118 relations: Abundance of elements in Earth's crust, Acid, Alloy, Aluminium, Aluminium alloy, Aluminium hydroxide oxide, Amphoterism, Atomic mass, Atomic number, Baseball bat, Bayan Obo Mining District, Beryllium, Beta decay, Bicycle frame, Block (periodic table), Calcium, Celsius, Chemical element, Chemische Berichte, China, Cobalt, Color rendering index, Comptes rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, Coordination number, Cyclopentadienyl complex, Decay product, Diagonal relationship, Dmitri Mendeleev, Electrolysis, Electrolyte, Electron capture, Eutectic system, Euxenite, Evje, Gadolinite, General Electric, Greenvale, Queensland, Half-life, Halide, Hydride, Hydrofluoric acid, Hydrolysis, Intraperitoneal injection, Iron, Isotope, Iveland, Kola Peninsula, Kolbeckite, Lacrosse stick, Lanthanide, ..., Lanthanum, Lars Fredrik Nilson, Latin, Lewis acids and bases, List of bicycle parts, Lithium, Lutetium, Madagascar, Magnesium, Median lethal dose, Mercury-vapor lamp, Metal-halide lamp, Mikoyan MiG-29, Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21, Mineral, Nitric acid, Non-stoichiometric compound, Norway, Nuclear isomer, Nuclear Physics (journal), Oil refinery, Organic chemistry, Oxidation state, Oxygen, Passivation (chemistry), Pentamethylcyclopentadiene, Per Teodor Cleve, Periodic table, Periodic Videos, Positron, Potassium, Pure and Applied Chemistry, R-process, Radioactive decay, Radionuclide, Rare-earth element, Redox, Russia, Scandinavia, Scandium bromide, Scandium chloride, Scandium fluoride, Scandium hydride, Scandium oxide, Scandium triiodide, Scandium(III) trifluoromethanesulfonate, Scandium-44, Smith & Wesson, Sodium iodide, Solid oxide fuel cell, Soviet Union, Spin (physics), Stein (journal), Strategic Defense Initiative, Sun, Supernova, Television, Thortveitite, Timeline of chemical element discoveries, Titanium, Titanium alloy, Tonne, Ukraine, United States, Uranium, Yttrium, Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie, Zhovti Vody. Expand index (68 more) » « Shrink index
The abundance of elements in Earth's crust is shown in tabulated form with the estimated crustal abundance for each chemical element shown as either percentage or parts per million (ppm) by mass (10,000 ppm.
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
An alloy is a combination of metals or of a metal and another element.
Aluminium or aluminum is a chemical element with symbol Al and atomic number 13.
Aluminium alloys (or aluminum alloys; see spelling differences) are alloys in which aluminium (Al) is the predominant metal.
Aluminium hydroxide oxide or aluminium oxyhydroxide, AlO(OH) is found as one of two well defined crystalline phases, which are also known as the minerals boehmite and diaspore.
In chemistry, an amphoteric compound is a molecule or ion that can react both as an acid as well as a base.
The atomic mass (ma) is the mass of an atom.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
A baseball bat is a smooth wooden or metal club used in the sport of baseball to hit the ball after it is thrown by the pitcher.
Bayan'obo Mining District, (Mongolian: Bayan Oboɣ-a Aɣurqai-yin toɣoriɣ, Баян-Овоо Уурхайн тойрог ("rich" + ovoo)), or Baiyun-Obo or Baiyun'ebo, is a mining town in the west of Inner Mongolia, People's Republic of China.
Beryllium is a chemical element with symbol Be and atomic number 4.
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.
A bicycle frame is the main component of a bicycle, onto which wheels and other components are fitted.
A block of the periodic table of elements is a set of adjacent groups.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
The Celsius scale, previously known as the centigrade scale, is a temperature scale used by the International System of Units (SI).
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
Chemische Berichte (usually abbreviated as Ber. or Chem. Ber.) was a German-language scientific journal of all disciplines of chemistry founded in 1868.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27.
A color rendering index (CRI) is a quantitative measure of the ability of a light source to reveal the colors of various objects faithfully in comparison with an ideal or natural light source.
Comptes rendus de l'Académie des Sciences (English: Proceedings of the Academy of sciences), or simply Comptes rendus, is a French scientific journal which has been published since 1666.
In chemistry, crystallography, and materials science the coordination number, also called ligancy, of a central atom in a molecule or crystal is the number of atoms, molecules or ions bonded to it.
A cyclopentadienyl complex is a metal complex with one or more cyclopentadienyl groups (abbreviated as Cp−).
In nuclear physics, a decay product (also known as a daughter product, daughter isotope, radio-daughter, or daughter nuclide) is the remaining nuclide left over from radioactive decay.
A diagonal relationship is said to exist between certain pairs of diagonally adjacent elements in the second and third periods of the periodic table.
Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev (a; 8 February 18342 February 1907 O.S. 27 January 183420 January 1907) was a Russian chemist and inventor.
In chemistry and manufacturing, electrolysis is a technique that uses a direct electric current (DC) to drive an otherwise non-spontaneous chemical reaction.
An electrolyte is a substance that produces an electrically conducting solution when dissolved in a polar solvent, such as water.
Electron capture (K-electron capture, also K-capture, or L-electron capture, L-capture) is a process in which the proton-rich nucleus of an electrically neutral atom absorbs an inner atomic electron, usually from the K or L electron shell.
A eutectic system from the Greek "ευ" (eu.
Euxenite or euxenite-(Y) (a correct mineralogical name) is a brownish black mineral with a metallic luster.
Evje is a former municipality in Aust-Agder county, Norway.
Gadolinite, sometimes known as ytterbite, is a silicate mineral consisting principally of the silicates of cerium, lanthanum, neodymium, yttrium, beryllium, and iron with the formula (Ce,La,Nd,Y)2FeBe2Si2O10.
General Electric Company (GE) is an American multinational conglomerate incorporated in New York and headquartered in Boston, Massachusetts.
Greenvale is a nickel mining settlement in Queensland, Australia, approximately northwest of Townsville.
Half-life (symbol t1⁄2) is the time required for a quantity to reduce to half its initial value.
A halide is a binary phase, of which one part is a halogen atom and the other part is an element or radical that is less electronegative (or more electropositive) than the halogen, to make a fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, astatide, or theoretically tennesside compound.
In chemistry, a hydride is the anion of hydrogen, H−, or, more commonly, it is a compound in which one or more hydrogen centres have nucleophilic, reducing, or basic properties.
Hydrofluoric acid is a solution of hydrogen fluoride (HF) in water.
Hydrolysis is a term used for both an electro-chemical process and a biological one.
Intraperitoneal injection or IP injection is the injection of a substance into the peritoneum (body cavity).
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.
Iveland is a municipality in Aust-Agder county, Norway.
The Kola Peninsula (Ко́льский полуо́стров, Kolsky poluostrov; from Куэлнэгк нёаррк, Kuelnegk njoarrk; Guoládatnjárga; Kuolan niemimaa; Kolahalvøya) is a peninsula in the far northwest of Russia.
Kolbeckite (scandium phosphate dihydrate) is a mineral with formula: ScPO4·2H2O.
A lacrosse stick or crosse is used to play the sport of lacrosse.
The lanthanide or lanthanoid series of chemical elements comprises the 15 metallic chemical elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71, from lanthanum through lutetium.
Lanthanum is a chemical element with symbol La and atomic number 57.
Lars Fredrik Nilson (27 May 1840 – 14 May 1899) was a Swedish chemist who discovered scandium in 1879.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
A Lewis acid is a chemical species that contains an empty orbital which is capable of accepting an electron pair from a Lewis base to form a Lewis adduct.
For other cycling related terms (besides parts) see Glossary of cycling.
Lithium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol Li and atomic number 3.
Lutetium is a chemical element with symbol Lu and atomic number 71.
Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
In toxicology, the median lethal dose, LD50 (abbreviation for "lethal dose, 50%"), LC50 (lethal concentration, 50%) or LCt50 is a measure of the lethal dose of a toxin, radiation, or pathogen.
A mercury-vapor lamp is a gas discharge lamp that uses an electric arc through vaporized mercury to produce light.
A metal-halide lamp is an electrical lamp that produces light by an electric arc through a gaseous mixture of vaporized mercury and metal halides (compounds of metals with bromine or iodine).
The Mikoyan MiG-29 (Микоян МиГ-29; NATO reporting name: Fulcrum) is a twin-engine jet fighter aircraft designed in the Soviet Union.
The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21 (Микоян и Гуревич МиГ-21; NATO reporting name: Fishbed) is a supersonic jet fighter and interceptor aircraft, designed by the Mikoyan-Gurevich Design Bureau in the Soviet Union.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
Nitric acid (HNO3), also known as aqua fortis (Latin for "strong water") and spirit of niter, is a highly corrosive mineral acid.
Non-stoichiometric compounds are chemical compounds, almost always solid inorganic compounds, having elemental composition whose proportions cannot be represented by integers; most often, in such materials, some small percentage of atoms are missing or too many atoms are packed into an otherwise perfect lattice work.
Norway (Norwegian: (Bokmål) or (Nynorsk); Norga), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a unitary sovereign state whose territory comprises the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula plus the remote island of Jan Mayen and the archipelago of Svalbard.
A nuclear isomer is a metastable state of an atomic nucleus caused by the excitation of one or more of its nucleons (protons or neutrons).
Nuclear Physics is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Elsevier.
Oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process plant where crude oil is transformed and refined into more useful products such as petroleum naphtha, gasoline, diesel fuel, asphalt base, heating oil, kerosene, liquefied petroleum gas, jet fuel and fuel oils.
Organic chemistry is a chemistry subdiscipline involving the scientific study of the structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials, i.e., matter in its various forms that contain carbon atoms.
The oxidation state, sometimes referred to as oxidation number, describes degree of oxidation (loss of electrons) of an atom in a chemical compound.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Passivation, in physical chemistry and engineering, refers to a material becoming "passive," that is, less affected or corroded by the environment of future use.
1,2,3,4,5-Pentamethylcyclopentadiene is a cyclic dialkene with the formula C5Me5H (Me.
Per Teodor Cleve (10 February 1840 – 18 June 1905) was a Swedish chemist, biologist, mineralogist and oceanographer.
The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties, whose structure shows periodic trends.
The Periodic Table of Videos (usually shortened to Periodic Videos) is a series of videos about chemical elements and the periodic table.
The positron or antielectron is the antiparticle or the antimatter counterpart of the electron.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Pure and Applied Chemistry (abbreviated Pure Appl. Chem.) is the official journal for the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC).
The rapid neutron-capture process, or so-called r-process, is a set of nuclear reactions that in nuclear astrophysics is responsible for the creation (nucleosynthesis) of approximately half the abundances of the atomic nuclei heavier than iron, usually synthesizing the entire abundance of the two most neutron-rich stable isotopes of each heavy element.
Radioactive decay (also known as nuclear decay or radioactivity) is the process by which an unstable atomic nucleus loses energy (in terms of mass in its rest frame) by emitting radiation, such as an alpha particle, beta particle with neutrino or only a neutrino in the case of electron capture, gamma ray, or electron in the case of internal conversion.
A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is an atom that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable.
A rare-earth element (REE) or rare-earth metal (REM), as defined by IUPAC, is one of a set of seventeen chemical elements in the periodic table, specifically the fifteen lanthanides, as well as scandium and yttrium.
Redox (short for reduction–oxidation reaction) (pronunciation: or) is a chemical reaction in which the oxidation states of atoms are changed.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
Scandium bromide, or ScBr3, is a trihalide, hygroscopic, water-soluble chemical compound of scandium and bromine.
Scandium(III) chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula ScCl3.
Scandium(III) fluoride, ScF3, is an ionic compound.
Scandium hydride, also known as scandium–hydrogen alloy, is an alloy made by combining scandium and hydrogen.
Scandium(III) oxide, Sc2O3, or scandia, is a high melting rare earth oxide.
Scandium triiodide, also known as scandium iodide, is an inorganic compound with the formula ScI3 and is classified as a lanthanide iodide.
Scandium trifluoromethanesulfonate, commonly called scandium triflate, is a chemical compound with formula Sc(SO3CF3)3, a salt consisting of scandium cations Sc3+ and triflate SO3CF3− anions.
44Sc radioisotope decays by positron emission (β+ branching of 94.3%) to stable 44Ca with a half-life of 3.97 h and it is of potential interest for clinical PET imaging.
Smith & Wesson (S&W) is an American manufacturer of firearms, ammunition and restraints.
Sodium iodide (chemical formula NaI) is an ionic compound formed from the chemical reaction of sodium metal and iodine.
A solid oxide fuel cell (or SOFC) is an electrochemical conversion device that produces electricity directly from oxidizing a fuel.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
In quantum mechanics and particle physics, spin is an intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, composite particles (hadrons), and atomic nuclei.
Stein is a Norwegian scientific journal on "popular geology." The name "Stein" comes from the Norwegian word for "stone".
The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was a proposed missile defense system intended to protect the United States from attack by ballistic strategic nuclear weapons (intercontinental ballistic missiles and submarine-launched ballistic missiles).
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
A supernova (plural: supernovae or supernovas, abbreviations: SN and SNe) is a transient astronomical event that occurs during the last stellar evolutionary stages of a star's life, either a massive star or a white dwarf, whose destruction is marked by one final, titanic explosion.
Television (TV) is a telecommunication medium used for transmitting moving images in monochrome (black and white), or in colour, and in two or three dimensions and sound.
Thortveitite is a mineral consisting of scandium yttrium silicate (Sc,Y)2Si2O7.
The discovery of the 118 chemical elements known to exist today is presented here in chronological order.
Titanium is a chemical element with symbol Ti and atomic number 22.
Titanium alloys are metals that contain a mixture of titanium and other chemical elements.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Uranium is a chemical element with symbol U and atomic number 92.
Yttrium is a chemical element with symbol Y and atomic number 39.
Zeitschrift für anorganische und allgemeine Chemie (Journal of Inorganic and General Chemistry) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal dealing with inorganic chemistry, published by Wiley-VCH.
Zhovti Vody (Жовті Води,; Жёлтые Воды,, lit. Yellow Waters) is a town in south-central Ukraine's Dnipropetrovsk Oblast (province).