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Saturnalia was an ancient Roman festival in honor of the deity Saturn, held on 17 December of the Julian calendar and later expanded with festivities through to 23 December. [1]

182 relations: Adam, Aeneid, Aerarium, Ancient Roman pottery, Andrew Lang, Anthesteria, Anthony Grafton, Argei, Arnobius, Atellan Farce, Augustan History, Augustan literature (ancient Rome), Augustus, Aulus Gellius, Ausonius, Avodah Zarah, Baal Hammon, Battle of Lake Trasimene, Buenos Aires Botanical Garden, Calends, Caligula, Capitoline Triad, Capricorn (astrology), Carnival, Carthage, Cassius Dio, Cato the Elder, Catullus, Christian apologetics, Christmas, Chronography of 354, Chronos, Chthonic, Classical tradition, Compitalia, Consonant, Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum, Cronus, Culture of ancient Rome, Dasius of Durostorum, Dīs Pater, Declaration of war, Di Penates, Diocletian, Diocletianic Persecution, Dionysus, Domitian, Domus, Erich Segal, Ernesto Biondi, ..., Faun, Feast of Fools, Feriae Latinae, Gallo-Roman culture, Gambling, Gift economy, Gladiator, Glenn W. Most, Glossary of ancient Roman religion, Golden Age, Gospel of Mark, Gospel of Matthew, Greco-Roman world, Greek mythology, Greeting card, Hanukkah, Hercules in ancient Rome, Historicity, Horace, House (astrology), Indigenous peoples, Innocence, Interjection, Interpretatio graeca, James George Frazer, Janus, Jesus, Julian calendar, Julius Caesar, Jupiter (mythology), Knucklebones, Kronia, Late Antiquity, Latin Church, Latium, Laurentum, Lectisternium, List of Roman deities, Livy, Loeb Classical Library, Lord of Misrule, Lua (goddess), Lucian, Macrobius, Marcus Minucius Felix, Marcus Terentius Varro, Martial, Mary Beard (classicist), Mint (coin), Mishnah, Mithraic mysteries, Moesia, Monotheism, Mos maiorum, Nativity of Jesus, Neoplatonism, Nero, New Year, New Year's Day, Numa Pompilius, Numenius of Apamea, Nymph, Opiconsivia, Ops, Oscilla, Oxford Latin Dictionary, Patronage in ancient Rome, Phrygian cap, Pileus (hat), Pliny the Younger, Pluto (mythology), Porphyry (philosopher), Practical joke device, Princeps, Quaestor, Quintus Novius, R. E. A. Palmer, Religion, Religion in ancient Rome, Religion in Carthage, Retributive justice, Rex Sacrorum, Roman calendar, Roman emperor, Roman Empire, Roman festivals, Roman Forum, Roman magistrate, Roman mythology, Roman Republic, Roman Senate, Roman triumph, Roman villa, Romulus and Remus, Satires (Horace), Satre (Etruscan god), Saturn, Saturn (mythology), Scapegoat, Second Punic War, Seneca the Younger, Sibylline Books, Sigillaria (ancient Rome), Silistra, Slavery in ancient Rome, Social class in ancient Rome, Sol Invictus, Statius, Suckling pig, Suetonius, Syllable, Symposium, Synthesis (clothing), Tacitus, Talmud, Temple of Saturn, The Golden Bough, Theatre of ancient Rome, Theodor Mommsen, Toga, Trick-or-treating, Tropical year, Twelve Days of Christmas, Verrius Flaccus, Vettius Agorius Praetextatus, Virgil, William Warde Fowler, Winter solstice, Women in ancient Rome, Yule, Yule log, Zeus. Expand index (132 more) »


Adam (אָדָם; Aramaic/Syriac: ܐܕܡ; آدم) is a figure from the Book of Genesis who is also mentioned in the New Testament, the deuterocanonical books, the Quran, the Book of Mormon, and the Book of Iqan.

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The Aeneid (Aenēis) is a Latin epic poem, written by Virgil between 29 and 19 BC, that tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan who travelled to Italy, where he became the ancestor of the Romans.

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Aerarium (from Latin "aes", in its derived sense of "money") was the name (in full, "aerarium stabulum" - treasure-house) given in Ancient Rome to the public treasury, and in a secondary sense to the public finances.

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Ancient Roman pottery

Pottery was produced in enormous quantities in ancient Rome, mostly for utilitarian purposes.

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Andrew Lang

Andrew Lang (31 March 1844 – 20 July 1912) was a Scots poet, novelist, literary critic, and contributor to the field of anthropology.

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Anthesteria or the Anthesteria (Ἀνθεστήρια, Anthestḗria) was one of the four Athenian festivals in honor of Dionysus.

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Anthony Grafton

Anthony Thomas Grafton (born May 21, 1950) is one of the foremost historians of early modern Europe and the current Henry Putnam University Professor at Princeton University.

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The rituals of the Argei were archaic religious observances in ancient Rome that took place on March 16 and March 17, and again on May 14 or May 15.

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Arnobius of Sicca (died c. 330) was an Early Christian apologist, during the reign of Diocletian (284–305).

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Atellan Farce

The Atellan Farce (Atellanae fabulae or fabulae Atellanae, "Atellan fables"; Atellanicum exhodium, "Atellan roast"), also known as the Oscan Games (ludi Osci, "Oscan plays"), were a collection of vulgar farces, containing lots of low or buffoonish comedy and rude jokes.

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Augustan History

The Augustan History (Latin: Historia Augusta) is a late Roman collection of biographies, in Latin, of the Roman Emperors, their junior colleagues and usurpers of the period 117 to 284.

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Augustan literature (ancient Rome)

Augustan literature is the period of Latin literature written during the reign of Augustus (27 BC–AD 14), the first Roman emperor.

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Augustus (Imperātor Caesar Dīvī Fīlius Augustus;Classical Latin spelling and reconstructed Classical Latin pronunciation of the names of Augustus.

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Aulus Gellius

Aulus Gellius (c. 125 – after 180 AD) was a Latin author and grammarian, who was probably born and certainly brought up in Rome.

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Decimius Magnus Ausonius (– c. 395) was a Roman poet and teacher of rhetoric from Burdigala in Aquitaine, modern Bordeaux, France.

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Avodah Zarah

Avodah Zarah (Hebrew: "foreign worship," meaning "idolatry" or "strange worship") is the name of a tractate in the Talmud, located in Nezikin, the fourth Order of the Talmud dealing with damages.

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Baal Hammon

Baal Hammon, properly Baʿal Hammon or Hamon (Punic), was the chief god of Carthage.

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Battle of Lake Trasimene

The Battle of Lake Trasimene (June 24, 217 BC, April on the Julian calendar) was a major battle in the Second Punic War.

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Buenos Aires Botanical Garden

The Buenos Aires Botanical Garden (official name in Spanish: Jardín Botánico Carlos Thays de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires) is a botanical garden located in the Palermo neighborhood of Buenos Aires in Argentina.

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The calends (kalendae, "the called") were the first days of each month of the Roman calendar.

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Caligula was the popular nickname of Gaius Julius Caesar Augustus Germanicus (31 August AD 12 – 24 January AD 41), Roman emperor (AD 37–41).

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Capitoline Triad

In ancient Roman religion, the Capitoline Triad was a group of three supreme deities who were worshipped in an elaborate temple on Rome's Capitoline Hill, the Capitolium.

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Capricorn (astrology)

Capricorn(/kæp.rɪ.kɔːn/) is the tenth astrological sign in the zodiac, Pining Umali originating from the constellation of Capricornus.

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Carnival (see other spellings and names) is a festive season that occurs immediately before the Christian season of Lent.

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The city of Carthage (قرطاج) is a city in Tunisia that was once the center of the ancient Carthaginian civilization.

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Cassius Dio

Lucius (or Claudius) Cassius Dio (alleged to have the cognomen Cocceianus; Δίων Κάσσιος Κοκκηϊανός Dion Kassios Kokkeianos, c. AD 155–235), known in English as Cassius Dio, Dio Cassius, or Dio, was of Greek origin, Roman consul and noted historian who wrote in Greek.

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Cato the Elder

Cato the Elder (Cato Major; 234 BC – 149 BC), born and also known as (Cato Censorius), (Cato Sapiens), and (Cato Priscus), was a Roman senator and historian known for his conservatism and opposition to Hellenization.

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Gaius Valerius Catullus (c. 84 – 54 BC) was a Latin poet of the late Roman Republic who wrote in the neoteric style of poetry.

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Christian apologetics

Christian apologetics (ἀπολογία, "verbal defence, speech in defence") is a field of Christian theology which present reasoned bases for the Christian faith, defending the faith against objections.

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Christmas or Christmas Day (Crīstesmæsse, meaning "Christ's Mass") is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.

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Chronography of 354

The Chronography of 354, also known as the Calendar of 354, was a 4th-century illuminated manuscript, which was produced in 354 AD for a wealthy Roman Christian named Valentinus.

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Chronos (Χρόνος, "time," also transliterated as Khronos or Latinized as Chronus) is the personification of Time in pre-Socratic philosophy and later literature.

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Chthonic (from Greek χθόνιος khthonios, "in, under, or beneath the earth", from χθών khthōn "earth") literally means "subterranean".

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Classical tradition

The Western classical tradition is the reception of classical Greco-Roman antiquity by later cultures, especially the post-classical West, involving texts, imagery, objects, ideas, institutions, monuments, architecture, cultural artifacts, rituals, practices, and sayings.

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In ancient Roman religion, the Compitalia (Latin: Ludi Compitalicii) was a festival celebrated once a year in honor of the Lares Compitales, household deities of the crossroads, to whom sacrifices were offered at the places where two or more ways meet.

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In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.

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Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum

The Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum (CIL) is a comprehensive collection of ancient Latin inscriptions.

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In Greek mythology, Cronus or Kronos (Κρόνος, krónos) was the leader and youngest of the first generation of Titans, the divine descendants of Uranus, the sky, and Gaia, the earth.

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Culture of ancient Rome

The culture of ancient Rome existed throughout the almost 1200-year history of the civilization of Ancient Rome.

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Dasius of Durostorum

Dasius of Durostorum (Дазий Доростолски) was a Bulgarian saint.

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Dīs Pater

Dīs Pater was a Roman god of the underworld, later subsumed by Pluto or Hades (Hades was Greek).

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Declaration of war

A declaration of war is a formal act by which one nation goes to war against another.

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Di Penates

In ancient Roman religion, the Di Penates or Penates were among the dii familiares, or household deities, invoked most often in domestic rituals.

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Diocletian (Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus Augustus), born Diocles, (245–311)Barnes, "Lactantius and Constantine", 32–35; Barnes, New Empire, 31–32.

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Diocletianic Persecution

The Diocletianic or Great Persecution was the last and most severe persecution of Christians in the Roman empire.

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Dionysus (Διόνυσος, Dionysos) is the god of the grape harvest, winemaking and wine, of ritual madness, fertility, theatre and religious ecstasy in Greek mythology.

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Domitian (Titus Flavius Caesar Domitianus Augustus; 24 October 51 – 18 September 96) was Roman emperor from 81 to 96.

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In ancient Rome, the domus (plural domūs, genitive domūs or domī) was the type of house occupied by the upper classes and some wealthy freedmen during the Republican and Imperial eras.

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Erich Segal

Erich Wolf Segal (June 16, 1937January 17, 2010) was an American author, screenwriter, and educator.

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Ernesto Biondi

Ernesto Biondi (January 30, 1855 – 1917) was an Italian sculptor who won the grand prix at the 1900 Exposition Universelle in Paris.

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The faun (φαῦνος, phaunos) is a half human–half goat (from the head to the waist being human, but with the addition of goat horns) manifestation of forest and animal spirits that would help or hinder humans at whim.

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Feast of Fools

The Feast of Fools (festum fatuorum, festum stultorum) is the name given to a specific feast day celebrated by the clergy in Europe, initially in Northern France, but later more widely.

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Feriae Latinae

The Feriae Latinae or Latin Festival was an ancient Roman religious festival held in April on the Alban Mount.

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Gallo-Roman culture

The term Gallo-Roman describes the Romanized culture of Gaul under the rule of the Roman Empire.

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Gambling is the wagering of money or something of material value (referred to as "the stakes") on an event with an uncertain outcome with the primary intent of winning additional money and/or material goods.

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Gift economy

A gift economy, gift culture, or gift exchange is a mode of exchange where valuables are not traded or sold, but rather given without an explicit agreement for immediate or future rewards.

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A gladiator (gladiator, "swordsman", from gladius, "sword") was an armed combatant who entertained audiences in the Roman Republic and Roman Empire in violent confrontations with other gladiators, wild animals, and condemned criminals.

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Glenn W. Most

Glenn Warren Most (born June 12, 1952, Miami) is an American classicist and comparatist originating from the US, but also working in Germany and Italy.

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Glossary of ancient Roman religion

The vocabulary of ancient Roman religion was highly specialized.

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Golden Age

The term Golden Age (Chryson Genos) comes from Greek mythology and legend and refers to the first in a sequence of four or five (or more) Ages of Man, in which the Golden Age is first, followed in sequence, by the Silver, Bronze, Heroic, and then the present (Iron), which is a period of decline, sometimes followed by the Leaden Age.

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Gospel of Mark

The Gospel According to Mark (τὸ κατὰ Μᾶρκον εὐαγγέλιον, to kata Markon euangelion), the second book of the New Testament, is one of the four canonical gospels and the three synoptic gospels.

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Gospel of Matthew

The Gospel According to Matthew (κατὰ Ματθαῖον εὐαγγέλιον, kata Matthaion euangelion, τὸ εὐαγγέλιον κατὰ Ματθαῖον, to euangelion kata Matthaion) (Gospel of Matthew or simply Matthew) is one of the four canonical gospels, one of the three synoptic gospels, and the first book of the New Testament.

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Greco-Roman world

The Greco-Roman world, Greco-Roman culture, or the term Greco-Roman (or; spelled Graeco-Roman in the United Kingdom and the Commonwealth), when used as an adjective, as understood by modern scholars and writers, refers to those geographical regions and countries that culturally (and so historically) were directly, long-term, and intimately influenced by the language, culture, government and religion of the ancient Greeks and Romans.

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Greek mythology

Greek mythology is the body of myths and teachings that belong to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices.

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Greeting card

A greeting card is an illustrated piece of card or high quality paper featuring an expression of friendship or other sentiment.

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Hanukkah (חֲנֻכָּה, Tiberian:, usually spelled חנוכה, pronounced in Modern Hebrew, or in Yiddish; a transliteration also romanized as Chanukah or Ḥanukah), also known as the Festival of Lights and Feast of Dedication, is an eight-day Jewish holiday commemorating the rededication of the Holy Temple (the Second Temple) in Jerusalem at the time of the Maccabean Revolt against the Seleucid Empire of the 2nd century BC.

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Hercules in ancient Rome

In ancient Roman religion and myth, Hercules was venerated as a divinized hero and incorporated into the legends of Rome's founding.

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Historicity is the historical actuality of persons and events, meaning the quality of being part of history as opposed to being a historical myth, legend, or fiction.

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Quintus Horatius Flaccus (December 8, 65 BC – November 27, 8 BC), known in the English-speaking world as Horace, was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus (also known as Octavian).

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House (astrology)

Most horoscopic traditions of astrology systems divide the horoscope into a number (usually twelve) of houses whose positions depend on time and location rather than on date.

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Indigenous peoples

Indigenous people are those groups especially protected in international or national legislation as having a set of specific rights based on their historical ties to a particular territory, and their cultural or historical distinctiveness from other populations.

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Innocence (or guiltlessness) is a term used to indicate a lack of guilt, with respect to any kind of crime, or wrongdoing.

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In grammar, an interjection or exclamation is a word used to express a particular emotion or sentiment on the part of the speaker (although most interjections have clear definitions).

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Interpretatio graeca

Interpretatio graeca (Latin, "Greek translation" or "interpretation by means of Greek ") is a discourse in which ancient Greek religious concepts and practices, deities, and myths are used to interpret or attempt to understand the mythology and religion of other cultures.

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James George Frazer

Sir James George Frazer (1 January 1854 – 7 May 1941), was a Scottish social anthropologist influential in the early stages of the modern studies of mythology and comparative religion.

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In ancient Roman religion and myth, Janus (Ianus) is the god of beginnings and transitions, and thereby of gates, doors, doorways, passages and endings.

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Jesus (Ἰησοῦς; 7–2 BC to AD 30–33), also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth or Jesus Christ, is the central figure of Christianity, whom the teachings of most Christian denominations hold to be the Son of God.

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Julian calendar

The Julian calendar, introduced by Julius Caesar in 46 BC (708 AUC), was a reform of the Roman calendar.

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Julius Caesar

Gaius Julius Caesar (July 100 BC – 15 March 44 BC) was a Roman statesman, general and notable author of Latin prose.

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Jupiter (mythology)

Jupiter (Iuppiter;; genitive case: Iovis) or Jove is the king of the gods and the god of sky and thunder in Ancient Roman religion and mythology.

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Knucklebones, Fivestones, or Jacks, is a game of very ancient origin, usually played with five small objects, or ten in the case of jacks.

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The Kronia was an Athenian festival held in honor of Cronus (Greek Kronos) on the 12th day of Hekatombaion, the first month of the Attic calendar and roughly equivalent to the latter part of July and first part of August.

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Late Antiquity

Late Antiquity is a periodization used by historians to describe the time of transition from classical antiquity to the Middle Ages, in both mainland Europe and the Mediterranean world.

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Latin Church

The Latin Church is part of the Catholic Church.

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Latium (Lătĭŭm) is the region of central western Italy in which the city of Rome was founded and grew to be the capital city of the Roman Empire.

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Laurentum was an ancient Roman city of Latium situated between Ostia and Lavinium, on the west coast of the Italian Peninsula southwest of Rome.

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In ancient Roman religion, the lectisternium was a propitiatory ceremony, consisting of a meal offered to gods and goddesses.

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List of Roman deities

A vast number of ancient Roman deities are known by name.

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Titus Livius Patavinus (64 or 59 BCAD 17)—known as Livy in English—was a Roman historian who wrote a monumental history of Rome and the Roman people – Ab Urbe Condita Libri (Books from the Foundation of the City) – covering the period from the earliest legends of Rome before the traditional foundation in 753 BC through the reign of Augustus in Livy's own time.

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Loeb Classical Library

The Loeb Classical Library (LCL; named after James Loeb) is a series of books, today published by Harvard University Press, which presents important works of ancient Greek and Latin literature in a way designed to make the text accessible to the broadest possible audience, by presenting the original Greek or Latin text on each left-hand page, and a fairly literal translation on the facing page.

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Lord of Misrule

In England, the Lord of Misrule — known in Scotland as the Abbot of Unreason and in France as the Prince des Sots — was an officer appointed by lot at Christmas to preside over the Feast of Fools.

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Lua (goddess)

In Roman mythology, Lua was a goddess to whom soldiers sacrificed captured weapons.

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Lucian of Samosata (Λουκιανὸς ὁ Σαμοσατεύς, Lucianus Samosatensis; – after AD 180) was a rhetorician and satirist who wrote in the Greek language.

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Macrobius Ambrosius Theodosius, commonly referred to as Macrobius, was a Roman who flourished during the early fifth century.

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Marcus Minucius Felix

Marcus Minucius Felix (? — c. 250AD, Rome) was one of the earliest of the Latin apologists for Christianity.

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Marcus Terentius Varro

Marcus Terentius Varro (116 BC – 27 BC) was an ancient Roman scholar and writer.

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Marcus Valerius Martialis (known in English as Martial) (March, between 38 and 41 AD – between 102 and 104 AD), was a Roman poet from Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula) best known for his twelve books of Epigrams, published in Rome between AD 86 and 103, during the reigns of the emperors Domitian, Nerva and Trajan.

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Mary Beard (classicist)

Winifred Mary Beard, OBE, FBA, FSA (born 1 January 1955) is an English Classical scholar.

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Mint (coin)

A mint is an industrial facility which manufactures coins that can be used in currency.

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The Mishnah or Mishna (מִשְׁנָה, "study by repetition"), from the verb shanah שנה, or "to study and review", also "secondary," is the first major written redaction of the Jewish oral traditions known as the "Oral Torah".

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Mithraic mysteries

The Mithraic Mysteries were a mystery religion practiced in the Roman Empire from about the 1st to 4th centuries AD.

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Moesia (or; Latin: Moesia; Μοισία) was an ancient region and later Roman province situated in the Balkans, along the south bank of the Danube River.

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Monotheism is defined by the Encyclopædia Britannica as belief in the existence of one god or in the oneness of God.

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Mos maiorum

The mos maiorum ("ancestral custom" or "way of the elders," plural mores, with maiorum a genitive plural; cf. English "mores") is the unwritten code from which the ancient Romans derived their social norms.

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Nativity of Jesus

The Nativity of Jesus, also called simply The Nativity, refers to the accounts of the birth of Jesus in the gospels of Luke and Matthew, and secondarily on some apocryphal texts.

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Neoplatonism is a modern term for a period of philosophy in the late Roman empire, which began with the philosopher Plotinus in the 3rd century CE and continued with his critics and commentators until the 529 CE closing of the Platonic Academy in Athens, symptom of the general shift in Roman culture against Hellenic pagan philosophy to Christian dogma.

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Nero (Latin: Nerō Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus; 15 December 37 – 9 June 68) was Roman Emperor from 54 to 68, and the last in the Julio-Claudian dynasty.

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New Year

New Year is the time at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.

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New Year's Day

New Year's Day is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.

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Numa Pompilius

Numa Pompilius (753–673 BC; reigned 715–673 BC) was the second king of Rome, succeeding Romulus.

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Numenius of Apamea

Numenius of Apamea (Νουμήνιος ὁ ἐξ Ἀπαμείας) was a Greek philosopher, who lived in Apamea in Syria and flourished during the latter half of the 2nd century AD.

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A nymph (νύμφη, nymphē) in Greek mythology and in Latin mythology is a minor female nature deity typically associated with a particular location or landform.

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The Opiconsivia (or Opeconsiva or Opalia) was an ancient Roman religious festival held August 25 in honor of Ops ("Plenty"), also known as Opis, a goddess of agricultural resources and wealth.

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In ancient Roman religion, Ops or Opis, (Latin: "Plenty") was a fertility deity and earth-goddess of Sabine origin.

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Oscilla, a word applied in Latin usage to small figures, most commonly masks or faces, which were hung up as offerings to various deities, either for propitiation or expiation, and in connection with festivals and other ceremonies.

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Oxford Latin Dictionary

The Oxford Latin Dictionary (or OLD) is the standard English lexicon of Classical Latin, compiled from sources written before AD 200.

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Patronage in ancient Rome

Patronage (clientela) was the distinctive relationship in ancient Roman society between the patronus (plural patroni, "patron") and his cliens (plural clientes, "client").

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Phrygian cap

The Phrygian cap is a soft conical cap with the top pulled forward, associated in antiquity with several peoples in Eastern Europe and Anatolia, including Phrygia, Dacia and the Balkans.

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Pileus (hat)

The pileus (Greek πῖλος - pilos, also pilleus or pilleum in Latin) was a brimless, felt cap worn in Ancient Greece and surrounding regions, later also introduced in Ancient Rome.

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Pliny the Younger

Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus, born Gaius Caecilius or Gaius Caecilius Cilo (61 – c. 113), better known as Pliny the Younger, was a lawyer, author, and magistrate of Ancient Rome.

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Pluto (mythology)

Pluto (Πλούτων) was the ruler of the underworld in classical mythology.

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Porphyry (philosopher)

Porphyry of Tyre (Πορφύριος, Porphyrios; c. 234 – c. 305 AD) was a Neoplatonic philosopher who was born in Tyre.

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Practical joke device

A practical joke device is a manufactured prop or toy intended to confuse, frighten, or amuse individuals as a prank.

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Princeps (plural: principes) is a Latin word meaning "first in time or order; the first, foremost, chief, the most eminent, distinguished, or noble; the first man, first person." This article is devoted to a number of specific historical meanings the word took, in approximate historical order.

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A quaestor was a type of public official in the "cursus honorum" system who supervised the financial affairs of the state and conducted audits.

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Quintus Novius

Quintus Novius (''fl.'' 30 BC), Roman dramatist, composer of Atellanae Fabulae (Atellan Fables).

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R. E. A. Palmer

Robert Everett Allen Palmer II (1933 – March 11, 2006) was a historian and a leading figure in the study of archaic Rome.

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A religion is an organized collection of beliefs, cultural systems, and world views that relate humanity to an order of existence.

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Religion in ancient Rome

Religion in ancient Rome encompasses the ancestral ethnic religion of the city of Rome that the Romans used to define themselves as a people, as well as the adopted religious practices of peoples brought under Roman rule.

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Religion in Carthage

The religion of Carthage in North Africa was a direct continuation of the polytheistic Phoenician religion of the Levant, with significant local modifications.

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Retributive justice

Retributive justice is a theory of justice that considers punishment, if proportionate, to be the best response to crime.

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Rex Sacrorum

In ancient Roman religion, the rex sacrorum ("king of the sacred", also sometimes rex sacrificulus, " offerings made by the king") was a senatorial priesthood reserved for patricians.

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Roman calendar

The Roman calendar changed its form several times between the founding of Rome and the fall of the Roman Empire.

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Roman emperor

The Roman emperor was the ruler of the Roman State during the imperial period (starting in 27 BC).

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Roman Empire

The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum; Ancient and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων Basileia tōn Rhōmaiōn) was the post-Republican period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.

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Roman festivals

Festivals in ancient Rome were an important part of Roman religious life during both the Republican and Imperial eras, and one of the primary features of the Roman calendar.

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Roman Forum

The Roman Forum (Forum Romanum, Foro Romano) is a rectangular forum (plaza) surrounded by the ruins of several important ancient government buildings at the center of the city of Rome.

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Roman magistrate

The Roman magistrates were elected officials in Ancient Rome.

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Roman mythology

Roman mythology is the body of traditional stories pertaining to ancient Rome's legendary origins and religious system, as represented in the literature and visual arts of the Romans.

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Roman Republic

The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the period of ancient Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.

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Roman Senate

The Roman Senate was a political institution in ancient Rome.

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Roman triumph

The Roman triumph (triumphus) was a civil ceremony and religious rite of ancient Rome, held to publicly celebrate and sanctify the success of a military commander who had led Roman forces to victory in the service of the state, or originally and traditionally, one who had successfully completed a foreign war.

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Roman villa

Roman villa is a term used to describe a Roman country house built for the upper class during the Roman republic and the Roman Empire.

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Romulus and Remus

Romulus and Remus were the twin brothers and main characters of Rome's foundation myth.

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Satires (Horace)

The Satires (Satirae or Sermones) are a collection of satirical poems written by the Roman poet Horace.

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Satre (Etruscan god)

Satre or Satres was an Etruscan god who appears on the Liver of Piacenza, a bronze model used for haruspicy.

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Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter.

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Saturn (mythology)

Saturn (Saturnus) is a god in ancient Roman religion, and a character in myth.

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A scapegoat is a person or animal which takes on the sins of others, or is unfairly blamed for problems.

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Second Punic War

The Second Punic War, also referred to as The Hannibalic War and (by the Romans) The War Against Hannibal, lasted from 218 to 201 BC and involved combatants in the western and eastern Mediterranean.

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Seneca the Younger

Lucius Annaeus Seneca (often known as Seneca the Younger or simply Seneca; c. 4 BC – AD 65) was a Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman, dramatist, and in one work humorist, of the Silver Age of Latin literature.

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Sibylline Books

The Sibylline Books (Libri Sibyllini) were a collection of oracular utterances, set out in Greek hexameters, that according to tradition were purchased from a sibyl by the last king of Rome, Tarquinius Superbus, and were consulted at momentous crises through the history of the Republic and the Empire.

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Sigillaria (ancient Rome)

In ancient Roman culture, sigillaria were pottery or wax figurines given as traditional gifts during the Saturnalia.

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Silistra (Силистра, pronounced) is a port city in the far northeast of Bulgaria, lying on the southern bank of the lower Danube at the country's border with Romania.

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Slavery in ancient Rome

Slavery in ancient Rome played an important role in society and the economy.

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Social class in ancient Rome

Social class in ancient Rome was hierarchical, but there were multiple and overlapping social hierarchies, and an individual's relative position in one might be higher or lower than in another.

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Sol Invictus

Sol Invictus ("Unconquered Sun") was the official sun god of the later Roman Empire and a patron of soldiers.

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Publius Papinius Statius (c. 45, in Naplesc. 96 AD, in Naples) was a Roman poet of the 1st century AD (Silver Age of Latin literature).

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Suckling pig

A suckling pig (or sucking pig) is a piglet fed on its mother's milk (i.e., a piglet which is still a "suckling").

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Gaius Suetonius Tranquillus, commonly known as Suetonius (c. 69 – after 122 AD), was a Roman historian belonging to the equestrian order who wrote during the early Imperial era of the Roman Empire. His most important surviving work is a set of biographies of twelve successive Roman rulers, from Julius Caesar to Domitian, entitled ''De Vita Caesarum''. He recorded the earliest accounts of Julius Caesar's epileptic seizures. Other works by Suetonius concern the daily life of Rome, politics, oratory, and the lives of famous writers, including poets, historians, and grammarians. A few of these books have partially survived, but many have been lost.

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A syllable is a unit of organization for a sequence of speech sounds.

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In ancient Greece, the symposium (συμπόσιον symposion, from συμπίνειν sympinein, "to drink together") was a drinking party.

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Synthesis (clothing)

The synthesis (Greek for something "put together"), probably synonymous with cenatoria, "dinner clothes" (from Latin cena, "dinner"), was a garment or outfit worn in ancient Rome for dining or special occasions such as the Saturnalia.

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Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (c. AD 56 – after 117) was a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire.

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The Talmud (Hebrew: talmūd "instruction, learning", from a root lmd "teach, study") is a central text of Rabbinic Judaism.

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Temple of Saturn

The Temple of Saturn (Latin: Templum Saturni or Aedes Saturnus, Tempio di Saturno) is a temple to the god Saturn in ancient Rome.

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The Golden Bough

The Golden Bough: A Study in Comparative Religion (retitled The Golden Bough: A Study in Magic and Religion in its second edition) is a wide-ranging, comparative study of mythology and religion, written by the Scottish anthropologist Sir James George Frazer (1854–1941).

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Theatre of ancient Rome

The theatre of ancient Rome was a diverse and interesting art form, ranging from festival performances of street theatre and acrobatics, to the staging of Plautus's broadly appealing situation comedies, to the high-style, verbally elaborate tragedies of Seneca.

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Theodor Mommsen

Christian Matthias Theodor Mommsen (30 November 1817 – 1 November 1903) was a German classical scholar, historian, jurist, journalist, politician, archaeologist and writer generally regarded as one of the greatest classicists of the 19th century.

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The toga, a distinctive garment of Ancient Rome, was a cloth of perhaps in length which was wrapped around the body and was generally worn over a tunic.

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Trick-or-treating is a customary practice for children on Halloween in many countries.

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Tropical year

A tropical year (also known as a solar year), for general purposes, is the time that the Sun takes to return to the same position in the cycle of seasons, as seen from Earth; for example, the time from vernal equinox to vernal equinox, or from summer solstice to summer solstice.

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Twelve Days of Christmas

The Twelve Days of Christmas, also known as Twelvetide, is a festive Christian season to celebrate the nativity of Jesus.

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Verrius Flaccus

Marcus Verrius Flaccus (c. 55 BC – AD 20) was a Roman grammarian and teacher who flourished under Augustus and Tiberius.

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Vettius Agorius Praetextatus

Vettius Agorius Praetextatus (ca. 315–384) was a wealthy pagan aristocrat in 4th-century Roman Empire and a high priest in the cults of numerous gods.

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Publius Vergilius Maro (October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period.

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William Warde Fowler

William Warde Fowler (16 May 1847 – 15 June 1921) was an English historian and ornithologist, and tutor at Lincoln College, Oxford.

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Winter solstice

Winter solstice is an astronomical phenomenon marking the shortest day and the longest night of the year.

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Women in ancient Rome

Freeborn women in ancient Rome were citizens (cives), but could not vote or hold political office.

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Yule or Yuletide ("Yule time") is a religious festival observed by the historical Germanic peoples, later undergoing Christianised reformulation resulting in the now better known Christmastide.

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Yule log

The Yule Log, Yule Clog, or Christmas Block is a specially selected log burnt on a hearth around the period of Christmas in the Anglosphere.

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Zeus (Ζεύς, Zeús,; Modern Δίας, Días) was the sky and thunder god in ancient Greek religion, who ruled as king of the gods of Mount Olympus.

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Redirects here:

Feast of Saturnalia, Kalenda (festival), Saturna (festival), Saturnale, Saturnalia Gifts, Saturnalia and christmas, Saturnalian, Saturnalicius.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saturnalia

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