377 relations: ABS-3, Air launch to orbit, Alouette 1, AlSAT-1, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, American Rocket Society, Analemma, AngoSat 1, Apsis, Arabsat-1A, Areocentric orbit, Areostationary orbit, Areosynchronous orbit, Argentina, Ariel 1, Arthur C. Clarke, Aryabhata (satellite), Asgardia (nation), AsiaSat, Associated Press, Astérix (satellite), Asteroid, Astra 1A, Astronomical Netherlands Satellite, Astronomical unit, Atmospheric satellite, Attitude control, Australia, Austria, Azerspace-1/Africasat-1a, Azur (satellite), Ørsted (satellite), Badr-1, Ballistic missile, Bangabandhu-1, BelKA, Biosatellite, Black Arrow, BRAC Onnesha, Brasilsat-A1, Brazil, Bulgaria, Bulgaria 1300, Bureau of Aeronautics, Canada, Cartography, Celestial equator, Charles Erwin Wilson, China, China Academy of Space Technology, ..., China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation, Circle, Circular orbit, Climate, Co-orbital configuration, Cold War, Comet, Communications satellite, Comparison of satellite buses, Computerworld, Degree (angle), Diamant, Dong Fang Hong I, Dongfanghong program, Dublin Institute of Technology, Earth observation satellite, Earth Observing System, EchoStar VI, Edward Everett Hale, Egypt, Electron (rocket), Electronics World, Ellipse, Elliptic orbit, Environment (biophysical), Equator, Espionage, ESTCube-1, Europa (rocket), European Launcher Development Organisation, European Space Agency, Eutelsat, Explorer 1, FASat-Alfa, Fixed-satellite service, Focal Press, Formosat-1, Fractionated spacecraft, France, Geocentric orbit, Geostationary orbit, Geostationary transfer orbit, Geosynchronous orbit, German language, Germany, GhanaSat-1, GiSAT-1, Goliat, Graveyard orbit, Graz University of Technology, Halo orbit, Heliocentric orbit, Hellas Sat 2, Herman Potočnik, High Earth orbit, Hohmann transfer orbit, Horseshoe orbit, HS-333, Human, Humanity Star, Image, Imagery intelligence, Impulse (physics), Inclined orbit, India, Indonesia, Intasat, Interkosmos, International Designator, International Geophysical Year, International Space Station, Ionosphere, Iran Focus, Iraq, Irazú (satellite), Isaac Newton, Italy, ITtoolbox, James Forrestal, Japan, Johnson Space Center, Jules Verne, Juno I, Jupiter, Jupiter-C, KazSat-1, Kent State University, Kilometre, Kitsat-1, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky, Korea Aerospace Research Institute, Kosmos 2175, Kwangmyŏngsŏng-1, Kwangmyŏngsŏng-2, Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3, Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3 Unit 2, Lagrangian point, Laika, Lambda (rocket family), Landing, Latitude, Launch pad, Launch vehicle, Libertad 1, Lissajous orbit, List of communications satellite firsts, List of Earth observation satellites, List of passive satellites, List of private spaceflight companies, List of spacecraft called Sputnik, LitSat-1, Lituanica SAT-1, Long March 1, Low Earth orbit, Malaysia, Mars, Marshall Space Flight Center, MaSat-1, Mazaalai (satellite), McFarland & Company, MEASAT Satellite Systems, Medium Earth orbit, Mercury (planet), Meteorology, Micrometeorite, Military, Molniya orbit, Moon, Moons of Mars, Morelos Satellite System, MSNBC, Muammar Gaddafi, Multiplexer, Multistage rocket, Naro-1, NASA, National Academy of Sciences, National Science Foundation, Natural satellite, NEE-01 Pegaso, Newton's cannonball, Nilesat 101, Nimbus program, North Korea, O3b (satellite), Ofeq, Ohsumi (satellite), Omid, Omni (magazine), Optical solar reflector, Orbit, Orbit of the Moon, Orbital eccentricity, Orbital elements, Orbital inclination, Orbital period, Orbital Sciences Corporation, Orbital spaceflight, Orbital speed, Orders of magnitude (length), OTRAG, Outer space, Pakistan, Perihelion and aphelion, PGM-11 Redstone, Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, Planet, Planet Labs, Poland, Polar orbit, Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle, Popular Mechanics, PoSAT-1, Preliminary Design of an Experimental World-Circling Spaceship, Press Trust of India, PROBA, Project Orbiter, Project Vanguard, Propellant, Prospero (satellite), PW-Sat, Radiant flux, Radio jamming, Radioisotope thermoelectric generator, RAND Corporation, Reconnaissance satellite, Regional African Satellite Communication Organization, Remote sensing, Retrograde and prograde motion, Reusable launch system, Rocket, Rohini (satellite), Romania, Rosetta (spacecraft), Rotation period, Russia, Russian language, Saddam Hussein, Safir (rocket), San Marco 1, Sapienza University of Rome, Satellite, Satellite bus, Satellite Catalog Number, Satellite crop monitoring, Satellite formation flying, Satellite imagery, Satellite Internet access, Satellite Launch Vehicle, Satellite navigation, Satellite phone, Satellite radio, Satellite television, Satellite watching, Saturn, Scout (rocket family), Sea Launch, Semi-synchronous orbit, Sergei Korolev, Shadow, Shavit, Short story, Sich-1, Sidereal time, Simon & Schuster, Sina-1, Slovak Organisation for Space Activities, Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Small satellite, Solar System, Solar time, South Africa, South Korea, Soviet Union, Soyuz-U, Space Age, Space capsule, Space debris, Space exploration, Space probe, Space Race, Space station, Space telescope, Space tether, Space.com, Spacecraft, Spacecraft propulsion, Spacecraft thermal control, Spaceflight, Spaceplane, Spaceport, SpaceX, Spain, Spire Global, Springer Science+Business Media, Sputnik (rocket), Sputnik 1, Sputnik 2, Sputnik crisis, ST-1, Strela (satellite), Structural integrity and failure, Sub-orbital spaceflight, Subsynchronous orbit, Sun, Sun-synchronous orbit, SUNSAT, Supersynchronous orbit, SupremeSAT, SwissCube-1, Switzerland, Synchronous orbit, Taiwan, Túpac Katari 1, TürkmenÄlem 52°E / MonacoSAT, Türksat 1B, Telecommunication, Telecommunications link, Telemetry, Tether, Thaicom, The Begum's Fortune, The Brick Moon, The New York Times, Thor (satellite), Thuraya, Torque, Trans-lunar injection, Tsyklon-3, TUGSAT-1, Tundra orbit, Turkey, U.S. space exploration history on U.S. stamps, Ukraine, Unha, UniBRITE-1, United Kingdom, United Nations, United Nations Special Commission, United States, United States Air Force, United States Navy, United States Space Surveillance Network, United States Strategic Command, University of Žilina, University of Sfax, University of Toronto, University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, University of Vienna, USA-193, Vanguard 1, Venesat-1, Venus, ViaSat-1, Viking (satellite), Vinasat-1, Von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics, Wallops Island, Walter Hohmann, Weather satellite, White House, WRESAT, X-Sat, 1KUNS-PF, 2002 AA29, 2009 satellite collision, 3753 Cruithne. 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ABS-3, formerly ABS-5, was initially named Agila 2 after the Philippine eagle, before being acquired by Asia Broadcast Satellite (ABS).
Air launch to orbit is the method of launching rockets at altitude from a conventional horizontal-takeoff aircraft, to carry satellites to low Earth orbit.
Alouette 1 is a deactivated Canadian satellite that studied the ionosphere.
ALSAT-1 is the first Algerian satellite and it is part of a group of satellites collectively known as the Disaster Monitoring Constellation (DMC).
The American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics (AIAA) is a professional society for the field of aerospace engineering.
The American Rocket Society (ARS) began its existence on April 4, 1930, under the name of the American Interplanetary Society.
In astronomy, an analemma (from Greek ἀνάλημμα analēmma "support") is a diagram showing the variation of the position of the Sun in the sky over the course of a year, as viewed at a fixed time of day and from a fixed location on the Earth.
AngoSat 1 is a geostationary communications satellite operated by Angosat and built by the Russian company RSC Energia.
An apsis (ἁψίς; plural apsides, Greek: ἁψῖδες) is an extreme point in the orbit of an object.
Arabsat-1A (عربسات-A1) was a Saudi Arabian communications satellite which was operated by Arabsat.
An areocentric orbit is an orbit around the planet Mars.
An areostationary orbit or areosynchronous equatorial orbit (abbreviated AEO) is a circular areo­synchronous orbit in the Martian equatorial plane about above the surface, any point on which revolves about Mars in the same direction and with the same period as the Martian surface.
Areosynchronous orbits (ASO) are a class of synchronous orbits for artificial satellites around the planet Mars.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
Ariel 1 (also known as UK-1 and S-55), was the first British satellite, and the first satellite in the Ariel programme.
Sir Arthur Charles Clarke (16 December 1917 – 19 March 2008) was a British science fiction writer, science writer and futurist, inventor, undersea explorer, and television series host.
Aryabhata (Hindi: आर्यभट) was India's first satellite"Aryabhata" in The New Encyclopædia Britannica.
Asgardia, also known as the Space Kingdom of Asgardia, is a group of people who have launched a satellite into Earth orbit.
Asia Satellite Telecommunications Holdings Limited known as its brand name AsiaSat is a commercial operator of communication spacecraft.
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
Astérix, the first French satellite, was launched on November 26, 1965 by a Diamant A rocket from the CIEES launch site at Hammaguir, French Algeria.
Asteroids are minor planets, especially those of the inner Solar System.
Astra 1A was the first satellite launched and operated by SES (Société Européenne des Satellites), launched in December 1988.
The Astronomical Netherlands Satellite (ANS; also known as Astronomische Nederlandse Satelliet) was a space-based X-ray and ultraviolet telescope.
The astronomical unit (symbol: au, ua, or AU) is a unit of length, roughly the distance from Earth to the Sun.
An atmospheric satellite (United States usage, abbreviated atmosat) or pseudo-satellite (British usage) is an aircraft that operates in the atmosphere at high altitudes for extended periods of time, in order to provide services conventionally provided by an artificial satellite orbiting in space.
Attitude control is controlling the orientation of an object with respect to an inertial frame of reference or another entity like the celestial sphere, certain fields, and nearby objects, etc.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
Azerspace-1/Africasat-1a',, is Azerbaijan's first satellite in space.
Azur was West Germany's first scientific satellite.
Ørsted is Denmark's first satellite, named after Hans Christian Ørsted (1777–1851), a Danish physicist and professor at the University of Copenhagen.
Badr-1 (بدر-۱, meaning Full Moon-1) was the first artificial and the first digital communications satellite launched by Pakistan's supreme national space authority—the SUPARCO—in 1990.
A ballistic missile follows a ballistic trajectory to deliver one or more warheads on a predetermined target.
The Bangabandhu Satellite-1 is the first Bangladeshi geostationary communications and Broadcasting Satellite.
BelKA (an acronym from Belarusian: Беларускі Касмічны Апарат, Belarusian Cosmic Apparatus) was intended to be the first satellite of independent Belarus.
A biosatellite is a satellite designed to carry life in space.
Black Arrow, officially capitalised BLACK ARROW, was a British satellite carrier rocket.
BRAC Onnesha is the first nanosatellite built in Bangladesh to be launched into space.
Brasilsat A1 was a Brazilian communications satellite which was operated by Embratel.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Bulgaria (България, tr.), officially the Republic of Bulgaria (Република България, tr.), is a country in southeastern Europe.
Interkosmos 22, more commonly known as Bulgaria 1300 (Интеркосмос 22-България 1300), was Bulgaria's first artificial satellite.
The Bureau of Aeronautics (BuAer) was the U.S. Navy's material-support organization for naval aviation from 1921 to 1959.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Cartography (from Greek χάρτης chartēs, "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν graphein, "write") is the study and practice of making maps.
The celestial equator is the great circle of the imaginary celestial sphere on the same plane as the equator of Earth.
Charles Erwin Wilson (July 18, 1890 – September 26, 1961) was an American engineer and businessman who served as United States Secretary of Defense from 1953 to 1957 under President Dwight D. Eisenhower.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
The China Academy of Space Technology (CAST) is a Chinese space agency and subordinate of China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC).
The China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC) is the main contractor for the Chinese space program.
A circle is a simple closed shape.
A circular orbit is the orbit with a fixed distance around the barycenter, that is, in the shape of a circle.
Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time.
In astronomy, a co-orbital configuration is a configuration of two or more astronomical objects (such as asteroids, moons, or planets) orbiting at the same, or very similar, distance from their primary, i.e. they are in a 1:1 mean-motion resonance.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
A comet is an icy small Solar System body that, when passing close to the Sun, warms and begins to release gases, a process called outgassing.
A communications satellite is an artificial satellite that relays and amplifies radio telecommunications signals via a transponder; it creates a communication channel between a source transmitter and a receiver at different locations on Earth.
This page includes a list of satellite buses, of which multiple similar artificial satellites have been, or are being, built to the same model of structural frame, propulsion, spacecraft power and intra-spacecraft communication.
Computerworld is a publication website and digital magazine for information technology (IT) and business technology professionals.
A degree (in full, a degree of arc, arc degree, or arcdegree), usually denoted by ° (the degree symbol), is a measurement of a plane angle, defined so that a full rotation is 360 degrees.
The Diamant rocket (Diamant is French for "diamond") was the first exclusively French expendable launch system and at the same time the first satellite launcher not built by either the United States or USSR.
Dongfanghong I was the People's Republic of China's first space satellite, launched successfully on 24 April 1970 as part of the PRC's Dongfanghong space satellite program.
Dongfanghong was a satellite program of the People's Republic of China.
Dublin Institute of Technology (commonly referred to as DIT) (Institiúid Teicneolaíochta Bhaile Atha Cliath) is one of the largest higher education institutions in Ireland.
Earth observation satellites are satellites specifically designed for Earth observation from orbit, similar to spy satellites but intended for non-military uses such as environmental monitoring, meteorology, map making etc.
The Earth Observing System (EOS) is a program of NASA comprising a series of artificial satellite missions and scientific instruments in Earth orbit designed for long-term global observations of the land surface, biosphere, atmosphere, and oceans of the Earth.
EchoStar VI or EchoStar 6 is a former American communications satellite which was operated by private EchoStar company and then was transferred to Bermuda as BermudaSat 1.
Edward Everett Hale (April 3, 1822 – June 10, 1909) was an American author, historian, and Unitarian minister.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Electron is a two-stage orbital expendable launch vehicle (with an optional third stage) developed by the American aerospace company Rocket Lab to cover the commercial small satellite launch segment (CubeSats).
Electronics World (Wireless World, founded in 1913, and in September 1984 renamed Electronics & Wireless World) is a technical magazine in electronics and RF engineering aimed at professional design engineers.
In mathematics, an ellipse is a curve in a plane surrounding two focal points such that the sum of the distances to the two focal points is constant for every point on the curve.
In astrodynamics or celestial mechanics, an elliptic orbit or elliptical orbit is a Kepler orbit with an eccentricity of less than 1; this includes the special case of a circular orbit, with eccentricity equal to 0.
A biophysical environment is a biotic and abiotic surrounding of an organism or population, and consequently includes the factors that have an influence in their survival, development, and evolution.
An equator of a rotating spheroid (such as a planet) is its zeroth circle of latitude (parallel).
Espionage or spying, is the act of obtaining secret or confidential information without the permission of the holder of the information.
ESTCube-1 is the first Estonian satellite and first satellite in the world to attempt to use an electric solar wind sail (E-sail).
The Europa rocket was an early expendable launch system of the European Launcher Development Organisation (ELDO), which was the precursor to the European Space Agency (ESA).
Europa II Rolls-Royce''RZ-12'' ''Coralie'' ''Astris'' The European Launcher Development Organisation (ELDO) is a former European space research organization.
The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space.
Eutelsat S.A. is a European satellite operator.
Explorer 1 was the first satellite of the United States, launched as part of its participation in the International Geophysical Year.
FASat-Alfa was to become the first Chilean satellite, and was constructed under a Technology Transfer Program between the Chilean Air Force (FACH) and Surrey Satellite Technology Ltd (SSTL) of the United Kingdom.
Fixed-satellite service (short: FSS | also: fixed-satellite radiocommunication service) is – according to article 1.21 of the International Telecommunication Union´s (ITU) Radio Regulations (RR) – defined as A radiocommunication service between earth stations at given positions, when one or more satellites are used; the given position may be a specified fixed point or any fixed point within specified areas; in some cases this service includes satellite-to-satellite links, which may also be operated in the inter-satellite service; the fixed-satellite service may also include feeder links for other space radiocommunication services.
Focal Press is a publisher of media technology books and it is an imprint of Taylor & Francis.
Formosat-1 (福爾摩沙衛星一號, formerly known as ROCSAT-1) is an Earth observation satellite operated by the National Space Program Office (NSPO, now the National Space Organization) of the Republic of China (Taiwan) to conduct observations of the ionosphere and oceans.
A fractionated spacecraft is a satellite architecture where the functional capabilities of a conventional monolithic spacecraft are distributed across multiple modules which interact through wireless links.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
A geocentric orbit or Earth orbit involves any object orbiting Planet Earth, such as the Moon or artificial satellites.
A geostationary orbit, often referred to as a geosynchronous equatorial orbit (GEO), is a circular geosynchronous orbit above Earth's equator and following the direction of Earth's rotation.
A geosynchronous transfer orbit or geostationary transfer orbit (GTO) is a Hohmann transfer orbit—an elliptical orbit used to transfer between two circular orbits of different radii in the same plane—used to reach geosynchronous or geostationary orbit using high-thrust chemical engines.
A geosynchronous orbit (sometimes abbreviated GSO) is an orbit around Earth of a satellite with an orbital period that matches Earth's rotation on its axis, which takes one sidereal day (23 hours, 56 minutes, and 4 seconds).
German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
GhanaSat-1 is the first Ghanaian satellite to be launched into space.
GiSAT-1 is a high-throughput geostationary communications satellite ordered by Global IP Cayman.
Goliat is the first artificial satellite developed in Romania.
A graveyard orbit, also called a junk orbit or disposal orbit, is an orbit that lies away from common operational orbits.
Graz University of Technology (Technische Universität Graz, short TU Graz) is one of five universities in Styria, Austria.
A halo orbit is a periodic, three-dimensional orbit near the L1, L2 or L3 Lagrange points in the three-body problem of orbital mechanics.
A heliocentric orbit (also called circumsolar orbit) is an orbit around the barycenter of the Solar System, which is usually located within or very near the surface of the Sun.
Hellas Sat 2 (previously called as Intelsat APR3, Sinosat 1B, NSS 6, NSS K-TV and Intelsat K-TV) is a communications satellite operated by Hellas Sat.
Herman Potočnik (pseudonym Hermann Noordung; 22 December 1892 – 27 August 1929) was a Slovene rocket engineer and pioneer of cosmonautics (astronautics).
A high Earth orbit is a geocentric orbit with an altitude entirely above that of a geosynchronous orbit.
In orbital mechanics, the Hohmann transfer orbit is an elliptical orbit used to transfer between two circular orbits of different radii in the same plane.
A horseshoe orbit is a type of co-orbital motion of a small orbiting body relative to a larger orbiting body (such as Earth).
In 1970, Hughes Aircraft Company (HAC) Space and Communications Group offered the first standardized satellite: the HS 333 design.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
Humanity Star was a passive satellite designed to produce flares visible from Earth.
An image (from imago) is an artifact that depicts visual perception, for example, a photo or a two-dimensional picture, that has a similar appearance to some subject—usually a physical object or a person, thus providing a depiction of it.
Imagery intelligence (IMINT) is an intelligence gathering discipline which collects information via satellite and aerial photography.
In classical mechanics, impulse (symbolized by J or Imp) is the integral of a force, F, over the time interval, t, for which it acts.
A satellite is said to occupy an inclined orbit around Earth if the orbit exhibits an angle other than 0° to the equatorial plane.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
Indonesia (or; Indonesian), officially the Republic of Indonesia (Republik Indonesia), is a transcontinental unitary sovereign state located mainly in Southeast Asia, with some territories in Oceania.
INTASAT was the first satellite of Spain.
Interkosmos (Интеркосмос) was a Soviet space program, designed to help the Soviet Union's allies with crewed and uncrewed space missions.
The International Designator, also known as COSPAR designation, and in the United States as NSSDC ID, is an international naming convention for satellites.
The International Geophysical Year (IGY; Année géophysique internationale) was an international scientific project that lasted from July 1, 1957, to December 31, 1958.
The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit.
The ionosphere is the ionized part of Earth's upper atmosphere, from about to altitude, a region that includes the thermosphere and parts of the mesosphere and exosphere.
Iran Focus is a news website which identifies itself as a "non-profit news service provider that focuses on events in Iran, Iraq, and the Middle East.", Iran focus.
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Irazú is the first Costa Rican satellite to be launched into space.
Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
ITtoolbox is an online community that enables peers to share professional knowledge about information technology.
James Vincent Forrestal (February 15, 1892 – May 22, 1949) was the last Cabinet-level United States Secretary of the Navy and the first United States Secretary of Defense.
Japan (日本; Nippon or Nihon; formally 日本国 or Nihon-koku, lit. "State of Japan") is a sovereign island country in East Asia.
The Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) is the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Manned Spacecraft Center, where human spaceflight training, research, and flight control are conducted.
Jules Gabriel Verne (Longman Pronunciation Dictionary.; 8 February 1828 – 24 March 1905) was a French novelist, poet, and playwright.
The Juno I was a four-stage American booster rocket which launched America's first satellite, Explorer 1, in 1958.
Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.
The Jupiter-C was an American research and development vehicle developed from the Jupiter-A. Jupiter-C was used for three sub-orbital spaceflights in 1956 and 1957 to test re-entry nosecones that were later to be deployed on the more advanced PGM-19 Jupiter mobile missile.
KazSat 1 (ҚазСат), the first Kazakh space satellite, was launched on June 18, 2006 by Proton-K rocket.
Kent State University (KSU) is a large, primarily residential, public research university in Kent, Ohio, United States.
The kilometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: km; or) or kilometer (American spelling) is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one thousand metres (kilo- being the SI prefix for). It is now the measurement unit used officially for expressing distances between geographical places on land in most of the world; notable exceptions are the United States and the road network of the United Kingdom where the statute mile is the official unit used.
KITSAT-1 or KITSAT A is the first satellite to be launched by the Republic of Korea.
Konstantin Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky (a; Konstanty Ciołkowski; 19 September 1935) was a Russian and Soviet rocket scientist and pioneer of the astronautic theory of ethnic Polish descent.
The Korea Aerospace Research Institute (KARI) established in 1989, is the aeronautics and space agency of Republic of Korea.
Kosmos 2175 (Космос-2175 meaning Cosmos 2175) was a Russian Yantar-4K2 photo reconnaissance satellite.
Kwangmyŏngsŏng-1 or Gwangmyeongseong-1 (Chosungul: 광명성 1호, Hanja: 光明星 1號, meaning Bright Star 1) was a satellite launched by North Korea on 31 August 1998.
Kwangmyŏngsŏng-2 (광명성 2호, meaning Bright Star-2 or Lode Star-2) was a satellite launched by North Korea on April 5, 2009.
Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3 (English: Bright Star-3 or Lode Star-3) was a North Korean Earth observation satellite, which according to the DPRK was for weather forecast purposes, and whose launch was widely portrayed in the West to be a veiled ballistic missile test.
Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3 Unit 2 or Gwangmyeongseong-3 ho 2-hogi (English: Bright Star-3 Unit 2 or Lodestar-3 Unit 2) is the first satellite successfully launched from North Korea, an Earth observation spacecraft that was launched on 12 December 2012, 00:49 UTC, in order to replace the original Kwangmyŏngsŏng-3, which failed to reach orbit on 13 April 2012.
In celestial mechanics, the Lagrangian points (also Lagrange points, L-points, or libration points) are positions in an orbital configuration of two large bodies, wherein a small object, affected only by the gravitational forces from the two larger objects, will maintain its position relative to them.
Laika (Лайка; c. 1954 – 3 November 1957) was a Soviet space dog who became one of the first animals in space, and the first animal to orbit the Earth.
Lambda is the name of a series of Japanese carrier rockets.
Landing is the last part of a flight, where a flying animal, aircraft, or spacecraft returns to the ground.
In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.
A launch pad is an above-ground platform from which a rocket-powered missile or space vehicle is vertically launched.
A launch vehicle or carrier rocket is a rocket used to carry a payload from Earth's surface through outer space, either to another surface point (suborbital), or into space (Earth orbit or beyond).
Libertad 1 (Freedom 1) is a single CubeSat built by the Space Program of the Sergio Arboleda University in Colombia.
In orbital mechanics, a Lissajous orbit, named after Jules Antoine Lissajous, is a quasi-periodic orbital trajectory that an object can follow around a Lagrangian point of a three-body system without requiring any propulsion.
Milestones in the history of communications satellites.
Partial list of Earth observation satellites by series/program.
List of passive satellites is a listing of inert or mostly inert satellites, mainly of the Earth.
This page is a list of non-governmental entities that currently offer – or are planning to offer – equipment and services geared towards spaceflight, both robotic and human.
Sputnik (Спутник, Russian for "satellite" or "fellow traveler") is a spacecraft launched under the Soviet space program.
LitSat-1 is one of the two first Lithuanian satellites.
LituanicaSAT-1 is one of the two first Lithuanian satellites.
The Long March 1 (长征一号), also known as the Changzheng-1 (CZ-1), was the first member of China's Long March rocket family.
A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit around Earth with an altitude of or less, and with an orbital period of between about 84 and 127 minutes.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.
The George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), located in Huntsville, Alabama, is the U.S. government's civilian rocketry and spacecraft propulsion research center.
MaSat-1 (from the words Magyar and Satellite, the first meaning "Hungarian" in Hungarian, maszat, pronounced IPA, meaning "smudge") is the first indigenous Hungarian satellite, developed and built by students at the Technical University of Budapest.
Mazaalai (Мазаалай), is a CubeSat that was launched into space on 3 June 2017 as part of the SpaceX CRS-11 mission.
McFarland & Company, Inc. is an independent book publisher based in Jefferson, North Carolina that specializes in academic and reference works, as well as general interest adult nonfiction.
MEASAT Satellite Systems Sdn.
Medium Earth orbit (MEO), sometimes called intermediate circular orbit (ICO), is the region of space around Earth above low Earth orbit (altitude of above sea level) and below geostationary orbit (altitude of above sea level).
Mercury is the smallest and innermost planet in the Solar System.
Meteorology is a branch of the atmospheric sciences which includes atmospheric chemistry and atmospheric physics, with a major focus on weather forecasting.
A micrometeorite is essentially a micrometeoroid that has survived entry through Earth's atmosphere.
A military or armed force is a professional organization formally authorized by a sovereign state to use lethal or deadly force and weapons to support the interests of the state.
A Molniya orbit (a, "Lightning") is a type of satellite orbit.
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
The two moons of Mars are Phobos and Deimos.
The Morelos satellites are a series of Mexican communications satellites.
MSNBC is an American news cable and satellite television network that provides news coverage and political commentary from NBC News on current events.
Muammar Mohammed Abu Minyar Gaddafi (20 October 2011), commonly known as Colonel Gaddafi, was a Libyan revolutionary, politician and political theorist.
In electronics, a multiplexer (or mux) is a device that selects one of several analog or digital input signals and forwards the selected input into a single line.
A multistage rocket, or step rocket is a launch vehicle that uses two or more rocket stages, each of which contains its own engines and propellant.
Naro-1 (나로호), previously designated the Korea Space Launch Vehicle or KSLV, is South Korea's first carrier rocket, and the first South Korean launch vehicle to achieve Earth orbit.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a United States nonprofit, non-governmental organization.
The National Science Foundation (NSF) is a United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering.
A natural satellite or moon is, in the most common usage, an astronomical body that orbits a planet or minor planet (or sometimes another small Solar System body).
NEE-01 Pegaso was an Ecuadorian technology demonstration satellite, and Ecuador's first satellite launched to space.
Newton's cannonball was a thought experiment Isaac Newton used to hypothesize that the force of gravity was universal, and it was the key force for planetary motion.
Nilesat 101 is an Egyptian owned geosynchronous communications satellite that was decommissioned in February 2013.
The Nimbus satellites were second-generation U.S. robotic spacecraft used for meteorological research and development.
North Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl:조선; Hanja:朝鮮; Chosŏn), officially the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (abbreviated as DPRK, PRK, DPR Korea, or Korea DPR), is a country in East Asia constituting the northern part of the Korean Peninsula.
O3b is a satellite constellation designed for telecommunications and data backhaul from remote locations.
Ofeq, also spelled Offek or Ofek (אופק, lit. Horizon) is the designation of a series of Israeli reconnaissance satellites first launched in 1988.
Ōsumi (or Ohsumi) is the name of the first Japanese satellite put into orbit, named after the Ōsumi Province in the southern islands of Japan.
Omid (امید, meaning "Hope") was Iran's first domestically made satellite.
Omni was a science and science fiction magazine published in the US and the UK.
An optical solar reflector (OSR) consists of a top layer made out of quartz, over a reflecting layer made of metal.
In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an object, such as the trajectory of a planet around a star or a natural satellite around a planet.
The Moon orbits Earth in the prograde direction and completes one revolution relative to the stars in about 27.322 days (a sidereal month) and one revolution relative to the Sun in about 29.530 days (a synodic month).
The orbital eccentricity of an astronomical object is a parameter that determines the amount by which its orbit around another body deviates from a perfect circle.
Orbital elements are the parameters required to uniquely identify a specific orbit.
Orbital inclination measures the tilt of an object's orbit around a celestial body.
The orbital period is the time a given astronomical object takes to complete one orbit around another object, and applies in astronomy usually to planets or asteroids orbiting the Sun, moons orbiting planets, exoplanets orbiting other stars, or binary stars.
Orbital Sciences Corporation (commonly referred to as Orbital) was an American company specializing in the design, manufacture and launch of small- and medium- class space and rocket systems for commercial, military and other government customers.
An orbital spaceflight (or orbital flight) is a spaceflight in which a spacecraft is placed on a trajectory where it could remain in space for at least one orbit.
In gravitationally bound systems, the orbital speed of an astronomical body or object (e.g. planet, moon, artificial satellite, spacecraft, or star) is the speed at which it orbits around either the barycenter or, if the object is much less massive than the largest body in the system, its speed relative to that largest body.
The following are examples of orders of magnitude for different lengths.
OTRAG (Orbital Transport und Raketen AG, or Orbital Transport and Rockets, Inc.), was a German company based in Stuttgart, which planned in the late 1970s and early 1980s to develop an alternative propulsion system for rockets.
Outer space, or just space, is the expanse that exists beyond the Earth and between celestial bodies.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The perihelion of any orbit of a celestial body about the Sun is the point where the body comes nearest to the Sun.
The PGM-11 Redstone was the first large American ballistic missile.
Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Latin for Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy), often referred to as simply the Principia, is a work in three books by Isaac Newton, in Latin, first published 5 July 1687.
A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.
Planet Labs, Inc. (formerly Cosmogia, Inc.) is an American private Earth imaging company based in San Francisco, CA.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
A polar orbit is one in which a satellite passes above or nearly above both poles of the body being orbited (usually a planet such as the Earth, but possibly another body such as the Moon or Sun) on each revolution.
The Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) is an expendable launch system developed and operated by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).
Popular Mechanics is a classic magazine of popular science and technology.
PoSAT-1, the first Portuguese satellite, was launched into orbit on September 26, 1993, on the 59th flight of the Ariane 4 rocket.
The Preliminary Design of an Experimental World-Circling Spaceship was a 1946 proposal by Project RAND for a United States satellite program.
Press Trust of India (PTI) is the largest news agency in India.
PROBA (Project for On-Board Autonomy), renamed PROBA-1, is a Belgian satellite launched atop an Indian Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle by ISRO on.
Project Orbiter was a proposed United States spacecraft, an early competitor to Project Vanguard.
Project Vanguard was a program managed by the United States Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), which intended to launch the first artificial satellite into Earth orbit using a Vanguard rocket as the launch vehicle from Cape Canaveral Missile Annex, Florida.
A propellant or propellent is a chemical substance used in the production of energy or pressurized gas that is subsequently used to create movement of a fluid or to generate propulsion of a vehicle, projectile, or other object.
The Prospero satellite, also known as the X-3, was launched by the United Kingdom in 1971.
PW-Sat is a series of satellites that includes the first Polish artificial satellite which was launched 13 February 2012 from ELA-1 at Guiana Space Centre aboard Italian-built Vega launch vehicle during its maiden voyage.
In radiometry, radiant flux or radiant power is the radiant energy emitted, reflected, transmitted or received, per unit time, and spectral flux or spectral power is the radiant flux per unit frequency or wavelength, depending on whether the spectrum is taken as a function of frequency or of wavelength.
Radio jamming is the deliberate jamming, blocking or interference with authorized wireless communications.
A Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG, RITEG) is an electrical generator that uses an array of thermocouples to convert the heat released by the decay of a suitable radioactive material into electricity by the Seebeck effect.
RAND Corporation ("Research ANd Development") is an American nonprofit global policy think tank created in 1948 by Douglas Aircraft Company to offer research and analysis to the United States Armed Forces.
A reconnaissance satellite (commonly, although unofficially, referred to as a spy satellite) is an Earth observation satellite or communications satellite deployed for military or intelligence applications.
The Regional African Satellite Communication Organization (RASCOM) will provide telecommunication services, direct TV broadcast services and Internet access in rural areas of Africa.
Remote sensing is the acquisition of information about an object or phenomenon without making physical contact with the object and thus in contrast to on-site observation.
Retrograde motion in astronomy is, in general, orbital or rotational motion of an object in the direction opposite the rotation of its primary, that is the central object (right figure).
A reusable launch system (RLS, or reusable launch vehicle, RLV) is a space launch system intended to allow for recovery of all or part of the system for later reuse.
A rocket (from Italian rocchetto "bobbin") is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine.
Rohini is the name given to a series of satellites launched by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).
Romania (România) is a sovereign state located at the crossroads of Central, Eastern, and Southeastern Europe.
Rosetta was a space probe built by the European Space Agency launched on 2 March 2004.
In astronomy, the rotation period of a celestial object is the time that it takes to complete one revolution around its axis of rotation relative to the background stars.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (Arabic: صدام حسين عبد المجيد التكريتي; 28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was President of Iraq from 16 July 1979 until 9 April 2003.
The Safir (سفیر, meaning "ambassador") is the first Iranian expendable launch vehicle that is able to place a satellite in orbit.
San Marco 1, also known as San Marco A, was the first Italian satellite.
The Sapienza University of Rome (Italian: Sapienza – Università di Roma), also called simply Sapienza or the University of Rome, is a collegiate research university located in Rome, Italy.
In the context of spaceflight, a satellite is an artificial object which has been intentionally placed into orbit.
A satellite bus or spacecraft bus is a general model on which multiple-production satellite spacecraft are often based.
The Satellite Catalog Number (also known as NORAD Catalog Number, NORAD ID, NASA catalog number, USSPACECOM object number or simply catalog number and similar variants) is a sequential 5-digit number assigned by USSPACECOM (United States Space Command) to all Earth orbiting satellites in order of identification.
Satellite crop monitoring is the technology which facilitates real-time crop vegetation index monitoring via spectral analysis of high resolution satellite images for different fields and crops which enables to track positive and negative dynamics of crop development.
Satellite formation flying is the concept that multiple satellites can work together in a group to accomplish the objective of one larger, usually more expensive, satellite.
Satellite imagery (or spaceborne photography) are images of Earth or other planets collected by imaging satellites operated by governments and businesses around the world.
Satellite Internet access is Internet access provided through communications satellites.
The Satellite Launch Vehicle (Hindi: उपग्रह प्रक्षेपण यान), or SLV was a project started in the early 1970s by the Indian Space Research Organisation to develop the technology needed to launch satellites.
A satellite navigation or satnav system is a system that uses satellites to provide autonomous geo-spatial positioning.
A satellite telephone, satellite phone, or satphone is a type of mobile phone that connects to orbiting satellites instead of terrestrial cell sites.
Satellite radio is defined by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU)'S ITU Radio Regulations (RR) as a broadcasting-satellite service.
Satellite television is a service that delivers television programming to viewers by relaying it from a communications satellite orbiting the Earth directly to the viewer's location.
Satellite watching or satellite spotting is a hobby which consists of the observation and tracking of Earth artificial satellites.
Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter.
The Scout family of rockets were American launch vehicles designed to place small satellites into orbit around the Earth.
Sea Launch is a multinational spacecraft launch service that used a mobile maritime launch platform for equatorial launches of commercial payloads on specialized Zenit-3SL rockets through 2014.
A semi-synchronous orbit is an orbit with a period equal to half the average rotational period of the body being orbited, and in the same direction as that body's rotation.
Sergei Pavlovich Korolev (a,, also transliterated as Sergey Pavlovich Korolyov, Сергій Павлович Корольов Serhiy Pavlovych Korolyov; – 14 January 1966) worked as the lead Soviet rocket engineer and spacecraft designer during the Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union in the 1950s and 1960s.
A shadow is a dark area where light from a light source is blocked by an opaque object.
Shavit (Hebrew: "comet" – שביט) is a small lift launch vehicle produced by Israel from 1982 onwards, to launch satellites into orbit.
A short story is a piece of prose fiction that typically can be read in one sitting and focuses on a self-contained incident or series of linked incidents, with the intent of evoking a "single effect" or mood, however there are many exceptions to this.
Sich-1 is the first Ukrainian Earth observation satellite and was launched on 31 August 1995 at 06:49:59 UTC by Ukrainian Tsyklon-3 rocket from Plesetsk Cosmodrome in Russia.
Sidereal time is a timekeeping system that astronomers use to locate celestial objects.
Simon & Schuster, Inc., a subsidiary of CBS Corporation, is an American publishing company founded in New York City in 1924 by Richard Simon and Max Schuster.
Sina-1 (سینا ۱) is the first Iranian artificial satellite, launched at 6:52 UTC October 28, 2005 on board a Cosmos-3M Russian launch vehicle from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome.
Slovak Organization for Space Activities - ('Slovenská organizácia pre vesmírne aktivity') is non-governmental organization based in Bratislava, Slovakia that promotes space-related research and technologies nationally.
Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava (STU) (Slovenská technická univerzita v Bratislave) is the biggest and oldest university of technology in Slovakia.
Small satellites, miniaturized satellites, or smallsats, are satellites of low mass and size, usually under.
The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
Solar time is a calculation of the passage of time based on the position of the Sun in the sky.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
South Korea, officially the Republic of Korea (대한민국; Hanja: 大韓民國; Daehan Minguk,; lit. "The Great Country of the Han People"), is a country in East Asia, constituting the southern part of the Korean Peninsula and lying east to the Asian mainland.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Soyuz-U launch vehicle was an improved version of the original Soyuz rocket.
The Space Age is a time period encompassing the activities related to the Space Race, space exploration, space technology, and the cultural developments influenced by these events.
A space capsule is an often manned spacecraft which has a simple shape for the main section, without any wings or other features to create lift during atmospheric reentry.
Space debris (also known as space junk, space waste, space trash, space litter or space garbage) is a term for the mass of defunct, artificially created objects in space, most notably in Earth orbit, such as old satellites and spent rocket stages.
Space exploration is the discovery and exploration of celestial structures in outer space by means of evolving and growing space technology.
A space probe is a robotic spacecraft that does not orbit the Earth, but, instead, explores further into outer space.
The Space Race refers to the 20th-century competition between two Cold War rivals, the Soviet Union (USSR) and the United States (US), for dominance in spaceflight capability.
A space station, also known as an orbital station or an orbital space station, is a spacecraft capable of supporting crewmembers, which is designed to remain in space (most commonly as an artificial satellite in low Earth orbit) for an extended period of time and for other spacecraft to dock.
A space telescope or space observatory is an instrument located in outer space to observe distant planets, galaxies and other astronomical objects.
Space tethers are long cables which can be used for propulsion, momentum exchange, stabilization and attitude control, or maintaining the relative positions of the components of a large dispersed satellite/spacecraft sensor system.
Space.com is a space and astronomy news website.
A spacecraft is a vehicle or machine designed to fly in outer space.
Spacecraft propulsion is any method used to accelerate spacecraft and artificial satellites.
In spacecraft design, the function of the thermal control system (TCS) is to keep all the spacecraft's component systems within acceptable temperature ranges during all mission phases.
Spaceflight (also written space flight) is ballistic flight into or through outer space.
A spaceplane is an aerospace vehicle that operates as an aircraft in Earth's atmosphere, as well as a spacecraft when it is in space.
A spaceport or cosmodrome is a site for launching (or receiving) spacecraft, by analogy to seaport for ships or airport for aircraft.
Space Exploration Technologies Corp., doing business as SpaceX, is a private American aerospace manufacturer and space transportation services company headquartered in Hawthorne, California.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Spire Global, Inc. is an American private company specializing in data gathered from a network of small satellites.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
The Sputnik rocket was an unmanned orbital carrier rocket designed by Sergei Korolev in the Soviet Union, derived from the R-7 Semyorka ICBM.
Sputnik 1 (or; "Satellite-1", or "PS-1", Простейший Спутник-1 or Prosteyshiy Sputnik-1, "Elementary Satellite 1") was the first artificial Earth satellite.
Sputnik 2 (Спутник-2, Satellite 2), or Prosteyshiy Sputnik 2 (PS-2, italic, Elementary Satellite 2) was the second spacecraft launched into Earth orbit, on 3 November 1957, and the first to carry a living animal, a Soviet space dog named Laika, who died a few hours after the launch.
The Sputnik crisis was a period of public fear and anxiety in Western nations about the perceived technological gap between the United States and Soviet Union caused by the Soviets' launch of Sputnik 1, the world's first artificial satellite.
ST-1 is a communications satellite owned by Singapore Telecom and Taiwan's Chunghwa Telecom Company, Ltd.
Strela (Стрела, arrow) is a Russian (previously Soviet) military communications satellite constellation operating in low Earth orbit. These satellites operate as mailboxes ("store-and-forward"): they remember the received messages and then resend them after scheduled time, or by command from the Earth. Some sources state the satellites are capable of only three months of active operation, but in accordance to others they can serve for about five years. The satellites are used for transmission of encrypted messages and images.
Structural integrity and failure is an aspect of engineering which deals with the ability of a structure to support a designed load (weight, force, etc...) without breaking, and includes the study of past structural failures in order to prevent failures in future designs.
A sub-orbital spaceflight is a spaceflight in which the spacecraft reaches space, but its trajectory intersects the atmosphere or surface of the gravitating body from which it was launched, so that it will not complete one orbital revolution.
A subsynchronous orbit is an orbit of a satellite that is nearer the planet than it would be if it were in synchronous orbit, i.e. the orbital period is less than the sidereal day of the planet.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
A Sun-synchronous orbit (SSO, also called a heliosynchronous orbit) is a nearly polar orbit around a planet, in which the satellite passes over any given point of the planet's surface at the same local mean solar time.
The Stellenbosch UNiversity SATellite is the first miniaturized satellite designed and manufactured in South Africa.
A supersynchronous orbit is either an orbit with a period greater than that of a synchronous orbit, or just an orbit whose apsis (apogee in the case of the earth) is higher than that of a synchronous orbit.
SupremeSAT (Pvt) Ltd. is the first and only Sri Lankan satellite operator.
SwissCube-1 is a Swiss satellite operated by Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL).
Switzerland, officially the Swiss Confederation, is a sovereign state in Europe.
A synchronous orbit is an orbit in which an orbiting body (usually a satellite) has a period equal to the average rotational period of the body being orbited (usually a planet), and in the same direction of rotation as that body.
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
Túpac Katari 1 or TKSat-1 is a telecommunications satellite that the government of Bolivia outsourced to People's Republic of China (PRC) to serve telecommunications in Bolivia, such as mobile, television and Internet use.
TürkmenÄlem 52°E / MonacoSAT (formerly referred to as TurkmenSat 1) is Turkmenistan's first satellite, built by Thales Alenia Space.
Turksat 1B was a Turkish communications satellite as part of a project to form an instant network with two geosynchronous satellites that is supervised by the companies Türksat A.Ş. in Turkey and Aérospatiale of France.
Telecommunication is the transmission of signs, signals, messages, words, writings, images and sounds or information of any nature by wire, radio, optical or other electromagnetic systems.
In telecommunications a link is a communication channel that connects two or more devices.
Telemetry is an automated communications process by which measurements and other data are collected at remote or inaccessible points and transmitted to receiving equipment for monitoring.
A tether is a cord, fixture, or flexible attachment that anchors something movable to a reference point which may be fixed or moving.
Thaicom is the name of a series of communications satellites operated from Thailand, and also the name of Thaicom Public Company Limited, which is the company that owns and operates the Thaicom satellite fleet and other telecommunication businesses in Thailand and throughout the Asia-Pacific region.
The Begum's Fortune (Les Cinq cents millions de la Bégum), also published as The Begum's Millions, is an 1879 novel by Jules Verne, with some elements which could be described as utopian and others which seem clearly dystopian.
"The Brick Moon" is a novella by American writer Edward Everett Hale, published serially in The Atlantic Monthly starting in 1869.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Thor (previously known as Marcopolo) is a family of satellites designed, launched and tested by Hughes Space and Communications (now part of Boeing Satellite Systems) for British Satellite Broadcasting (BSB), and were used for Britain's Direct Broadcast Service.
Thuraya (الثريا), from the Arabic name for the constellation of the Pleiades, "Thurayya", is a regional Mobile Satellite Service (MSS) provider.
Torque, moment, or moment of force is rotational force.
A trans-lunar injection (TLI) is a propulsive maneuver used to set a spacecraft on a trajectory that will cause it to arrive at the Moon.
The Tsyklon-3, also known as Tsiklon-3, GRAU index 11K68, was a Soviet, and subsequently Ukrainian orbital carrier rocket.
TUGSAT-1, also known as BRITE-Austria and CanX-3B, is the first Austrian satellite.
A Tundra orbit (Russian: Тундра) is a highly elliptical geosynchronous orbit with a high inclination (usually near 63.4°) and an orbital period of one sidereal day.
Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.
With the advent of unmanned and manned space flight a new era of American history had presented itself.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The Unha or Eunha (은하, 銀河, "Galaxy") is a North Korean expendable carrier rocket, which partially utilizes the same delivery system as the Taepodong-2 long-range ballistic missile.
UniBRITE-1 is, along with TUGSAT-1, one of the first two Austrian satellites to be launched.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
United Nations Special Commission (UNSCOM) was an inspection regime created by the United Nations to ensure Iraq's compliance with policies concerning Iraqi production and use of weapons of mass destruction after the Gulf War.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
The United States Space Surveillance Network detects, tracks, catalogs and identifies artificial objects orbiting Earth, e.g. active/inactive satellites, spent rocket bodies, or fragmentation debris.
United States Strategic Command (USSTRATCOM), is one of ten unified commands in the United States Department of Defense.
The University of Žilina was established on October 1, 1953 as the College of Railways in Prague.
The University of Sfax is a university located in Sfax, Tunisia.
The University of Toronto (U of T, UToronto, or Toronto) is a public research university in Toronto, Ontario, Canada on the grounds that surround Queen's Park.
The University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies (UTIAS) is an advanced research facility for aeronautics and aerospace engineering, located in the Downsview district of Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
The University of Vienna (Universität Wien) is a public university located in Vienna, Austria.
USA-193, also known as NRO launch 21 (NROL-21 or simply L-21), was a U.S. military reconnaissance satellite (radar imaging) launched on 14 December 2006.
Vanguard 1 (ID: 1958-Beta 2) was the fourth artificial Earth orbital satellite to be successfully launched (following Sputnik 1, Sputnik 2, and Explorer 1).
Venesat-1, also known as Simón Bolívar, is the first Venezuelan satellite.
Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.
ViaSat-1 is a high throughput communications satellite owned by ViaSat Inc. and Telesat Canada.
Viking was Sweden's first satellite.
Vinasat-1 is the first Vietnamese satellite to be placed in orbit.
The von Karman Institute for Fluid Dynamics (VKI) is a non-profit educational and scientific organization which specializes in three specific fields: aeronautics and aerospace, environment and applied fluid dynamics, turbomachinery and propulsion.
Wallops Island is a island in Accomack County, Virginia, part of the Virginia Barrier Islands that stretch along the eastern seaboard of the United States of America.
Walter Hohmann (18 March 1880 – 11 March 1945) was a German engineer who made an important contribution to the understanding of orbital dynamics.
The weather satellite is a type of satellite that is primarily used to monitor the weather and climate of the Earth.
The White House is the official residence and workplace of the President of the United States.
WRESAT (abbreviation for: Weapons Research Establishment Satellite) was the name of the first Australian satellite.
X-Sat is a microsatellite developed and built by the Nanyang Technological University (NTU) in collaboration with Defence Science Organisation (DSO) Singapore.
1KUNS-PF is the first Kenyan satellite to be launched into space.
(also written 2002 AA29) is a small near-Earth asteroid that was discovered on January 9, 2002 by the LINEAR (Lincoln Near Earth Asteroid Research) automatic sky survey.
The accidental 2009 satellite collision was the first time a hypervelocity collision occurred between two artificial satellites - until then, all accidental hypervelocity collisions happened between a satellite and a piece of space debris.
3753 Cruithne (For instance, on the British television show Q.I. (Season 1; aired 11 Sept 2003).) is a Q-type, Aten asteroid in orbit around the Sun in 1:1 orbital resonance with Earth, making it a co-orbital object.
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