63 relations: Andalusite, Basalt, Biotite, Cambridge University Press, Central Park, Chlorite group, Clastic rock, Clay, Coal mining, Diopside, Discontinuity (geotechnical engineering), Dolomite, Feldspar, Foliation (geology), Foundation (engineering), Garnet, Geotechnical engineering, Glaucophane, Gneiss, Graphite, Greek language, Greenschist, Gypsum, Halleflinta, Hematite, Hornblende, Igneous rock, Intrusive rock, Ironstone, Kyanite, Limestone, List of rock textures, Manhattan, Metamorphic rock, Mica, Mineral, Mud, Mudrock, Muscovite, Olivine, Oxford University Press, Pelite, Phyllite, Quartz, Quartz-porphyry, Quartzite, Rhyolite, Scapolite, Serpentine subgroup, Shale, ..., Sillimanite, Slate, Slope stability analysis, Staurolite, Talc, Thin section, Tourmaline, Tremolite, Tuff, Tunnel, Ultramafic rock, Unconformity, Zoisite. Expand index (13 more) » « Shrink index
Andalusite is an aluminium nesosilicate mineral with the chemical formula Al2SiO5.
Basalt is a common extrusive igneous (volcanic) rock formed from the rapid cooling of basaltic lava exposed at or very near the surface of a planet or moon.
Biotite is a common phyllosilicate mineral within the mica group, with the approximate chemical formula.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Central Park is an urban park in Manhattan, New York City.
The chlorites are a group of phyllosilicate minerals.
Clastic rocks are composed of fragments, or clasts, of pre-existing minerals and rock.
Clay is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with possible traces of quartz (SiO2), metal oxides (Al2O3, MgO etc.) and organic matter.
Coal mining is the process of extracting coal from the ground.
Diopside is a monoclinic pyroxene mineral with composition MgCaSi2O6.
A discontinuity in geotechnical engineering (in geotechnical literature often denoted by joint) is a plane or surface that marks a change in physical or chemical characteristics in a soil or rock mass.
Dolomite is an anhydrous carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate, ideally The term is also used for a sedimentary carbonate rock composed mostly of the mineral dolomite.
Feldspars (KAlSi3O8 – NaAlSi3O8 – CaAl2Si2O8) are a group of rock-forming tectosilicate minerals that make up about 41% of the Earth's continental crust by weight.
Foliation in geology refers to repetitive layering in metamorphic rocks.
A foundation (or, more commonly, base) is the element of an architectural structure which connects it to the ground, and transfers loads from the structure to the ground.
Garnets are a group of silicate minerals that have been used since the Bronze Age as gemstones and abrasives.
Geotechnical engineering is the branch of civil engineering concerned with the engineering behavior of earth materials.
Glaucophane is the name of a mineral and a mineral group belonging to the sodic amphibole supergroup of the double chain inosilicates, with the chemical formula ☐Na2(Mg3Al2)Si8O22(OH)2.
Gneiss is a common distributed type of rock formed by high-grade regional metamorphic processes from pre-existing formations that were originally either igneous or sedimentary rocks.
Graphite, archaically referred to as plumbago, is a crystalline allotrope of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and a form of coal.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Greenschists are metamorphic rocks that formed under the lowest temperatures and pressures usually produced by regional metamorphism, typically and 2–10 kilobars.
Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O.
Hälleflinta (a Swedish word meaning rock-flint), a white, grey, yellow, greenish or pink, fine-grained rock consisting of an intimate mixture of quartz and feldspar.
Hematite, also spelled as haematite, is the mineral form of iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3), one of several iron oxides.
Hornblende is a complex inosilicate series of minerals (ferrohornblende – magnesiohornblende).
Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ignis meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main rock types, the others being sedimentary and metamorphic.
Intrusive rock (also called plutonic rock) is formed when magma crystallizes and solidifies underground to form intrusions, for example plutons, batholiths, dikes, sills, laccoliths, and volcanic necks.
Ironstone is a sedimentary rock, either deposited directly as a ferruginous sediment or created by chemical replacement, that contains a substantial proportion of an iron compound from which iron either can be or once was smelted commercially.
Kyanite is a typically blue silicate mineral, commonly found in aluminium-rich metamorphic pegmatites and/or sedimentary rock.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
This page is intended to be a list of rock textural and morphological terms.
Manhattan is the most densely populated borough of New York City, its economic and administrative center, and its historical birthplace.
Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock types, in a process called metamorphism, which means "change in form".
The mica group of sheet silicate (phyllosilicate) minerals includes several closely related materials having nearly perfect basal cleavage.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
Mud is a liquid or semi-liquid mixture of water and any combination of different kinds of soil (loam, silt, and clay).
Mudrocks are a class of fine grained siliciclastic sedimentary rocks.
Muscovite (also known as common mica, isinglass, or potash mica) is a hydrated phyllosilicate mineral of aluminium and potassium with formula KAl2(AlSi3O10)(FOH)2, or (KF)2(Al2O3)3(SiO2)6(H2O).
The mineral olivine is a magnesium iron silicate with the formula (Mg2+, Fe2+)2SiO4.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
A pelite (Ancient Greek pelos, clay) is a metamorphosed fine-grained sedimentary rock, i.e. mudstone or siltstone.
Phyllite is a type of foliated metamorphic rock created from slate that is further metamorphosed so that very fine grained white mica achieves a preferred orientation.
Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2.
Quartz-porphyry, in layman's terms, is a type of volcanic (igneous) rock containing large porphyritic crystals of quartz.
Quartzite (from Quarzit) is a hard, non-foliated metamorphic rock which was originally pure quartz sandstone.
Rhyolite is an igneous, volcanic rock, of felsic (silica-rich) composition (typically > 69% SiO2 – see the TAS classification).
The scapolites (Gr. σκάπος, rod, and λίθος, stone) are a group of rock-forming silicate minerals composed of aluminium, calcium, and sodium silicate with chlorine, carbonate and sulfate.
The serpentine subgroup (part of the kaolinite-serpentine group) are greenish, brownish, or spotted minerals commonly found in serpentinite rocks.
Shale is a fine-grained, clastic sedimentary rock composed of mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments (silt-sized particles) of other minerals, especially quartz and calcite.
Sillimanite is an aluminosilicate mineral with the chemical formula Al2SiO5.
Slate is a fine-grained, foliated, homogeneous metamorphic rock derived from an original shale-type sedimentary rock composed of clay or volcanic ash through low-grade regional metamorphism.
Slope stability analysis is performed to assess the safe design of a human-made or natural slopes (e.g. embankments, road cuts, open-pit mining, excavations, landfills etc.) and the equilibrium conditions.
Staurolite is a red brown to black, mostly opaque, nesosilicate mineral with a white streak.
Talc or talcum is a clay mineral composed of hydrated magnesium silicate with the chemical formula H2Mg3(SiO3)4 or Mg3Si4O10(OH)2.
In optical mineralogy and petrography, a thin section (or petrographic thin section) is a laboratory preparation of a rock, mineral, soil, pottery, bones, or even metal sample for use with a polarizing petrographic microscope, electron microscope and electron microprobe.
Tourmaline is a crystalline boron silicate mineral compounded with elements such as aluminium, iron, magnesium, sodium, lithium, or potassium.
Tremolite is a member of the amphibole group of silicate minerals with composition: ☐Ca2(Mg5.0-4.5Fe2+0.0-0.5)Si8O22(OH)2.
Tuff (from the Italian tufo) is a type of rock made of volcanic ash ejected from a vent during a volcanic eruption.
A tunnel is an underground passageway, dug through the surrounding soil/earth/rock and enclosed except for entrance and exit, commonly at each end.
Ultramafic (also referred to as ultrabasic rocks, although the terms are not wholly equivalent) are igneous and meta-igneous rocks with a very low silica content (less than 45%), generally >18% MgO, high FeO, low potassium, and are composed of usually greater than 90% mafic minerals (dark colored, high magnesium and iron content).
An unconformity is a buried erosional or non-depositional surface separating two rock masses or strata of different ages, indicating that sediment deposition was not continuous.
Zoisite, first known as saualpite, after its type locality, is a calcium aluminium hydroxy sorosilicate belonging to the epidote group of minerals.
Hornblend schist, Hornblende schist, Hydromica Schist, Hydromica schist, Igneous Schist, Mica schist, Mica slate, Mica-Schist, Mica-schist, Schistocity, Schistose, Schistose textur, Schistosity, Schistous, Schists, Shist.