103 relations: Alpha particle, Astrophysics, Atmosphere of Earth, Atomic nucleus, Atomic, molecular, and optical physics, Backscatter, Billiard ball, Boundary value problem, Bragg's law, Brillouin scattering, Bubble (physics), Cell (biology), Characteristic mode analysis, Coherence (physics), Coherent backscattering, Compton scattering, Computer-generated imagery, Cosmic ray, Crystallite, Deep scattering layer, Density, Diffuse reflection, Diffusion, Doppler effect, Drop (liquid), Dynamic light scattering, Elastic scattering, Electromagnetic radiation, Electron, Elementary particle, Ellipsoid, Espresso crema effect, Event (particle physics), Fiber, Finite element method, Fluid, Fog, Geometrical optics, Gloss (optics), Gold, Gustav Mie, Inelastic scattering, Iris (anatomy), John H. Seinfeld, John Wiley & Sons, John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, Journal of the European Ceramic Society, Kikuchi line, Lidar, Light beam, ..., Light scattering by particles, Lustre (mineralogy), Maxwell's equations, Medical ultrasound, Mie scattering, Mott scattering, Nanoparticle, Nature (journal), Neutron scattering, Nuclear physics, Nuclear reactor, Paint sheen, Partial differential equation, Particle, Particle accelerator, Particle physics, Photon, Photon diffusion, Polarization (waves), Polymerization, Powder diffraction, Radar, Radiation, Radiative transfer equation and diffusion theory for photon transport in biological tissue, Rainbow, Raman scattering, Rayleigh scattering, Rutherford scattering, Scattering, Scattering amplitude, Scattering theory, Single crystal, Small-angle scattering, Sound, Speckle pattern, Specular reflection, Spheroid, Springer Science+Business Media, Sunlight, Surface plasmon resonance, Surface roughness, Thomson scattering, Trajectory, Tyndall effect, Vein, Wafer (electronics), Wave, Wave–particle duality, Wavelength, Weak localization, Wolf effect, X-ray, X-ray crystallography. Expand index (53 more) » « Shrink index
Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium-4 nucleus.
Astrophysics is the branch of astronomy that employs the principles of physics and chemistry "to ascertain the nature of the astronomical objects, rather than their positions or motions in space".
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.
Atomic, molecular, and optical physics (AMO) is the study of matter-matter and light-matter interactions; at the scale of one or a few atoms and energy scales around several electron volts.
In physics, backscatter (or backscattering) is the reflection of waves, particles, or signals back to the direction from which they came.
A billiard ball is a small, hard ball used in cue sports, such as carom billiards, pool, and snooker.
In mathematics, in the field of differential equations, a boundary value problem is a differential equation together with a set of additional constraints, called the boundary conditions.
In physics, Bragg's law, or Wulff–Bragg's condition, a special case of Laue diffraction, gives the angles for coherent and incoherent scattering from a crystal lattice.
Brillouin scattering, named after Léon Brillouin, refers to the interaction of light and material waves within a medium.
A bubble is a globule of one substance in another, usually gas in a liquid.
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
Characteristic modes (CM) form a set of functions which, under specific boundary conditions, diagonalizes operator relating field and induced sources.
In physics, two wave sources are perfectly coherent if they have a constant phase difference and the same frequency, and the same waveform.
In physics, coherent backscattering is observed when coherent radiation (such as a laser beam) propagates through a medium which has a large number of scattering centers (such as milk or a thick cloud) of size comparable to the wavelength of the radiation.
Compton scattering, discovered by Arthur Holly Compton, is the scattering of a photon by a charged particle, usually an electron.
Computer-generated imagery (CGI) is the application of computer graphics to create or contribute to images in art, printed media, video games, films, television programs, shorts, commercials, videos, and simulators.
Cosmic rays are high-energy radiation, mainly originating outside the Solar System and even from distant galaxies.
A crystallite is a small or even microscopic crystal which forms, for example, during the cooling of many materials.
The deep scattering layer, sometimes referred to as the sound scattering layer, is a name given to a layer in the ocean consisting of a variety of marine animals.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
Diffuse reflection is the reflection of light or other waves or particles from a surface such that a ray incident on the surface is scattered at many angles rather than at just one angle as in the case of specular reflection.
Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential) as a result of random motion of the molecules or atoms.
The Doppler effect (or the Doppler shift) is the change in frequency or wavelength of a wave in relation to observer who is moving relative to the wave source.
A drop or droplet is a small column of liquid, bounded completely or almost completely by free surfaces.
Dynamic light scattering (DLS) is a technique in physics that can be used to determine the size distribution profile of small particles in suspension or polymers in solution.
Elastic scattering is a form of particle scattering in scattering theory, nuclear physics and particle physics.
In physics, electromagnetic radiation (EM radiation or EMR) refers to the waves (or their quanta, photons) of the electromagnetic field, propagating (radiating) through space-time, carrying electromagnetic radiant energy.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a particle with no substructure, thus not composed of other particles.
An ellipsoid is a surface that may be obtained from a sphere by deforming it by means of directional scalings, or more generally, of an affine transformation.
In materials science, the espresso crema effect is an analogue model for superficial material alteration.
In particle physics, an event refers to the results just after a fundamental interaction took place between subatomic particles, occurring in a very short time span, at a well-localized region of space.
Fiber or fibre (see spelling differences, from the Latin fibra) is a natural or synthetic substance that is significantly longer than it is wide.
The finite element method (FEM), is a numerical method for solving problems of engineering and mathematical physics.
In physics, a fluid is a substance that continually deforms (flows) under an applied shear stress.
Fog is a visible aerosol consisting of minute water droplets or ice crystals suspended in the air at or near the Earth's surface.
Geometrical optics, or ray optics, describes light propagation in terms of rays.
Gloss is an optical property which indicates how well a surface reflects light in a specular (mirror-like) direction.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
Gustav Adolf Feodor Wilhelm Ludwig Mie (29 September 1868 – 13 February 1957) was a German physicist.
In chemistry, nuclear physics, and particle physics, inelastic scattering is a fundamental scattering process in which the kinetic energy of an incident particle is not conserved (in contrast to elastic scattering).
In humans and most mammals and birds, the iris (plural: irides or irises) is a thin, circular structure in the eye, responsible for controlling the diameter and size of the pupil and thus the amount of light reaching the retina.
John H. Seinfeld is an expert in the causes and modelling of tropospheric pollution.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.
John William Strutt, 3rd Baron Rayleigh, (12 November 1842 – 30 June 1919) was a physicist who, with William Ramsay, discovered argon, an achievement for which he earned the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1904.
The Journal of the European Ceramic Society is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Elsevier on behalf of the European Ceramic Society.
Kikuchi lines pair up to form bands in electron diffraction from single crystal specimens, there to serve as "roads in orientation-space" for microscopists not certain what they are looking at.
Lidar (also called LIDAR, LiDAR, and LADAR) is a surveying method that measures distance to a target by illuminating the target with pulsed laser light and measuring the reflected pulses with a sensor.
A light beam or beam of light is a directional projection of light energy radiating from a light source.
Light scattering by particles is the process by which small particles (e.g. ice crystals, dust, atmospheric particulates, cosmic dust, and blood cells) cause optical phenomena, such as rainbows, the blue color of the sky, and halos.
Lustre or luster is the way light interacts with the surface of a crystal, rock, or mineral.
Maxwell's equations are a set of partial differential equations that, together with the Lorentz force law, form the foundation of classical electromagnetism, classical optics, and electric circuits.
Medical ultrasound (also known as diagnostic sonography or ultrasonography) is a diagnostic imaging technique based on the application of ultrasound.
The Mie solution to Maxwell's equations (also known as the Lorenz–Mie solution, the Lorenz–Mie–Debye solution or Mie scattering) describes the scattering of an electromagnetic plane wave by a homogeneous sphere.
Mott scattering, also referred to as spin-coupling inelastic Coulomb scattering, is the separation of the two spin states of an electron beam by scattering the beam off the Coulomb field of heavy atoms.
Nanoparticles are particles between 1 and 100 nanometres (nm) in size with a surrounding interfacial layer.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Neutron scattering, the irregular dispersal of free neutrons by matter, can refer to either the naturally occurring physical process itself or to the man-made experimental techniques that use the natural process for investigating materials.
Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions.
A nuclear reactor, formerly known as an atomic pile, is a device used to initiate and control a self-sustained nuclear chain reaction.
In paint technology, the sheen is the glossiness of a paint finish.
In mathematics, a partial differential equation (PDE) is a differential equation that contains unknown multivariable functions and their partial derivatives.
In the physical sciences, a particle (or corpuscule in older texts) is a small localized object to which can be ascribed several physical or chemical properties such as volume, density or mass.
A particle accelerator is a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to nearly light speed and to contain them in well-defined beams.
Particle physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
Photon diffusion is a situation where photons travel through a material without being absorbed, but rather undergoing repeated scattering events which change the direction of their path.
Polarization (also polarisation) is a property applying to transverse waves that specifies the geometrical orientation of the oscillations.
In polymer chemistry, polymerization is a process of reacting monomer molecules together in a chemical reaction to form polymer chains or three-dimensional networks.
Powder diffraction is a scientific technique using X-ray, neutron, or electron diffraction on powder or microcrystalline samples for structural characterization of materials.
Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.
In physics, radiation is the emission or transmission of energy in the form of waves or particles through space or through a material medium.
Photon transport in biological tissue can be equivalently modeled numerically with Monte Carlo simulations or analytically by the radiative transfer equation (RTE).
A rainbow is a meteorological phenomenon that is caused by reflection, refraction and dispersion of light in water droplets resulting in a spectrum of light appearing in the sky.
Raman scattering or the Raman effect is the inelastic scattering of a photon by molecules which are excited to higher vibrational or rotational energy levels.
Rayleigh scattering (pronounced), named after the British physicist Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt), is the (dominantly) elastic scattering of light or other electromagnetic radiation by particles much smaller than the wavelength of the radiation.
Rutherford scattering is the elastic scattering of charged particles by the Coulomb interaction.
Scattering is a general physical process where some forms of radiation, such as light, sound, or moving particles, are forced to deviate from a straight trajectory by one or more paths due to localized non-uniformities in the medium through which they pass.
In quantum physics, the scattering amplitude is the probability amplitude of the outgoing spherical wave relative to the incoming plane wave in a stationary-state scattering process.
In mathematics and physics, scattering theory is a framework for studying and understanding the scattering of waves and particles.
A single crystal or monocrystalline solid is a material in which the crystal lattice of the entire sample is continuous and unbroken to the edges of the sample, with no grain boundaries.
Small-angle scattering (SAS) is a scattering technique based on deflection of collimated radiation away from the straight trajectory after it interacts with structures that are much larger than the wavelength of the radiation.
In physics, sound is a vibration that typically propagates as an audible wave of pressure, through a transmission medium such as a gas, liquid or solid.
A speckle pattern is an intensity pattern produced by the mutual interference of a set of wavefronts.
Specular reflection, also known as regular reflection, is the mirror-like reflection of waves, such as light, from a surface.
A spheroid, or ellipsoid of revolution, is a quadric surface obtained by rotating an ellipse about one of its principal axes; in other words, an ellipsoid with two equal semi-diameters.
Springer Science+Business Media or Springer, part of Springer Nature since 2015, is a global publishing company that publishes books, e-books and peer-reviewed journals in science, humanities, technical and medical (STM) publishing.
Sunlight is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, in particular infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light.
Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is the resonant oscillation of conduction electrons at the interface between negative and positive permittivity material stimulated by incident light.
Surface roughness often shortened to roughness, is a component of surface texture.
Thomson scattering is the elastic scattering of electromagnetic radiation by a free charged particle, as described by classical electromagnetism.
A trajectory or flight path is the path that a massive object in motion follows through space as a function of time.
The Tyndall effect, also known as Willis–Tyndall scattering, is light scattering by particles in a colloids or in a very fine suspension.
Veins are blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart.
A wafer, also called a slice or substrate, is a thin slice of semiconductor material, such as a crystalline silicon, used in electronics for the fabrication of integrated circuits and in photovoltaics for conventional, wafer-based solar cells.
In physics, a wave is a disturbance that transfers energy through matter or space, with little or no associated mass transport.
Wave–particle duality is the concept in quantum mechanics that every particle or quantic entity may be partly described in terms not only of particles, but also of waves.
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.
Weak localization is a physical effect which occurs in disordered electronic systems at very low temperatures.
The Wolf Effect (sometimes Wolf shift) is a frequency shift in the electromagnetic spectrum.
X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.
X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.
Coherent Scattering, Coherent scattering, Deflection Angle, Deflection angle, Light Scattering in Solids, Light scattering, Light scattering in liquids and solids, Light scattering in solids, Multiple scattering, Optical scattering, Radiation scattering, Scatter (physics), Scattered radiation, Scatterer, Scattering (optics), Scattering (physics), Scattering process, Scattering state, Scattering: Optical Imaging.