201 relations: Acetylene, Agiel, Ammonia, Ammonium hydrosulfide, Apparent magnitude, Apsis, Arabic, Astronomical symbols, Astronomical unit, Atlas (moon), Atmosphere, Atmosphere of Titan, Atmospheric entry, Aurora, Babylonian astronomy, Bar (unit), Bond albedo, Carbon, Caspian Sea, Cassiel, Cassini–Huygens, Chinese astrology, Christiaan Huygens, Comet, Cosmic dust, Cosmos (Australian magazine), Cronus, Diamond, Dione (moon), Dipole, Earth, Earth's magnetic field, Ecliptic, Electric current, Elongation (astronomy), Enceladus, Epimetheus (moon), Epoch (astronomy), Equator, Equinox, Escape velocity, Ethane, Eye (cyclone), Friction, G-force, Galileo (spacecraft), Galileo Galilei, Gas, Gas giant, Gauss (unit), ..., Geometric albedo, Geyser, Giovanni Domenico Cassini, Gravitational compression, Gravitational potential, Great Red Spot, Great White Spot, Greek language, Greek mythology, Hebrew language, Helium, Hexagon, Hubble Space Telescope, Huygens (spacecraft), Hydrocarbon, Hydrogen, Hydrogen deuteride, Hyperion (moon), Iapetus (moon), Ice, Ice cloud, Ice giant, Ideal solution, Infrared, Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, Invariable plane, Ion, Iron–nickel alloy, Irregular moon, Janus (moon), Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Jet stream, Julian year (astronomy), Jupiter, Jyotisha, Kelvin–Helmholtz mechanism, Lagrangian point, Lakes of Titan, Liquid helium, Liquid hydrogen, Magnetic field, Magnetic moment, Magnetism, Magnetosphere, Malay language, Mars, Mercury (planet), Mesosphere, Metallic hydrogen, Metallicity, Methane, Microorganism, Mimas (moon), Moonlet, Moons of Saturn, Naked eye, NASA, National Geographic, National Maritime Museum, National Space Science Data Center, Natural satellite, Nature (journal), Navagraha, Nebula, Neptune, New Scientist, Nitrogen, Occultation, Oort cloud, Opposition (planets), Orbital resonance, Ottoman Turkish language, Oxygen, PAH world hypothesis, Pan (moon), Pandora (moon), Phase (matter), Phase angle (astronomy), Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Phoebe (moon), Phosphine, Photochemistry, Photodissociation, Pioneer 11, Planet, Planetary core, Planetary habitability, Polar vortex, Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, Prometheus (moon), Propane, Ptolemy, Radio astronomy, Rain, Rayleigh scattering, Relative density, Resonance, Retrograde and prograde motion, Rhea (moon), Ring system, Rings of Rhea, Rings of Saturn, Roman mythology, Royal Society, Saturn (mythology), Science (journal), Science (TV network), Science Mission Directorate, Secular resonance, Shani, Sickle, Silicon, Solar System, Solar time, Solar wind, Space probe, Space.com, SpaceNews, Spanish National Research Council, Spheroid, Standing wave, Summer solstice, Sun, Telescope, Tesla (unit), Tethys (moon), The New York Times, The Washington Post, Thermal energy, Thermography, Tholin, Titan (moon), Titan (mythology), Trojan (astronomy), Tropical cyclone, Ultraviolet, Uranus, Urdu, Venus, Volatiles, Voyager 1, Voyager 2, Voyager program, Water, William Henry Pickering, William Herschel, Wind speed, Wu Xing, Zeus, Zodiac, 4 Vesta. Expand index (151 more) » « Shrink index
Acetylene (systematic name: ethyne) is the chemical compound with the formula C2H2.
Agiel (אגיאל) The Intelligence (beneficial spirit) of Saturn mentioned as a Spirit in such works as the Key of Solomon.
Ammonia is a compound of nitrogen and hydrogen with the formula NH3.
Ammonium hydrosulfide is the chemical compound with the formula (NH4)SH.
The apparent magnitude of a celestial object is a number that is a measure of its brightness as seen by an observer on Earth.
An apsis (ἁψίς; plural apsides, Greek: ἁψῖδες) is an extreme point in the orbit of an object.
Arabic (العَرَبِيَّة) or (عَرَبِيّ) or) is a Central Semitic language that first emerged in Iron Age northwestern Arabia and is now the lingua franca of the Arab world. It is named after the Arabs, a term initially used to describe peoples living from Mesopotamia in the east to the Anti-Lebanon mountains in the west, in northwestern Arabia, and in the Sinai peninsula. Arabic is classified as a macrolanguage comprising 30 modern varieties, including its standard form, Modern Standard Arabic, which is derived from Classical Arabic. As the modern written language, Modern Standard Arabic is widely taught in schools and universities, and is used to varying degrees in workplaces, government, and the media. The two formal varieties are grouped together as Literary Arabic (fuṣḥā), which is the official language of 26 states and the liturgical language of Islam. Modern Standard Arabic largely follows the grammatical standards of Classical Arabic and uses much of the same vocabulary. However, it has discarded some grammatical constructions and vocabulary that no longer have any counterpart in the spoken varieties, and has adopted certain new constructions and vocabulary from the spoken varieties. Much of the new vocabulary is used to denote concepts that have arisen in the post-classical era, especially in modern times. During the Middle Ages, Literary Arabic was a major vehicle of culture in Europe, especially in science, mathematics and philosophy. As a result, many European languages have also borrowed many words from it. Arabic influence, mainly in vocabulary, is seen in European languages, mainly Spanish and to a lesser extent Portuguese, Valencian and Catalan, owing to both the proximity of Christian European and Muslim Arab civilizations and 800 years of Arabic culture and language in the Iberian Peninsula, referred to in Arabic as al-Andalus. Sicilian has about 500 Arabic words as result of Sicily being progressively conquered by Arabs from North Africa, from the mid 9th to mid 10th centuries. Many of these words relate to agriculture and related activities (Hull and Ruffino). Balkan languages, including Greek and Bulgarian, have also acquired a significant number of Arabic words through contact with Ottoman Turkish. Arabic has influenced many languages around the globe throughout its history. Some of the most influenced languages are Persian, Turkish, Spanish, Urdu, Kashmiri, Kurdish, Bosnian, Kazakh, Bengali, Hindi, Malay, Maldivian, Indonesian, Pashto, Punjabi, Tagalog, Sindhi, and Hausa, and some languages in parts of Africa. Conversely, Arabic has borrowed words from other languages, including Greek and Persian in medieval times, and contemporary European languages such as English and French in modern times. Classical Arabic is the liturgical language of 1.8 billion Muslims and Modern Standard Arabic is one of six official languages of the United Nations. All varieties of Arabic combined are spoken by perhaps as many as 422 million speakers (native and non-native) in the Arab world, making it the fifth most spoken language in the world. Arabic is written with the Arabic alphabet, which is an abjad script and is written from right to left, although the spoken varieties are sometimes written in ASCII Latin from left to right with no standardized orthography.
Astronomical symbols are symbols used to represent astronomical objects, theoretical constructs and observational events in astronomy.
The astronomical unit (symbol: au, ua, or AU) is a unit of length, roughly the distance from Earth to the Sun.
Atlas is an inner satellite of Saturn.
An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.
The atmosphere of Titan is the layer of gases surrounding Titan, the largest moon of Saturn.
Atmospheric entry is the movement of an object from outer space into and through the gases of an atmosphere of a planet, dwarf planet or natural satellite.
An aurora (plural: auroras or aurorae), sometimes referred to as polar lights, northern lights (aurora borealis) or southern lights (aurora australis), is a natural light display in the Earth's sky, predominantly seen in the high-latitude regions (around the Arctic and Antarctic).
The history of astronomy in Mesopotamia, and the world, begins with the Sumerians who developed the earliest writing system—known as cuneiform—around 3500–3200 BC.
The bar is a metric unit of pressure, but is not approved as part of the International System of Units (SI).
The Bond albedo, named after the American astronomer George Phillips Bond (1825–1865), who originally proposed it, is the fraction of power in the total electromagnetic radiation incident on an astronomical body that is scattered back out into space.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.
Cassiel, (also known as Cafziel, Cafzyel, Caphziel, Casiel, Cassael, Casziel, Kafziel, Kasiel, Qafsiel, Qaphsiel, Qaspiel, Qephetzial, or Quaphsiel), meaning "Speed of God" or "God is my anger" is an angel appearing in extracanonical Jewish, Christian, and Islamic mystical and magical works, often as one of the Seven Archangels, the angel of Saturn, and in other roles.
The Cassini–Huygens mission, commonly called Cassini, was a collaboration between NASA, the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Italian Space Agency (ASI) to send a probe to study the planet Saturn and its system, including its rings and natural satellites.
Chinese astrology is based on the traditional astronomy and calendars.
Christiaan Huygens (Hugenius; 14 April 1629 – 8 July 1695) was a Dutch physicist, mathematician, astronomer and inventor, who is widely regarded as one of the greatest scientists of all time and a major figure in the scientific revolution.
A comet is an icy small Solar System body that, when passing close to the Sun, warms and begins to release gases, a process called outgassing.
Cosmic dust, also called extraterrestrial dust or space dust, is dust which exists in outer space, as well as all over planet Earth.
Cosmos (styled COSMOS) is a science magazine produced in Australia with a global outlook and literary ambitions.
In Greek mythology, Cronus, Cronos, or Kronos (or from Κρόνος, Krónos), was the leader and youngest of the first generation of Titans, the divine descendants of Uranus, the sky, and Gaia, the earth.
Diamond is a solid form of carbon with a diamond cubic crystal structure.
Dione (Διώνη) is a moon of Saturn.
In electromagnetism, there are two kinds of dipoles.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Earth's magnetic field, also known as the geomagnetic field, is the magnetic field that extends from the Earth's interior out into space, where it meets the solar wind, a stream of charged particles emanating from the Sun.
The ecliptic is the circular path on the celestial sphere that the Sun follows over the course of a year; it is the basis of the ecliptic coordinate system.
An electric current is a flow of electric charge.
In astronomy, a planet's elongation is the angular separation between the Sun and the planet, with Earth as the reference point.
Enceladus is the sixth-largest moon of Saturn.
Epimetheus is an inner satellite of Saturn.
In astronomy, an epoch is a moment in time used as a reference point for some time-varying astronomical quantity, such as the celestial coordinates or elliptical orbital elements of a celestial body, because these are subject to perturbations and vary with time.
An equator of a rotating spheroid (such as a planet) is its zeroth circle of latitude (parallel).
An equinox is commonly regarded as the moment the plane (extended indefinitely in all directions) of Earth's equator passes through the center of the Sun, which occurs twice each year, around 20 March and 22-23 September.
In physics, escape velocity is the minimum speed needed for an object to escape from the gravitational influence of a massive body.
Ethane is an organic chemical compound with chemical formula.
The eye is a region of mostly calm weather at the center of strong tropical cyclones.
Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements sliding against each other.
The gravitational force, or more commonly, g-force, is a measurement of the type of acceleration that causes a perception of weight.
Galileo was an American unmanned spacecraft that studied the planet Jupiter and its moons, as well as several other Solar System bodies.
Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564Drake (1978, p. 1). The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar, which was then in force throughout Christendom. In 1582 it was replaced in Italy and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar. Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar. – 8 January 1642) was an Italian polymath.
Gas is one of the four fundamental states of matter (the others being solid, liquid, and plasma).
A gas giant is a giant planet composed mainly of hydrogen and helium.
The gauss, abbreviated as G or Gs, is the cgs unit of measurement of magnetic flux density (or "magnetic induction") (B).
In astronomy, the geometric albedo of a celestial body is the ratio of its actual brightness as seen from the light source (i.e. at zero phase angle) to that of an idealized flat, fully reflecting, diffusively scattering (Lambertian) disk with the same cross-section.
A geyser is a spring characterized by intermittent discharge of water ejected turbulently and accompanied by steam.
Giovanni Domenico Cassini (8 June 1625 – 14 September 1712) was an Italian (naturalised French) mathematician, astronomer and engineer.
Gravitational compression is a phenomenon in which gravity, acting on the mass of an object, compresses it, reducing its size and increases the object's density.
In classical mechanics, the gravitational potential at a location is equal to the work (energy transferred) per unit mass that would be needed to move the object from a fixed reference location to the location of the object.
The Great Red Spot is a persistent high-pressure region in the atmosphere of Jupiter, producing an anticyclonic storm 22° south of the planet's equator.
Saturn's great white spot in 2011. The Great White Spot, also known as Great White Oval, on Saturn, named by analogy to Jupiter's Great Red Spot, are periodic storms that are large enough to be visible by telescope from Earth by their characteristic white appearance.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Greek mythology is the body of myths and teachings that belong to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices.
Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.
In geometry, a hexagon (from Greek ἕξ hex, "six" and γωνία, gonía, "corner, angle") is a six-sided polygon or 6-gon.
The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a space telescope that was launched into low Earth orbit in 1990 and remains in operation.
Huygens was an atmospheric entry probe that landed successfully on Saturn's moon Titan in 2005.
In organic chemistry, a hydrocarbon is an organic compound consisting entirely of hydrogen and carbon.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hydrogen deuteride is a diatomic molecule substance or compound of the two isotopes of hydrogen: the majority isotope 1H protium and 2H deuterium.
Hyperion (Greek: Ὑπερίων), also known as Saturn VII (7), is a moon of Saturn discovered by William Cranch Bond, George Phillips Bond and William Lassell in 1848.
Iapetus (Ιαπετός), or occasionally Japetus, is the third-largest natural satellite of Saturn, eleventh-largest in the Solar System, and the largest body in the Solar System known not to be in hydrostatic equilibrium.
Ice is water frozen into a solid state.
An ice cloud is a colloid of ice particles dispersed in air.
An ice giant is a giant planet composed mainly of elements heavier than hydrogen and helium, such as oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur.
In chemistry, an ideal solution or ideal mixture is a solution with thermodynamic properties analogous to those of a mixture of ideal gases.
Infrared radiation (IR) is electromagnetic radiation (EMR) with longer wavelengths than those of visible light, and is therefore generally invisible to the human eye (although IR at wavelengths up to 1050 nm from specially pulsed lasers can be seen by humans under certain conditions). It is sometimes called infrared light.
The Institute of Astrophysics of Andalusia (Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, IAA-CSIC) is a research institute funded by the High Council of Scientific Research of the Spanish government Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas (CSIC), and is located in Granada, Andalusia, Spain.
The invariable plane of a planetary system, also called Laplace's invariable plane, is the plane passing through its barycenter (center of mass) perpendicular to its angular momentum vector.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
An iron–nickel alloy or nickel–iron alloy, abbreviated FeNi or NiFe, is a group of alloys consisting primarily of the elements nickel (Ni) and iron (Fe).
In astronomy, an irregular moon, irregular satellite or irregular natural satellite is a natural satellite following a distant, inclined, and often eccentric and retrograde orbit.
Janus is an inner satellite of Saturn.
The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is a federally funded research and development center and NASA field center in Pasadena, California, United States, with large portions of the campus in La Cañada Flintridge, California.
Jet streams are fast flowing, narrow, meandering air currents in the atmospheres of some planets, including Earth.
In astronomy, a Julian year (symbol: a) is a unit of measurement of time defined as exactly 365.25 days of SI seconds each.
Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.
Jyotisha (ज्योतिष, IAST: Jyotiṣa) is the science of tracking and predicting the movements of astronomical bodies in order to keep time.
The Kelvin–Helmholtz mechanism is an astronomical process that occurs when the surface of a star or a planet cools.
In celestial mechanics, the Lagrangian points (also Lagrange points, L-points, or libration points) are positions in an orbital configuration of two large bodies, wherein a small object, affected only by the gravitational forces from the two larger objects, will maintain its position relative to them.
The lakes of Titan, Saturn's largest moon, are bodies of liquid ethane and methane that have been detected by the Cassini–Huygens space probe, and had been suspected long before.
At standard pressure, the chemical element helium exists in a liquid form only at the extremely low temperature of −270 °C (about 4 K or −452.2 °F).
Liquid hydrogen (LH2 or LH2) is the liquid state of the element hydrogen.
A magnetic field is a vector field that describes the magnetic influence of electrical currents and magnetized materials.
The magnetic moment is a quantity that represents the magnetic strength and orientation of a magnet or other object that produces a magnetic field.
Magnetism is a class of physical phenomena that are mediated by magnetic fields.
A magnetosphere is the region of space surrounding an astronomical object in which charged particles are manipulated or affected by that object's magnetic field.
Malay (Bahasa Melayu بهاس ملايو) is a major language of the Austronesian family spoken in Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore.
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.
Mercury is the smallest and innermost planet in the Solar System.
The mesosphere (from Greek mesos "middle" and sphaira "sphere") is the layer of the Earth's atmosphere that is directly above the stratosphere and directly below the thermosphere.
Metallic hydrogen is a phase of hydrogen in which it behaves like an electrical conductor.
In astronomy, metallicity is used to describe the abundance of elements present in an object that are heavier than hydrogen or helium.
Methane is a chemical compound with the chemical formula (one atom of carbon and four atoms of hydrogen).
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
Mimas, also designated Saturn I, is a moon of Saturn which was discovered in 1789 by William Herschel.
A moonlet, minor moon, minor natural satellite or minor satellite is a particularly small natural satellite orbiting a planet, dwarf planet or other minor planet.
The moons of Saturn are numerous and diverse, ranging from tiny moonlets less than 1 kilometer across to the enormous Titan, which is larger than the planet Mercury.
Naked eye, also called bare eye or unaided eye, is the practice of engaging in visual perception unaided by a magnifying or light-collecting optical instrument, such as a telescope or microscope.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
National Geographic (formerly the National Geographic Magazine and branded also as NAT GEO or) is the official magazine of the National Geographic Society.
The National Maritime Museum (NMM) in Greenwich, London, is the leading maritime museum of the United Kingdom and may be the largest museum of its kind in the world.
The National Space Science Data Center serves as the permanent archive for NASA space science mission data.
A natural satellite or moon is, in the most common usage, an astronomical body that orbits a planet or minor planet (or sometimes another small Solar System body).
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Navagraha means "nine planets" in Sanskrit and are nine astronomical bodies as well as mythical deities in Hinduism and Hindu astrology.
A nebula (Latin for "cloud" or "fog"; pl. nebulae, nebulæ, or nebulas) is an interstellar cloud of dust, hydrogen, helium and other ionized gases.
Neptune is the eighth and farthest known planet from the Sun in the Solar System.
New Scientist, first published on 22 November 1956, is a weekly, English-language magazine that covers all aspects of science and technology.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
An occultation is an event that occurs when one object is hidden by another object that passes between it and the observer.
The Oort cloud, named after the Dutch astronomer Jan Oort, sometimes called the Öpik–Oort cloud, is a theoretical cloud of predominantly icy planetesimals proposed to surround the Sun at distances ranging from.
In positional astronomy, two astronomical objects are said to be in opposition when they are on opposite sides of the celestial sphere, as observed from a given body (usually Earth).
In celestial mechanics, an orbital resonance occurs when orbiting bodies exert a regular, periodic gravitational influence on each other, usually because their orbital periods are related by a ratio of small integers.
Ottoman Turkish (Osmanlı Türkçesi), or the Ottoman language (Ottoman Turkish:, lisân-ı Osmânî, also known as, Türkçe or, Türkî, "Turkish"; Osmanlıca), is the variety of the Turkish language that was used in the Ottoman Empire.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
The PAH world hypothesis is a speculative hypothesis that proposes that polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), known to be abundant in the universe, including in comets, and, as well, assumed to be abundant in the primordial soup of the early Earth, played a major role in the origin of life by mediating the synthesis of RNA molecules, leading into the RNA world.
Pan (Πάν) is the innermost moon of Saturn.
Pandora (Πανδώρα) is an inner satellite of Saturn.
In the physical sciences, a phase is a region of space (a thermodynamic system), throughout which all physical properties of a material are essentially uniform.
Phase angle in astronomical observations is the angle between the light incident onto an observed object and the light reflected from the object.
Philosophical Transactions, titled Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (often abbreviated as Phil. Trans.) from 1776, is a scientific journal published by the Royal Society.
Phoebe (Greek: Φοίβη Phoíbē) is an irregular satellite of Saturn with a mean diameter of 213 km.
Phosphine (IUPAC name: phosphane) is the compound with the chemical formula PH3.
Photochemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the chemical effects of light.
Photodissociation, photolysis, or photodecomposition is a chemical reaction in which a chemical compound is broken down by photons.
Pioneer 11 (also known as Pioneer G) is a robotic space probe launched by NASA on April 6, 1973 to study the asteroid belt, the environment around Jupiter and Saturn, solar wind and cosmic rays.
A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.
The planetary core consists of the innermost layer(s) of a planet; which may be composed of solid and liquid layers.
Planetary habitability is the measure of a planet's or a natural satellite's potential to have habitable environments hospitable to life, or its ability to generate life endogenously.
A polar vortex is an upper level low-pressure area lying near the Earth's poles.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, also polyaromatic hydrocarbons or polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons) are hydrocarbons—organic compounds containing only carbon and hydrogen—that are composed of multiple aromatic rings (organic rings in which the electrons are delocalized).
Prometheus is an inner satellite of Saturn.
Propane is a three-carbon alkane with the molecular formula C3H8.
Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
Radio astronomy is a subfield of astronomy that studies celestial objects at radio frequencies.
Rain is liquid water in the form of droplets that have condensed from atmospheric water vapor and then becomes heavy enough to fall under gravity.
Rayleigh scattering (pronounced), named after the British physicist Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt), is the (dominantly) elastic scattering of light or other electromagnetic radiation by particles much smaller than the wavelength of the radiation.
Relative density, or specific gravity, is the ratio of the density (mass of a unit volume) of a substance to the density of a given reference material.
In physics, resonance is a phenomenon in which a vibrating system or external force drives another system to oscillate with greater amplitude at specific frequencies.
Retrograde motion in astronomy is, in general, orbital or rotational motion of an object in the direction opposite the rotation of its primary, that is the central object (right figure).
Rhea (Ῥέᾱ) is the second-largest moon of Saturn and the ninth-largest moon in the Solar System.
A ring system is a disc or ring orbiting an astronomical object that is composed of solid material such as dust and moonlets, and is a common component of satellite systems around giant planets.
The Saturnian moon Rhea may have a tenuous ring system consisting of three narrow, relatively dense bands within a particulate disk.
The rings of Saturn are the most extensive ring system of any planet in the Solar System.
Roman mythology is the body of traditional stories pertaining to ancient Rome's legendary origins and religious system, as represented in the literature and visual arts of the Romans.
The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.
Saturn (Saturnus) is a god in ancient Roman religion, and a character in myth as a god of generation, dissolution, plenty, wealth, agriculture, periodic renewal and liberation.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Science Channel (often referred to as simply Science) is an American digital cable and satellite television network that is owned by Discovery Inc. The channel features programming focusing on the fields of wilderness survival, ufology, manufacturing, construction, technology, space, prehistory and animal science.
The Science Mission Directorate (SMD) of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) engages the United States’ science community, sponsors scientific research, and develops and deploys satellites and probes in collaboration with NASA’s partners around the world to answer fundamental questions requiring the view from and into space.
A secular resonance is a type of orbital resonance of two bodies with a synchronized precession.
Shani (शनि) refers to the planet Saturn, and is one of the nine heavenly objects known as Navagraha in Hindu astrology.
A sickle, or bagging hook, is a hand-held agricultural tool designed with variously curved blades and typically used for harvesting, or reaping, grain crops or cutting succulent forage chiefly for feeding livestock, either freshly cut or dried as hay.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.
Solar time is a calculation of the passage of time based on the position of the Sun in the sky.
The solar wind is a stream of charged particles released from the upper atmosphere of the Sun, called the corona.
A space probe is a robotic spacecraft that does not orbit the Earth, but, instead, explores further into outer space.
Space.com is a space and astronomy news website.
SpaceNews is a print and digital publication that covers business and political news in the space and satellite industry.
The Spanish National Research Council (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, CSIC) is the largest public institution dedicated to research in Spain and the third largest in Europe.
A spheroid, or ellipsoid of revolution, is a quadric surface obtained by rotating an ellipse about one of its principal axes; in other words, an ellipsoid with two equal semi-diameters.
In physics, a standing wave – also known as a stationary wave – is a wave which oscillates in time but whose peak amplitude profile does not move in space.
The summer solstice (or estival solstice), also known as midsummer, occurs when one of the Earth's poles has its maximum tilt toward the Sun.
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
A telescope is an optical instrument that aids in the observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation (such as visible light).
The tesla (symbol T) is a derived unit of magnetic flux density (informally, magnetic field strength) in the International System of Units.
Tethys (or Saturn III) is a mid-sized moon of Saturn about across.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.
Thermal energy is a term used loosely as a synonym for more rigorously-defined thermodynamic quantities such as the internal energy of a system; heat or sensible heat, which are defined as types of transfer of energy (as is work); or for the characteristic energy of a degree of freedom in a thermal system kT, where T is temperature and k is the Boltzmann constant.
Infrared thermography (IRT), thermal imaging, and thermal video are examples of infrared imaging science.
Tholins (after the Greek θολός (tholós) "hazy" or "muddy"; from the ancient Greek word meaning "sepia ink") are a wide variety of organic compounds formed by solar ultraviolet irradiation or cosmic rays from simple carbon-containing compounds such as carbon dioxide, methane or ethane, often in combination with nitrogen.
Titan is the largest moon of Saturn.
In Greek mythology, the Titans (Greek: Τιτάν, Titán, Τiτᾶνες, Titânes) and Titanesses (or Titanides; Greek: Τιτανίς, Titanís, Τιτανίδες, Titanídes) were members of the second generation of divine beings, descending from the primordial deities and preceding the Olympians.
In astronomy, a trojan is a minor planet or moon that shares the orbit of a planet or larger moon, wherein the trojan remains in the same, stable position relative to the larger object.
A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
Uranus is the seventh planet from the Sun.
Urdu (اُردُو ALA-LC:, or Modern Standard Urdu) is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language.
Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.
In planetary science, volatiles are the group of chemical elements and chemical compounds with low boiling points that are associated with a planet's or moon's crust or atmosphere.
Voyager 1 is a space probe launched by NASA on September 5, 1977.
Voyager 2 is a space probe launched by NASA on August 20, 1977, to study the outer planets.
The Voyager program is an American scientific program that employs two robotic probes, Voyager 1 and Voyager 2, to study the outer Solar System.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
William Henry Pickering (February 15, 1858 – January 16, 1938) was an American astronomer.
Frederick William Herschel, (Friedrich Wilhelm Herschel; 15 November 1738 – 25 August 1822) was a German-born British astronomer, composer and brother of fellow astronomer Caroline Herschel, with whom he worked.
Wind speed, or wind flow velocity, is a fundamental atmospheric quantity.
The Wu Xing, also known as the Five Elements, Five Phases, the Five Agents, the Five Movements, Five Processes, the Five Steps/Stages and the Five Planets of significant gravity: Jupiter-木, Saturn-土, Mercury-水, Venus-金, Mars-火Dr Zai, J..
Zeus (Ζεύς, Zeús) is the sky and thunder god in ancient Greek religion, who rules as king of the gods of Mount Olympus.
The zodiac is an area of the sky that extends approximately 8° north or south (as measured in celestial latitude) of the ecliptic, the apparent path of the Sun across the celestial sphere over the course of the year.
Vesta, minor-planet designation 4 Vesta, is one of the largest objects in the asteroid belt, with a mean diameter of.
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