81 relations: Acoustic location, Acoustics, Alpha particle, Atomic nucleus, Attenuation coefficient, Backscatter, Barn (unit), Billiard ball, Born approximation, Bound state, Boundary value problem, Brillouin scattering, Central force, Classical electromagnetism, Compton scattering, Continuous spectrum, Cross section (physics), Deep inelastic scattering, Differential equation, Diffuse sky radiation, Discrete spectrum, Drop (liquid), Elementary particle, Extinction (astronomy), Faddeev equations, Geophysics, Gold, Hilbert space, Hydrogen atom, Inelastic mean free path, Inelastic scattering, Integrable system, Inverse scattering problem, Inverse scattering transform, Ionization, Light, Lippmann–Schwinger equation, Manifold, Mass attenuation coefficient, Mathematical physics, Mathematics, Mean free path, Medical imaging, Mie scattering, Nondestructive testing, Opacity (optics), Operator theory, Partial differential equation, Partial wave analysis, Particle physics, ..., Physics, Plane wave, Quantum chemistry, Quantum chromodynamics, Quantum electrodynamics, Quantum field theory, Quantum mechanics, Radar, Radio wave, Rainbow, Raman scattering, Rayleigh scattering, Refractive index, Rutherford scattering, S-matrix, Scattering, Scattering from rough surfaces, Schrödinger equation, Scintillation (physics), Seawater, Sound, Spectral line, Spectrum (functional analysis), Standard Model, Submarine, Sunlight, The Optical Society, Time, Wave, Wave equation, Wightman axioms. Expand index (31 more) » « Shrink index
Acoustic location is the use of sound to determine the distance and direction of its source or reflector.
Acoustics is the branch of physics that deals with the study of all mechanical waves in gases, liquids, and solids including topics such as vibration, sound, ultrasound and infrasound.
Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium-4 nucleus.
The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.
Attenuation coefficient or narrow beam attenuation coefficient of the volume of a material characterizes how easily it can be penetrated by a beam of light, sound, particles, or other energy or matter.
In physics, backscatter (or backscattering) is the reflection of waves, particles, or signals back to the direction from which they came.
A barn (symbol: b) is a unit of area equal to 10−28 m2 (100 fm2).
A billiard ball is a small, hard ball used in cue sports, such as carom billiards, pool, and snooker.
Generally in scattering theory and in particular in quantum mechanics, the Born approximation consists of taking the incident field in place of the total field as the driving field at each point in the scatterer.
In quantum physics, a bound state is a special quantum state of a particle subject to a potential such that the particle has a tendency to remain localised in one or more regions of space.
In mathematics, in the field of differential equations, a boundary value problem is a differential equation together with a set of additional constraints, called the boundary conditions.
Brillouin scattering, named after Léon Brillouin, refers to the interaction of light and material waves within a medium.
In classical mechanics, a central force on an object is a force that is directed along the line joining the object and the origin: where \scriptstyle \vec is the force, F is a vector valued force function, F is a scalar valued force function, r is the position vector, ||r|| is its length, and \scriptstyle \hat.
Classical electromagnetism or classical electrodynamics is a branch of theoretical physics that studies the interactions between electric charges and currents using an extension of the classical Newtonian model.
Compton scattering, discovered by Arthur Holly Compton, is the scattering of a photon by a charged particle, usually an electron.
In physics, a continuous spectrum usually means a set of attainable values for some physical quantity (such as energy or wavelength) that is best described as an interval of real numbers, as opposed to a discrete spectrum, a set of attainable values that is discrete in the mathematical sense, where there is a positive gap between each value and the next one.
When two particles interact, their mutual cross section is the area transverse to their relative motion within which they must meet in order to scatter from each other.
Deep inelastic scattering is the name given to a process used to probe the insides of hadrons (particularly the baryons, such as protons and neutrons), using electrons, muons and neutrinos.
A differential equation is a mathematical equation that relates some function with its derivatives.
Diffuse sky radiation is solar radiation reaching the Earth's surface after having been scattered from the direct solar beam by molecules or particulates in the atmosphere.
A physical quantity is said to have a discrete spectrum if it takes only distinct values, with gaps between one value and the next.
A drop or droplet is a small column of liquid, bounded completely or almost completely by free surfaces.
In particle physics, an elementary particle or fundamental particle is a particle with no substructure, thus not composed of other particles.
In astronomy, extinction is the absorption and scattering of electromagnetic radiation by dust and gas between an emitting astronomical object and the observer.
The Faddeev equations, named after their inventor Ludvig Faddeev, are equations that describe, at once, all the possible exchanges/interactions in a system of three particles in a fully quantum mechanical formulation.
Geophysics is a subject of natural science concerned with the physical processes and physical properties of the Earth and its surrounding space environment, and the use of quantitative methods for their analysis.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
The mathematical concept of a Hilbert space, named after David Hilbert, generalizes the notion of Euclidean space.
A hydrogen atom is an atom of the chemical element hydrogen.
The inelastic mean free path (IMFP) is an index of how far an electron on average travels through a solid before losing energy.
In chemistry, nuclear physics, and particle physics, inelastic scattering is a fundamental scattering process in which the kinetic energy of an incident particle is not conserved (in contrast to elastic scattering).
In the context of differential equations to integrate an equation means to solve it from initial conditions.
In mathematics and physics, the inverse scattering problem is the problem of determining characteristics of an object, based on data of how it scatters incoming radiation or particles.
In mathematics, the inverse scattering transform is a method for solving some non-linear partial differential equations.
Ionization or ionisation, is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions, often in conjunction with other chemical changes.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
The Lippmann–Schwinger equation (named after Bernard Lippmann and Julian Schwinger) is one of the most used equations to describe particle collisions – or, more precisely, scattering – in quantum mechanics.
In mathematics, a manifold is a topological space that locally resembles Euclidean space near each point.
The mass attenuation coefficient, mass extinction coefficient, or mass narrow beam attenuation coefficient of the volume of a material characterizes how easily it can be penetrated by a beam of light, sound, particles, or other energy or matter.
Mathematical physics refers to the development of mathematical methods for application to problems in physics.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
In physics, the mean free path is the average distance traveled by a moving particle (such as an atom, a molecule, a photon) between successive impacts (collisions), which modify its direction or energy or other particle properties.
Medical imaging is the technique and process of creating visual representations of the interior of a body for clinical analysis and medical intervention, as well as visual representation of the function of some organs or tissues (physiology).
The Mie solution to Maxwell's equations (also known as the Lorenz–Mie solution, the Lorenz–Mie–Debye solution or Mie scattering) describes the scattering of an electromagnetic plane wave by a homogeneous sphere.
Nondestructive testing or non-destructive testing (NDT) is a wide group of analysis techniques used in science and technology industry to evaluate the properties of a material, component or system without causing damage.
Opacity is the measure of impenetrability to electromagnetic or other kinds of radiation, especially visible light.
In mathematics, operator theory is the study of linear operators on function spaces, beginning with differential operators and integral operators.
In mathematics, a partial differential equation (PDE) is a differential equation that contains unknown multivariable functions and their partial derivatives.
Partial wave analysis, in the context of quantum mechanics, refers to a technique for solving scattering problems by decomposing each wave into its constituent angular momentum components and solving using boundary conditions.
Particle physics (also high energy physics) is the branch of physics that studies the nature of the particles that constitute matter and radiation.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
In the physics of wave propagation, a plane wave (also spelled planewave) is a wave whose wavefronts (surfaces of constant phase) are infinite parallel planes.
Quantum chemistry is a branch of chemistry whose primary focus is the application of quantum mechanics in physical models and experiments of chemical systems.
In theoretical physics, quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is the theory of the strong interaction between quarks and gluons, the fundamental particles that make up composite hadrons such as the proton, neutron and pion.
In particle physics, quantum electrodynamics (QED) is the relativistic quantum field theory of electrodynamics.
In theoretical physics, quantum field theory (QFT) is the theoretical framework for constructing quantum mechanical models of subatomic particles in particle physics and quasiparticles in condensed matter physics.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.
Radio waves are a type of electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths in the electromagnetic spectrum longer than infrared light.
A rainbow is a meteorological phenomenon that is caused by reflection, refraction and dispersion of light in water droplets resulting in a spectrum of light appearing in the sky.
Raman scattering or the Raman effect is the inelastic scattering of a photon by molecules which are excited to higher vibrational or rotational energy levels.
Rayleigh scattering (pronounced), named after the British physicist Lord Rayleigh (John William Strutt), is the (dominantly) elastic scattering of light or other electromagnetic radiation by particles much smaller than the wavelength of the radiation.
In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium.
Rutherford scattering is the elastic scattering of charged particles by the Coulomb interaction.
In physics, the S-matrix or scattering matrix relates the initial state and the final state of a physical system undergoing a scattering process.
Scattering is a general physical process where some forms of radiation, such as light, sound, or moving particles, are forced to deviate from a straight trajectory by one or more paths due to localized non-uniformities in the medium through which they pass.
Surface roughness scattering or interface roughness scattering is the elastic scattering of a charged particle by an imperfect interface between two different materials.
In quantum mechanics, the Schrödinger equation is a mathematical equation that describes the changes over time of a physical system in which quantum effects, such as wave–particle duality, are significant.
Scintillation is a flash of light produced in a transparent material by the passage of a particle (an electron, an alpha particle, an ion, or a high-energy photon).
Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean.
In physics, sound is a vibration that typically propagates as an audible wave of pressure, through a transmission medium such as a gas, liquid or solid.
A spectral line is a dark or bright line in an otherwise uniform and continuous spectrum, resulting from emission or absorption of light in a narrow frequency range, compared with the nearby frequencies.
In mathematics, particularly in functional analysis, the spectrum of a bounded operator is a generalisation of the set of eigenvalues of a matrix.
The Standard Model of particle physics is the theory describing three of the four known fundamental forces (the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, and not including the gravitational force) in the universe, as well as classifying all known elementary particles.
A submarine (or simply sub) is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater.
Sunlight is a portion of the electromagnetic radiation given off by the Sun, in particular infrared, visible, and ultraviolet light.
The Optical Society (originally established as The Optical Society of America, OSA) is a scientific society dedicated to advancing the study of light—optics and photonics—in theory and application, by means of publishing, organizing conferences and exhibitions, partnership with industry, and education.
Time is the indefinite continued progress of existence and events that occur in apparently irreversible succession from the past through the present to the future.
In physics, a wave is a disturbance that transfers energy through matter or space, with little or no associated mass transport.
The wave equation is an important second-order linear partial differential equation for the description of waves—as they occur in classical physics—such as mechanical waves (e.g. water waves, sound waves and seismic waves) or light waves.
In physics, the Wightman axioms (also called Gårding–Wightman axioms), named after Lars Gårding and Arthur Wightman, are an attempt at a mathematically rigorous formulation of quantum field theory.