and adipocytes (fat cells which give rise to marrow adipose tissue).

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Methotrexate (MTX), formerly known as amethopterin, is a chemotherapy agent and immune system suppressant.

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Methylphenidate, sold under various trade names, Ritalin being one of the most commonly known, is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the phenethylamine and piperidine classes that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and narcolepsy.

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A micrograph or photomicrograph is a photograph or digital image taken through a microscope or similar device to show a magnified image of an item.

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A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.

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Minocycline is a broad-spectrum tetracycline antibiotic, and has a broader spectrum than the other members of the group.

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Modafinil, sold under the brand name Provigil among others, is a medication to treat sleepiness due to narcolepsy, shift work sleep disorder, or obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In OSA continuous positive airway pressure is the preferred treatment. While it has seen off-label use as a purported cognitive enhancer, evidence for any benefit is lacking. It is taken by mouth. Common side effects include headache, anxiety, trouble sleeping, and nausea. Serious side effects may include allergic reactions such as anaphylaxis, Stevens–Johnson syndrome, abuse, or hallucinations. It is unclear if use during pregnancy is safe. The amount of medication used may need to be adjusted in those with kidney or liver problems. It is not recommended in those with an arrhythmia, significant hypertension, or left ventricular hypertrophy. How it works is not entirely clear. One possibility is that it may affect the areas of the brain involved with the sleep cycle. Modafinil was approved for medical use in the United States in 1998. In the United States it is classified as a schedule IV controlled substance due to concerns about addiction. In the United Kingdom it is a prescription only medication. It is avaliable as a generic medication. In the United Kingdom it costs the NHS about £105.21 a month as of 2018. In the United States the wholesale cost per month is about 34.20 USD as of 2018.

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Monocytes are a type of leukocyte, or white blood cell.

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Monocytosis is an increase in the number of monocytes circulating in the blood.

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Mycobacterium is a genus of Actinobacteria, given its own family, the Mycobacteriaceae.

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Mycobacterium avium complex

Mycobacterium avium complex is a group of mycobacteria comprising Mycobacterium intracellulare, Mycobacterium avium, and Mycobacterium chimaera that are commonly grouped together because they infect humans together; this group in turn is part of the group of nontuberculous mycobacteria.

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Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a species of pathogenic bacteria in the family Mycobacteriaceae and the causative agent of tuberculosis.

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Mycophenolic acid

Mycophenolic acid, less accurately called mycophenolate, is an immunosuppressant drug used to prevent rejection in organ transplantation.

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Myelopathy describes any neurologic deficit related to the spinal cord.

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Nephrocalcinosis, once known as Albright's calcinosis after Fuller Albright, or Anderson-Carr kidneys, is a term originally used to describe deposition of calcium salts in the renal parenchyma due to hyperparathyroidism.

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Neurosarcoidosis (sometimes shortened to neurosarcoid) refers to sarcoidosis, a condition of unknown cause featuring granulomas in various tissues, involving the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord).

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Nicotine is a potent parasympathomimetic stimulant and an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants.

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Non-Hodgkin lymphoma

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a group of blood cancers that includes all types of lymphoma except Hodgkin's lymphomas.

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Nonpuerperal mastitis

The term nonpuerperal mastitis describes inflammatory lesions of the breast (mastitis) that occur unrelated to pregnancy and breastfeeding.

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Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a drug class that reduce pain, decrease fever, prevent blood clots and, in higher doses, decrease inflammation.

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Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.

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Orchiectomy (also named orchidectomy, and sometimes shortened as orchi) is a surgical procedure in which one or both testicles are removed.

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Organ (anatomy)

Organs are collections of tissues with similar functions.

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Organ transplantation

Organ transplantation is a medical procedure in which an organ is removed from one body and placed in the body of a recipient, to replace a damaged or missing organ.

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The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system that produces an ovum.

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Panniculitis is a group of diseases whose hallmark is inflammation of subcutaneous adipose tissue (the fatty layer under the skin – panniculus adiposus).

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Papilledema (or papilloedema) is optic disc swelling that is caused by increased intracranial pressure due to any cause.

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Paranasal sinuses

Paranasal sinuses are a group of four paired air-filled spaces that surround the nasal cavity.

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Parathyroid hormone

Parathyroid hormone (PTH), also called parathormone or parathyrin, is a hormone secreted by the parathyroid glands that is important in bone remodeling, which is an ongoing process in which bone tissue is alternately resorbed and rebuilt over time.

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Parenchyma is the bulk of a substance.

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Parotid gland

The parotid gland is a major salivary gland in many animals.

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Parotitis is an inflammation of one or both parotid glands, the major salivary glands located on either side of the face, in humans.

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Pentoxifylline, also known as oxpentifylline, is a xanthine derivative used as a drug to treat muscle pain in people with peripheral artery disease. It is generic and sold under many brand names worldwide.Drugs.com. Page accessed Feb 1, 206.

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Periostitis, also known as periostalgia, is a medical condition caused by inflammation of the periosteum, a layer of connective tissue that surrounds bone.

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Peripheral neuropathy

Peripheral neuropathy (PN) is damage to or disease affecting nerves, which may impair sensation, movement, gland or organ function, or other aspects of health, depending on the type of nerve affected.

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Peroxidases (EC number) are a large family of enzymes that typically catalyze a reaction of the form: For many of these enzymes the optimal substrate is hydrogen peroxide, but others are more active with organic hydroperoxides such as lipid peroxides.

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The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the throat that is behind the mouth and nasal cavity and above the esophagus and the larynx, or the tubes going down to the stomach and the lungs.

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Phosphodiesterase 4

At least four types of the enzyme phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) are known.

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Phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor

A phosphodiesterase type 4 inhibitor, commonly referred to as a PDE4 inhibitor, is a drug used to block the degradative action of phosphodiesterase 4 (PDE4) on cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP).

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Pneumonia is an inflammatory condition of the lung affecting primarily the small air sacs known as alveoli.

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Positron emission tomography

Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.

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Prednisolone is a steroid medication used to treat certain types of allergies, inflammatory conditions, autoimmune disorders, and cancers.

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Prednisone is a synthetic glucocorticoid drug that is mostly used to suppress the immune system.

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Prolactin (PRL), also known as luteotropic hormone or luteotropin, is a protein that is best known for its role in enabling mammals, usually females, to produce milk.

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The prostate (from Ancient Greek προστάτης, prostates, literally "one who stands before", "protector", "guardian") is a compound tubuloalveolar exocrine gland of the male reproductive system in most mammals.

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Proteinuria is the presence of excess proteins in the urine.

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Psoriatic arthritis

Psoriatic arthritis is a long-term inflammatory arthritis that occurs in people affected by the autoimmune disease psoriasis.

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Pulmonary fibrosis

Pulmonary fibrosis (literally "scarring of the lungs") is a respiratory disease in which scars are formed in the lung tissues, leading to serious breathing problems.

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Pulmonary hypertension

Pulmonary hypertension (PH or PHTN) is a condition of increased blood pressure within the arteries of the lungs.

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Quality of life

Quality of life (QOL) is the general well-being of individuals and societies, outlining negative and positive features of life.

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Quercetin, a plant flavonol from the flavonoid group of polyphenols, is found in many fruits, vegetables, leaves, and grains; red onions and kale are common foods containing appreciable content of quercetin.

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A rash is a change of the human skin which affects its color, appearance, or texture.

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Reign of Terror

The Reign of Terror, or The Terror (la Terreur), is the label given by some historians to a period during the French Revolution after the First French Republic was established.

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Rheumatoid nodule

A rheumatoid nodule is a local swelling or tissue lump, usually rather firm to touch, like an unripe fruit, which occurs almost exclusively in association with rheumatoid arthritis.

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Rheumatology (Greek ρεύμα, rheuma, flowing current) is a branch of medicine devoted to the diagnosis and therapy of rheumatic diseases.

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Rickettsia is a genus of nonmotile, Gram-negative, nonspore-forming, highly pleomorphic bacteria that can be present as cocci (0.1 μm in diameter), rods (1–4 μm long), or thread-like (10 μm long).

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Rituximab, sold under the brand name Rituxan among others, is a medication used to treat certain autoimmune diseases and types of cancer.

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Roflumilast (trade names Daxas, Daliresp) is a drug that acts as a selective, long-acting inhibitor of the enzyme phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE-4).

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Root of the lung

The root of the lung is located at the hilum of each lung, just above the middle of the mediastinal surface and behind the cardiac impression of the lung.

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Sarcoidosis is a disease involving abnormal collections of inflammatory cells that form lumps known as granulomas.

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Scandinavians are people belonging to the various ethnic groups native to Scandinavia: Always included based on a genetic definition are.

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Schaumann body

In pathology, Schaumann bodies are calcium and protein inclusions inside of Langhans giant cells as part of a granuloma.

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September 11 attacks

The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.

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Serum amyloid A

Serum amyloid A (SAA) proteins are a family of apolipoproteins associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in plasma.

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Shortness of breath

Shortness of breath, also known as dyspnea, is the feeling that one cannot breathe well enough.

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Skin manifestations of sarcoidosis

Sarcoidosis involves the skin in about 25% of patients.

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Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.

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Splenomegaly is an enlargement of the spleen.

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A symptom (from Greek σύμπτωμα, "accident, misfortune, that which befalls", from συμπίπτω, "I befall", from συν- "together, with" and πίπτω, "I fall") is a departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient, reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease.

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T cell

A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.

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T helper cell

The T helper cells (Th cells) are a type of T cell that play an important role in the immune system, particularly in the adaptive immune system.

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Teratology is the study of abnormalities of physiological development.

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The testicle or testis is the male reproductive gland in all animals, including humans.

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Testicular cancer

Testicular cancer is cancer that develops in the testicles, a part of the male reproductive system.

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Tetracycline antibiotics

Tetracyclines are broad-spectrum antibiotics whose general usefulness has been reduced with the onset of antibiotic resistance.

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Thalidomide, sold under the brand name Immunoprin, among others, is an immunomodulatory drug and the prototype of the thalidomide class of drugs.

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The Lancet

The Lancet is a weekly peer-reviewed general medical journal.

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Thrombocytopenia is a condition characterized by abnormally low levels of thrombocytes, also known as platelets, in the blood.

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Tissue (biology)

In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.

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Transaminases or aminotransferases are enzymes that catalyze a transamination reaction between an amino acid and an α-keto acid.

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Transforming growth factor beta

Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is a multifunctional cytokine belonging to the transforming growth factor superfamily that includes four different isoforms (TGF-β 1 to 4, HGNC symbols TGFB1, TGFB2, TGFB3, TGFB4) and many other signaling proteins produced by all white blood cell lineages.

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Tuberculin, also known as purified protein derivative, is a combination of proteins that are used in the diagnosis of tuberculosis.

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Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease usually caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB).

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Tumor necrosis factor alpha

Tumor necrosis factor (TNF, tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNFα, cachexin, or cachectin) is a cell signaling protein (cytokine) involved in systemic inflammation and is one of the cytokines that make up the acute phase reaction.

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Tumor necrosis factor superfamily

The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily is a protein superfamily of type II transmembrane proteins containing TNF homology domain and forming trimers.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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Ursodeoxycholic acid

Ursodeoxycholic acid (INN, BAN and AAN), also known as ursodiol (USAN) and the abbreviation UDCA, from the root-word for bear urso, as bear bile contains the substance, is one of the secondary bile acids, which are metabolic byproducts of intestinal bacteria.

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The uterus (from Latin "uterus", plural uteri) or womb is a major female hormone-responsive secondary sex organ of the reproductive system in humans and most other mammals.

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Uveitis is the inflammation of the uvea, the pigmented layer that lies between the inner retina and the outer fibrous layer composed of the sclera and cornea.

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Uveoparotitis is a symptom of sarcoidosis.

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Varicella zoster virus

Varicella zoster virus or varicella-zoster virus (VZV) is one of eight herpesviruses known to infect humans.

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Vitamin D

Vitamin D is a group of fat-soluble secosteroids responsible for increasing intestinal absorption of calcium, magnesium, and phosphate, and multiple other biological effects.

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The vulva (wrapper, covering, plural vulvae or vulvas) consists of the external female sex organs.

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Washington, D.C.

Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.

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Weakness or asthenia is a symptom of a number of different conditions.

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Weight loss

Weight loss, in the context of medicine, health, or physical fitness, refers to a reduction of the total body mass, due to a mean loss of fluid, body fat or adipose tissue or lean mass, namely bone mineral deposits, muscle, tendon, and other connective tissue.

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A wheeze (formally called "sibilant rhonchi" in medical terminology) is a continuous, coarse, whistling sound produced in the respiratory airways during breathing.

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Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.

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World Trade Center (1973–2001)

The original World Trade Center was a large complex of seven buildings in Lower Manhattan, New York City, United States.

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Xerophthalmia (from Ancient Greek xērós (ξηρός) meaning dry and ophthalmos (οφθαλμός) meaning eye) is a medical condition in which the eye fails to produce tears.

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Xerostomia, also known as dry mouth and dry mouth syndrome, is dryness in the mouth, which may be associated with a change in the composition of saliva, or reduced salivary flow, or have no identifiable cause.

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Acute with erythema nodosum sarcoidosis, Besnier Boeck Schaumann disease, Besnier Boeck disease, Besnier-Boeck disease, Besnier-Boeck-Schaumann disease, Besnier–Boeck–Schaumann disease, Boeck's Sarcoid, Boeck's sarcoid, Boeck-Schaumann disease, Box sarcoid, Cardiac sarcoidosis, Cutaneous sarcoidosis, Early-onset sarcoidosis, Hutchinson-Boeck disease, Maculopapular sarcoidosis, Nodular sarcoidosis, Papular sarcoidosis, Plaque sarcoidosis, Pulmonary sarcoidosis, Sarchoidosis, Sarcoid granuloma, Sarcoiditis, Sarcoidoisis, Sarcoidosis in scar, Sarcoidosis, pulmonary, Sarcoydosis, Sarcoïdosis, Scar sarcoidosis, Subcutaneous nodular sarcoidosis, Systemic sarcoidosis, Tache de bougie.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sarcoidosis

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