242 relations: A Beautiful Mind (book), A Beautiful Mind (film), Abnormality (behavior), Adverse effect, Agranulocytosis, Alcohol abuse, Alcoholic hallucinosis, Alogia, Altered level of consciousness, Alzheimer's disease, American Psychiatric Association, Amisulpride, Ancient Greek, Anhedonia, Antipsychotic, Anxiety disorder, Arnold Pick, Asociality, Assertive community treatment, Attention, Atypical antipsychotic, Auditory hallucination, Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, Autism, Avoidant personality disorder, Avolition, Behavioural genetics, Biopsychosocial model, Bipolar disorder, Borderline personality disorder, Brief psychotic disorder, Cannabis, Cannabis (drug), Cardiovascular disease, Catatonia, Childhood schizophrenia, Chlamydia infection, Chlorpromazine, Chronic condition, Classification of mental disorders, Clinical psychology, Clozapine, Cocaine, Coeliac disease, Cognition, Cognitive behavioral therapy, Cognitive bias, Cognitive remediation therapy, Community mental health service, Copy-number variation, ..., Culture, David Rosenhan, Deinstitutionalisation, Delirium, Delusion, Delusional disorder, Dementia, Dementia praecox, Developed country, Developing country, Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, DiGeorge syndrome, Disability, Disability-adjusted life year, Disorganized schizophrenia, Dissociative identity disorder, Dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia, Dopamine receptor D2, Dopamine transporter, Dopaminergic pathways, DSM-5, Dysphoria, Emergency psychiatry, Emil Kraepelin, Environmental factor, Epilepsy, Episodic memory, Ethnic group, Eugen Bleuler, Executive functions, Explicit memory, Extrapyramidal symptoms, Family history (medicine), Family therapy, First-degree relatives, Frontal lobe, Frontotemporal dementia, Functional magnetic resonance imaging, GABA transporter 1, GABAA receptor, Gastrointestinal tract, Gene, Glutamate decarboxylase, Glutamate receptor, Glutamic acid, Gluten, Gut flora, Hallucination, Heredity, Heritability, Hippocampus, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorder, Homelessness, Homicide, Huntington's disease, Hyperthyroidism, Hypothyroidism, In utero, Information processing, Intelligence quotient, Interleukin 8, International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems, Involuntary commitment, Irritable bowel syndrome, James Tilly Matthews, Jim van Os, John Forbes Nash Jr., Ketamine, Kindling (sedative–hypnotic withdrawal), Kurt Schneider, Learning, Lewy body dementia, Life expectancy, Lifestyle disease, Limbic encephalitis, List of countries by suicide rate, Long-term effects of cannabis, Long-term memory, Major depressive disorder, Memory, Mental disorder, Mental health, Mental health professional, Mesolimbic pathway, Metabolic disorder, Metabolic syndrome, Minocycline, Mood disorder, Multiple sclerosis, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, Neurocognitive, Neurodevelopmental disorder, Neuroimaging, Neuroleptic malignant syndrome, Neuropsychological test, Nicotine, Nidotherapy, Nigrostriatal pathway, NMDA receptor, Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, Non-celiac gluten sensitivity, Northern Hemisphere, Obesity, Obsessive–compulsive disorder, Olanzapine, Olfaction, Operational definition, Paranoia, Paranoid schizophrenia, Paraplegia, Parvalbumin, Perception, Persecutory delusion, Personality psychology, Pervasive developmental disorder, Phencyclidine, Phenothiazine, Philippe Pinel, Pollyanna principle, Polygenic score, Positron emission tomography, Prenatal development, Preventive healthcare, Primary polydipsia, Prodrome, Psychiatry, Psychopathology, Psychosis, Psychotherapy, Quetiapine, Reality, Recreational drug use, Reduced affect display, Reelin, Risperidone, Rosenhan experiment, Schizoaffective disorder, Schizophasia, Schizophrenia and smoking, Schizophreniform disorder, Schizotypal personality disorder, Science (journal), Sedentary lifestyle, Self-disorder, Self-portrait, Semantic processing, Sensitivity and specificity, Serotonin, Simple-type schizophrenia, Single-photon emission computed tomography, Smoking, Social anxiety disorder, Social behavior, Social cognition, Social group, Social isolation, Somatization, Somatosensory system, Stimulant psychosis, Stroke, Substance abuse, Substance use disorder, Substance-induced psychosis, Substance-related disorder, Substituted amphetamine, Suicide, Swedish Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Assessment of Social Services, Syndrome, Syphilis, Systemic disease, T. S. Eliot, Tardive dyskinesia, Taste, Temporal lobe, Tetraplegia, Thought, Thought blocking, Thought disorder, Thought insertion, Toxoplasma gondii, Tumor necrosis factor superfamily, Twin, Typical antipsychotic, Visual impairment, Visual system, Voluntary commitment, Waxy flexibility, White blood cell, Word salad, Working memory, World Health Organization, 1q21.1 deletion syndrome. Expand index (192 more) » « Shrink index
A Beautiful Mind (1998) is a biography of Nobel Prize-winning economist and mathematician John Forbes Nash, Jr. by Sylvia Nasar, professor of journalism at Columbia University.
A Beautiful Mind is a 2001 American biographical drama film based on the life of John Nash, a Nobel Laureate in Economics.
Abnormality (or dysfunctional behavior) is a behavioral characteristic assigned to those with conditions regarded as rare or dysfunctional.
In medicine, an adverse effect is an undesired harmful effect resulting from a medication or other intervention such as surgery.
Agranulocytosis, also known as agranulosis or granulopenia, is an acute condition involving a severe and dangerous leukopenia (lowered white blood cell count), most commonly of neutrophils causing a neutropenia in the circulating blood.
Alcohol abuse is a previous psychiatric diagnosis in which there is recurring harmful use of alcohol despite its negative consequences.
Alcoholic hallucinosis (or alcohol-related psychosis or alcohol-induced psychotic disorder) is a complication of alcohol abuse in alcoholics.
In psychology, alogia (Greek ἀ-, “without”, and λόγος, “speech”), or poverty of speech, is a general lack of additional, unprompted content seen in normal speech.
An altered level of consciousness is any measure of arousal other than normal.
Alzheimer's disease (AD), also referred to simply as Alzheimer's, is a chronic neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and worsens over time.
The American Psychiatric Association (APA) is the main professional organization of psychiatrists and trainee psychiatrists in the United States, and the largest psychiatric organization in the world.
Amisulpride, sold under the brand name Solian among others, is an antipsychotic medication used to treat schizophrenia.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Anhedonia refers to a diverse array of deficits in hedonic function, including reduced motivation or ability to experience pleasure.
Antipsychotics, also known as neuroleptics or major tranquilizers, are a class of medication primarily used to manage psychosis (including delusions, hallucinations, paranoia or disordered thought), principally in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by significant feelings of anxiety and fear.
Arnold Pick (20 July 18514 April 1924) was a Jewish Czech psychiatrist.
Asociality refers to the lack of motivation to engage in social interaction, or a preference for solitary activities.
Assertive community treatment (ACT) is an intensive and highly integrated approach for community mental health service delivery.
Attention, also referred to as enthrallment, is the behavioral and cognitive process of selectively concentrating on a discrete aspect of information, whether deemed subjective or objective, while ignoring other perceivable information.
The atypical antipsychotics (AAP; also known as second generation antipsychotics (SGAs)) are a group of antipsychotic drugs (antipsychotic drugs in general are also known as major tranquilizers and neuroleptics, although the latter is usually reserved for the typical antipsychotics) used to treat psychiatric conditions.
A paracusia, or auditory hallucination, is a form of hallucination that involves perceiving sounds without auditory stimulus.
The Australian Occupational Therapy Journal is a bimonthly peer-reviewed medical journal that covers occupational therapy.
Autism is a developmental disorder characterized by troubles with social interaction and communication and by restricted and repetitive behavior.
Avoidant personality disorder (AvPD) is a Cluster C personality disorder.
Avolition, as a symptom of various forms of psychopathology, is the decrease in the motivation to initiate and perform self-directed purposeful activities.
Behavioural genetics also referred to as behaviour genetics, is a field of scientific research that uses genetic methods to investigate the nature and origins of individual differences in behaviour.
The biopsychosocial model is a broad view that attributes disease outcome to the intricate, variable interaction of biological factors (genetic, biochemical, etc), psychological factors (mood, personality, behavior, etc.), and social factors (cultural, familial, socioeconomic, medical, etc.).Santrock, J. W. (2007).
Bipolar disorder, previously known as manic depression, is a mental disorder that causes periods of depression and periods of abnormally elevated mood.
Borderline personality disorder (BPD), also known as emotionally unstable personality disorder (EUPD), is a long-term pattern of abnormal behavior characterized by unstable relationships with other people, unstable sense of self, and unstable emotions.
Brief psychotic disorder is a period of psychosis whose duration is generally shorter, is not always non-recurring, but can be, and is not caused by another condition.
Cannabis is a genus of flowering plants in the family Cannabaceae.
Cannabis, also known as marijuana among other names, is a psychoactive drug from the ''Cannabis'' plant intended for medical or recreational use.
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels.
Catatonia is a state of psycho-motor immobility and behavioral abnormality manifested by stupor.
Childhood schizophrenia (also known as childhood-onset schizophrenia, and very early-onset schizophrenia) is a schizophrenia spectrum disorder that is characterized by hallucinations, disorganized speech, delusions, catatonic behavior and "negative symptoms", such as inappropriate or blunted affect and avolition with onset before 13 years of age.
Chlamydia infection, often simply known as chlamydia, is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis.
Chlorpromazine (CPZ), marketed under the trade names Thorazine and Largactil among others, is an antipsychotic medication.
A chronic condition is a human health condition or disease that is persistent or otherwise long-lasting in its effects or a disease that comes with time.
The classification of mental disorders is also known as psychiatric nosology or psychiatric taxonomy.
Clinical psychology is an integration of science, theory and clinical knowledge for the purpose of understanding, preventing, and relieving psychologically-based distress or dysfunction and to promote subjective well-being and personal development.
Clozapine, sold under the brand name Clozaril among others, is an atypical antipsychotic medication.
Cocaine, also known as coke, is a strong stimulant mostly used as a recreational drug.
Coeliac disease, also spelled celiac disease, is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects the small intestine.
Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".
Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is a psycho-social intervention that is the most widely used evidence-based practice aimed at improving mental health.
A cognitive bias is a systematic pattern of deviation from norm or rationality in judgment.
Cognitive remediation is designed to improve neurocognitive abilities such as attention, working memory, cognitive flexibility and planning, and executive functioning which leads to improved psychosocial functioning.
Community mental health services (CMHS), also known as community mental health teams (CMHT) in the United Kingdom, support or treat people with mental disorders (mental illness or mental health difficulties) in a domiciliary setting, instead of a psychiatric hospital (asylum).
Copy number variation (CNV) is a phenomenon in which sections of the genome are repeated and the number of repeats in the genome varies between individuals in the human population.
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies.
David L. Rosenhan (November 22, 1929 – February 6, 2012) was an American psychologist.
Deinstitutionalisation (or deinstitutionalization) is the process of replacing long-stay psychiatric hospitals with less isolated community mental health services for those diagnosed with a mental disorder or developmental disability.
Delirium, also known as acute confusional state, is an organically caused decline from a previously baseline level of mental function.
A delusion is a mistaken belief that is held with strong conviction even in the presence of superior evidence to the contrary.
Delusional disorder is a generally rare mental illness in which the patient presents delusions, but with no accompanying prominent hallucinations, thought disorder, mood disorder, or significant flattening of affect.
Dementia is a broad category of brain diseases that cause a long-term and often gradual decrease in the ability to think and remember that is great enough to affect a person's daily functioning.
Dementia praecox (a "premature dementia" or "precocious madness") is a disused psychiatric diagnosis that originally designated a chronic, deteriorating psychotic disorder characterized by rapid cognitive disintegration, usually beginning in the late teens or early adulthood.
A developed country, industrialized country, more developed country, or "more economically developed country" (MEDC), is a sovereign state that has a highly developed economy and advanced technological infrastructure relative to other less industrialized nations.
A developing country (or a low and middle income country (LMIC), less developed country, less economically developed country (LEDC), underdeveloped country) is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) is published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) and offers a common language and standard criteria for the classification of mental disorders.
DiGeorge syndrome, also known as 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, is a syndrome caused by the deletion of a small segment of chromosome 22.
A disability is an impairment that may be cognitive, developmental, intellectual, mental, physical, sensory, or some combination of these.
The disability-adjusted life year (DALY) is a measure of overall disease burden, expressed as the number of years lost due to ill-health, disability or early death.
Disorganized schizophrenia, also known as hebephrenia or hebephrenic schizophrenia, is a subtype of schizophrenia, although it is not recognized in the latest version of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.
Dissociative identity disorder (DID), also known as multiple personality disorder, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two distinct and relatively enduring personality states.
The dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia or the dopamine hypothesis of psychosis is a model that attributes symptoms of schizophrenia (like psychoses) to a disturbed and hyperactive dopaminergic signal transduction.
Dopamine receptor D2, also known as D2R, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the DRD2 gene.
The dopamine transporter (also dopamine active transporter, DAT, SLC6A3) is a membrane-spanning protein that pumps the neurotransmitter dopamine out of the synaptic cleft back into cytosol.
Dopaminergic pathways, sometimes called dopaminergic projections, are the sets of projection neurons in the brain that synthesize and release the neurotransmitter dopamine.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) is the 2013 update to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the taxonomic and diagnostic tool published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA).
Dysphoria (from δύσφορος (dysphoros), δυσ-, difficult, and φέρειν, to bear) is a profound state of unease or dissatisfaction.
Emergency psychiatry is the clinical application of psychiatry in emergency settings.
Emil Kraepelin (15 February 1856 – 7 October 1926) was a German psychiatrist.
Environmental factor or ecological factor or eco factor is any factor, abiotic or biotic, that influences living organisms.
Epilepsy is a group of neurological disorders characterized by epileptic seizures.
Episodic memory is the memory of autobiographical events (times, places, associated emotions, and other contextual who, what, when, where, why knowledge) that can be explicitly stated or conjured.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
Paul Eugen Bleuler (30 April 1857 – 15 July 1939) was a Swiss psychiatrist and eugenicist most notable for his contributions to the understanding of mental illness.
Executive functions (collectively referred to as executive function and cognitive control) are a set of cognitive processes that are necessary for the cognitive control of behavior: selecting and successfully monitoring behaviors that facilitate the attainment of chosen goals.
Explicit memory (or declarative memory) is one of the two main types of long-term human memory.
Extrapyramidal symptoms (EPS), also known as extrapyramidal side effects (EPSE), are drug-induced movement disorders that include acute and tardive symptoms.
In medicine, a family history (FH or FHx) consists of information about disorders from which the direct blood relatives of the patient have suffered.
Family therapy, also referred to as couple and family therapy, marriage and family therapy, family systems therapy, and family counseling, is a branch of psychotherapy that works with families and couples in intimate relationships to nurture change and development.
A first-degree relative is one's offspring, sibling or parent.
The frontal lobe, located at the front of the brain, is the largest of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the mammalian brain.
The frontotemporal dementias (FTD) encompass six types of dementia involving the frontal or temporal lobes.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging or functional MRI (fMRI) measures brain activity by detecting changes associated with blood flow.
GABA transporter 1 (GAT1) also known as sodium- and chloride-dependent GABA transporter 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC6A1 gene.
The GABAA receptor (GABAAR) is an ionotropic receptor and ligand-gated ion channel.
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
In biology, a gene is a sequence of DNA or RNA that codes for a molecule that has a function.
Glutamate decarboxylase or glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) is an enzyme that catalyzes the decarboxylation of glutamate to GABA and CO2.
Glutamate receptors are synaptic and non synaptic receptors located primarily on the membranes of neuronal and glial cells.
Glutamic acid (symbol Glu or E) is an α-amino acid with formula.
Gluten (from Latin gluten, "glue") is a composite of storage proteins termed prolamins and glutelins and stored together with starch in the endosperm (which nourishes the embryonic plant during germination) of various cereal (grass) grains.
Gut flora, or gut microbiota, or gastrointestinal microbiota, is the complex community of microorganisms that live in the digestive tracts of humans and other animals, including insects.
A hallucination is a perception in the absence of external stimulus that has qualities of real perception.
Heredity is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents.
Heritability is a statistic used in the fields of breeding and genetics that estimates the degree of variation in a phenotypic trait in a population that is due to genetic variation between individuals in that population.
The hippocampus (named after its resemblance to the seahorse, from the Greek ἱππόκαμπος, "seahorse" from ἵππος hippos, "horse" and κάμπος kampos, "sea monster") is a major component of the brains of humans and other vertebrates.
HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) are neurological disorders associated with HIV infection and AIDS.
Homelessness is the circumstance when people are without a permanent dwelling, such as a house or apartment.
Homicide is the act of one human killing another.
Huntington's disease (HD), also known as Huntington's chorea, is an inherited disorder that results in death of brain cells.
Hyperthyroidism is the condition that occurs due to excessive production of thyroid hormone by the thyroid gland.
Hypothyroidism, also called underactive thyroid or low thyroid, is a disorder of the endocrine system in which the thyroid gland does not produce enough thyroid hormone.
In utero is a Latin term literally meaning "in the womb" or "in the uterus".
Information processing is the change (processing) of information in any manner detectable by an observer.
An intelligence quotient (IQ) is a total score derived from several standardized tests designed to assess human intelligence.
Interleukin 8 (IL8 or chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 8, CXCL8) is a chemokine produced by macrophages and other cell types such as epithelial cells, airway smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells.
The International Classification of Diseases (ICD) is the international "standard diagnostic tool for epidemiology, health management and clinical purposes." Its full official name is International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. The ICD is maintained by the World Health Organization (WHO), the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations System.
Involuntary commitment or civil commitment (also known informally as sectioning or being sectioned in some jurisdictions, such as the UK) is a legal process through which an individual who is deemed by a qualified agent to have symptoms of severe mental disorder is court-ordered into treatment in a psychiatric hospital (inpatient) or in the community (outpatient).
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a group of symptoms—including abdominal pain and changes in the pattern of bowel movements without any evidence of underlying damage.
James Tilly Matthews (1770 – 10 January 1815) was a London tea broker, originally from Wales and of Huguenot descent, who was committed to Bethlem (colloquially Bedlam) psychiatric hospital in 1797.
Jim van Os (born 1960) is a Dutch professor of Psychiatric Epidemiology and Public Mental Health at Utrecht University Medical Centre, the Netherlands.
John Forbes Nash Jr. (June 13, 1928 – May 23, 2015) was an American mathematician who made fundamental contributions to game theory, differential geometry, and the study of partial differential equations.
Ketamine, sold under the brand name Ketalar among others, is a medication mainly used for starting and maintaining anesthesia.
Kindling due to substance withdrawal refers to the neurological condition which results from repeated withdrawal episodes from sedative–hypnotic drugs such as alcohol and benzodiazepines.
Kurt Schneider (7 January 1887 – 27 October 1967) was a German psychiatrist known largely for his writing on the diagnosis and understanding of schizophrenia, as well as personality disorders then known as psychopathic personalities.
Learning is the process of acquiring new or modifying existing knowledge, behaviors, skills, values, or preferences.
Lewy body dementia (LBD, sometimes referred to as Lewy body disorder) is an umbrella term that includes Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), two dementias characterized by abnormal deposits of the protein alpha-synuclein in the brain.
Life expectancy is a statistical measure of the average time an organism is expected to live, based on the year of its birth, its current age and other demographic factors including gender.
Lifestyle diseases are defined as diseases linked with the way people live their life.
Limbic encephalitis is a form of encephalitis, a disease characterized by inflammation of the brain.
The following is a list of suicide rates by country according to data from the World Health Organization (WHO) and other sources.
The long-term effects of cannabis have been the subject of ongoing debate.
Long-term memory (LTM) is the stage of the Atkinson–Shiffrin memory model where informative knowledge is held indefinitely.
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
Memory is the faculty of the mind by which information is encoded, stored, and retrieved.
A mental disorder, also called a mental illness or psychiatric disorder, is a behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.
Mental health is a level of psychological well-being or an absence of mental illness.
A mental health professional is a health care practitioner or community services provider who offers services for the purpose of improving an individual's mental health or to treat mental disorders.
The mesolimbic pathway, sometimes referred to as the reward pathway, is a dopaminergic pathway in the brain.
A metabolic disorder can happen when abnormal chemical reactions in the body alter the normal metabolic process.
Metabolic syndrome, sometimes known by other names, is a clustering of at least three of the five following medical conditions: abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, high blood sugar, high serum triglycerides and low high-density lipoprotein (HDL) levels.
Minocycline is a broad-spectrum tetracycline antibiotic, and has a broader spectrum than the other members of the group.
Mood disorder, also known as mood (affective) disorders, is a group of conditions where a disturbance in the person's mood is the main underlying feature.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged.
The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) is an executive non-departmental public body of the Department of Health in the United Kingdom, which publishes guidelines in four areas.
Neurocognitive functions are cognitive functions closely linked to the function of particular areas, neural pathways, or cortical networks in the brain substrate layers of neurological matrix at the cellular molecular level.
Neurodevelopmental disorder is a mental disorder.
Neuroimaging or brain imaging is the use of various techniques to either directly or indirectly image the structure, function/pharmacology of the nervous system.
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) is a life-threatening reaction that occasionally occurs in response to neuroleptic or antipsychotic medication.
Neuropsychological tests are specifically designed tasks used to measure a psychological function known to be linked to a particular brain structure or pathway.
Nicotine is a potent parasympathomimetic stimulant and an alkaloid found in the nightshade family of plants.
Nidotherapy, after nidus (Latin: nest) is the name of 'a collaborative treatment involving the systematic assessment and modification of the environment to minimise the impact of any form of mental disorder on the individual or on society'.
The nigrostriatal pathway or the nigrostriatal bundle (NSB), is a dopaminergic pathway that connects the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) with the dorsal striatum (i.e., the caudate nucleus and putamen).
The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (also known as the NMDA receptor or NMDAR), is a glutamate receptor and ion channel protein found in nerve cells.
The Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences (officially Sveriges riksbanks pris i ekonomisk vetenskap till Alfred Nobels minne, or the Swedish National Bank's Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel), commonly referred to as the Nobel Prize in Economics, is an award for outstanding contributions to the field of economics, and generally regarded as the most prestigious award for that field.
Non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS) or gluten sensitivity is defined as "a clinical entity induced by the ingestion of gluten leading to intestinal and/or extraintestinal symptoms that improve once the gluten-containing foodstuff is removed from the diet, and celiac disease and wheat allergy have been excluded".
The Northern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is north of the Equator.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health.
Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental disorder where people feel the need to check things repeatedly, perform certain routines repeatedly (called "rituals"), or have certain thoughts repeatedly (called "obsessions").
Olanzapine (originally branded Zyprexa) is an antipsychotic medication used to treat schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
Olfaction is a chemoreception that forms the sense of smell.
An operational definition is the articulation of operationalization (or statement of procedures) used in defining the terms of a process (or set of validation tests) needed to determine the nature of an item or phenomenon (a variable, term, or object) and its properties such as duration, quantity, extension in space, chemical composition, etc.
Paranoia is an instinct or thought process believed to be heavily influenced by anxiety or fear, often to the point of delusion and irrationality.
Paranoid schizophrenia is the most common type of schizophrenia.
Paraplegia is an impairment in motor or sensory function of the lower extremities.
Parvalbumin is a calcium-binding albumin protein with low molecular weight (typically 9-11 kDa).
Perception (from the Latin perceptio) is the organization, identification, and interpretation of sensory information in order to represent and understand the presented information, or the environment.
Persecutory delusions are a set of delusional conditions in which the affected persons believe they are being persecuted.
Personality psychology is a branch of psychology that studies personality and its variation among individuals.
The diagnostic category pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), as opposed to specific developmental disorders (SDD), refers to a group of five disorders characterized by delays in the development of multiple basic functions including socialization and communication.
Phencyclidine (PCP), also known as angel dust among other names, is a drug used for its mind altering effects.
Phenothiazine, abbreviated PTZ, is an organic compound that has the formula S(C6H4)2NH and is related to the thiazine-class of heterocyclic compounds.
Philippe Pinel (20 April 1745 – 25 October 1826) was a French physician who was instrumental in the development of a more humane psychological approach to the custody and care of psychiatric patients, referred to today as moral therapy.
The Pollyanna principle (also called Pollyannaism or positivity bias) is the tendency for people to remember pleasant items more accurately than unpleasant ones.
A polygenic score, also called a polygenic risk score, genetic risk score, or genome-wide score, is a number based on variation in multiple genetic loci and their associated weights (see regression analysis).
Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.
Prenatal development is the process in which an embryo and later fetus develops during gestation.
Preventive healthcare (alternately preventive medicine, preventative healthcare/medicine, or prophylaxis) consists of measures taken for disease prevention, as opposed to disease treatment.
Primary polydipsia is a form of polydipsia characterised by excessive fluid intake in the absence of physiological stimuli to drink.
In medicine, a prodrome is an early sign or symptom (or set of signs and symptoms), which often indicate the onset of a disease before more diagnostically specific signs and symptoms develop.
Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.
Psychopathology is the scientific study of mental disorders, including efforts to understand their genetic, biological, psychological, and social causes; effective classification schemes (nosology); course across all stages of development; manifestations; and treatment.
Psychosis is an abnormal condition of the mind that results in difficulties telling what is real and what is not.
Psychotherapy is the use of psychological methods, particularly when based on regular personal interaction, to help a person change behavior and overcome problems in desired ways.
Quetiapine, marketed as Seroquel among other names, is an atypical antipsychotic used for the treatment of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder.
Reality is all of physical existence, as opposed to that which is merely imaginary.
Recreational drug use is the use of a psychoactive drug to induce an altered state of consciousness for pleasure, by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.
Reduced affect display, sometimes referred to as emotional blunting, is a condition of reduced emotional reactivity in an individual.
Reelin (RELN) is a large secreted extracellular matrix glycoprotein that helps regulate processes of neuronal migration and positioning in the developing brain by controlling cell-cell interactions.
Risperidone, sold under the trade name Risperdal among others, is an antipsychotic medication.
The Rosenhan experiment or Thud experiment was an experiment conducted to determine the validity of psychiatric diagnosis.
Schizoaffective disorder (SZA, SZD or SAD) is a mental disorder characterized by abnormal thought processes and deregulated emotions.
In the mental health field, schizophasia or word salad is language that is confused and often repetitious, symptomatic of various mental illnesses.
Studies across 20 countries show a strong association between schizophrenia and smoking, whereby people with schizophrenia are much more likely to smoke than those without the disease.
Schizophreniform disorder is a mental disorder diagnosed when symptoms of schizophrenia are present for a significant portion of the time within a one-month period, but signs of disruption are not present for the full six months required for the diagnosis of schizophrenia.
Schizotypal personality disorder (STPD) or schizotypal disorder is a mental disorder characterized by severe social anxiety, thought disorder, paranoid ideation, derealization, transient psychosis, and often unconventional beliefs.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
A sedentary lifestyle is a type of lifestyle with little or no physical activity.
A self-disorder, also called ipseity disturbance, is a psychological phenomenon of disruption or diminishing of a person's sense of minimal (or basic) self.
A self-portrait is a representation of an artist that is drawn, painted, photographed, or sculpted by that artist.
Semantic processing is the processing that occurs after we hear a word and encode its meaning.
Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures of the performance of a binary classification test, also known in statistics as a classification function.
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
Simple-type schizophrenia is a sub-type of schizophrenia as defined in the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10).
Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT, or less commonly, SPET) is a nuclear medicine tomographic imaging technique using gamma rays.
Smoking is a practice in which a substance is burned and the resulting smoke breathed in to be tasted and absorbed into the bloodstream.
Social anxiety disorder (SAD), also known as social phobia, is an anxiety disorder characterized by a significant amount of fear in one or more social situations, causing considerable distress and impaired ability to function in at least some parts of daily life.
Social behavior is behavior among two or more organisms, typically from the same species.
Social cognition is "a sub-topic of social psychology that focuses on how people process, store, and apply information about other people and social situations.
In the social sciences, a social group has been defined as two or more people who interact with one another, share similar characteristics, and collectively have a sense of unity.
Social isolation is a state of complete or near-complete lack of contact between an individual and society.
Somatization is a tendency to experience and communicate psychological distress in the form of somatic symptoms and to seek medical help for them.
The somatosensory system is a part of the sensory nervous system.
Stimulant psychosis, also known as stimulant-induced psychotic disorder, is a psychosis symptom which involves hallucinations, paranoia, and/or delusions and typically occurs following an overdose on psychostimulants; however, it has also been reported to occur in approximately 0.1% of individuals, or 1 out of every 1,000 people, within the first several weeks after starting amphetamine or methylphenidate therapy.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a drug in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others, and is a form of substance-related disorder.
A substance use disorder (SUD), also known as a drug use disorder, is a condition in which the use of one or more substances leads to a clinically significant impairment or distress.
Substance-induced psychosis (commonly known as toxic psychosis) is a form of substance use disorder where psychosis can be attributed to substance use.
Substance abuse, also known as drug abuse, is a patterned use of a substance (drug) in which the user consumes the substance in amounts or with methods which are harmful to themselves or others.
Substituted amphetamines are a class of compounds based upon the amphetamine structure; it includes all derivative compounds which are formed by replacing, or substituting, one or more hydrogen atoms in the amphetamine core structure with substituents.
Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death.
The Swedish Agency for Health Technology Assessment and Assessment of Social Services (SBU – Statens beredning för medicinsk och social utvärdering in Swedish) previously the Swedish Council on Health Technology Assessment is an independent Swedish governmental agency tasked with assessing and evaluating methods in use in healthcare och social services.
A syndrome is a set of medical signs and symptoms that are correlated with each other and, often, with a particular disease or disorder.
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection caused by the bacterium Treponema pallidum subspecies pallidum.
A systemic disease is one that affects a number of organs and tissues, or affects the body as a whole.
Thomas Stearns Eliot, (26 September 1888 – 4 January 1965), was an essayist, publisher, playwright, literary and social critic, and "one of the twentieth century's major poets".
Tardive dyskinesia (TD) is a disorder that results in involuntary, repetitive body movements.
Taste, gustatory perception, or gustation is one of the five traditional senses that belongs to the gustatory system.
The temporal lobe is one of the four major lobes of the cerebral cortex in the brain of mammals.
Tetraplegia, also known as quadriplegia, is paralysis caused by illness or injury that results in the partial or total loss of use of all four limbs and torso; paraplegia is similar but does not affect the arms.
Thought encompasses a “goal oriented flow of ideas and associations that leads to reality-oriented conclusion.” Although thinking is an activity of an existential value for humans, there is no consensus as to how it is defined or understood.
Thought blocking (also known as Sperrung), a phenomenon that occurs in people with psychiatric illnesses (usually schizophrenia), occurs when a person's speech is suddenly interrupted by silences that may last a few seconds to a minute or longer.
Thought disorder (TD) or formal thought disorder (FTD) refers to disorganized thinking as evidenced by disorganized speech.
Thought insertion is defined by the ICD-10 as feeling as if one's thoughts are not one's own, but rather belong to someone else and have been inserted into one's mind.
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular, parasitic alveolate that causes the disease toxoplasmosis.
The tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily is a protein superfamily of type II transmembrane proteins containing TNF homology domain and forming trimers.
Twins are two offspring produced by the same pregnancy.
Typical antipsychotics are a class of antipsychotic drugs first developed in the 1950s and used to treat psychosis (in particular, schizophrenia).
Visual impairment, also known as vision impairment or vision loss, is a decreased ability to see to a degree that causes problems not fixable by usual means, such as glasses.
The visual system is the part of the central nervous system which gives organisms the ability to process visual detail, as well as enabling the formation of several non-image photo response functions.
Voluntary commitment is the act or practice of a person admitting themself to a psychiatric hospital, or other mental health facility, voluntarily.
Waxy flexibility is a psychomotor symptom of catatonia as associated with schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or other mental disorders which leads to a decreased response to stimuli and a tendency to remain in an immobile posture.
White blood cells (WBCs), also called leukocytes or leucocytes, are the cells of the immune system that are involved in protecting the body against both infectious disease and foreign invaders.
Word salad is a "confused or unintelligible mixture of seemingly random words and phrases", most often used to describe a symptom of a neurological or mental disorder.
Working memory is a cognitive system with a limited capacity that is responsible for temporarily holding information available for processing.
The World Health Organization (WHO; French: Organisation mondiale de la santé) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is concerned with international public health.
1q21.1 deletion syndrome or 1q21.1 (recurrent) microdeletion is a rare aberration of chromosome 1.
Alternative perception, Brain chemistry in schizophrenia, Failure to recognize what is real, Integration disorder, Integration disorder syndrome, Negative symptom, Negative symptoms, Paranoid schizophrenics, Pathology of Schizophrenia, Positive symptom, Positive symptoms, Prevention of schizophrenia, Residual schizophrenia, SCZ, Schitzo, Schitzophrenia, Schizo, Schizofrenia, Schizophernia, Schizophrene, Schizophrenia, genetic types, Schizophrenia: Symptoms, Schizophrenic, Schizophrenic disorders, Schizophrenic narcissism, Schizophrenic reaction, Schizophrenics, Schyzophrenia, Scizophrenia, Skitsafrantic, Skitzafrenic, Skitzophrenia, Undifferentiated schizophrenia.