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Index Saxitoxin

Saxitoxin (STX) is a potent neurotoxin and the best-known paralytic shellfish toxin (PST). [1]

86 relations: Acetyl-CoA, Action potential, Acyl carrier protein, Aerosol, Alaska, Aldehyde, Alexandrium (dinoflagellate), Alexandrium tamarense, Algal bloom, Alkaloid, Anabaena, Anabaena circinalis, Aphanizomenon, Arginine, Axon, Biological warfare, Botulinum toxin, Brevetoxin, California, Canadian Reference Materials, CB military symbol, Cell membrane, Central Intelligence Agency, Chemical weapon, Chemical Weapons Convention, Church Committee, Ciguatoxin, Claisen condensation, Clam, Cyanobacteria, Cylindrospermopsis, Decarbamoylsaxitoxin, Dinoflagellate, Domain (biology), Domoic acid, Enzyme, Epoxide, Flaccid paralysis, Florida, Food chain, Francis Gary Powers, Gene, Gonyautoxin, Guinea pig, Gymnodinium, Harmful algal bloom, Indian River Lagoon, Integral membrane protein, Intramuscular injection, Kingdom (biology), ..., Ligand, List of Schedule 1 substances (CWC), Lyngbya, Median lethal dose, Mussel, Mutualism (biology), Neosaxitoxin, Nervous system, Neuron, Neurotoxin, New England, Okadaic acid, Oregon, Ovary, Oyster, Paralysis, Paralytic shellfish poisoning, Planktothrix, Predation, Pyrodinium bahamense, Respiratory failure, Richard Nixon, Saxidomus, Scallop, Shellfish, Sodium channel, Substrate (chemistry), Symptom, Tetraodontidae, Tetrodotoxin, Tilapia, United States Armed Forces, Voltage, Washington (state), X-ray crystallography, 4-Aminopyridine. Expand index (36 more) »


Acetyl-CoA (acetyl coenzyme A) is a molecule that participates in many biochemical reactions in protein, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.

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Action potential

In physiology, an action potential occurs when the membrane potential of a specific axon location rapidly rises and falls: this depolarisation then causes adjacent locations to similarly depolarise.

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Acyl carrier protein

The acyl carrier protein (ACP) is an important component in both fatty acid and polyketide biosynthesis with the growing chain bound during synthesis as a thiol ester at the distal thiol of a 4'-phosphopantetheine moiety.

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An aerosol is a suspension of fine solid particles or liquid droplets, in air or another gas.

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Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.

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An aldehyde or alkanal is an organic compound containing a functional group with the structure −CHO, consisting of a carbonyl center (a carbon double-bonded to oxygen) with the carbon atom also bonded to hydrogen and to an R group, which is any generic alkyl or side chain.

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Alexandrium (dinoflagellate)

Alexandrium is a genus of dinoflagellates.

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Alexandrium tamarense

Alexandrium tamarense is a species of dinoflagellates known to produce saxitoxin, a neurotoxin which causes the human illness clinically known as paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP).

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Algal bloom

An algal bloom is a rapid increase or accumulation in the population of algae in freshwater or marine water systems, and is recognized by the discoloration in the water from their pigments.

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Alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring chemical compounds that mostly contain basic nitrogen atoms.

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Anabaena is a genus of filamentous cyanobacteria that exist as plankton.

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Anabaena circinalis

Anabaena circinalis is a species of Gram-negative, photosynthetic cyanobacteria common to freshwater environments throughout the world.

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Aphanizomenon is an important genus of cyanobacteria that inhabits freshwater lakes and can cause dense blooms.

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Arginine (symbol Arg or R) is an α-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins.

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An axon (from Greek ἄξων áxōn, axis) or nerve fiber, is a long, slender projection of a nerve cell, or neuron, that typically conducts electrical impulses known as action potentials, away from the nerve cell body.

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Biological warfare

Biological warfare (BW)—also known as germ warfare—is the use of biological toxins or infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi with the intent to kill or incapacitate humans, animals or plants as an act of war.

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Botulinum toxin

Botulinum toxin (BTX) or Botox is a neurotoxic protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum and related species.

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Brevetoxin (PbTx), or brevetoxins, are a suite of cyclic polyether compounds produced naturally by a species of dinoflagellate known as Karenia brevis.

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California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.

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Canadian Reference Materials

Canadian Reference Materials (CRM) are certified reference materials of high-quality and reliability produced by the National Metrology Institute of Canada – the National Research Council Canada.

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CB military symbol

Chemical, biological (CB) — and sometimes radiological — warfare agents were assigned what is termed a military symbol by the U.S. military until the American chemical and biological weapons programs were terminated (in 1990 and 1969, respectively).

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Cell membrane

The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).

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Central Intelligence Agency

The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).

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Chemical weapon

A chemical weapon (CW) is a specialized munition that uses chemicals formulated to inflict death or harm on humans.

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Chemical Weapons Convention

The Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC) is an arms control treaty that outlaws the production, stockpiling, and use of chemical weapons and their precursors.

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Church Committee

The Church Committee was the United States Senate Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, a U.S. Senate committee chaired by Idaho Senator Frank Church (D-ID) in 1975.

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Chemical structure of the ciguatoxin '''CTX1B''' Ciguatoxins are a class of toxic polycyclic polyethers found in fish that cause ciguatera.

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Claisen condensation

The Claisen condensation is a carbon–carbon bond forming reaction that occurs between two esters or one ester and another carbonyl compound in the presence of a strong base, resulting in a β-keto ester or a β-diketone.

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Clam is a common name for several kinds of bivalve molluscs.

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Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen.

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Cylindrospermopsis is a planktonic genus of filamentous cyanobacteria known for its blooms in eutrophic waters.

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Decarbamoylsaxitoxin, abbreviated as dcSTX, is a neurotoxin which is naturally produced in dinoflagellate.

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The dinoflagellates (Greek δῖνος dinos "whirling" and Latin flagellum "whip, scourge") are a large group of flagellate eukaryotes that constitute the phylum Dinoflagellata.

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Domain (biology)

In biological taxonomy, a domain (Latin: regio), also superkingdom or empire, is the highest taxonomic rank of organisms in the three-domain system of taxonomy designed by Carl Woese, an American microbiologist and biophysicist.

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Domoic acid

Domoic acid (DA) is a kainic acid analog neurotoxin that causes amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP).

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Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.

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An epoxide is a cyclic ether with a three-atom ring.

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Flaccid paralysis

Flaccid paralysis is an illness characterized by weakness or paralysis and reduced muscle tone without other obvious cause (e.g., trauma).

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Florida (Spanish for "land of flowers") is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States.

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Food chain

A food chain is a linear network of links in a food web starting from producer organisms (such as grass or trees which use radiation from the Sun to make their food) and ending at apex predator species (like grizzly bears or killer whales), detritivores (like earthworms or woodlice), or decomposer species (such as fungi or bacteria).

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Francis Gary Powers

Francis Gary Powers (August 17, 1929 – August 1, 1977)—often referred to as simply Gary Powers—was an American pilot whose Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) U-2 spy plane was shot down while flying a reconnaissance mission in Soviet Union airspace, causing the 1960 U-2 incident.

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In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.

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Gonyautoxins (GTX) are a few similar toxic molecules that are naturally produced by algae.

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Guinea pig

The guinea pig or domestic guinea pig (Cavia porcellus), also known as cavy or domestic cavy, is a species of rodent belonging to the family Caviidae and the genus Cavia.

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Gymnodinium is a genus of dinoflagellates.

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Harmful algal bloom

A harmful algal bloom (HAB) are organisms that can severely lower oxygen levels in natural waters, killing marine life.

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Indian River Lagoon

The Indian River Lagoon is a grouping of three lagoons: the Mosquito Lagoon, the Banana River, and the Indian River, on the Atlantic Coast of Florida; it is the most biodiverse lagoon ecosystem in the Northern Hemisphere and is home to more than 10,000 species of plants and animals.

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Integral membrane protein

An integral membrane protein (IMP) is a type of membrane protein that is permanently attached to the biological membrane.

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Intramuscular injection

Intramuscular (also IM or im) injection is the injection of a substance directly into muscle.

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Kingdom (biology)

In biology, kingdom (Latin: regnum, plural regna) is the second highest taxonomic rank, just below domain.

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In coordination chemistry, a ligand is an ion or molecule (functional group) that binds to a central metal atom to form a coordination complex.

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List of Schedule 1 substances (CWC)

Schedule 1 substances, in the sense of the Chemical Weapons Convention, are chemicals which can either be used as chemical weapons themselves or used in the manufacture of chemical weapons and which have no, or very limited, uses outside of chemical warfare.

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Lyngbya is a genus of cyanobacteria, unicellular autotrophs that form the basis of the oceanic food chain.

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Median lethal dose

In toxicology, the median lethal dose, LD50 (abbreviation for "lethal dose, 50%"), LC50 (lethal concentration, 50%) or LCt50 is a measure of the lethal dose of a toxin, radiation, or pathogen.

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Mussel is the common name used for members of several families of bivalve molluscs, from saltwater and freshwater habitats.

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Mutualism (biology)

Mutualism or interspecific cooperation is the way two organisms of different species exist in a relationship in which each individual benefits from the activity of the other.

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Neosaxitoxin (NSTX) is included, as other saxitoxin-analogs, in a broad group of natural neurotoxic alkaloids, commonly known as the paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs).

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Nervous system

The nervous system is the part of an animal that coordinates its actions by transmitting signals to and from different parts of its body.

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A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.

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Neurotoxins are toxins that are poisonous or destructive to nerve tissue (causing neurotoxicity).

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New England

New England is a geographical region comprising six states of the northeastern United States: Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut.

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Okadaic acid

Okadaic acid, C44H68O13, is a toxin produced by several species of dinoflagellates, and is known to accumulate in both marine sponges and shellfish.

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Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region on the West Coast of the United States.

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The ovary is an organ found in the female reproductive system that produces an ovum.

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Oyster is the common name for a number of different families of salt-water bivalve molluscs that live in marine or brackish habitats.

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Paralysis is a loss of muscle function for one or more muscles.

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Paralytic shellfish poisoning

Paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) is one of the four recognized syndromes of shellfish poisoning, which share some common features and are primarily associated with bivalve mollusks (such as mussels, clams, oysters and scallops).

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Planktothrix is a genus of filamentous cyanobacteria (often called blue-green algae).

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Predation is a biological interaction where a predator (a hunting animal) kills and eats its prey (the organism that is attacked).

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Pyrodinium bahamense

Pyrodinium bahamense, considered the sister taxon to Alexandrium, is a tropical euryhaline species of dinoflagellates found mainly in the Atlantic ocean.

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Respiratory failure

Respiratory failure results from inadequate gas exchange by the respiratory system, meaning that the arterial oxygen, carbon dioxide or both cannot be kept at normal levels.

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Richard Nixon

Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was an American politician who served as the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 until 1974, when he resigned from office, the only U.S. president to do so.

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Saxidomus, common name the "Washington clams", is a genus of large edible saltwater clams, marine bivalve mollusks in the family Veneridae, the Venus clams.

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Scallop is a common name that is primarily applied to any one of numerous species of saltwater clams or marine bivalve mollusks in the taxonomic family Pectinidae, the scallops.

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Shellfish is a food source and fisheries term for exoskeleton-bearing aquatic invertebrates used as food, including various species of molluscs, crustaceans, and echinoderms.

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Sodium channel

Sodium channels are integral membrane proteins that form ion channels, conducting sodium ions (Na+) through a cell's plasma membrane.

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Substrate (chemistry)

In chemistry, a substrate is typically the chemical species being observed in a chemical reaction, which reacts with a reagent to generate a product.

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A symptom (from Greek σύμπτωμα, "accident, misfortune, that which befalls", from συμπίπτω, "I befall", from συν- "together, with" and πίπτω, "I fall") is a departure from normal function or feeling which is noticed by a patient, reflecting the presence of an unusual state, or of a disease.

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The Tetraodontidae are a family of primarily marine and estuarine fish of the order Tetraodontiformes.

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Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin.

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Tilapia is the common name for nearly a hundred species of cichlid fish from the tilapiine cichlid tribe.

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United States Armed Forces

The United States Armed Forces are the military forces of the United States of America.

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Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension (formally denoted or, but more often simply as V or U, for instance in the context of Ohm's or Kirchhoff's circuit laws) is the difference in electric potential between two points.

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Washington (state)

Washington, officially the State of Washington, is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States.

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X-ray crystallography

X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.

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4-Aminopyridine (4-AP, fampridine, dalfampridine) is an organic compound with the chemical formula C5H4N–NH2.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saxitoxin

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