238 relations: Aero Spacelines, Aero Spacelines Pregnant Guppy, Aero Spacelines Super Guppy, Alabama, Altair (spacecraft), Aluminium, Apollo 10, Apollo 11, Apollo 12, Apollo 13, Apollo 14, Apollo 15, Apollo 16, Apollo 17, Apollo 18 (film), Apollo 4, Apollo 6, Apollo 8, Apollo 9, Apollo abort modes, Apollo Applications Program, Apollo Command/Service Module, Apollo Lunar Module, Apollo program, Apollo Telescope Mount, Ares I, Ares V, Ariane 5, Arthur Rudolph, Assignment: Earth, Asteroid, Astronaut, Astronomer, Atlas V, Attitude control, BFR (rocket), Big Ben, Boeing, Booster (rocketry), Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society, Buran (spacecraft), Buzz Aldrin, California, Canceled Apollo missions, Centaur (rocket stage), Center of mass, Christopher C. Kraft Jr. Mission Control Center, Cold War, Columbia Accident Investigation Board, Comparison of orbital launch systems, ..., Comparison of orbital launchers families, Constellation program, Crawler-transporter, Delta IV, Delta-v, Density of air, Descartes Highlands, Direct ascent, Douglas Aircraft Company, Dynamic pressure, Earth Departure Stage, Earth orbit rendezvous, Economy of the United States, Edgar Cortright, Encyclopedia Astronautica, Energia, Equator, Expendable launch system, Exploration of the Moon, Exploration Upper Stage, Explorer 1, Falcon Heavy, Florida, Fra Mauro (crater), G-force, George Low, Gimbal, Grade (slope), Gravity assist, Gulf of Mexico, Hadley–Apennine, Houston, Human-rating certification, Huntington Beach, California, Huntsville, Alabama, Hydraulics, IBM, Impulse (physics), Intercontinental ballistic missile, Intermediate-range ballistic missile, International Space Station, Intracoastal Waterway, J-2X, J002E3, John C. Stennis Space Center, John Houbolt, Johnson Space Center, Juno I, Jupiter-C, Kennedy Space Center, Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39, Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex, Langley Research Center, Launch escape system, Liquid hydrogen, Liquid oxygen, Liquid-propellant rocket, List of Apollo astronauts, List of manned Mars mission plans, Lockheed Martin, Long March (rocket family), Low Earth orbit, Lunar lander, Lunar orbit, Lunar orbit rendezvous, Lunar Roving Vehicle, Lunokhod programme, M-1 (rocket engine), Mare Tranquillitatis, Marion Power Shovel Company, Mars, Marshall Space Flight Center, Max Q, Megabyte, Mercury-Redstone 3, Mercury-Redstone Launch Vehicle, Michoud Assembly Facility, Microform, Mir, Mississippi, Mississippi River, Mobile Launcher Platform, Momentum, Multistage rocket, N1 (rocket), NASA, National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, National Air and Space Museum, NERVA, New Orleans, North American Aviation, Nova (rocket), Nuclear thermal rocket, Oceanus Procellarum, Operation Paperclip, Orbit, Orbital speed, Orion (spacecraft), Outer space, Oxidizing agent, Panama Canal, Parking orbit, Phenol formaldehyde resin, Planet, Pogo oscillation, Powered Descent Initiation, Project Gemini, Project Vanguard, Prospector (spacecraft), Proton-M, Quincunx, R-7 (rocket family), Research and development, Richard F. Gordon Jr., RL10, Rocket, Rocket engine, Rocketdyne F-1, Rocketdyne J-2, RP-1, RS-68, S-IC, S-II, S-IVB, SA-500F, Saturn (rocket family), Saturn C-5N, Saturn C-8, Saturn I, Saturn IB, Saturn INT-20, Saturn INT-21, Saturn MLV, Saturn V Dynamic Test Vehicle, Saturn V ELV, Saturn V Instrument Unit, Saturn-Shuttle, Seal Beach, California, Seismometer, Sergei Korolev, Service structure, Shuttle-Derived Launch Vehicle, Skylab, Slug (unit), Soviet space program, Soviet Union, Space exploration, Space Launch System, Space Race, Space rendezvous, Space Shuttle, Space Shuttle Challenger disaster, Space Shuttle external tank, Space Shuttle main engine, Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Booster, Space station, Space.com, SpaceX, Specialization (functional), Specific impulse, Sputnik 1, Star Trek: The Original Series, Statue of Liberty, Super heavy-lift launch vehicle, Surveyor 3, Taurus–Littrow, Telemetry, Television, Thermonuclear weapon, Thomas P. Stafford, Titan II GLV, Titanium dioxide, Tonne, Trans-lunar injection, Transposition, docking, and extraction, Turbopump, U.S. Space & Rocket Center, Ullage motor, United States dollar, V-2 rocket, Vehicle Assembly Building, Voyager program, Voyager program (Mars), Washington, D.C., Wernher von Braun, Wet workshop, William Kwong Yu Yeung, Yaw (rotation). Expand index (188 more) » « Shrink index
Aero Spacelines, Inc. was an American aircraft manufacturer from 1960 to 1968 which made a name for itself by converting Boeing 377 Stratocruisers into the famous Guppy line of airplanes, re-engineered solely for transporting oversized cargo such as space exploration vehicles.
The Aero Spacelines Pregnant Guppy was a large, wide-bodied cargo aircraft built in the United States and used for ferrying outsized cargo items, most notably NASA's components of the Apollo program.
The Aero Spacelines Super Guppy is a large, wide-bodied cargo aircraft that is used for hauling outsize cargo components.
Alabama is a state in the southeastern region of the United States.
The Altair spacecraft, previously known as the Lunar Surface Access Module or LSAM, was the planned lander spacecraft component of NASA's cancelled Constellation program.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Apollo 10 was the fourth manned mission in the United States Apollo space program, and the second (after Apollo 8) to orbit the Moon.
Apollo 11 was the spaceflight that landed the first two humans on the Moon.
Apollo 12 was the sixth manned flight in the United States Apollo program and the second to land on the Moon.
Apollo 13 was the seventh manned mission in the Apollo space program and the third intended to land on the Moon.
Apollo 14 was the eighth manned mission in the United States Apollo program, and the third to land on the Moon.
Apollo 15 was the ninth manned mission in the United States' Apollo program, the fourth to land on the Moon, and the eighth successful manned mission.
Apollo 16 was the tenth manned mission in the United States Apollo space program, the fifth and penultimate to land on the Moon and the first to land in the lunar highlands.
Apollo 17 was the final mission of NASA's Apollo program.
Apollo 18 is a 2011 American-Canadian alternate history found footage science fiction horror film written by Brian Miller, directed by Gonzalo López-Gallego, and produced by Timur Bekmambetov and Ron Schmidt.
Apollo 4, (also known as AS-501), was the first unmanned test flight of the Saturn V launch vehicle, which was used by the U.S. Apollo program to send the first astronauts to the Moon.
Apollo 6 (also known as AS-502), launched on April 4, 1968, was the second A type mission of the United States Apollo program, an unmanned test of the Saturn V launch vehicle.
Apollo 8, the second manned spaceflight mission in the United States Apollo space program, was launched on December 21, 1968, and became the first manned spacecraft to leave Earth orbit, reach the Earth's Moon, orbit it and return safely to Earth.
Apollo 9 was the third manned mission in the United States Apollo space program and the first flight of the Command/Service Module (CSM) with the Lunar Module (LM, pronounced "lem").
During the launch of an Apollo spacecraft by the Saturn IB or Saturn V rocket, the flight could be aborted to rescue the crew if the rocket failed catastrophically.
The Apollo Applications Program (AAP) was established by NASA headquarters in 1968 to develop science-based manned space missions using hardware developed for the Apollo program.
The Command/Service Module (CSM) was one of the two United States '''Apollo''' spacecraft, used for the Apollo program which landed astronauts on the Moon between 1969 and 1972.
The Lunar Module (LM, pronounced "Lem"), originally designated the Lunar Excursion Module (LEM), was the lander portion of the Apollo spacecraft built for the US Apollo program by Grumman Aircraft to carry a crew of two from lunar orbit to the surface and back.
The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which accomplished landing the first humans on the Moon from 1969 to 1972.
The Apollo Telescope Mount, or ATM, was a solar observatory attached to Skylab, the first American space station.
Ares I was the crew launch vehicle that was being developed by NASA as part of the Constellation program.
The Ares V (formerly known as the Cargo Launch Vehicle or CaLV) was the planned cargo launch component of the cancelled NASA Constellation program, which was to have replaced the Space Shuttle after its retirement in 2011.
Ariane 5 is a European heavy-lift launch vehicle that is part of the Ariane rocket family, an expendable launch system used to deliver payloads into geostationary transfer orbit (GTO) or low Earth orbit (LEO).
Arthur Louis Hugo Rudolph (November 9, 1906 – January 1, 1996) was a German rocket engineer who was a leader of the effort to develop the V-2 rocket for Nazi Germany.
"Assignment: Earth" is the last episode of the second season of the American science fiction television series Star Trek.
Asteroids are minor planets, especially those of the inner Solar System.
An astronaut or cosmonaut is a person trained by a human spaceflight program to command, pilot, or serve as a crew member of a spacecraft.
An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who concentrates their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth.
Atlas V ("V" is pronounced "Five") is an expendable launch system in the Atlas rocket family.
Attitude control is controlling the orientation of an object with respect to an inertial frame of reference or another entity like the celestial sphere, certain fields, and nearby objects, etc.
BFR is a privately funded next-generation reusable launch vehicle and spacecraft system developed by SpaceX.
Big Ben is the nickname for the Great Bell of the clock at the north end of the Palace of Westminster in London and is usually extended to refer to both the clock and the clock tower.
The Boeing Company is an American multinational corporation that designs, manufactures, and sells airplanes, rotorcraft, rockets, satellites, and missiles worldwide.
A booster rocket (or engine) is either the first stage of a multistage launch vehicle, or else a shorter-burning rocket used in parallel with longer-burning sustainer rockets to augment the space vehicle's takeoff thrust and payload capability.
Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society (BAAS; Bull. Am. Astron. Soc.) is the journal of record for the American Astronomical Society established in 1969.
Buran (Бура́н,, meaning "Snowstorm" or "Blizzard"; GRAU index serial number: "11F35 K1") was the first spaceplane to be produced as part of the Soviet/Russian Buran programme.
Buzz Aldrin (born Edwin Eugene Aldrin Jr.; January 20, 1930) is an American engineer, former astronaut, and Command Pilot in the United States Air Force.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
Several planned missions of the Apollo manned Moon landing program of the 1960s and 1970s were canceled for a variety of reasons, including changes in technical direction, the Apollo 1 fire, hardware delays, and budget limitations.
Centaur has been designed to be the upper stage of space launch vehicles and is used on the Atlas V. Centaur was the world's first high-energy upper stage, burning liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LOX).
In physics, the center of mass of a distribution of mass in space is the unique point where the weighted relative position of the distributed mass sums to zero, or the point where if a force is applied it moves in the direction of the force without rotating.
NASA's Christopher C. Kraft Jr.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
The Columbia Accident Investigation Board (CAIB) was convened by NASA to investigate the destruction of the Space Shuttle ''Columbia'' during STS-107 upon atmospheric re-entry on February 1, 2003.
This is a comparison of orbital launch systems.
This page contains a list of orbital launchers' families.
The Constellation Program (abbreviated CxP) is a cancelled manned spaceflight program developed by NASA, the space agency of the United States, from 2005 to 2009.
The crawler-transporters, formally known as the Missile Crawler Transporter Facilities, are a pair of tracked vehicles used to transport spacecraft from NASA's Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB) along the Crawlerway to Launch Complex 39.
Delta IV is an expendable launch system in the Delta rocket family.
Delta-v (literally "change in velocity"), symbolised as ∆v and pronounced delta-vee, as used in spacecraft flight dynamics, is a measure of the impulse that is needed to perform a maneuver such as launch from, or landing on a planet or moon, or in-space orbital maneuver.
The density of air ρ (Greek: rho) (air density) is the mass per unit volume of Earth's atmosphere.
The Descartes Highlands is an area of lunar highlands located on the near side that served as the landing site of the American Apollo 16 mission in early 1972.
Direct ascent is a method of landing a spacecraft on the Moon or another planet directly, without first assembling the vehicle in Earth orbit, or carrying a separate landing vehicle into orbit around the target body.
The Douglas Aircraft Company was an American aerospace manufacturer based in Southern California.
Dynamic pressure (sometimes called velocity pressure) is the increase in a moving fluid's pressure over its static value due to motion.
The Earth Departure Stage (EDS) is the name given to the proposed second stage of the Block 2 Space Launch System.
Earth orbit rendezvous (EOR) is a potential methodology for conducting round trip human flights to the Moon, involving the use of space rendezvous to assemble, and possibly fuel, components of a translunar vehicle in low Earth orbit.
The economy of the United States is a highly developed mixed economy.
Edgar Maurice Cortright (July 29, 1923 – May 4, 2014) was a scientist and engineer, and senior official at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) in the United States.
The Encyclopedia Astronautica is a reference web site on space travel.
Energia (Энергия, Energiya, "Energy") (GRAU 11K25) was a Soviet rocket that was designed by NPO Energia to serve as a heavy-lift partially recoverable launch system for a variety of payloads including the Buran spacecraft.
An equator of a rotating spheroid (such as a planet) is its zeroth circle of latitude (parallel).
An expendable launch vehicle (ELV) is a launch system or launch vehicle stage that is used only once to carry a payload into space.
The physical exploration of the Moon began when Luna 2, a space probe launched by the Soviet Union, made an impact on the surface of the Moon on September 14, 1959.
The Exploration Upper Stage (EUS) is being developed as a large second stage for Block 1B of the Space Launch System (SLS), seceding Block 1's Interim Cryogenic Propulsion Stage.
Explorer 1 was the first satellite of the United States, launched as part of its participation in the International Geophysical Year.
Falcon Heavy is a partially reusable heavy-lift launch vehicle designed and manufactured by SpaceX.
Florida (Spanish for "land of flowers") is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States.
Fra Mauro is the worn remnant of a walled lunar plain.
The gravitational force, or more commonly, g-force, is a measurement of the type of acceleration that causes a perception of weight.
George Michael Low (born George Wilhelm Low; June 10, 1926 – July 17, 1984) was a NASA administrator and 14th President of Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
A gimbal is a pivoted support that allows the rotation of an object about a single axis.
The grade (also called slope, incline, gradient, mainfall, pitch or rise) of a physical feature, landform or constructed line refers to the tangent of the angle of that surface to the horizontal.
In orbital mechanics and aerospace engineering, a gravitational slingshot, gravity assist maneuver, or swing-by is the use of the relative movement (e.g. orbit around the Sun) and gravity of a planet or other astronomical object to alter the path and speed of a spacecraft, typically to save propellant and reduce expense.
The Gulf of Mexico (Golfo de México) is an ocean basin and a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean, largely surrounded by the North American continent.
Hadley–Apennine is a region on the near side of Earth's Moon that served as the landing site for the American Apollo 15 mission, the fourth manned landing on the Moon and the first of the "J-missions", in July 1971.
Houston is the most populous city in the U.S. state of Texas and the fourth most populous city in the United States, with a census-estimated 2017 population of 2.312 million within a land area of.
Human-rating certification is the certification of a spacecraft or launch vehicle as capable of safely transporting humans.
Huntington Beach is a seaside city in Orange County in Southern California.
Huntsville is a city located primarily in Madison County in the Appalachian region of northern Alabama.
Hydraulics (from Greek: Υδραυλική) is a technology and applied science using engineering, chemistry, and other sciences involving the mechanical properties and use of liquids.
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
In classical mechanics, impulse (symbolized by J or Imp) is the integral of a force, F, over the time interval, t, for which it acts.
An intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) is a guided ballistic missile with a minimum range of primarily designed for nuclear weapons delivery (delivering one or more thermonuclear warheads).
An intermediate-range ballistic missile (IRBM) is a ballistic missile with a range of 3,000–5,500 km (1,864–3,418 miles), between a medium-range ballistic missile (MRBM) and an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM).
The International Space Station (ISS) is a space station, or a habitable artificial satellite, in low Earth orbit.
The Intracoastal Waterway (ICW) is a inland waterway along the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts of the United States, running from Boston, Massachusetts, southward along the Atlantic Seaboard and around the southern tip of Florida, then following the Gulf Coast to Brownsville, Texas.
The J-2X is a liquid-fueled cryogenic rocket engine that was planned for use on the Ares rockets of NASA's Constellation program, and later the Space Launch System.
J002E3 is the designation given to an object in space discovered on September 3, 2002 by amateur astronomer Bill Yeung.
The John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) is a NASA rocket testing facility.
John Cornelius Houbolt (April 10, 1919 – April 15, 2014) was an aerospace engineer credited with leading the team behind the lunar orbit rendezvous (LOR) mission mode, a concept that was used to successfully land humans on the Moon and return them to Earth.
The Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center (JSC) is the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Manned Spacecraft Center, where human spaceflight training, research, and flight control are conducted.
The Juno I was a four-stage American booster rocket which launched America's first satellite, Explorer 1, in 1958.
The Jupiter-C was an American research and development vehicle developed from the Jupiter-A. Jupiter-C was used for three sub-orbital spaceflights in 1956 and 1957 to test re-entry nosecones that were later to be deployed on the more advanced PGM-19 Jupiter mobile missile.
The John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is one of ten National Aeronautics and Space Administration field centers.
Launch Complex 39 (LC-39) is a rocket launch site at the John F. Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island in Florida, United States.
The Kennedy Space Center Visitor Complex is the visitor center at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida.
Langley Research Center (LaRC or NASA Langley) located in Hampton, Virginia, United States, is the oldest of NASA's field centers.
A launch escape system (LES) or launch abort system (LAS) is a crew safety system connected to a space capsule, used to quickly separate the capsule from its launch vehicle rocket in case of a launch abort emergency, such as an impending explosion.
Liquid hydrogen (LH2 or LH2) is the liquid state of the element hydrogen.
Liquid oxygen—abbreviated LOx, LOX or Lox in the aerospace, submarine and gas industries—is one of the physical forms of elemental oxygen.
A liquid-propellant rocket or liquid rocket is a rocket engine that uses liquid propellants.
Thirty-two astronauts were assigned to fly in the Apollo manned lunar landing program.
This list of manned Mars mission plans is a listing of formal proposals, studies, and plans for a human manned mission to Mars during the 20th and 21st centuries.
Lockheed Martin is an American global aerospace, defense, security and advanced technologies company with worldwide interests.
A Long March rocket or Changzheng rocket in Chinese pinyin is any rocket in a family of expendable launch systems operated by the People's Republic of China.
A low Earth orbit (LEO) is an orbit around Earth with an altitude of or less, and with an orbital period of between about 84 and 127 minutes.
A Lunar lander or Moon lander is a kind of lander (spacecraft) designed to conduct a moon landing.
In astronomy, lunar orbit (also known as a selenocentric orbit) is the orbit of an object around the Moon.
Lunar orbit rendezvous (LOR) is a key concept for efficiently landing humans on the Moon and returning them to Earth.
The Lunar Roving Vehicle (LRV) or lunar rover is a battery-powered four-wheeled rover used on the Moon in the last three missions of the American Apollo program (15, 16, and 17) during 1971 and 1972.
Lunokhod (Луноход, "Moonwalker") was a series of Soviet robotic lunar rovers designed to land on the Moon between 1969 and 1977.
Aerojet's M-1 was the largest and most powerful liquid-hydrogen-fueled liquid-fuel rocket engine to be designed and component-tested.
Mare Tranquillitatis (Latin for Sea of Tranquility or Sea of Tranquillity (see spelling differences)) is a lunar mare that sits within the Tranquillitatis basin on the Moon.
Marion Power Shovel Company was an American firm that designed, manufactured and sold steam shovels, power shovels, blast hole drills, excavators, and dragline excavators for use in the construction and mining industries.
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.
The George C. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), located in Huntsville, Alabama, is the U.S. government's civilian rocketry and spacecraft propulsion research center.
In aerospace engineering, the maximum dynamic pressure, often referred to as maximum Q or max Q, is the point at which aerodynamic stress on a vehicle in atmospheric flight is maximized.
The megabyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information.
Mercury-Redstone 3, or Freedom 7, was the first United States human spaceflight, on May 5, 1961, piloted by astronaut Alan Shepard.
The Mercury-Redstone Launch Vehicle, designed for NASA's Project Mercury, was the first American manned space booster.
The Michoud Assembly Facility (MAF) is an 832-acre (337 ha) manufacturing complex owned by NASA in New Orleans East, a district within New Orleans, Louisiana, in the United States.
Microforms are scaled-down reproductions of documents, typically either films or paper, made for the purposes of transmission, storage, reading, and printing.
Mir (Мир,; lit. peace or world) was a space station that operated in low Earth orbit from 1986 to 2001, operated by the Soviet Union and later by Russia.
Mississippi is a state in the Southern United States, with part of its southern border formed by the Gulf of Mexico.
The Mississippi River is the chief river of the second-largest drainage system on the North American continent, second only to the Hudson Bay drainage system.
The Mobile Launcher Platform (MLP) is one of three two-story structures used by NASA at the Kennedy Space Center to support the Space Shuttle stack throughout the build-up and launch process: during assembly at the Vehicle Assembly Building (VAB), while being transported to Launch Pads 39A and B, and as the vehicle's launch platform.
In Newtonian mechanics, linear momentum, translational momentum, or simply momentum (pl. momenta) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object.
A multistage rocket, or step rocket is a launch vehicle that uses two or more rocket stages, each of which contains its own engines and propellant.
The N1 (Russian: Н1, from Ракета-носитель, Raketa-Nositel, carrier) was a super heavy-lift launch vehicle intended to deliver payloads beyond low Earth orbit, acting as the Soviet counterpart to the US Saturn V. It was designed with crewed extra-orbital travel in mind.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) was a U.S. federal agency founded on March 3, 1915, to undertake, promote, and institutionalize aeronautical research.
The National Air and Space Museum of the Smithsonian Institution, also called the NASM, is a museum in Washington, D.C..
The Nuclear Engine for Rocket Vehicle Application (NERVA) was a U.S. nuclear thermal rocket engine development program that ran for roughly two decades.
New Orleans (. Merriam-Webster.; La Nouvelle-Orléans) is a major United States port and the largest city and metropolitan area in the state of Louisiana.
North American Aviation (NAA) was a major American aerospace manufacturer, responsible for a number of historic aircraft, including the T-6 Texan trainer, the P-51 Mustang fighter, the B-25 Mitchell bomber, the F-86 Sabre jet fighter, the X-15 rocket plane, and the XB-70, as well as Apollo Command and Service Module, the second stage of the Saturn V rocket, the Space Shuttle orbiter and the B-1 Lancer.
Nova was a series of proposed rocket designs, originally as NASA's first large launchers for missions similar to the production-level Saturn V. The Nova studied designs that closely mirrored the Saturn V in basic concept, power, size, and function.
A nuclear thermal rocket is a proposed spacecraft propulsion technology.
Oceanus Procellarum (Latin for "Ocean of Storms") is a vast lunar mare on the western edge of the near side of the Moon.
Operation Paperclip was a secret program of the Joint Intelligence Objectives Agency (JIOA) largely carried out by Special Agents of Army CIC, in which more than 1,600 German scientists, engineers, and technicians, such as Wernher von Braun and his V-2 rocket team, were recruited in post-Nazi Germany and taken to the U.S. for government employment, primarily between 1945 and 1959.
In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an object, such as the trajectory of a planet around a star or a natural satellite around a planet.
In gravitationally bound systems, the orbital speed of an astronomical body or object (e.g. planet, moon, artificial satellite, spacecraft, or star) is the speed at which it orbits around either the barycenter or, if the object is much less massive than the largest body in the system, its speed relative to that largest body.
The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle (Orion MPCV) is an American interplanetary spacecraft intended to carry a crew of four astronauts to destinations at or beyond low Earth orbit (LEO).
Outer space, or just space, is the expanse that exists beyond the Earth and between celestial bodies.
In chemistry, an oxidizing agent (oxidant, oxidizer) is a substance that has the ability to oxidize other substances — in other words to cause them to lose electrons.
The Panama Canal (Canal de Panamá) is an artificial waterway in Panama that connects the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific Ocean.
A parking orbit is a temporary orbit used during the launch of a satellite or other space probe.
Phenol formaldehyde resins (PF) or phenolic resins are synthetic polymers obtained by the reaction of phenol or substituted phenol with formaldehyde.
A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.
Pogo oscillation is a self-excited vibration in liquid-propellant rocket engines caused by combustion instability.
Powered Descent Initiation (PDI) is a term used during the Apollo program Moon landing missions to describe the maneuver of the Apollo Lunar Module as it descended from lunar orbit to landing.
Project Gemini was NASA's second human spaceflight program.
Project Vanguard was a program managed by the United States Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), which intended to launch the first artificial satellite into Earth orbit using a Vanguard rocket as the launch vehicle from Cape Canaveral Missile Annex, Florida.
Prospector was a proposed lunar probe that was intended to be flown in support of the Apollo lunar missions.
The Proton-M, (Протон-М) GRAU index 8K82M or, is a Russian heavy-lift launch vehicle derived from the Soviet-developed Proton.
A quincunx is a geometric pattern consisting of five points arranged in a cross, with four of them forming a square or rectangle and a fifth at its center.
The R-7 family of rockets (Р-7) is a series of rockets, derived from the Soviet R-7 Semyorka, the world's first ICBM.
Research and development (R&D, R+D, or R'n'D), also known in Europe as research and technological development (RTD), refers to innovative activities undertaken by corporations or governments in developing new services or products, or improving existing services or products.
Richard Francis Gordon Jr. (October 5, 1929 – November 6, 2017) was an American naval officer and aviator, chemist, test pilot, and NASA astronaut.
The RL10 is a liquid-fuel cryogenic rocket engine used on the Centaur, S-IV, and Delta Cryogenic Second Stage upper stages.
A rocket (from Italian rocchetto "bobbin") is a missile, spacecraft, aircraft or other vehicle that obtains thrust from a rocket engine.
A rocket engine uses stored rocket propellant mass for forming its high-speed propulsive jet.
The F-1 is a gas-generator cycle rocket engine developed in the United States by Rocketdyne in the late 1950s and used in the Saturn V rocket in the 1960s and early 1970s.
The J-2 was a liquid-fuel cryogenic rocket engine used on NASA's Saturn IB and Saturn V launch vehicles.
RP-1 (alternately, Rocket Propellant-1 or Refined Petroleum-1) is a highly refined form of kerosene outwardly similar to jet fuel, used as rocket fuel.
The Aerojet Rocketdyne (formerly Rocketdyne and later Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne) RS-68 (Rocket System 68) is a liquid-fuel rocket engine that uses liquid hydrogen (LH2) and liquid oxygen (LOX) as propellants in a gas-generator power cycle.
The S-IC (pronounced "ess one see") was the first stage of the American Saturn V rocket.
The S-II (pronounced "S-two") was the second stage of the Saturn V rocket.
The S-IVB (sometimes S-4B, always pronounced "ess four bee") was built by the Douglas Aircraft Company and served as the third stage on the Saturn V and second stage on the Saturn IB.
SA-500F (alternately SA500F, 500F, or Facilities Integration Vehicle) was a dummy Saturn V used by NASA to test facilities at Launch Complex 39 at the Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island, Florida throughout 1966.
The Saturn family of American rocket boosters was developed by a team of mostly German rocket scientists led by Wernher von Braun to launch heavy payloads to Earth orbit and beyond.
The Saturn C-5N was a conceptual successor to the Saturn V launch vehicle which would have had a nuclear thermal third stage instead of the S-IVB used on the Saturn V. This one change would have increased the payload of the standard Saturn V to Low Earth orbit from 118,000 kg to 155,000 kg.
The Saturn C-8 was the largest member of the Saturn series of rockets to be designed.
The Saturn I (pronounced "Saturn one") was the United States' first heavy-lift dedicated space launcher, a rocket designed specifically to launch large payloads into low Earth orbit.
The Saturn IB (pronounced "one B", also known as the Uprated Saturn I) was an American launch vehicle commissioned by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for the Apollo program.
The Saturn INT-20 was a proposed intermediate-payload follow-on from the Apollo Saturn V launch vehicle.
The Saturn INT-21 was a study for an American orbital launch vehicle of the 1970s.
The Saturn MLV was a proposed concept family of rockets, intended as a follow-on to the Saturn V. MLV stands for "Modified Launch Vehicle".
Saturn V Dynamic Test Vehicle, designated SA-500D, is a prototype Saturn V rocket used by NASA to test the performance of the rocket when vibrated to simulate the shaking which subsequent rockets would experience during launch.
The Saturn V-ELV was to be an enlarged Saturn V with the addition of four Titan UA1207 solid rocket boosters derived from the Titan IV launch vehicle and liquid propellant stages derived from the conceptual Saturn MLV-V-4(S)-A* and MLV-V-1A.
The Saturn V Instrument Unit is a ring-shaped structure fitted to the top of the Saturn V rocket's third stage (S-IVB) and the Saturn IB's second stage (also an S-IVB).
The Saturn-Shuttle was a preliminary concept of launching the Space Shuttle orbiter using the Saturn V rocket.
Seal Beach is a city in Orange County, California.
A seismometer is an instrument that measures motion of the ground, caused by, for example, an earthquake, a volcanic eruption, or the use of explosives.
Sergei Pavlovich Korolev (a,, also transliterated as Sergey Pavlovich Korolyov, Сергій Павлович Корольов Serhiy Pavlovych Korolyov; – 14 January 1966) worked as the lead Soviet rocket engineer and spacecraft designer during the Space Race between the United States and the Soviet Union in the 1950s and 1960s.
A service structure, or umbilical tower or launch tower, is a structure built on a rocket launch pad to facilitate fueling and loading of cargo and crew into a spacecraft.
Shuttle-Derived Launch Vehicle, or simply Shuttle-Derived Vehicle (SDV), is a term describing one of a wide array of concepts that have been developed for creating space launch vehicles from the components, technology and infrastructure of the Space Shuttle program.
Skylab was the United States' space station that orbited the Earth from 1973 to 1979, when it fell back to Earth amid huge worldwide media attention.
The slug is a derived unit of mass in the weight-based system of measures, most notably within the British Imperial measurement system and in the United States customary measures system.
The Soviet space program (Russian: Космическая программа СССР, Kosmicheskaya programma SSSR) comprised several of the rocket and space exploration programs conducted by the Soviet Union (USSR) from the 1930s until its collapse in 1991.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
Space exploration is the discovery and exploration of celestial structures in outer space by means of evolving and growing space technology.
The Space Launch System (SLS) is an American Space Shuttle-derived heavy-lift expendable launch vehicle.
The Space Race refers to the 20th-century competition between two Cold War rivals, the Soviet Union (USSR) and the United States (US), for dominance in spaceflight capability.
A space rendezvous is an orbital maneuver during which two spacecraft, one of which is often a space station, arrive at the same orbit and approach to a very close distance (e.g. within visual contact).
The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), as part of the Space Shuttle program.
On January 28, 1986, the NASA shuttle orbiter mission STS-51-L and the tenth flight of (OV-99) broke apart 73 seconds into its flight, killing all seven crew members, which consisted of five NASA astronauts and two payload specialists.
A Space Shuttle external tank (ET) was the component of the Space Shuttle launch vehicle that contained the liquid hydrogen fuel and liquid oxygen oxidizer.
The Aerojet Rocketdyne RS-25, otherwise known as the Space Shuttle main engine (SSME), is a liquid-fuel cryogenic rocket engine that was used on NASA's Space Shuttle and is planned to be used on its successor, the Space Launch System.
The Space Shuttle Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs) were the first solid fuel motors to be used for primary propulsion on a vehicle used for human spaceflight and provided the majority of the Space Shuttle's thrust during the first two minutes of flight.
A space station, also known as an orbital station or an orbital space station, is a spacecraft capable of supporting crewmembers, which is designed to remain in space (most commonly as an artificial satellite in low Earth orbit) for an extended period of time and for other spacecraft to dock.
Space.com is a space and astronomy news website.
Space Exploration Technologies Corp., doing business as SpaceX, is a private American aerospace manufacturer and space transportation services company headquartered in Hawthorne, California.
Specialization (or specialisation) is the separation of tasks within a system.
Specific impulse (usually abbreviated Isp) is a measure of how effectively a rocket uses propellant or jet engine uses fuel.
Sputnik 1 (or; "Satellite-1", or "PS-1", Простейший Спутник-1 or Prosteyshiy Sputnik-1, "Elementary Satellite 1") was the first artificial Earth satellite.
Star Trek is an American science fiction television series created by Gene Roddenberry that follows the adventures of the starship and its crew.
The Statue of Liberty (Liberty Enlightening the World; La Liberté éclairant le monde) is a colossal neoclassical sculpture on Liberty Island in New York Harbor in New York City, in the United States.
A super heavy-lift launch vehicle (SHLLV) is a launch vehicle capable of lifting more than of payload into low Earth orbit (LEO).
Surveyor 3 was the third lander of the American uncrewed Surveyor program sent to explore the surface of the Moon.
Taurus–Littrow is a lunar valley located on the near side at the coordinates.
Telemetry is an automated communications process by which measurements and other data are collected at remote or inaccessible points and transmitted to receiving equipment for monitoring.
Television (TV) is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black and white), or in colour, and in two or three dimensions and sound.
A thermonuclear weapon is a second-generation nuclear weapon design using a secondary nuclear fusion stage consisting of implosion tamper, fusion fuel, and spark plug which is bombarded by the energy released by the detonation of a primary fission bomb within, compressing the fuel material (tritium, deuterium or lithium deuteride) and causing a fusion reaction.
Thomas Patten Stafford (born September 17, 1930; Lt Gen, USAF, Ret.) is an American former Air Force officer, test pilot, and NASA astronaut.
The Titan II GLV (Gemini Launch Vehicle) or Gemini-Titan II was an American expendable launch system derived from the Titan II missile, which was used to launch twelve Gemini missions for NASA between 1964 and 1966.
Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium(IV) oxide or titania, is the naturally occurring oxide of titanium, chemical formula.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
A trans-lunar injection (TLI) is a propulsive maneuver used to set a spacecraft on a trajectory that will cause it to arrive at the Moon.
Transposition, docking, and extraction (often abbreviated to transposition and docking) was a maneuver performed during manned Apollo program missions from 1969 to 1972, and the Apollo-Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) mission in 1975.
A turbopump is a propellant pump with two main components: a rotodynamic pump and a driving gas turbine, usually both mounted on the same shaft, or sometimes geared together.
The U.S. Space & Rocket Center in Huntsville, Alabama is a museum operated by the government of Alabama, showcasing rockets, achievements, and artifacts of the U.S. space program.
Ullage motors (also known as ullage engines or ullage rockets) are relatively small, independently fueled rocket engines that may be fired to accelerate the rocket prior to main engine ignition, when the vehicle is in a zero-g situation.
The United States dollar (sign: $; code: USD; also abbreviated US$ and referred to as the dollar, U.S. dollar, or American dollar) is the official currency of the United States and its insular territories per the United States Constitution since 1792.
The V-2 (Vergeltungswaffe 2, "Retribution Weapon 2"), technical name Aggregat 4 (A4), was the world's first long-range guided ballistic missile.
The Vehicle (originally Vertical) Assembly Building, or VAB, at NASA's Kennedy Space Center (KSC) is a building designed to assemble large space vehicles, such as the massive Saturn V and the Space Shuttle.
The Voyager program is an American scientific program that employs two robotic probes, Voyager 1 and Voyager 2, to study the outer Solar System.
The Voyager Mars Program was a planned series of unmanned NASA probes to the planet Mars.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
Wernher Magnus Maximilian Freiherr von Braun (March 23, 1912 – June 16, 1977) was a German (and, later, American) aerospace engineer and space architect.
Wet workshop is the idea of using a spent rocket stage as a makeshift space station.
William Kwong Yu Yeung (born 1960; also known simply as Bill Yeung) is a Hong Kong-born, Canadian amateur astronomer with telescopes based in the United States.
A yaw rotation is a movement around the yaw axis of a rigid body that changes the direction it is pointing, to the left or right of its direction of motion.