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Index Scandinavia

Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties. [1]

231 relations: Alfred the Great, Alpine tundra, Archipelago, Arctic Circle, Autonomy, Älvdalen Municipality, Æthelweard (historian), Þjazi, Baltic region, Baltic Sea, Baltic Shield, Baltoscandia, Basque language, Basques, Beowulf, Blekinge, Bohuslän, Bornholm, Britannia, Chancellor, Charles Christopher Mierow, Charles XIII of Sweden, Chiefdom, Christian VIII of Denmark, Christianization, Cimbri, Compound (linguistics), Convention of Moss, Copenhagen, Danish Americans, Danish language, Dano-Norwegian (disambiguation), Daylight saving time, Demonym, Denmark, Denmark–Norway, Dialect continuum, Dissolution of the union between Norway and Sweden, Duchy, Duchy of Schleswig, Edward Elgar Publishing, Eidsvoll, Encyclopædia Britannica, Estonian language, Eth, European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, Faroe Islanders, Faroe Islands, Faroese language, Fennoscandia, ..., Finland, Finnish language, Finnmarksvidda, Finns, First Schleswig War, Foehn wind, Folketing, Franco-Prussian War, Freyja, Freyr, Funen, Genetic marker, Geology, German Empire, German language, Germanic peoples, Giant, Gothic language, Goths, Grand Duchy of Finland, Greenland, Gro Steinsland, Gulf Stream, Gustav I of Sweden, Haakon VII of Norway, Halland, Hans Christian Andersen, Hanseatic League, Härjedalen, Hebrides, Hereditary Kingdom of Norway, Hilleviones, Holstein, Humid continental climate, Hungarian language, Hyperborea, Iceland, Icelanders, Icelandic language, Isle of Man, Jan Mayen, Jämtland, Joik, Jordanes, Jutland, Kalmar Union, Karelia, Kven language, Kvenland, Lands of Denmark, Lands of Sweden, Last glacial period, Leiden University, List of Norwegian fjords, Loanword, Lombards, Margaret I of Denmark, Målilla, Meänkieli dialects, Mesolithic, Metaphysics, Microsoft, Middle Low German, Monarchy of Denmark, Monarchy of Norway, Monarchy of Sweden, Moraine, Mutual intelligibility, Napoleonic Wars, Nationalism, Natural History (Pliny), Nordic Council, Nordic countries, Nordic Cross flag, Norse mythology, North Cape (Norway), North Germanic languages, Northern Europe, Norway, Norwegian language, Olaf II of Denmark, Old English, Old Frisian, Old High German, Old Norse, Old Saxon, Oldenburg, Orkney, Orographic lift, Orosius, Oslo, Paleolithic, Parliamentary republic, Paul the Deacon, Personal union, Petty kingdom, Phonotactics, Pliny the Elder, Pomponius Mela, Power (international relations), Precipitation, Privy council, Procopius, Proto-Germanic language, Proto-Indo-European language, Prussia, Ptolemy, Pytheas, Reformation, Riksdag, Romani language, Romantic nationalism, Russian Empire, Saaremaa, Saariselkä, Sami languages, Sami people, Sámi politics, Sæmingr, Scandinavian colonialism, Scandinavian family name etymology, Scandinavian Monetary Union, Scandinavian Mountains, Scandinavian Peninsula, Scandinavian Tourist Board, Scandinavians, Scandinavism, Scandoromani language, Scandza, Scania, Schleswig-Holstein, Second Schleswig War, Second Treaty of Brömsebro (1645), Shetland, Skaði, Skagen, Skagerrak, Skanör med Falsterbo, Skåneland, Standard language, Stockholm, Storting, Stratum (linguistics), Subarctic climate, Succession of states, Sunndal, Svalbard, Sweden, Swedes (Germanic tribe), Swedish language, Swedish-speaking population of Finland, Tacitus, Tafjord, Temperate climate, The American-Scandinavian Foundation, The unity of the Realm, Toponymy, Trøndelag, Treaty of Copenhagen (1660), Treaty of Kiel, Treaty of Roskilde, Union between Sweden and Norway, University of Jyväskylä, Uralic languages, UTC+01:00, UTC+02:00, Vikings, West Germanic languages, World War I, Wulfstan of Hedeby, Yiddish, Zealand, .ax, .dk, .fi, .fo, .gl, .is, .no, .se, .sj. Expand index (181 more) »

Alfred the Great

Alfred the Great (Ælfrēd, Ælfrǣd, "elf counsel" or "wise elf"; 849 – 26 October 899) was King of Wessex from 871 to 899.

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Alpine tundra

Alpine tundra is a type of natural region or biome that does not contain trees because it is at high altitude.

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An archipelago, sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea containing a small number of scattered islands.

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Arctic Circle

The Arctic Circle is the most northerly of the five major circles of latitude as shown on maps of Earth.

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In development or moral, political, and bioethical philosophy, autonomy is the capacity to make an informed, un-coerced decision.

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Älvdalen Municipality

Älvdalen Municipality (Älvdalens kommun) is a municipality in Dalarna County in central Sweden.

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Æthelweard (historian)

Æthelweard (also Ethelward; d. c. 998), descended from the Anglo-Saxon King Æthelred I of Wessex, the elder brother of Alfred the Great, was an ealdorman and the author of a Latin version of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle known as the Chronicon Æthelweardi.

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In Norse mythology, Þjazi (Old Norse pronunciation: /ˈθjatsi/, Modern Icelandic pronunciation ˈθjasːɪ, anglicized as Thiazi, Thjazi, Tjasse or Thiassi) was a giant.

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Baltic region

The terms Baltic region, Baltic Rim countries (or simply Baltic Rim), and the Baltic Sea countries refer to slightly different combinations of countries in the general area surrounding the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe.

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Baltic Sea

The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.

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Baltic Shield

The Baltic Shield (or Fennoscandian Shield) is a segment of the Earth's crust belonging to the East European Craton, representing a large part of Fennoscandia, northwestern Russia and the northern Baltic Sea.

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The Baltoscandian Confederation or Baltoscandia is a geopolitical concept of a Baltic–Scandinavian union (consisting of Sweden, Denmark, Norway, Iceland, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania).

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Basque language

Basque (euskara) is a language spoken in the Basque country and Navarre. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the other languages of Europe and, as a language isolate, to any other known living language. The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country, a region that straddles the westernmost Pyrenees in adjacent parts of northern Spain and southwestern France. The Basque language is spoken by 28.4% of Basques in all territories (751,500). Of these, 93.2% (700,300) are in the Spanish area of the Basque Country and the remaining 6.8% (51,200) are in the French portion. Native speakers live in a contiguous area that includes parts of four Spanish provinces and the three "ancient provinces" in France. Gipuzkoa, most of Biscay, a few municipalities of Álava, and the northern area of Navarre formed the core of the remaining Basque-speaking area before measures were introduced in the 1980s to strengthen the language. By contrast, most of Álava, the western part of Biscay and central and southern areas of Navarre are predominantly populated by native speakers of Spanish, either because Basque was replaced by Spanish over the centuries, in some areas (most of Álava and central Navarre), or because it was possibly never spoken there, in other areas (Enkarterri and southeastern Navarre). Under Restorationist and Francoist Spain, public use of Basque was frowned upon, often regarded as a sign of separatism; this applied especially to those regions that did not support Franco's uprising (such as Biscay or Gipuzkoa). However, in those Basque-speaking regions that supported the uprising (such as Navarre or Álava) the Basque language was more than merely tolerated. Overall, in the 1960s and later, the trend reversed and education and publishing in Basque began to flourish. As a part of this process, a standardised form of the Basque language, called Euskara Batua, was developed by the Euskaltzaindia in the late 1960s. Besides its standardised version, the five historic Basque dialects are Biscayan, Gipuzkoan, and Upper Navarrese in Spain, and Navarrese–Lapurdian and Souletin in France. They take their names from the historic Basque provinces, but the dialect boundaries are not congruent with province boundaries. Euskara Batua was created so that Basque language could be used—and easily understood by all Basque speakers—in formal situations (education, mass media, literature), and this is its main use today. In both Spain and France, the use of Basque for education varies from region to region and from school to school. A language isolate, Basque is believed to be one of the few surviving pre-Indo-European languages in Europe, and the only one in Western Europe. The origin of the Basques and of their languages is not conclusively known, though the most accepted current theory is that early forms of Basque developed prior to the arrival of Indo-European languages in the area, including the Romance languages that geographically surround the Basque-speaking region. Basque has adopted a good deal of its vocabulary from the Romance languages, and Basque speakers have in turn lent their own words to Romance speakers. The Basque alphabet uses the Latin script.

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No description.

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Beowulf is an Old English epic story consisting of 3,182 alliterative lines.

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Blekinge is one of the traditional provinces of Sweden (landskap), situated in the south of the country.

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Bohuslän is a Swedish province in Götaland, on the northernmost part of the country's west coast.

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Bornholm (Burgundaholmr) is a Danish island in the Baltic Sea, to the east of the rest of Denmark, south of Sweden, northeast of Germany and north of the westernmost part of Poland.

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Britannia has been used in several different senses.

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Chancellor (cancellarius) is a title of various official positions in the governments of many nations.

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Charles Christopher Mierow

Charles Christopher Mierow (1883–1961) was an American academic and classical scholar.

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Charles XIII of Sweden

Charles XIII & II also Carl, Karl XIII (7 October 1748 – 5 February 1818), was King of Sweden (as Charles XIII) from 1809 and King of Norway (as Charles II) from 1814 until his death.

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A chiefdom is a form of hierarchical political organization in non-industrial societies usually based on kinship, and in which formal leadership is monopolized by the legitimate senior members of select families or 'houses'.

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Christian VIII of Denmark

Christian VIII (18 September 1786 – 20 January 1848) was the King of Denmark from 1839 to 1848 and, as Christian Frederick, King of Norway in 1814.

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Christianization (or Christianisation) is the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire groups at once.

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The Cimbri were an ancient tribe.

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Compound (linguistics)

In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (less precisely, a word) that consists of more than one stem.

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Convention of Moss

The Convention of Moss was a cease fire agreement, signed on 14 August 1814 between the Swedish King and the Norwegian government.

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Copenhagen (København; Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark.

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Danish Americans

Danish Americans (Dansk-amerikanere) are Americans who have ancestral roots originated fully or partially from Denmark.

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Danish language

Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.

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Dano-Norwegian (disambiguation)

The adjective and derived noun Dano-Norwegian means "Danish and Norwegian".

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Daylight saving time

Daylight saving time (abbreviated DST), sometimes referred to as daylight savings time in U.S., Canadian, and Australian speech, and known as summer time in some countries, is the practice of advancing clocks during summer months so that evening daylight lasts longer, while sacrificing normal sunrise times.

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A demonym (δῆμος dẽmos "people, tribe", ὄόνομα ónoma "name") is a word that identifies residents or natives of a particular place, which is derived from the name of that particular place.

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Denmark (Danmark), officially the Kingdom of Denmark,Kongeriget Danmark,.

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Denmark–Norway (Danish and Norwegian: Danmark–Norge or Danmark–Noreg; also known as the Oldenburg Monarchy or the Oldenburg realms) was an early modern multi-national and multi-lingual real unionFeldbæk 1998:11 consisting of the Kingdom of Denmark, the Kingdom of Norway (including Norwegian overseas possessions the Faroe Islands, Iceland, Greenland, et cetera), the Duchy of Schleswig, and the Duchy of Holstein.

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Dialect continuum

A dialect continuum or dialect chain is a spread of language varieties spoken across some geographical area such that neighbouring varieties differ only slightly, but the differences accumulate over distance so that widely separated varieties are not mutually intelligible.

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Dissolution of the union between Norway and Sweden

The dissolution of the union (Unionsoppløsningen; Unionsoppløysinga; Landsmål: Unionsoppløysingi; Unionsupplösningen) between the kingdoms of Norway and Sweden under the House of Bernadotte, was set in motion by a resolution of the Norwegian Parliament (the Storting) on 7 June 1905.

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A duchy is a country, territory, fief, or domain ruled by a duke or duchess.

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Duchy of Schleswig

The Duchy of Schleswig (Hertugdømmet Slesvig; Herzogtum Schleswig; Low German: Sleswig; North Frisian: Slaswik) was a duchy in Southern Jutland (Sønderjylland) covering the area between about 60 km north and 70 km south of the current border between Germany and Denmark.

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Edward Elgar Publishing

Edward Elgar Publishing is a global publisher of academic books, journals and online resources in the social sciences and law.

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(sometimes written as Eidsvold) is a municipality in Akershus county, Norway.

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Encyclopædia Britannica

The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.

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Estonian language

Estonian (eesti keel) is the official language of Estonia, spoken natively by about 1.1 million people: 922,000 people in Estonia and 160,000 outside Estonia.

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Eth (uppercase: Ð, lowercase: ð; also spelled edh or eð) is a letter used in Old English, Middle English, Icelandic, Faroese (in which it is called edd), and Elfdalian.

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European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages

The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) is a European treaty (CETS 148) adopted in 1992 under the auspices of the Council of Europe to protect and promote historical regional and minority languages in Europe.

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Faroe Islanders

Faroese people (føroyingar) are an ethnic group and nation native to the Faroe Islands.

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Faroe Islands

The Faroe Islands (Føroyar; Færøerne), sometimes called the Faeroe Islands, is an archipelago between the Norwegian Sea and the North Atlantic, about halfway between Norway and Iceland, north-northwest of Scotland.

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Faroese language

Faroese (føroyskt mál,; færøsk) is a North Germanic language spoken as a first language by about 66,000 people, 45,000 of whom reside on the Faroe Islands and 21,000 in other areas, mainly Denmark.

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Fennoscandia (Fennoskandia; Fennoskandien; Fennoskandia; Фенноскандия Fennoskandiya), Fenno-Scandinavia, or the Fennoscandian Peninsula, is the geographical peninsula of the Nordic region comprising the Scandinavian Peninsula, Finland, Karelia, and the Kola Peninsula.

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Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.

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Finnish language

Finnish (or suomen kieli) is a Finnic language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland.

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Finnmarksvidda (Finnmárkkoduottar; Finnmark plateau/highland) is Norway's largest plateau, with an area greater than.

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Finns or Finnish people (suomalaiset) are a Finnic ethnic group native to Finland.

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First Schleswig War

The First Schleswig War (Schleswig-Holsteinischer Krieg) or Three Years' War (Treårskrigen) was the first round of military conflict in southern Denmark and northern Germany rooted in the Schleswig-Holstein Question, contesting the issue of who should control the Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein.

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Foehn wind

A föhn or foehn is a type of dry, warm, down-slope wind that occurs in the lee (downwind side) of a mountain range.

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The Folketing (Folketinget,; lit. the people's thing), also known as the Danish Parliament in English, is the unicameral national parliament (legislature) of the Kingdom of Denmark.

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Franco-Prussian War

The Franco-Prussian War or Franco-German War (Deutsch-Französischer Krieg, Guerre franco-allemande), often referred to in France as the War of 1870 (19 July 1871) or in Germany as 70/71, was a conflict between the Second French Empire of Napoleon III and the German states of the North German Confederation led by the Kingdom of Prussia.

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In Norse mythology, Freyja (Old Norse for "(the) Lady") is a goddess associated with love, sex, beauty, fertility, gold, seiðr, war, and death.

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Freyr (Old Norse: Lord), sometimes anglicized as Frey, is a widely attested god associated with sacral kingship, virility and prosperity, with sunshine and fair weather, and pictured as a phallic fertility god in Norse mythology.

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Funen (Fyn), with an area of, is the third-largest island of Denmark, after Zealand and Vendsyssel-Thy.

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Genetic marker

A genetic marker is a gene or DNA sequence with a known location on a chromosome that can be used to identify individuals or species.

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Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse") is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time.

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German Empire

The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.

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German language

German (Deutsch) is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe.

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Germanic peoples

The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.

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Giants (from Latin and Ancient Greek: "gigas", cognate giga-) are beings of human appearance, but prodigious size and strength common in the mythology and legends of many different cultures.

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Gothic language

Gothic is an extinct East Germanic language that was spoken by the Goths.

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The Goths (Gut-þiuda; Gothi) were an East Germanic people, two of whose branches, the Visigoths and the Ostrogoths, played an important role in the fall of the Western Roman Empire through the long series of Gothic Wars and in the emergence of Medieval Europe.

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Grand Duchy of Finland

The Grand Duchy of Finland (Suomen suuriruhtinaskunta, Storfurstendömet Finland, Великое княжество Финляндское,; literally Grand Principality of Finland) was the predecessor state of modern Finland.

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Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat,; Grønland) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.

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Gro Steinsland

Gro Steinsland (born 1945) is a Norwegian scholar of medieval studies and history of religion and since August 2009 has been the Scientific Director of the Centre for Advanced Study at the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters.

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Gulf Stream

The Gulf Stream, together with its northern extension the North Atlantic Drift, is a warm and swift Atlantic ocean current that originates in the Gulf of Mexico and stretches to the tip of Florida, and follows the eastern coastlines of the United States and Newfoundland before crossing the Atlantic Ocean.

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Gustav I of Sweden

Gustav I, born Gustav Eriksson of the Vasa noble family and later known as Gustav Vasa (12 May 1496 – 29 September 1560), was King of Sweden from 1523 until his death in 1560, previously self-recognised Protector of the Realm (Riksföreståndare) from 1521, during the ongoing Swedish War of Liberation against King Christian II of Denmark, Norway and Sweden.

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Haakon VII of Norway

Haakon VII (born Christian Frederik Carl Georg Valdemar Axel; 3 August 187221 September 1957), known as Prince Carl of Denmark until 1905, was a Danish prince who became the first king of Norway after the 1905 dissolution of the union with Sweden.

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is one of the traditional provinces of Sweden (landskap in Swedish), on the western coast of Sweden.

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Hans Christian Andersen

Hans Christian Andersen (2 April 1805 – 4 August 1875) was a Danish author.

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Hanseatic League

The Hanseatic League (Middle Low German: Hanse, Düdesche Hanse, Hansa; Standard German: Deutsche Hanse; Latin: Hansa Teutonica) was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe.

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Härjedalen (Herjedalen) is a historical province or landskap in the centre of Sweden.

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The Hebrides (Innse Gall,; Suðreyjar) compose a widespread and diverse archipelago off the west coast of mainland Scotland.

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Hereditary Kingdom of Norway

The Kingdom of Norway as a unified realm was initiated by King Harald I Fairhair in the 9th century.

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The Hilleviones were a Germanic people occupying an island called Scatinavia in the 1st century AD, according to the Roman geographer Pliny the Elder in Naturalis Historia (Book 4, Chapter 96), written circa 77 AD.

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Holstein (Northern Low Saxon: Holsteen, Holsten, Latin and historical Holsatia) is the region between the rivers Elbe and Eider.

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Humid continental climate

A humid continental climate (Köppen prefix D and a third letter of a or b) is a climatic region defined by Russo-German climatologist Wladimir Köppen in 1900, which is typified by large seasonal temperature differences, with warm to hot (and often humid) summers and cold (sometimes severely cold in the northern areas) winters.

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Hungarian language

Hungarian is a Finno-Ugric language spoken in Hungary and several neighbouring countries. It is the official language of Hungary and one of the 24 official languages of the European Union. Outside Hungary it is also spoken by communities of Hungarians in the countries that today make up Slovakia, western Ukraine, central and western Romania (Transylvania and Partium), northern Serbia (Vojvodina), northern Croatia, and northern Slovenia due to the effects of the Treaty of Trianon, which resulted in many ethnic Hungarians being displaced from their homes and communities in the former territories of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. It is also spoken by Hungarian diaspora communities worldwide, especially in North America (particularly the United States). Like Finnish and Estonian, Hungarian belongs to the Uralic language family branch, its closest relatives being Mansi and Khanty.

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In Greek mythology the Hyperboreans (Ὑπερβόρε(ι)οι,; Hyperborei) were a mythical race of giants who lived "beyond the North Wind".

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Iceland is a Nordic island country in the North Atlantic, with a population of and an area of, making it the most sparsely populated country in Europe.

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Icelanders (Íslendingar) are a Germanic ethnic group and nation, native to Iceland, mostly speaking the Germanic language Icelandic.

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Icelandic language

Icelandic (íslenska) is a North Germanic language, and the language of Iceland.

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Isle of Man

The Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin), also known simply as Mann (Mannin), is a self-governing British Crown dependency in the Irish Sea between the islands of Great Britain and Ireland.

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Jan Mayen

Jan Mayen is a Norwegian volcanic island situated in the Arctic Ocean.

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Jämtland (Norwegian: Jemtland,; Latin: Iemptia) or Jamtland is a historical province (landskap) in the centre of Sweden in northern Europe.

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A joik (also spelled yoik), luohti, vuolle, leu'dd, or juoiggus is a traditional form of song of the Sami people of the Nordic countries and Kola peninsula of Russia.

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Jordanes, also written Jordanis or, uncommonly, Jornandes, was a 6th-century Eastern Roman bureaucrat of Gothic extraction who turned his hand to history later in life.

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Jutland (Jylland; Jütland), also known as the Cimbric or Cimbrian Peninsula (Cimbricus Chersonesus; Den Kimbriske Halvø; Kimbrische Halbinsel), is a peninsula of Northern Europe that forms the continental portion of Denmark and part of northern Germany.

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Kalmar Union

The Kalmar Union or Union of Kalmaris (Danish, Norwegian and Kalmarunionen; Unio Calmariensis) was a personal union that from 1397 to 1523 joined under a single monarch the three kingdoms of Denmark, Sweden (then including most of Finland's populated areas), and Norway, together with Norway's overseas dependencies (then including Iceland, Greenland,Nominal possession, there was no European contact with the island during the Kalmar Union period the Faroe Islands and the Northern Isles).

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Karelia (Karelian, Finnish and Estonian: Karjala; Карелия, Kareliya; Karelen), the land of the Karelian peoples, is an area in Northern Europe of historical significance for Finland, Russia, and Sweden.

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Kven language

The Kven language (kvääni or kväänin kieli; kainu or kainun kieli) is a Finnish dialect spoken in northern Norway by the Kven people.

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Kvenland, known as Cwenland, Qwenland, Kænland or similar terms in medieval sources, is an ancient name for an area in Fennoscandia and Scandinavia.

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Lands of Denmark

The three lands of Denmark historically formed the Danish kingdom from its unification and consolidation in the 10th century.

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Lands of Sweden

The lands of Sweden (Sveriges landsdelar) are three traditional parts, each consisting of several provinces, in Sweden.

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Last glacial period

The last glacial period occurred from the end of the Eemian interglacial to the end of the Younger Dryas, encompassing the period years ago.

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Leiden University

Leiden University (abbreviated as LEI; Universiteit Leiden), founded in the city of Leiden, is the oldest university in the Netherlands.

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List of Norwegian fjords

This list of Norwegian fjords shows many of the fjords in Norway.

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A loanword (also loan word or loan-word) is a word adopted from one language (the donor language) and incorporated into another language without translation.

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The Lombards or Longobards (Langobardi, Longobardi, Longobard (Western)) were a Germanic people who ruled most of the Italian Peninsula from 568 to 774.

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Margaret I of Denmark

Margaret I (Margrete Valdemarsdatter, Margrete Valdemarsdatter, Margareta Valdemarsdotter, Margrét Valdimarsdóttir; 15 March 1353 – 28 October 1412) was queen consort of Norway (1363–1380) and Sweden (1363–1364) and later ruler in her own right of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, from which later period there are ambiguities regarding her specific titles.

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Målilla is a locality situated in Hultsfred Municipality, Kalmar County, Sweden with 1,524 inhabitants in 2010.

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Meänkieli dialects

Meänkieli (literally "our language") is a group of distinct Finnish dialects spoken in the northernmost part of Sweden along the valley of the Torne River.

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In Old World archaeology, Mesolithic (Greek: μέσος, mesos "middle"; λίθος, lithos "stone") is the period between the Upper Paleolithic and the Neolithic.

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Metaphysics is a branch of philosophy that explores the nature of being, existence, and reality.

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Microsoft Corporation (abbreviated as MS) is an American multinational technology company with headquarters in Redmond, Washington.

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Middle Low German

Middle Low German or Middle Saxon (ISO 639-3 code gml) is a language that is the descendant of Old Saxon and the ancestor of modern Low German.

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Monarchy of Denmark

The Monarchy of Denmark, colloquially known as the Danish Monarchy, is a constitutional institution and a historic office of the Kingdom of Denmark.

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Monarchy of Norway

The Norwegian monarch is the monarchical head of state of Norway, which is a constitutional and hereditary monarchy with a parliamentary system.

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Monarchy of Sweden

The Monarchy of Sweden concerns the monarchical head of state of Sweden,See the Instrument of Government, Chapter 1, Article 5.

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A moraine is any glacially formed accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris (regolith and rock) that occurs in both currently and formerly glaciated regions on Earth (i.e. a past glacial maximum), through geomorphological processes.

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Mutual intelligibility

In linguistics, mutual intelligibility is a relationship between languages or dialects in which speakers of different but related varieties can readily understand each other without prior familiarity or special effort.

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Napoleonic Wars

The Napoleonic Wars (1803–1815) were a series of major conflicts pitting the French Empire and its allies, led by Napoleon I, against a fluctuating array of European powers formed into various coalitions, financed and usually led by the United Kingdom.

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Nationalism is a political, social, and economic system characterized by the promotion of the interests of a particular nation, especially with the aim of gaining and maintaining sovereignty (self-governance) over the homeland.

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Natural History (Pliny)

The Natural History (Naturalis Historia) is a book about the whole of the natural world in Latin by Pliny the Elder, a Roman author and naval commander who died in 79 AD.

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Nordic Council

The Nordic Council is the official body for formal inter-parliamentary co-operation among the Nordic countries.

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Nordic countries

The Nordic countries or the Nordics are a geographical and cultural region in Northern Europe and the North Atlantic, where they are most commonly known as Norden (literally "the North").

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Nordic Cross flag

The Nordic Cross flag is any of certain flags bearing the design of the Nordic or Scandinavian cross, a cross symbol in a rectangular field, with the center of the cross shifted towards the hoist.

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Norse mythology

Norse mythology is the body of myths of the North Germanic people stemming from Norse paganism and continuing after the Christianization of Scandinavia and into the Scandinavian folklore of the modern period.

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North Cape (Norway)

North Cape (Nordkapp; Davvenjárga) is a cape on the northern coast of the island of Magerøya in Northern Norway.

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North Germanic languages

The North Germanic languages make up one of the three branches of the Germanic languages, a sub-family of the Indo-European languages, along with the West Germanic languages and the extinct East Germanic languages.

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Northern Europe

Northern Europe is the general term for the geographical region in Europe that is approximately north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea.

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Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.

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Norwegian language

Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language.

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Olaf II of Denmark

Olaf II Haakonsson (1370 – 23 August 1387) was King of Denmark as Olaf II (1376–1387) and King of Norway as Olaf IV (1380–1387).

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Old English

Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.

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Old Frisian

Old Frisian is a West Germanic language spoken between the 8th and 16th centuries in the area between the Rhine and Weser on the European North Sea coast.

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Old High German

Old High German (OHG, Althochdeutsch, German abbr. Ahd.) is the earliest stage of the German language, conventionally covering the period from around 700 to 1050.

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Old Norse

Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century.

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Old Saxon

Old Saxon, also known as Old Low German, was a Germanic language and the earliest recorded form of Low German (spoken nowadays in Northern Germany, the northeastern Netherlands, southern Denmark, the Americas and parts of Eastern Europe).

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Oldenburg is an independent city in the district of Oldenburg in the state of Lower Saxony, Germany.

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Orkney (Orkneyjar), also known as the Orkney Islands, is an archipelago in the Northern Isles of Scotland, situated off the north coast of Great Britain.

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Orographic lift

Orographic lift occurs when an air mass is forced from a low elevation to a higher elevation as it moves over rising terrain.

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Paulus Orosius (born 375, died after 418 AD) — less often Paul Orosius in English — was a Gallaecian Chalcedonian priest, historian and theologian, a student of Augustine of Hippo.

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Oslo (rarely) is the capital and most populous city of Norway.

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The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.

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Parliamentary republic

A parliamentary republic is a republic that operates under a parliamentary system of government where the executive branch (the government) derives its legitimacy from and is accountable to the legislature (the parliament).

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Paul the Deacon

Paul the Deacon (720s 13 April 799 AD), also known as Paulus Diaconus, Warnefridus, Barnefridus, Winfridus and sometimes suffixed Cassinensis (i.e. "of Monte Cassino"), was a Benedictine monk, scribe, and historian of the Lombards.

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Personal union

A personal union is the combination of two or more states that have the same monarch while their boundaries, laws, and interests remain distinct.

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Petty kingdom

A petty kingdom is a kingdom described as minor or "petty" by contrast to an empire or unified kingdom that either preceded or succeeded it (e.g. the numerous kingdoms of Anglo-Saxon England unified into the Kingdom of England in the 10th century, or the numerous Gaelic kingdoms of Ireland as the Kingdom of Ireland in the 16th century).

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Phonotactics (from Ancient Greek phōnḗ "voice, sound" and tacticós "having to do with arranging") is a branch of phonology that deals with restrictions in a language on the permissible combinations of phonemes.

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Pliny the Elder

Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.

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Pomponius Mela

Pomponius Mela, who wrote around AD 43, was the earliest Roman geographer.

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Power (international relations)

Power in international relations is defined in several different ways.

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In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.

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Privy council

A privy council is a body that advises the head of state of a nation, typically, but not always, in the context of a monarchic government.

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Procopius of Caesarea (Προκόπιος ὁ Καισαρεύς Prokopios ho Kaisareus, Procopius Caesariensis; 500 – 554 AD) was a prominent late antique Greek scholar from Palaestina Prima.

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Proto-Germanic language

Proto-Germanic (abbreviated PGmc; German: Urgermanisch; also called Common Germanic, German: Gemeingermanisch) is the reconstructed proto-language of the Germanic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Proto-Indo-European language

Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the linguistic reconstruction of the hypothetical common ancestor of the Indo-European languages, the most widely spoken language family in the world.

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Prussia (Preußen) was a historically prominent German state that originated in 1525 with a duchy centred on the region of Prussia.

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Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.

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Pytheas of Massalia (Ancient Greek: Πυθέας ὁ Μασσαλιώτης Pythéas ho Massaliōtēs; Latin: Pytheas Massiliensis; fl. 4th century BC), was a Greek geographer and explorer from the Greek colony of Massalia (modern-day Marseille).

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The Reformation (or, more fully, the Protestant Reformation; also, the European Reformation) was a schism in Western Christianity initiated by Martin Luther and continued by Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin and other Protestant Reformers in 16th century Europe.

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The Riksdag (riksdagen or Sveriges riksdag) is the national legislature and the supreme decision-making body of Sweden.

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Romani language

Romani (also Romany; romani čhib) is any of several languages of the Romani people belonging to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Romantic nationalism

Romantic nationalism (also national romanticism, organic nationalism, identity nationalism) is the form of nationalism in which the state derives its political legitimacy as an organic consequence of the unity of those it governs.

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Russian Empire

The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.

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Saaremaa (Danish: Øsel; English (esp. traditionally): Osel; Finnish: Saarenmaa; Swedish & German: Ösel) is the largest island in Estonia, measuring.

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Saariselkä (Suoločielgi, literally islandback) is a village located in a mountainous area in northern Finland.

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Sami languages

Sami languages is a group of Uralic languages spoken by the Sami people in Northern Europe (in parts of northern Finland, Norway, Sweden and extreme northwestern Russia).

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Sami people

The Sami people (also known as the Sámi or the Saami) are a Finno-Ugric people inhabiting Sápmi, which today encompasses large parts of Norway and Sweden, northern parts of Finland, and the Murmansk Oblast of Russia.

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Sámi politics

Sámi politics refers to politics that concern the ethnic group called Sámis in Norway, Sweden, Finland and Russia.

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Sæmingr was a king of Norway according to Snorri Sturluson's euhemerized accounts or Hålogaland.

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Scandinavian colonialism

Scandinavian colonialism is a subdivision within broader colonial studies that discusses the role of Scandinavian nations in achieving economic benefits from outside of their own cultural sphere.

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Scandinavian family name etymology

Heritable family names were generally adopted rather late within Scandinavia.

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Scandinavian Monetary Union

The Scandinavian Monetary Union (Den skandinaviske møntunion, Skandinaviska myntunionen, Den skandinaviske myntunion) was a monetary union formed by Denmark and the Swedish part of the Union between Sweden and Norway on 5 May 1873, by fixing their currencies against gold at par to each other.

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Scandinavian Mountains

The Scandinavian Mountains or the Scandes is a mountain range that runs through the Scandinavian Peninsula.

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Scandinavian Peninsula

The Scandinavian Peninsula (Skandinaviska halvön; Den skandinaviske halvøy; Skandinavian niemimaa; ?; Скандинавский полуостров, Skandinavsky poluostrov) is a peninsula of Eurasia located in Northern Europe, which generally comprises the mainland of Sweden, the mainland of Norway (with the exception of a small coastal area bordering Russia), the northwestern area of Finland, as well as a narrow area in the west of the Pechengsky District of Russia.

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Scandinavian Tourist Board

The Scandinavian Tourist Board (STB) is a joint initiative by the national tourist boards of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden.

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Scandinavians are people belonging to the various ethnic groups native to Scandinavia: Always included based on a genetic definition are.

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Scandinavism, also called Scandinavianism, Pan-Scandinavianism,.

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Scandoromani language

Scandoromani (romani, romani, romani rakripa alt. tavringens rakripa), also known as Tavringer Romani and the Tattare language, is a North Germanic based Para-Romani.

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The Gothic-Byzantine historian Jordanes described Scandza as a "great island" in his work Getica, written in Constantinople around 551 AD.

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Scania, also known as Skåne, is the southernmost province (landskap) of Sweden.

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Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 states of Germany, comprising most of the historical duchy of Holstein and the southern part of the former Duchy of Schleswig.

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Second Schleswig War

The Second Schleswig War (2., Deutsch-Dänischer Krieg) was the second military conflict over the Schleswig-Holstein Question of the nineteenth century.

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Second Treaty of Brömsebro (1645)

The Second Treaty of Brömsebro (or the Peace of Brömsebro) was signed on 13 August 1645, and ended the Torstenson War, a local conflict that began in 1643 (and was part of the larger Thirty Years' War) between Sweden and Denmark-Norway.

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Shetland (Old Norse: Hjaltland), also called the Shetland Islands, is a subarctic archipelago of Scotland that lies northeast of Great Britain.

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In Norse mythology, Skaði (sometimes anglicized as Skadi, Skade, or Skathi) is a jötunn and goddess associated with bowhunting, skiing, winter, and mountains.

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Skagen is Denmark's northernmost town and the area surrounding it.

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The Skagerrak is a strait running between the southeast coast of Norway, the southwest coast of Sweden, and the Jutland peninsula of Denmark, connecting the North Sea and the Kattegat sea area, which leads to the Baltic Sea.

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Skanör med Falsterbo

Skanör med Falsterbo is a statistical locality (Swedish tätort, locality code 3672), situated in Vellinge Municipality, Skåne County, Sweden with 6,937 inhabitants in 2010.

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Skåneland (Swedish) or Skånelandene (Danish) is a region on the southern Scandinavian peninsula.

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Standard language

A standard language or standard variety may be defined either as a language variety used by a population for public purposes or as a variety that has undergone standardization.

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Stockholm is the capital of Sweden and the most populous city in the Nordic countries; 952,058 people live in the municipality, approximately 1.5 million in the urban area, and 2.3 million in the metropolitan area.

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The Storting (Stortinget, "the great thing" or "the great assembly") is the supreme legislature of Norway, established in 1814 by the Constitution of Norway.

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Stratum (linguistics)

In linguistics, a stratum (Latin for "layer") or strate is a language that influences, or is influenced by another through contact.

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Subarctic climate

The subarctic climate (also called subpolar climate, subalpine climate, or boreal climate) is a climate characterised by long, usually very cold winters, and short, cool to mild summers.

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Succession of states

Succession of states is a theory and practice in international relations regarding successor states.

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is a municipality in the Nordmøre region located in the northeast part of Møre og Romsdal county, Norway.

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Svalbard (prior to 1925 known by its Dutch name Spitsbergen, still the name of its largest island) is a Norwegian archipelago in the Arctic Ocean.

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Sweden (Sverige), officially the Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish), is a Scandinavian country in Northern Europe.

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Swedes (Germanic tribe)

The Swedes (svear; Old Norse: svíar / suar (probably from the PIE reflexive pronominal root *s(w)e, "one's own ";Bandle, Oskar. 2002. The Nordic languages: an international handbook of the history of the North Germanic languages. 2002. P.391 Old English: Sweonas) were a North Germanic tribe who inhabited Svealand ("land of the Swedes") in central Sweden and one of the progenitor groups of modern Swedes, along with Geats and Gutes. The first author who wrote about the tribe is Tacitus, who in his Germania, from 98 CE mentions the Suiones. Jordanes, in the sixth century, mentions Suehans and Suetidi. According to early sources such as the sagas, especially Heimskringla, the Swedes were a powerful tribe whose kings claimed descendence from the god Freyr. During the Viking Age they constituted the basis of the Varangian subset, the Vikings that travelled eastwards (see Rus' people).

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Swedish language

Swedish is a North Germanic language spoken natively by 9.6 million people, predominantly in Sweden (as the sole official language), and in parts of Finland, where it has equal legal standing with Finnish.

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Swedish-speaking population of Finland

The Swedish-speaking population of Finland (whose members are often called Swedish-speaking Finns, Finland-Swedes, Finland Swedes, Finnish Swedes, or Swedes of Finland—see below; finlandssvenskar; suomenruotsalaiset; the term Swedo-Finnish—finlandssvensk; suomenruotsalainen—can be used as an attribute) is a linguistic minority in Finland.

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Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (–) was a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire.

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Tafjord is a village in Norddal Municipality in Møre og Romsdal county, Norway.

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Temperate climate

In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.

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The American-Scandinavian Foundation

The American-Scandinavian Foundation (ASF), is an American non-profit foundation dedicated to promoting international understanding through educational and cultural exchange between the United States and Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden.

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The unity of the Realm

The term "the unity of the Realm" (Rigsfællesskabet, RigsenhedenSee "Nationale symboler i Det Danske Rige".) refers to the relationship between Denmark proper, the Faroe Islands and Greenland—three countries constituting the Kingdom of Denmark.

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Toponymy is the study of place names (toponyms), their origins, meanings, use, and typology.

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Trøndelag is a county in the central part of Norway.

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Treaty of Copenhagen (1660)

The Treaty of Copenhagen was signed on 27 May 1660, and marked the conclusion of the Second Northern War between Sweden and the alliance of Denmark-Norway and the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

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Treaty of Kiel

The Treaty of Kiel (Kieltraktaten) or Peace of Kiel (Swedish and Kielfreden or freden i Kiel) was concluded between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the Kingdom of Sweden on one side and the Kingdoms of Denmark and Norway on the other side on 14 January 1814 in Kiel.

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Treaty of Roskilde

The Treaty of Roskilde was concluded on 26 February (OS) or 8 March 1658 (NS) during the Second Northern War between Frederick III of Denmark–Norway and Charles X Gustav of Sweden in the Danish city of Roskilde.

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Union between Sweden and Norway

Sweden and Norway or Sweden–Norway (Svensk-norska unionen; Den svensk-norske union), officially the United Kingdoms of Sweden and Norway, or as the United Kingdoms, was a personal union of the separate kingdoms of Sweden and Norway under a common monarch and common foreign policy that lasted from 1814 until its amicable and peaceful dissolution in 1905.

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University of Jyväskylä

The University of Jyväskylä (Jyväskylän yliopisto) is a university in Jyväskylä, Finland.

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Uralic languages

The Uralic languages (sometimes called Uralian languages) form a language family of 38 languages spoken by approximately 25million people, predominantly in Northern Eurasia.

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UTC+01:00, known simply as UTC+1, is a time offset that adds 1 hour to Coordinated Universal Time (UTC).

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UTC+02:00 is an identifier for a time offset from UTC of +02.

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Vikings (Old English: wicing—"pirate", Danish and vikinger; Swedish and vikingar; víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.

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West Germanic languages

The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three branches of the Germanic family of languages (the others being the North Germanic and the extinct East Germanic languages).

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World War I

World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.

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Wulfstan of Hedeby

Wulfstan of Hedeby (Latin Haethum) was a late ninth century traveller and trader.

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Yiddish (ייִדיש, יידיש or אידיש, yidish/idish, "Jewish",; in older sources ייִדיש-טײַטש Yidish-Taitsh, Judaeo-German) is the historical language of the Ashkenazi Jews.

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Zealand (Sjælland), at 7,031 km2, is the largest and most populous island in Denmark proper (thus excluding Greenland and Disko Island, which are larger).

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.ax is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) of the Åland Islands, introduced in 2006.

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.dk is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Denmark.

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.fi is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Finland.

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.fo is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for the Faroe Islands.

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.gl is the country code top-level domain (ccTLD) in the Domain Name System of the Internet for Greenland.

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.is (dot is) is the top-level domain for Iceland.

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.no is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Norway.

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.se is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Sweden (Sverige).

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is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) reserved for the designation Svalbard and Jan Mayen.

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Central-north Europe, Central-northern Europe, Codanonia, Codanovia, Politics in scandinavia, Scadan, Scadanan, Scadinavia, Scandanan, Scandanavia, Scandenavia, Scandinavia (etymology), Scandinavian civilization, Scandinavian countries, Scandinavian country, Scandinavian culture, Scatenauge, Scatinavia, Scedeland, Skandenavia, Skandinavia, Skandinavien, Skandinavía, Skanoer (etymology), Skanor (etymology), Skanör (etymology).


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scandinavia

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