248 relations: Akron Beacon Journal, Allied Publishers, Aluminium, Amateur radio, AMC-11, AMC-4, AMC-6, American Broadcasting Company, Analog signal, Anik (satellite), Arthur C. Clarke, AsiaSat, Astra 19.2°E, Astra 1A, Astra 28.2°E, Atlantic Ocean, ATS-6, B band (NATO), Backhaul (broadcasting), Baltimore, Baseband, Basic Interoperable Scrambling System, BBC, Berlin, Bill Clinton, Black market, Boca Raton, Florida, British Satellite Broadcasting, Broadcast signal intrusion, C band (IEEE), C band (NATO), C-SPAN, Cable Communications Policy Act of 1984, Cable television, Cable Television Consumer Protection and Competition Act of 1992, Cable television headend, California, Canada, Captain Midnight broadcast signal intrusion, CBS, Channel 4, Channel 5 (UK), Chicago Tribune, Christian Broadcasting Network, Circular polarization, Cisco Videoscape, Coaxial cable, Commercial use of space, Communications satellite, Conax, ..., Conditional access, Conditional-access module, CRC Press, Cryptography, Cryptoworks, Data Encryption Standard, DD Free Dish, Demodulation, Denver, Deseret News, DigiCipher 2, Digital broadcasting, Digital subchannel, Digital television, Digital terrestrial television, DirecTV, DiSEqC, Dish Home, Dish Network, Dish TV, Doordarshan, DVB-S, DVB-S2, Ekran, Electronic program guide, Electronics World, Elliptic orbit, Encryption, Energy conversion efficiency, English language, Equator, Equinox, ETSI, Europe, European Space Agency, Eyesore, F connector, Federal Communications Commission, Feed horn, Fiberglass, Field-effect transistor, Fixed-satellite service, Focus (optics), Fontainebleau, Franklin Institute, Free-to-air, Free-to-view, Freeform (TV channel), Freesat, Frequency modulation, Galaxy 1, Galaxy 18, Galaxy 19, Gallium arsenide, Geostationary orbit, Geosynchronous orbit, Germany, Glorystar, Gorizont, Greenwood Publishing Group, GSAT-15, HBO, Heterodyne, High-definition television, Hong Kong, Horizon House, Hughes Communications, India, Integrated receiver/decoder, Intelsat I, Intermediate frequency, Inverse-square law, ISDB, ITV (TV network), Kansas City, Missouri, Knight Ridder, Ku band, L band, List of direct broadcast satellite providers, Los Angeles, Los Angeles Times, Low-noise amplifier, Low-noise block downconverter, Luxembourg, Macmillan Publishers, Madison, Wisconsin, Main lobe, Mexico, Miami Herald, Microstrip, Microwave, Microwave antenna, Modulation, Molniya (satellite), Molniya orbit, Moscow, MPEG-2, Multiplex (television), Multiswitch, Mumbai, N connector, Nagravision, NASA, NBC, Neiman Marcus, Network affiliate, New Delhi, New Scientist, Noise (radio), Noise reduction, North America, NTSC, Orbita (TV system), Orbital inclination, Orbital Test Satellite, PAL, Parabolic antenna, Parabolic reflector, Parabolic torus reflector antenna, Pay television, Pay-per-view, PBS, Phase-shift keying, Plaintext, PowerVu, Prentice Hall, PrimeStar, Rain fade, Reading Eagle, Reed Business Information, Relay program, RG-59, RG-6, Salt Lake City, San Andreas, California, San Francisco Chronicle, Satellite Broadcasting and Communications Association, Satellite dish, Satellite subcarrier audio, Satellite television, Satellite television by region, Satellite television in the United States, Satmex, Science fiction, Scrambler, SECAM, Semiconductor, Set-top box, Signal strength in telecommunications, Signaling (telecommunications), Single cable distribution, Single channel per carrier, Sky Deutschland, Sky One, Sky UK, Smart card, Smart TV, SMATV, Solar panel, Soviet Union, Spectral efficiency, Star One C2, Steel, Stuart Ballantine Medal, Subscription business model, Sun outage, SuperDish, Taylor & Francis, Taylor Howard, Telecommunications link, Television antenna, Television encryption, Television network, Television receive-only, Television set, Television show, Telstar, Terrestrial television, The Baltimore Sun, The Denver Post, The New York Times, The Philadelphia Inquirer, The San Diego Union-Tribune, The Wichita Eagle, Transponder, Tuner (radio), Turner Broadcasting System, UHF television broadcasting, Ultra high frequency, United Kingdom, United States Congress, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, Viaccess, Videocipher, VideoGuard, Waveguide, Westport, Connecticut, 4DTV. Expand index (198 more) » « Shrink index
The Akron Beacon Journal is a morning newspaper in Akron, Ohio, United States, and published by Black Press.
Allied Publishers is an Indian-based academic and literary publishing house, established in 1934 by M. Graham Brash, the Company was acquired by the late Mr.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Amateur radio, also known as ham radio, describes the use of radio frequency spectrum for purposes of non-commercial exchange of messages, wireless experimentation, self-training, private recreation, radiosport, contesting, and emergency communication.
AMC-11, previously GE-11, is a Dutch, previously American geostationary communications satellite which is operated by SES World Skies.
AMC-4 or AMERICOM-4, formerly GE-4, is a Dutch, previously American, commercial communications satellite.
AMC-6, formerly GE-6, is a commercial broadcast communications satellite owned by SES World Skies.
The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) is an American commercial broadcast television network that is a flagship property of Disney–ABC Television Group, a subsidiary of the Disney Media Networks division of The Walt Disney Company.
An analog signal is any continuous signal for which the time varying feature (variable) of the signal is a representation of some other time varying quantity, i.e., analogous to another time varying signal.
The Anik satellites are a series of geostationary communications satellites launched by Telesat Canada for television in Canada, from 1972 through 2013.
Sir Arthur Charles Clarke (16 December 1917 – 19 March 2008) was a British science fiction writer, science writer and futurist, inventor, undersea explorer, and television series host.
Asia Satellite Telecommunications Holdings Limited known as its brand name AsiaSat is a commercial operator of communication spacecraft.
Astra 19.2°E is the name for the group of Astra communications satellites co-located at the 19.2°East orbital position in the Clarke Belt that are owned and operated by SES based in Betzdorf, Luxembourg.
Astra 1A was the first satellite launched and operated by SES (Société Européenne des Satellites), launched in December 1988.
Astra 28.2°E is the name for the group of Astra communications satellites co-located at the 28.2° East position in the Clarke Belt that are owned and operated by SES based in Betzdorf, Luxembourg.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
ATS-6 (Applications Technology Satellite-6) was a NASA experimental satellite, built by Fairchild Space and Electronics Division It has been called the world's first educational satellite as well as world's first experimental Direct Broadcast Satellite as part of the Satellite Instructional Television Experiment between NASA and Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO).
The NATO B band is the obsolete designation given to the radio frequencies from 250 to 500 MHz (equivalent to wavelengths between 1.20 and 0.60 m) during the cold war period.
In the context of broadcasting, backhaul refers to uncut program content that is transmitted point-to-point to an individual television station or radio station, broadcast network or other receiving entity where it will be integrated into a finished TV show or radio show.
Baltimore is the largest city in the U.S. state of Maryland, and the 30th-most populous city in the United States.
Baseband is a signal that has a very narrow and near-zero frequency range, i.e. a spectral magnitude that is nonzero only for frequencies in the vicinity of the origin (termed f.
Basic Interoperable Scrambling System, usually known as BISS, is a satellite signal scrambling system developed by the European Broadcasting Union and a consortium of hardware manufacturers.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
William Jefferson Clinton (born August 19, 1946) is an American politician who served as the 42nd President of the United States from 1993 to 2001.
A black market, underground economy, or shadow economy is a clandestine market or transaction that has some aspect of illegality or is characterized by some form of noncompliant behavior with an institutional set of rules.
Boca Raton (lit) is the southernmost city in Palm Beach County, Florida, United States, first incorporated on August 2, 1924 as "Bocaratone," and then incorporated as "Boca Raton" in 1925.
British Satellite Broadcasting (BSB) was a television company, headquartered in London, that provided direct broadcast satellite television services to the United Kingdom.
Broadcast signal intrusion is the hijacking of broadcast signals of radio, television stations, cable television broadcast feeds or satellite signals.
The C-band is a designation by the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) for a portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the microwave range of frequencies ranging from 4.0 to 8.0 gigahertz (GHz); however, this definition is the one used by radar manufacturers and users, not necessarily by microwave radio telecommunications users.
The NATO C-band is the obsolete designation given to the radio frequencies from 500 to 1000 MHz (equivalent to wavelengths between 0.6 and 0.3 m) during the cold war period.
C-SPAN, an acronym for Cable-Satellite Public Affairs Network, is an American cable and satellite television network that was created in 1979 by the cable television industry as a public service.
The Cable Communications Policy Act of 1984 (codified at) was an act of Congress passed on October 30, 1984 to promote competition and deregulate the cable television industry.
Cable television is a system of delivering television programming to paying subscribers via radio frequency (RF) signals transmitted through coaxial cables, or in more recent systems, light pulses through fiber-optic cables.
The Cable Television Consumer Protection and Competition Act of 1992 (also known as the 1992 Cable Act) is a United States federal law which required cable systems to carry most local broadcast channels and prohibited cable operators from charging local broadcasters to carry their signal.
A cable television headend is a master facility for receiving television signals for processing and distribution over a cable television system.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
On April 27, 1986, American electrical engineer and business owner John R. MacDougall, using the pseudonym Captain Midnight, jammed the Home Box Office (HBO) satellite signal on Galaxy 1 during a showing of the film The Falcon and the Snowman.
CBS (an initialism of the network's former name, the Columbia Broadcasting System) is an American English language commercial broadcast television network that is a flagship property of CBS Corporation.
Channel 4 is a British public-service television broadcaster that began transmission on 2 November 1982.
Channel 5 is a British commercial television network.
The Chicago Tribune is a daily newspaper based in Chicago, Illinois, United States, owned by Tronc, Inc., formerly Tribune Publishing.
The Christian Broadcasting Network (CBN) is an American Christian-oriented religious television network and production company.
In electrodynamics, circular polarization of an electromagnetic wave is a polarization state in which, at each point, the electric field of the wave has a constant magnitude but its direction rotates with time at a steady rate in a plane perpendicular to the direction of the wave.
Cisco Videoscape (Formerly NDS Group Ltd.) is a former Israeli development group that has been acquired by Cisco, which develops software for the pay TV industry (including cable, satellite and others). NDS Group was established in 1988 as an Israeli start up company. It was acquired by Cisco in 2012. The company is currently headquartered in Staines, United Kingdom. Filling The Executive Chairman and CEO roles at NDS is Abe Peled with former CEO Dave Habiger having left in 2012. The company's major product is the VideoGuard conditional access system, which is used by more than 85 leading pay TV operators around the world. NDS technology includes end to end connections for satellite, broadband IPTV, Hybrid, OTT, and EPGs. It has launched VideoGuard Connect, the DRM for Pay-TV, designed to help TV operators to seamlessly extend their pay-TV services to connected media devices, enabling secure ingestion, delivery and consumption of premium content over both managed and OTT networks while maintaining subscription privileges across devices. NDS also provides advanced advertising, professional services and system integration services. New ways to secure content on PCs, tablets, and other devices are displayed at IBC and CES. Cisco Systems announced the acquisition of the company in March, 2012. It was later acquired successfully and in 2014 its name was changed into Videoscape, becoming a part of Cisco.
Cross-sectional view of a coaxial cable Coaxial cable, or coax (pronounced), is a type of electrical cable that has an inner conductor surrounded by a tubular insulating layer, surrounded by a tubular conducting shield.
Commercial use of space is the provision of goods or services of commercial value by using equipment sent into Earth orbit or outer space.
A communications satellite is an artificial satellite that relays and amplifies radio telecommunications signals via a transponder; it creates a communication channel between a source transmitter and a receiver at different locations on Earth.
Conax develops television encryption, conditional access and content security for digital television.
Conditional access (abbreviated CA) or conditional access system (abbreviated CAS) is the protection of content by requiring certain criteria to be met before granting access to the content.
A conditional access module (CAM) is an electronic device, usually incorporating a slot for a smart card, which equips an Integrated Digital Television or set-top box with the appropriate hardware facility to view conditional access content that has been encrypted using a conditional access system.
The CRC Press, LLC is a publishing group based in the United States that specializes in producing technical books.
Cryptography or cryptology (from κρυπτός|translit.
In television encryption, Cryptoworks is a DVB conditional access system, developed by Philips CryptoTec but now belonging to Irdeto.
The Data Encryption Standard (DES) is a symmetric-key algorithm for the encryption of electronic data.
DD Free Dish (previously known as DD Direct Plus) is an Indian free-to-air digital direct-broadcast satellite television service owned and operated by the state-controlled public service broadcaster Prasar Bharati (Doordarshan).
Demodulation is extracting the original information-bearing signal from a carrier wave.
Denver, officially the City and County of Denver, is the capital and most populous municipality of the U.S. state of Colorado.
The Deseret News is a newspaper published in Salt Lake City, Utah, United States.
DigiCipher 2, or simply DCII, is a proprietary standard format of digital signal transmission and it doubles as an encryption standard with MPEG-2/MPEG-4 signal video compression used on many communications satellite television and audio signals.
Digital broadcasting is the practice of using digital signals rather than analogue signals for broadcasting over radio frequency bands.
In broadcasting, digital subchannels are a method of transmitting more than one independent program stream simultaneously from the same digital radio or television station on the same radio frequency channel.
Digital television (DTV) is the transmission of television signals, including the sound channel, using digital encoding, in contrast to the earlier television technology, analog television, in which the video and audio are carried by analog signals.
Digital terrestrial television (DTTV or DTT) is a technology for broadcast television in which land-based (terrestrial) television stations broadcast television content by radio waves to televisions in consumers' residences in a digital format.
DirecTV (stylized as DIRECTV) is an American direct broadcast satellite service provider based in El Segundo, California and is a subsidiary of AT&T.
DiSEqC (Digital Satellite Equipment Control), pronounced "Die-Sec", is a special communication protocol for use between a satellite receiver and a device such as a multi-dish switch or a small dish antenna rotor.
DishHome is the DTH service provider in Nepal, operated by Dish Media Network Ltd.
Dish Network Corporation +1-８５５-５５３-９４４４ is a U.S. television provider.
DishTV India Ltd. (stylised as dishtv) is India's Direct to Home (DTH) television operator using MPEG-4, DVB-S2 and MPEG-2 digital compression technology.
Doordarshan (abbreviated in English as DD) is an autonomous public service broadcaster founded by the Government of India, which is owned by the Broadcasting Ministry of India and is one of two divisions of Prasar Bharati.
Digital Video Broadcasting – Satellite (DVB-S) is the original DVB standard for Satellite Television and dates from 1995, in its first release, while development lasted from 1993 to 1997.
Digital Video Broadcasting - Satellite - Second Generation (DVB-S2) is a digital television broadcast standard that has been designed as a successor for the popular DVB-S system.
Ekran ("Экран", "Screen") was a Soviet-Russian type of geostationary satellite, developed for a national system of Direct-To-Home television.
Electronic program guides (EPGs) and interactive program guides (IPGs) are menu-based systems that provide users of television, radio and other media applications with continuously updated menus displaying broadcast programming (TV listings in the UK) or scheduling information for current and upcoming programming.
Electronics World (Wireless World, founded in 1913, and in September 1984 renamed Electronics & Wireless World) is a technical magazine in electronics and RF engineering aimed at professional design engineers.
In astrodynamics or celestial mechanics, an elliptic orbit or elliptical orbit is a Kepler orbit with an eccentricity of less than 1; this includes the special case of a circular orbit, with eccentricity equal to 0.
In cryptography, encryption is the process of encoding a message or information in such a way that only authorized parties can access it and those who are not authorized cannot.
Energy conversion efficiency (η) is the ratio between the useful output of an energy conversion machine and the input, in energy terms.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
An equator of a rotating spheroid (such as a planet) is its zeroth circle of latitude (parallel).
An equinox is commonly regarded as the moment the plane (extended indefinitely in all directions) of Earth's equator passes through the center of the Sun, which occurs twice each year, around 20 March and 22-23 September.
The European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) is an independent, not-for-profit, standardization organization in the telecommunications industry (equipment makers and network operators) in Europe, headquartered in Sophia-Antipolis, France, with worldwide projection.
Europe is a continent located entirely in the Northern Hemisphere and mostly in the Eastern Hemisphere.
The European Space Agency (ESA; Agence spatiale européenne, ASE; Europäische Weltraumorganisation) is an intergovernmental organisation of 22 member states dedicated to the exploration of space.
An eyesore is something that is largely considered to look unpleasant or ugly.
The F connector (also F-type) is a coaxial RF connector commonly used for "over the air" terrestrial television, cable television and universally for satellite television and cable modems, usually with RG-6/U cable or, in older installations, with RG-59/U cable.
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) is an independent agency of the United States government created by statute (and) to regulate interstate communications by radio, television, wire, satellite, and cable.
In parabolic antennas such as satellite dishes, a feed horn (or feedhorn) is a small horn antenna used to convey radio waves between the transmitter and/or receiver and the parabolic reflector.
Fiberglass (US) or fibreglass (UK) is a common type of fiber-reinforced plastic using glass fiber.
The field-effect transistor (FET) is a transistor that uses an electric field to control the electrical behaviour of the device.
Fixed-satellite service (short: FSS | also: fixed-satellite radiocommunication service) is – according to article 1.21 of the International Telecommunication Union´s (ITU) Radio Regulations (RR) – defined as A radiocommunication service between earth stations at given positions, when one or more satellites are used; the given position may be a specified fixed point or any fixed point within specified areas; in some cases this service includes satellite-to-satellite links, which may also be operated in the inter-satellite service; the fixed-satellite service may also include feeder links for other space radiocommunication services.
In geometrical optics, a focus, also called an image point, is the point where light rays originating from a point on the object converge.
Fontainebleau is a commune in the metropolitan area of Paris, France.
The Franklin Institute is a science museum and the center of science education and research in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
Free-to-air (FTA) are television (TV) and radio services broadcast in clear (unencrypted) form, allowing any person with the appropriate receiving equipment to receive the signal and view or listen to the content without requiring a subscription, other ongoing cost or one-off fee (e.g. Pay-per-view).
Free-to-view (FTV) is a term used for audio and/or video transmissions that are provided free-of-charge without any form of continual subscription but are nevertheless encrypted.
Freeform is an American cable and satellite television channel that is owned by the Disney–ABC Television Group division of The Walt Disney Company.
Freesat is a free-to-air digital satellite television service in the United Kingdom, provided by joint venture between the BBC and ITV plc.
In telecommunications and signal processing, frequency modulation (FM) is the encoding of information in a carrier wave by varying the instantaneous frequency of the wave.
Galaxy 1 was the first in a line of Galaxy communications satellites launched by Hughes Communications in 1983.
Galaxy 18 is a Space Systems/Loral (SS/L) 1300-series hybrid communications satellite owned by Intelsat and located in geosynchronous orbit at 123° W longitude, serving the continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, Mexico, and Canada with 24 C band, and 24 Ku band transponders.
Galaxy 19 is a communications satellite owned by Intelsat located at 97° West longitude, serving the North American market.
Gallium arsenide (GaAs) is a compound of the elements gallium and arsenic.
A geostationary orbit, often referred to as a geosynchronous equatorial orbit (GEO), is a circular geosynchronous orbit above Earth's equator and following the direction of Earth's rotation.
A geosynchronous orbit (sometimes abbreviated GSO) is an orbit around Earth of a satellite with an orbital period that matches Earth's rotation on its axis, which takes one sidereal day (23 hours, 56 minutes, and 4 seconds).
Germany (Deutschland), officially the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundesrepublik Deutschland), is a sovereign state in central-western Europe.
GloryStar Satellite Systems is a Direct to Home religious based satellite television service.
Gorizont, (Горизонт, Horizon), GRAU index 11F662, is a series of 35 Russian, previously Soviet, geosynchronous communication satellites launched between 1978 and 2000.
ABC-CLIO/Greenwood is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.
GSAT-15 is an Indian communication satellite similar to GSAT-10 to augment the capacity of transponders to provide more bandwidth for Direct-to-Home television and VSAT services.
Home Box Office (HBO) is an American premium cable and satellite television network of Home Box Office, Inc..
Heterodyning is a signal processing technique invented in 1901 by Canadian inventor-engineer Reginald Fessenden that creates new frequencies by combining or mixing two frequencies.
High-definition television (HDTV) is a television system providing an image resolution that is of substantially higher resolution than that of standard-definition television, either analog or digital.
Hong Kong (Chinese: 香港), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China, is an autonomous territory of China on the eastern side of the Pearl River estuary in East Asia.
The Horizon House is a daytime-only homeless shelter in downtown Indianapolis.
Hughes Communications is a wholly owned subsidiary of EchoStar, headquartered in Germantown, Maryland.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
An integrated receiver/decoder (IRD) is an electronic device used to pick up a radio-frequency signal and convert digital information transmitted in it.
Intelsat I (nicknamed Early Bird for the proverb "The early bird catches the worm") was the first commercial communications satellite to be placed in geosynchronous orbit, on April 6, 1965.
In communications and electronic engineering, an intermediate frequency (IF) is a frequency to which a carrier wave is shifted as an intermediate step in transmission or reception.
The inverse-square law, in physics, is any physical law stating that a specified physical quantity or intensity is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source of that physical quantity.
The Integrated Services Digital Broadcasting (ISDB) (Japanese:, Tōgō dejitaru hōsō sābisu) is a Japanese standard for digital television (DTV) and digital radio used by the country's radio and television networks.
ITV is a British commercial TV network.
Kansas City is the largest city in the U.S. state of Missouri.
Knight Ridder (from Dutch ridder, knight) was an American media company, specializing in newspaper and Internet publishing.
The Ku band is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the microwave range of frequencies from 12 to 18 gigahertz (GHz).
The L band is the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) designation for the range of frequencies in the radio spectrum from 1 to 2 gigahertz (GHz).
This is a list of direct-broadcast satellite providers, operating around the world.
Los Angeles (Spanish for "The Angels";; officially: the City of Los Angeles; colloquially: by its initials L.A.) is the second-most populous city in the United States, after New York City.
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.
A low-noise amplifier (LNA) is an electronic amplifier that amplifies a very low-power signal without significantly degrading its signal-to-noise ratio.
A low-noise block downconverter (LNB) is the receiving device mounted on satellite dishes used for satellite TV reception, which collects the radio waves from the dish and converts them to a signal which is sent through a cable to the receiver inside the building.
Luxembourg (Lëtzebuerg; Luxembourg, Luxemburg), officially the Grand Duchy of Luxembourg, is a landlocked country in western Europe.
Macmillan Publishers Ltd (occasionally known as the Macmillan Group) is an international publishing company owned by Holtzbrinck Publishing Group.
Madison is the capital of the U.S. state of Wisconsin and the seat of Dane County.
In a radio antenna's radiation pattern, the main lobe, or main beam, is the lobe containing the higher power.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
The Miami Herald is a daily newspaper owned by the McClatchy Company and headquartered in Doral, Florida, a city in western Miami-Dade County and the Miami metropolitan area, several miles west of downtown Miami.
Microstrip is a type of electrical transmission line which can be fabricated using printed circuit board technology, and is used to convey microwave-frequency signals.
Microwaves are a form of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths ranging from one meter to one millimeter; with frequencies between and.
A microwave antenna is a physical transmission device used to broadcast microwave transmissions between two or more locations.
In electronics and telecommunications, modulation is the process of varying one or more properties of a periodic waveform, called the carrier signal, with a modulating signal that typically contains information to be transmitted.
Molniya (a, "Lightning") were military communications satellites used by the Soviet Union.
A Molniya orbit (a, "Lightning") is a type of satellite orbit.
Moscow (a) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with 13.2 million residents within the city limits and 17.1 million within the urban area.
MPEG-2 (a.k.a. H.222/H.262 as defined by the ITU) is a standard for "the generic coding of moving pictures and associated audio information".
A multiplex or mux (called virtual sub-channel in the United States and Canada, and bouquet in France) is the popular term used for the grouping of program services that are sub-grouped as interleaved data packets for broadcast over a network or modulated multiplexed medium, which are split out at the receiving end.
A multiswitch is a device used with a dual or quattro LNB to distribute satellite TV signals to multiple (usually more than four) receivers from a single dish and LNB.
Mumbai (also known as Bombay, the official name until 1995) is the capital city of the Indian state of Maharashtra.
The N connector (in full, Type N connector) is a threaded, weatherproof, medium-size RF connector used to join coaxial cables.
Nagravision (or Nagra Kudelski or simply Nagra) is a company of the Kudelski Group that develops conditional access systems for digital cable and satellite television.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
The National Broadcasting Company (NBC) is an American English language commercial broadcast television network that is a flagship property of NBCUniversal, a subsidiary of Comcast.
Neiman Marcus Group Inc., originally Neiman-Marcus, is an American department store owned by the Neiman Marcus Group, headquartered in Dallas, Texas.
In the broadcasting industry (particularly in North America), a network affiliate or affiliated station is a local broadcaster, owned by a company other than the owner of the network, which carries some or all of the lineup of television programs or radio programs of a television or radio network.
New Delhi is an urban district of Delhi which serves as the capital of India and seat of all three branches of Government of India.
New Scientist, first published on 22 November 1956, is a weekly, English-language magazine that covers all aspects of science and technology.
In radio reception, noise is the superposition of white noise and other disturbing influences on the signal, caused either by thermal noise and other electronic noise from receiver input circuits or by interference from radiated electromagnetic noise picked up by the receiver's antenna.
Noise reduction is the process of removing noise from a signal.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
NTSC, named after the National Television System Committee,National Television System Committee (1951–1953),, 17 v. illus., diagrs., tables.
Orbita (орбита) is a Soviet-Russian system of broadcasting and delivering TV signals via satellites.
Orbital inclination measures the tilt of an object's orbit around a celestial body.
The Orbital Test Satellite programme was an experimental satellite system inherited by the European Space Agency (ESA) in 1975 from its predecessor, the European Space Research Organisation (ESRO).
Phase Alternating Line (PAL) is a color encoding system for analogue television used in broadcast television systems in most countries broadcasting at 625-line / 50 field (25 frame) per second (576i).
A parabolic antenna is an antenna that uses a parabolic reflector, a curved surface with the cross-sectional shape of a parabola, to direct the radio waves.
A parabolic (or paraboloid or paraboloidal) reflector (or dish or mirror) is a reflective surface used to collect or project energy such as light, sound, or radio waves.
A parabolic torus reflector antenna is a quasi-parabolic antenna, where the defining parabola is not rotated around the main transmission axis, but around an axis which stands vertically to this axis.
Pay television, subscription television, premium television, or premium channels are subscription-based television services, usually provided by both analog and digital cable and satellite television, but also increasingly via digital terrestrial and internet television.
Pay-per-view (PPV) is a type of pay television service by which a subscriber of a television service provider can purchase events to view via private telecast.
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.
Phase-shift keying (PSK) is a digital modulation process which conveys data by changing (modulating) the phase of a constant frequency reference signal (the carrier wave).
In cryptography, plaintext or cleartext is unencrypted information, as opposed to information encrypted for storage or transmission.
PowerVu is a conditional access system for digital television developed by Scientific Atlanta.
Prentice Hall is a major educational publisher owned by Pearson plc.
PrimeStar was a U.S. direct broadcast satellite broadcasting company formed in 1991 by a consortium of cable television system operators (TCI Satellite Entertainment Group, Time Warner Cable, Cox Communications, Comcast and MediaOne) and GE Americom, the satellite arm of General Electric, collectively referred to as the PrimeStar Partners.
Rain fade refers primarily to the absorption of a microwave radio frequency (RF) signal by atmospheric rain, snow, or ice, and losses which are especially prevalent at frequencies above 11 GHz.
The Reading Eagle is the major daily newspaper in Reading, Pennsylvania, in the United States.
Reed Business Information is a provider of data services, analytics and information to businesses.
The Relay program consisted of Relay 1 and Relay 2, two early American satellites in elliptical Low Earth orbit.
RG-59/U is a specific type of coaxial cable, often used for low-power video and RF signal connections.
RG-6/U is a common type of coaxial cable used in a wide variety of residential and commercial applications.
Salt Lake City (often shortened to Salt Lake and abbreviated as SLC) is the capital and the most populous municipality of the U.S. state of Utah.
San Andreas is an unincorporated census-designated place and the county seat of Calaveras County, California.
The San Francisco Chronicle is a newspaper serving primarily the San Francisco Bay Area of the U.S. state of California.
The Satellite Broadcasting and Communications Association (SBCA) is the national trade organization representing the consumer satellite (direct broadcast satellite) industry in the United States, including the two largest service providers, DirecTV and DISH Network, manufacturers, installers, and distributors of satellite equipment.
A satellite dish is a dish-shaped type of parabolic antenna designed to receive or transmit information by radio waves to or from a communication satellite.
Satellite subcarrier audio is audio transmitted by way of satellite that utilizes a separate analog or digital signal carried on a main radio transmission (usually video) on a specific satellite transponder.
Satellite television is a service that delivers television programming to viewers by relaying it from a communications satellite orbiting the Earth directly to the viewer's location.
Satellite television varies in the different regions around the world.
Currently, there are two primary satellite television providers of subscription based service available to United States consumers: DirecTV and Dish Network, which have 21 and 14 million subscribers respectively.
Satmex (Satélites Mexicanos) was a company set up in Mexico in the mid-1990s through 2014 that operated space communication satellites that provide services to the Americas.
Science fiction (often shortened to Sci-Fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction, typically dealing with imaginative concepts such as advanced science and technology, spaceflight, time travel, and extraterrestrial life.
In telecommunications, a scrambler is a device that transposes or inverts signals or otherwise encodes a message at the sender's side to make the message unintelligible at a receiver not equipped with an appropriately set descrambling device.
SECAM, also written SÉCAM (Séquentiel couleur à mémoire, French for "Sequential colour with memory"), is an analogue color television system first used in France.
A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor – such as copper, gold etc.
A set-top box (STB) or set-top unit (STU) (one type also colloquially known as a cable box) is an information appliance device that generally contains a TV-tuner input and displays output to a television set and an external source of signal, turning the source signal into content in a form that then be displayed on the television screen or other display device.
In telecommunications, particularly in radio frequency, signal strength (also referred to as field strength) refers to the transmitter power output as received by a reference antenna at a distance from the transmitting antenna.
In telecommunication, signaling has the following meanings.
Single cable distribution is a satellite TV technology that enables the delivery of broadcast programming to multiple users over a single coaxial cable, and eliminates the numerous cables required to support consumer electronics devices such as twin-tuner Digital Video Recorders (DVRs) and high end receivers.
Single channel per carrier (SCPC) refers to using a single signal at a given frequency and bandwidth.
Sky Deutschland AG, branded as Sky, is a German media company which operates a direct broadcast satellite Pay TV platform in Germany, Austria and Switzerland (through Teleclub) offering a collection of basic and premium digital subscription television channels of different categories via satellite and cable television.
Sky One is a British general entertainment channel operated and owned by Sky plc, available in the United Kingdom and Ireland.
Sky UK (formerly British Sky Broadcasting Limited, BSkyB and Sky) is a telecommunications company which serves the United Kingdom.
A smart card, chip card, or integrated circuit card (ICC), is any pocket-sized card that has embedded integrated circuits.
A smart TV, sometimes referred to as connected TV or hybrid TV, is a television set with integrated Internet and interactive "Web 2.0" features.
SMATV is Single Master Antenna Television (or Satellite Master Antenna Television), The purpose of SMATV is for supplying and controlling the number and type of channels to multiple televisions.
Photovoltaic solar panels absorb sunlight as a source of energy to generate electricity.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Spectral efficiency, spectrum efficiency or bandwidth efficiency refers to the information rate that can be transmitted over a given bandwidth in a specific communication system.
Star One C2 is a Brazilian communications satellite.
Steel is an alloy of iron and carbon and other elements.
The Stuart Ballantine Medal was a science and engineering award presented by the Franklin Institute, of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA.
The subscription business model is a business model where a customer must pay a subscription price to have access to a product or service.
A Sun outage, Sun transit or Sun fade is an interruption in or distortion of geostationary satellite signals caused by interference (background noise) of the sun when it falls directly behind a satellite which an earth station is trying to receive data or transmit data to.
The SuperDish is a satellite dish that was deployed by Dish Network in November 2003 as a means to provide more channels for subscribing customers.
Taylor & Francis Group is an international company originating in England that publishes books and academic journals.
In telecommunications a link is a communication channel that connects two or more devices.
A television antenna, or TV aerial, is an antenna specifically designed for the reception of over-the-air broadcast television signals, which are transmitted at frequencies from about 41 to 250 MHz in the VHF band, and 470 to 960 MHz in the UHF band in different countries.
Television encryption, often referred to as "scrambling", is encryption used to control access to pay television services, usually cable or satellite television services.
A television network is a telecommunications network for distribution of television program content, whereby a central operation provides programming to many television stations or pay television providers.
Television receive-only (TVRO) is a term used chiefly in North America to refer to the reception of satellite television from FSS-type satellites, generally on C-band analog; free-to-air and unconnected to a commercial DBS provider.
A television set or television receiver, more commonly called a television, TV, TV set, or telly, is a device that combines a tuner, display, and loudspeakers for the purpose of viewing television.
A television show (often simply TV show) is any content produced for broadcast via over-the-air, satellite, cable, or internet and typically viewed on a television set, excluding breaking news, advertisements, or trailers that are typically placed between shows.
Telstar is the name of various communications satellites.
Terrestrial or broadcast television is a type of television broadcasting in which the television signal is transmitted by radio waves from the terrestrial (Earth based) transmitter of a television station to a TV receiver having an antenna.
The Baltimore Sun is the largest general-circulation daily newspaper based in the American state of Maryland and provides coverage of local and regional news, events, issues, people, and industries.
The Denver Post is a daily newspaper and website that has been published in the Denver, Colorado area since 1892.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Philadelphia Inquirer is a morning daily newspaper that serves the Philadelphia metropolitan area of the United States.
The San Diego Union-Tribune is an American metropolitan daily newspaper, published in San Diego, California. Its name derives from a 1992 merger between the two major daily newspapers at the time, The San Diego Union and the San Diego Evening Tribune. The name changed to U-T San Diego in 2012 but was changed again to The San Diego Union-Tribune in 2015. In 2015, it was acquired by Tribune Publishing, later renamed tronc. In February 2018 it was announced to be sold, along with the Los Angeles Times, to Patrick Soon-Shiong's investment firm Nant Capital LLC for $500 million plus $90m in pension liabilities. The sale closed on June 18, 2018.
The Wichita Eagle is a daily newspaper published in Wichita, Kansas, United States.
In telecommunication, a transponder can be one of two types of devices.
A tuner is a subsystem that receives radio frequency (RF) transmissions like radio broadcasts and converts the selected carrier frequency and its associated bandwidth into a fixed frequency that is suitable for further processing, usually because a lower frequency is used on the output.
Turner Broadcasting System, Inc. is an American media conglomerate that is part of AT&T's WarnerMedia, and manages the collection of cable television networks and properties initiated or acquired by Ted Turner.
UHF television broadcasting is the use of ultra high frequency (UHF) radio for over-the-air transmission of television signals.
Ultra high frequency (UHF) is the ITU designation for radio frequencies in the range between 300 megahertz (MHz) and 3 gigahertz (GHz), also known as the decimetre band as the wavelengths range from one meter to one decimeter.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.
Upper Saddle River is a borough in Bergen County, New Jersey, United States.
Viaccess is a conditional access system developed by Orange S.A..
VideoCipher is a brand name of analog scrambling and de-scrambling equipment for cable and satellite television invented primarily to enforce Television receive-only (TVRO) satellite equipment to only receive TV programming on a subscription basis.
VideoGuard (sometimes referred to simply as NDS), produced by NDS, is a digital encryption system for use with conditional access television broadcasting.
A waveguide is a structure that guides waves, such as electromagnetic waves or sound, with minimal loss of energy by restricting expansion to one dimension or two.
Westport is an affluent town located in Connecticut, along Long Island Sound within Connecticut's Gold Coast in Fairfield County, Connecticut.
4DTV is a proprietary broadcasting standard and technology for digital cable broadcasting and C-band/Ku-band satellite dishes from Motorola, using General Instrument's DigiCipher II for encryption.
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