378 relations: Activism, Adolf Eichmann, Adolf Hitler, Ahnenerbe, Albert Speer, Alfred Rosenberg, Allach (porcelain), Allgemeine SS, Alois Brunner, Alois Hudal, Amin al-Husseini, Anschluss, Antisemitism, Antwerp, Ardenne Abbey massacre, Ardennes, Armanen runes, Army Group Centre, Army Group North, Army Group South, Arnhem, Arthur Nebe, Arthur Seyss-Inquart, Assault gun, Atlantic Wall, August Frank memorandum, Auschwitz concentration camp, Avranches, Babi Yar, Bad Tölz, Bandenbekämpfung, Battle for Caen, Battle of Berlin, Battle of France, Battle of Greece, Battle of Kursk, Battle of Moscow, Battle of Stalingrad, Battle of the Bulge, Battle of the Netherlands, Bavaria, Bavarian Alps, Bayonet, Błonie, Bełżec extermination camp, Beer Hall Putsch, Belgrade, Berghof (residence), Berlin, Bolesławiec, ..., Bosniaks, Braunschweig, British Expeditionary Force (World War II), British Indian Army, Brown House, Munich, Buchenwald concentration camp, Buenos Aires, Caen, Camouflage, Central Agency for Jewish Emigration in Vienna, Chancellor of Germany, Chełmno extermination camp, Christmas in Nazi Germany, Clemson University, Commandant, Communism, Concentration Camps Inspectorate, Counterintelligence Corps, Crete, Crimes against humanity, Czechoslovak government-in-exile, Dachau concentration camp, Dachau liberation reprisals, De facto, Death of Adolf Hitler, Democide, DEST, Deutsche Wirtschaftsbetriebe, Dieppe Raid, Dunkirk, Działdowo, Eastern Front (World War II), Edgar Feuchtinger, Eduard Wirths, Einsatzgruppen, English Channel, Erhard Heiden, Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski, Ernst Kaltenbrunner, Erwin Rommel, Estonia, Estonian Legion, Extermination camp, Extermination through labour, Falaise Pocket, Führer, Führerbunker, Führerprinzip, Fedor von Bock, Final Solution, Flossenbürg concentration camp, Fort VII, Franz Josef Huber, Franz Stangl, Free City of Danzig, Freemasonry, Freikorps, Fritz Klingenberg, Gas chamber, Gas van, Gau (territory), Generalfeldmarschall, Generalmajor, Generaloberst, Genoa, Genocide, German AB-Aktion in Poland, German Army (Wehrmacht), German occupation of Czechoslovakia, German-occupied Europe, Germanic-SS, Gestapo, Gitta Sereny, Glossary of Nazi Germany, Goworowo, Płońsk County, Gross-Rosen concentration camp, Gruppenführer, Guido von List, Hans Frank, Hans-Ulrich Rudel, Heinrich Himmler, Heinrich Müller (Gestapo), Hellenic Army, Herbert Lange, Hermann Fegelein, Hermann Göring, HIAG, Hitler Youth, Hitler’s Bandit Hunters, Holocaust victims, Hotel Metropole, Vienna, Hron, I SS Panzer Corps, IG Farben, II SS Panzer Corps, Indian Legion, Institute of Historical Research, Intelligentsia, International Committee of the Red Cross, Invasion of Poland, Invasion of Yugoslavia, Israel, Italian Campaign (World War II), Jakob Reimer, Jehovah's Witnesses, Jews, Joachim Peiper, Joachim von Ribbentrop, Johann Rattenhuber, Josef Mengele, Joseph Berchtold, Joseph Stalin, Juan Perón, Judenfrei, Julius Schreck, Junker Schools, Karl Dietrich Bracher, Karl Hanke, Königsberg, Kharkiv, Kiev, Klagenfurt, Kościan, Kosovo, Kraków, Kriminalpolizei, Kristallnacht, Kursk, Latin America, Latvia, Lüneburg, Le Paradis massacre, Legion of French Volunteers Against Bolshevism, Liberation of Paris, Lidice, List of Gauleiters, List of SS personnel, Los Angeles Times, Low Countries, Luftwaffe, Majdanek concentration camp, Malmedy massacre, Malmedy massacre trial, Marinebrigade Ehrhardt, Mauthausen-Gusen concentration camp complex, Mława, Meuse, Minister President of Prussia, Minsk, Monowitz concentration camp, Mortain, Mossad, Munich, Munich Agreement, Nagykanizsa, Natzweiler-Struthof, Nazi concentration camps, Nazi eugenics, Nazi Germany, Nazi Party, Nazism, Neuengamme concentration camp, Niederkirchnerstraße, Night of the Long Knives, Non-commissioned officer, Normandy landings, North African Campaign, Nowy Dwór Gdański, Nuremberg Laws, Nuremberg trials, Oberführer, Obergruppenführer, Oberkommando der Wehrmacht, Obernai, Obersalzberg, Occupation of the Baltic states, Oder, ODESSA, Odilo Globočnik, Operation Anthropoid, Operation Barbarossa, Operation Lüttich, Operation Margarethe, Operation Market Garden, Operation Reinhard, Operation Spring Awakening, Operation Tannenberg, Ordnungspolizei, Orne (river), Oswald Pohl, Otto Ohlendorf, Otto von Bolschwing, Owińska, Panzer corps, Panzergrenadier, Paramilitary, Paul Blobel, Paul Hausser, Personal Staff Reichsführer-SS, Piotr Cywiński, Police state, Prague, Pripyat swamps (punitive operation), Prisoner of war, Racial policy of Nazi Germany, Raul Hilberg, Ravensbrück concentration camp, Red Army, Reich Chancellery, Reich Commissioner for the Consolidation of German Nationhood, Reich Main Security Office, Reichsführer-SS, Reichsmark, Reichssicherheitsdienst, Reinhard Heydrich, Rhine, Richard Glücks, Richard Rhodes, Riga Ghetto, Romani people, Rotary International, Royal Norfolk Regiment, Rudolf Diels, Rudolf Höss, Rumbula massacre, Sachsenhausen concentration camp, Samurai, Secret police, Seine, Sepp Dietrich, Sicherheitsdienst, Sicherheitspolizei, Simon Wiesenthal, Slavery, Slavs, Sobibór extermination camp, Society of Jesus, Sonderaktion 1005, Sonderkommando, Southern France, Soviet partisans, Soviet Union, Sowilō, SS and police leader, SS Cavalry Brigade, SS Court Main Office, SS Education Office, SS Führungshauptamt, SS Main Economic and Administrative Office, SS Main Office, SS Personnel Main Office, SS Race and Settlement Main Office, SS State of Burgundy, SS-Begleitkommando des Führers, SS-Oberabschnitt Donau, SS-Oberst-Gruppenführer, SS-Totenkopfverbände, SS-Verfügungstruppe, St Nazaire Raid, Stabschef, Standartenführer, Stoßtrupp-Hitler, Sturmabteilung, Sturmbannführer, Sudetenland, Superior orders, Teutonic Order, The Holocaust, The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich, The Third Reich Trilogy, Theodor Eicke, Third Battle of Kharkov, Torzeniec, Totenkopf, Trawniki men, Treblinka extermination camp, Tscherim Soobzokov, Tufts University, Turkic, Caucasian, Cossack, and Crimean collaborationism with the Axis powers, Ukrainian collaboration with Nazi Germany, Unfree labour, Uniforms of the Heer (1935–45), United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Upper middle class, Vire, Volksdeutsche Mittelstelle, Volkssturm, Waffen-SS, Walloon Legion, Walter Schellenberg, Wannsee Conference, War crime, Warsaw Ghetto Uprising, Włocławek, Wehrmacht, Western esotericism, Westphalia, Wewelsburg, Wilhelm Höttl, World War II, Wormhoudt massacre, Wormhout, Złoczew, Zyklon B, 10th SS Panzer Division Frundsberg, 116th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht), 11th Army (Wehrmacht), 11th SS Volunteer Panzergrenadier Division Nordland, 12th SS Panzer Division Hitlerjugend, 13th Waffen Mountain Division of the SS Handschar (1st Croatian), 17th SS Panzergrenadier Division Götz von Berlichingen, 1st SS Panzer Division Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler, 1st SS-Standarte, 21st Panzer Division (Wehrmacht), 21st Waffen Mountain Division of the SS Skanderbeg, 23rd SS Volunteer Panzer Grenadier Division Nederland, 2nd Infantry Division (United States), 2nd Panzer Division (Wehrmacht), 2nd SS Panzer Division Das Reich, 33rd Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS Charlemagne (1st French), 4th SS Polizei Panzergrenadier Division, 5th SS Panzer Division Wiking, 6th Panzer Army, 716th Static Infantry Division (Wehrmacht), 7th Panzer Division (Wehrmacht), 8th SS Cavalry Division Florian Geyer, 99th Infantry Division (United States), 9th SS Panzer Division Hohenstaufen. 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Activism consists of efforts to promote, impede, or direct social, political, economic, or environmental reform or stasis with the desire to make improvements in society.
Otto Adolf Eichmann (19 March 1906 – 1 June 1962) was a German Nazi SS-Obersturmbannführer (lieutenant colonel) and one of the major organizers of the Holocaust.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
The Ahnenerbe (ancestral heritage) was a think tank that operated in Nazi Germany between 1935 and 1945.
Berthold Konrad Hermann Albert Speer (March 19, 1905 – September 1, 1981) was a German architect who was, for most of World War II, Reich Minister of Armaments and War Production for Nazi Germany.
Alfred Ernst Rosenberg (12 January 1893 – 16 October 1946) was a German theorist and an influential ideologue of the Nazi Party.
Allach porcelain (pronounced 'alak') a.k.a. Porzellan Manufaktur Allach was produced in Germany between 1935 and 1945.
The Allgemeine SS (General SS) was the most numerous branch of the Schutzstaffel (SS) paramilitary forces of Nazi Germany, and it was managed by the SS Main Office (SS-Hauptamt).
Alois Brunner (8 April 1912 – 2001 or 2010) was an Austrian Schutzstaffel (SS) officer who worked as Adolf Eichmann's assistant.
Alois Hudal (also known as Luigi Hudal; 31 May 1885 – 13 May 1963) was an Austrian titular bishop in the Roman Catholic church, based in Rome.
Mohammed Amin al-Husseini (محمد أمين الحسيني; 1897 – 4 July 1974) was a Palestinian Arab nationalist and Muslim leader in Mandatory Palestine.
Anschluss ('joining') refers to the annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany on 12 March 1938.
Antisemitism (also spelled anti-Semitism or anti-semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews.
Antwerp (Antwerpen, Anvers) is a city in Belgium, and is the capital of Antwerp province in Flanders.
The Ardenne Abbey massacre occurred during the Battle of Normandy at the Ardenne Abbey, a Premonstratensian monastery in Saint-Germain-la-Blanche-Herbe, near Caen, France.
The Ardennes (L'Ardenne; Ardennen; L'Årdene; Ardennen; also known as the Ardennes Forest or Forest of Ardennes) is a region of extensive forests, rough terrain, rolling hills and ridges formed by the geological features of the Ardennes mountain range and the Moselle and Meuse River basins.
The Armanen runes (or Armanen Futharkh) are a series of 18 runes, closely based on the historical Younger Futhark, introduced by Austrian mysticist and Germanic revivalist Guido von List in his Das Geheimnis der Runen (English: "The Secret of the Runes"), published as a periodical article in 1906, and as a standalone publication in 1908.
Army Group Centre (Heeresgruppe Mitte) was the name of two distinct German strategic army groups that fought on the Eastern Front in World War II.
Army Group North (Heeresgruppe Nord) was a German strategic echelon formation, commanding a grouping of field armies during World War II.
Army Group South (Heeresgruppe Süd) was the name of two German Army Groups during World War II.
Arnhem (or; Arnheim, Frisian: Arnhim, South Guelderish: Èrnem) is a city and municipality situated in the eastern part of the Netherlands.
(13 November 1894 – 21 March 1945) was a key functionary in the security and police apparatus of Nazi Germany and a Holocaust perpetrator.
Arthur Seyss-Inquart (German:; 22 July 189216 October 1946) was an Austrian Nazi politician who served as Chancellor of Austria for two days – from 11 to 13 March 1938 – before the Anschluss annexation of Austria by Nazi Germany, signing the constitutional law as acting head of state upon the resignation of President Wilhelm Miklas.
An assault gun is a form of self-propelled artillery which utilizes an infantry support gun mounted on a motorized chassis, normally an armored fighting vehicle.
The Atlantic Wall (Atlantikwall) was an extensive system of coastal defence and fortifications built by Nazi Germany between 1942 and 1944 along the coast of continental Europe and Scandinavia as a defence against an anticipated Allied invasion of Nazi-occupied Europe from the United Kingdom during World War II.
The August Frank memorandum of 26 September 1942 was a directive from SS Lieutenant General (Obergruppenführer) August Frank of the SS concentration camp administration department (SS-WVHA).
Auschwitz concentration camp was a network of concentration and extermination camps built and operated by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland during World War II.
Avranches is a commune in the Manche department in the Normandy region in northwestern France.
Babi Yar (Бабин Яр, Babyn Yar; Бабий Яр, Babiy Yar) is a ravine in the Ukrainian capital Kiev and a site of massacres carried out by German forces and by local Ukrainian collaborators during their campaign against the Soviet Union in World War II.
Bad Tölz is a town in Bavaria, Germany and the administrative center of the district of Bad Tölz-Wolfratshausen.
Bandenbekämpfung is a German-language term that means "bandit fighting" or "combating of bandits".
The Battle for Caen (June to August 1944) is the name for the fighting between the British Second Army and German Panzergruppe West in the Second World War for control of the city of Caen and vicinity, during the Battle of Normandy.
The Battle of Berlin, designated the Berlin Strategic Offensive Operation by the Soviet Union, and also known as the Fall of Berlin, was the final major offensive of the European theatre of World War II.
The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War.
The Battle of Greece (also known as Operation Marita, Unternehmen Marita) is the common name for the invasion of Allied Greece by Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany in April 1941 during World War II.
The Battle of Kursk was a Second World War engagement between German and Soviet forces on the Eastern Front near Kursk (south-west of Moscow) in the Soviet Union, during July and August 1943.
The Battle of Moscow (translit) was a military campaign that consisted of two periods of strategically significant fighting on a sector of the Eastern Front during World War II.
The Battle of Stalingrad (23 August 1942 – 2 February 1943) was the largest confrontation of World War II, in which Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) in Southern Russia.
The Battle of the Bulge (16 December 1944 – 25 January 1945) was the last major German offensive campaign on the Western Front during World War II.
The Battle of the Netherlands (Slag om Nederland) was a military campaign part of Case Yellow (Fall Gelb), the German invasion of the Low Countries (Belgium, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands) and France during World War II.
Bavaria (Bavarian and Bayern), officially the Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern), is a landlocked federal state of Germany, occupying its southeastern corner.
Bavarian Alps (Bayerische Alpen) is a summarizing term of several mountain ranges of the Northern Limestone Alps in the German state of Bavaria.
A bayonet (from French baïonnette) is a knife, sword, or spike-shaped weapon designed to fit on the end of a rifles muzzle, allowing it to be used as a pike.
Błonie is a town in Warsaw West County, Masovian Voivodeship, Poland, with 12,191 inhabitants (2004).
Bełżec (in Belzec) was a Nazi German extermination camp built by the SS for the purpose of implementing the secretive Operation Reinhard, the plan to eradicate Polish Jewry, a key part of the "Final Solution" which entailed the murder of some 6 million Jews in the Holocaust.
The Beer Hall Putsch, also known as the Munich Putsch,Dan Moorhouse, ed.
Belgrade (Beograd / Београд, meaning "White city",; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Serbia.
The Berghof was Adolf Hitler's home in the Obersalzberg of the Bavarian Alps near Berchtesgaden, Bavaria, Germany.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
Bolesławiec (Bunzlau; Bolesławjec) is a town located on the Bóbr River in the Lower Silesian Voivodeship in southwestern Poland, with 40,837 inhabitants (2006).
The Bosniaks (Bošnjaci,; singular masculine: Bošnjak, feminine: Bošnjakinja) are a South Slavic nation and ethnic group inhabiting mainly the area of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
Braunschweig (Low German: Brunswiek), also called Brunswick in English, is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany, north of the Harz mountains at the farthest navigable point of the Oker river which connects it to the North Sea via the Aller and Weser rivers.
The British Expeditionary Force (BEF) was the name of the British Army in Western Europe during the Second World War from 2 September 1939 when the BEF GHQ was formed until 31 May 1940, when GHQ closed down.
The Indian Army (IA), often known since 1947 (but rarely during its existence) as the British Indian Army to distinguish it from the current Indian Army, was the principal military of the British Indian Empire before its decommissioning in 1947.
The Brown House (Braunes Haus) was the name given to the Munich mansion located between the Karolinenplatz and Königsplatz, known before as the Palais Barlow, which was purchased in 1930 for the Nazis.
Buchenwald concentration camp (German: Konzentrationslager (KZ) Buchenwald,; literally, in English: beech forest) was a German Nazi concentration camp established on Ettersberg hill near Weimar, Germany, in July 1937, one of the first and the largest of the concentration camps on German soil, following Dachau's opening just over four years earlier.
Buenos Aires is the capital and most populous city of Argentina.
Caen (Norman: Kaem) is a commune in northwestern France.
Camouflage is the use of any combination of materials, coloration, or illumination for concealment, either by making animals or objects hard to see (crypsis), or by disguising them as something else (mimesis).
The Central Agency for Jewish Emigration in Vienna was a Sicherheitsdienst (SD-Security Service) agency established in August 1938 to accelerate the forced emigration of the Austrian Jews and (starting in October 1939) to organize and carry out their deportation.
The title Chancellor has designated different offices in the history of Germany.
Chełmno extermination camp (Vernichtungslager Kulmhof), built during World War II, was the first of the Nazi German extermination camps and was situated north of the metropolitan city of Łódź (renamed to Litzmannstadt), near the village of Chełmno nad Nerem (Kulmhof an der Nehr in German).
Germans celebrated Christmas, but in Nazi Germany, attempts were made to bring the celebration of Christmas in line with Nazi ideology.
Clemson University is an American public, coeducational, land-grant and sea-grant research university in Clemson, South Carolina.
Commandant is a title often given to the officer in charge of a military (or other uniformed service) training establishment or academy.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
The Concentration Camps Inspectorate (CCI) or in German, IKL (Inspektion der Konzentrationslager) was the central SS administrative and managerial authority for the concentration camps of the Third Reich.
The United States Army Counter Intelligence Corps (Army CIC) was a World War II and early Cold War intelligence agency within the United States Army consisting of highly trained Special Agents.
Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.
Crimes against humanity are certain acts that are deliberately committed as part of a widespread or systematic attack or individual attack directed against any civilian or an identifiable part of a civilian population.
The Czechoslovak government-in-exile, sometimes styled officially as the Provisional Government of Czechoslovakia (Czech: Prozatímní státní zřízení československé), was an informal title conferred upon the Czechoslovak National Liberation Committee, initially by British diplomatic recognition.
Dachau concentration camp (Konzentrationslager (KZ) Dachau) was the first of the Nazi concentration camps opened in Germany, intended to hold political prisoners.
The Dachau liberation reprisals were a series of incidents in which German prisoners of war were killed by American soldiers and concentration camp internees at the Dachau concentration camp on April 29, 1945, during World War II.
In law and government, de facto (or;, "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even if not legally recognised by official laws.
Adolf Hitler was a German politician who was the leader of the Nazi Party, Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945, and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
Democide is a term proposed by R. J. Rummel, who defined it as "the intentional killing of an unarmed or disarmed person by government agents acting in their authoritative capacity and pursuant to government policy or high command".
DEST, (an acronym of Deutsche Erd- und Steinwerke GmbH or "German Earth & Stone Works Company" Inc), was an SS owned company created to procure and manufacture building materials for state construction projects in Nazi Germany.
Deutsche Wirtschaftsbetriebe (for 'German Economic Enterprises') abbreviated DWB, was a Nazi German project launched in World War II by the Allgemeine SS to profit from the use of forced and compulsory labour extracted from the Nazi concentration camp inmates.
The Dieppe Raid was an Allied assault on the German-occupied port of Dieppe, France on 19 August 1942, during the Second World War.
Dunkirk (Dunkerque; Duinkerke(n)) is a commune in the Nord department in northern France.
Działdowo (Soldau) is a town in north-central Poland with 24,830 inhabitants (2006), the capital of Działdowo County.
The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.
Edgar Feuchtinger (9 November 1894 – 21 January 1960) was a German General (Generalleutnant) during the Second World War.
Eduard Wirths (4 September 1909 – 20 September 1945) was the Chief SS doctor (SS-Standortarzt) at the Auschwitz concentration camp from September 1942 to January 1945.
Einsatzgruppen ("task forces" or "deployment groups") were Schutzstaffel (SS) paramilitary death squads of Nazi Germany that were responsible for mass killings, primarily by shooting, during World War II (1939–45).
The English Channel (la Manche, "The Sleeve"; Ärmelkanal, "Sleeve Channel"; Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; Mor Bretannek, "Sea of Brittany"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.
Erhard Heiden (23 February 1901 – c. 1933) was an early member of the Nazi Party and the third commander of the Schutzstaffel (SS), the paramilitary wing of the Sturmabteilung ("Storm Detachment; SA").
Erich von dem Bach-Zelewski (1 March 1899 – 8 March 1972) was a high-ranking SS commander of Nazi Germany.
Ernst Kaltenbrunner (4 October 190316 October 1946) was an Austrian-born senior official of Nazi Germany during World War II.
Erwin Rommel (15 November 1891 – 14 October 1944) was a German general and military theorist.
Estonia (Eesti), officially the Republic of Estonia (Eesti Vabariik), is a sovereign state in Northern Europe.
The Estonian Legion (Eesti Leegion, Estnische Legion) was a military unit within the Combat Support Forces of the Waffen SS Verfügungstruppe during World War II, mainly consisting of Estonian soldiers.
Nazi Germany built extermination camps (also called death camps or killing centers) during the Holocaust in World War II, to systematically kill millions of Jews, Slavs, Communists, and others whom the Nazis considered "Untermenschen" ("subhumans").
Extermination through labour is a term sometimes used to describe the operation of concentration camp, death camp and forced labour systems in Nazi Germany, the Soviet Union, North Korea, and elsewhere, defined as the willful or accepted killing of forced labourers or prisoners through excessively heavy labour, malnutrition and inadequate care.
The Falaise Pocket or Battle of the Falaise Pocket (12 – 21 August 1944) was the decisive engagement of the Battle of Normandy in the Second World War.
Führer (These are also cognates of the Latin peritus ("experienced"), Sanskrit piparti "brings over" and the Greek poros "passage, way".-->, spelled Fuehrer when the umlaut is not available) is a German word meaning "leader" or "guide".
The Führerbunker was an air raid shelter located near the Reich Chancellery in Berlin, Germany.
The Führerprinzip (German for "leader principle") prescribed the fundamental basis of political authority in the governmental structures of the Third Reich.
Fedor von Bock (3 December 1880 – 4 May 1945) was a German field marshal who served in the German army during the Second World War.
The Final Solution (Endlösung) or the Final Solution to the Jewish Question (die Endlösung der Judenfrage) was a Nazi plan for the extermination of the Jews during World War II.
Konzentrationslager Flossenbürg was a Nazi German concentration camp built in May 1938 by the Schutzstaffel (SS) Economic-Administrative Main Office at Flossenbürg, in the Upper Palatinate region of Bavaria, Germany, near the border with Czechoslovakia.
Fort VII, officially Konzentrationslager Posen (renamed later), was a Nazi German death camp set up in Poznań in German-occupied Poland during World War II, located in one of the 19th-century forts circling the city.
Franz Josef Huber (22 January 1902 – 30 January 1975) was an SS general (SS number: 107,099) who rose to the rank of SS-Brigadeführer und Generalmajor der Polizei.
Franz Paul Stangl (26 March 1908 – 28 June 1971) was an Austrian-born police officer who became an employee of the T-4 Euthanasia Program and an SS commander in Nazi Germany.
The Free City of Danzig (Freie Stadt Danzig; Wolne Miasto Gdańsk) was a semi-autonomous city-state that existed between 1920 and 1939, consisting of the Baltic Sea port of Danzig (now Gdańsk, Poland) and nearly 200 towns and villages in the surrounding areas.
Freemasonry or Masonry consists of fraternal organisations that trace their origins to the local fraternities of stonemasons, which from the end of the fourteenth century regulated the qualifications of stonemasons and their interaction with authorities and clients.
Freikorps ("Free Corps") were German volunteer units that existed from the 18th to the early 20th centuries, which effectively fought as mercenary or private armies, regardless of their own nationality.
Fritz Klingenberg (17 December 1912 – 23 March 1945) was a German officer in the Waffen-SS who served with the SS Division Das Reich and was a commander of the SS Division Götz von Berlichingen.
A gas chamber is an apparatus for killing humans or other animals with gas, consisting of a sealed chamber into which a poisonous or asphyxiant gas is introduced.
A gas van or gas wagon (душегубка (dushegubka); Gaswagen) was a vehicle reequipped as a mobile gas chamber.
Gau (Dutch: gouw, Frisian: gea or goa) is a Germanic term for a region within a country, often a former or actual province.
Generalfeldmarschall (general field marshal, field marshal general, or field marshal;; abbreviated to Feldmarschall) was a rank in the armies of several German states and the Holy Roman Empire; in the Habsburg Monarchy, the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary, the rank Feldmarschall was used.
Generalmajor, short GenMaj, (English: major general) is a general officer rank in many countries, and is identical to and translated as major general.
Generaloberst, in English Colonel General, was, in Germany and Austria-Hungary—the German Reichswehr and Wehrmacht, the Austro-Hungarian Common Army, and the East German National People's Army, as well as the respective police services—the second highest general officer rank, ranking above full general but below general field marshal.
Genoa (Genova,; Zêna; English, historically, and Genua) is the capital of the Italian region of Liguria and the sixth-largest city in Italy.
Genocide is intentional action to destroy a people (usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious group) in whole or in part.
The AB-Aktion (Außerordentliche Befriedungsaktion), was a second stage of the Nazi German campaign of violence during World War II aimed to eliminate the intellectuals and the upper classes of Polish society across the territories slated for eventual annexation.
The German Army (Heer) was the land forces component of the Wehrmacht, the regular German Armed Forces, from 1935 until it was demobilized and later dissolved in August 1946.
The German occupation of Czechoslovakia (1938–1945) began with the German annexation of Czechoslovakia's northern and western border regions, formerly being part of German-Austria known collectively as the Sudetenland, under terms outlined by the Munich Agreement.
German-occupied Europe refers to the sovereign countries of Europe which were occupied by the military forces of Nazi Germany at various times between 1939 and 1945 and administered by the Nazi regime.
The Germanic SS was the collective name given to Nordic SS groups which arose in Occupied Europe between 1939 and 1945.
The Gestapo, abbreviation of Geheime Staatspolizei (Secret State Police), was the official secret police of Nazi Germany and German-occupied Europe.
Gitta Sereny, CBE (13 March 192114 June 2012) was an Austrian-British biographer, historian, and investigative journalist who came to be known for her interviews and profiles of controversial figures, including Mary Bell, who was convicted in 1968 of killing two children when she herself was a child, and Franz Stangl, the commandant of the Treblinka extermination camp.
This is a list of words, terms, concepts and slogans of Nazi Germany used in the historiography covering the Nazi regime.
Goworowo is a village in the administrative district of Czerwińsk nad Wisłą, within Płońsk County, Masovian Voivodeship, in east-central Poland.
Gross-Rosen concentration camp (Konzentrationslager Groß-Rosen) was a German network of Nazi concentration camps built and operated during World War II.
Gruppenführer ("group leader") was an early paramilitary rank of the Nazi Party (NSDAP), first created in 1925 as a senior rank of the SA.
Guido Karl Anton List, better known as Guido von List (5 October 1848 – 17 May 1919), was an Austrian occultist, journalist, playwright, and novelist.
Hans Michael Frank (23 May 1900 – 16 October 1946) was a German war criminal and lawyer who worked for the Nazi Party during the 1920s and 1930s, and later became Adolf Hitler's personal lawyer.
Hans-Ulrich Rudel (2 July 1916 – 18 December 1982) was a German ground-attack pilot during World War II.
Heinrich Luitpold Himmler (7 October 1900 – 23 May 1945) was Reichsführer of the Schutzstaffel (Protection Squadron; SS), and a leading member of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) of Germany.
Heinrich Müller (28 April 1900; date of death unknown, but evidence points to May 1945) was a German police official under both the Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany.
The Hellenic Army (Ελληνικός Στρατός, Ellinikós Stratós, sometimes abbreviated as ΕΣ), formed in 1828, is the land force of Greece (with Hellenic being a synonym for Greek).
Herbert Lange (29 September 1909 – 20 April 1945) was an SS-Sturmbannführer and the commandant of Chełmno extermination camp until April 1942; leader of the SS Special Detachment Lange conducting the extermination of Jews from the Łódź Ghetto.
Hans Otto Georg Hermann Fegelein (30 October 1906 – 28 April 1945) was a high-ranking commander in the Waffen-SS of Nazi Germany.
Hermann Wilhelm Göring (or Goering;; 12 January 1893 – 15 October 1946) was a German political and military leader as well as one of the most powerful figures in the Nazi Party (NSDAP) that ruled Germany from 1933 to 1945.
HIAG (Hilfsgemeinschaft auf Gegenseitigkeit der Angehörigen der ehemaligen Waffen-SS, literally "Mutual aid association of former Waffen-SS members") was a lobby group and a revisionist veterans' organisation founded by former high-ranking Waffen-SS personnel in West Germany in 1951.
The Hitler Youth (German:, often abbreviated as HJ in German) was the youth organisation of the Nazi Party in Germany.
Hitler’s Bandit Hunters: The SS and the Nazi Occupation of Europe is a 2006 book by the British author and researcher Philip W. Blood.
Holocaust victims were people who were targeted by the government of Nazi Germany for various discriminatory practices due to their ethnicity, religion, political beliefs, or sexual orientation. These institutionalized practices came to be called The Holocaust, and they began with legalized social discrimination against specific groups, and involuntary hospitalization, euthanasia, and forced sterilization of those considered physically or mentally unfit for society. These practices escalated during World War II to include non-judicial incarceration, confiscation of property, forced labor, sexual slavery, medical experimentation, and death through overwork, undernourishment, and execution through a variety of methods, with the genocide of different groups as the primary goal. According to the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM), the country's official memorial to the Holocaust, "The Holocaust was the murder of six million Jews and millions of others by the Nazis and their collaborators during World War II." Of those murdered for being Jewish, more than half were Ashkenazi Polish Jews.
Hotel Metropole was a hotel in Vienna, Austria that was constructed in 1871–73.
The Hron (Hron, Gran, Garam, Granus) is a long left tributary of the Danube and the second-longest river in Slovakia.
The I SS Panzer Corps (I.SS-Panzerkorps) was a German armoured corps of the Waffen-SS.
IG Farben was a German chemical and pharmaceutical industry conglomerate.
The II SS Panzer Corps was a German Waffen-SS armoured corps which saw action on both the Eastern and Western Fronts during World War II.
The Indian Legion (Indische Legion), officially the Free India Legion (Legion Freies Indien) or Infantry Regiment 950 (Indian) (Infanterie-Regiment 950 (indisches), I.R. 950) and later the Indian Volunteer Legion of the Waffen-SS (Indische Freiwilligen Legion der Waffen-SS), was a military unit raised during the Second World War in Nazi Germany.
The Institute of Historical Research (IHR) is a British educational organisation providing resources and training for historical researchers.
The intelligentsia (/ɪnˌtelɪˈdʒentsiə/) (intelligentia, inteligencja, p) is a status class of educated people engaged in the complex mental labours that critique, guide, and lead in shaping the culture and politics of their society.
The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a humanitarian institution based in Geneva, Switzerland, and a three-time Nobel Prize Laureate.
The Invasion of Poland, known in Poland as the September Campaign (Kampania wrześniowa) or the 1939 Defensive War (Wojna obronna 1939 roku), and in Germany as the Poland Campaign (Polenfeldzug) or Fall Weiss ("Case White"), was a joint invasion of Poland by Germany, the Soviet Union, the Free City of Danzig, and a small Slovak contingent that marked the beginning of World War II.
The invasion of Yugoslavia, also known as the April War or Operation 25, was a German-led attack on the Kingdom of Yugoslavia by the Axis powers which began on 6 April 1941 during World War II.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
The Italian Campaign of World War II consisted of the Allied operations in and around Italy, from 1943 to the end of the war in Europe.
Jakob (Jack) Reimer (November 6, 1918 – August 3, 2005) was a Trawniki camp guard who later emigrated to the United States and became a salesman and restaurant manager.
Jehovah's Witnesses is a millenarian restorationist Christian denomination with nontrinitarian beliefs distinct from mainstream Christianity.
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
Joachim Peiper (30 January 1915 – 14 July 1976), also known as Jochen Peiper, was a field officer in the Waffen-SS during World War II and personal adjutant to Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler between November 1940 and August 1941.
Ulrich Friedrich Wilhelm Joachim von Ribbentrop (30 April 1893 – 16 October 1946), more commonly known as Joachim von Ribbentrop, was Foreign Minister of Nazi Germany from 1938 until 1945.
Johann Rattenhuber (30 April 1897 – 30 June 1957), also known as Hans Rattenhuber, was a German police and SS general (Gruppenführer, i. e. Generalleutnant).
Josef Mengele (16 March 19117 February 1979) was a German Schutzstaffel (SS) officer and physician in Auschwitz concentration camp during World War II.
Joseph Berchtold (6 March 1897 – 23 August 1962) was an early senior Nazi Party member and a co-founder of both the Sturmabteilung (SA) and Schutzstaffel (SS).
Joseph Vissarionovich Stalin (18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was a Soviet revolutionary and politician of Georgian nationality.
Juan Domingo Perón (8 October 1895 – 1 July 1974) was an Argentine army lieutenant general and politician.
The Nazi terms judenfrei ("free of Jews") and judenrein ("clean of Jews") designated an area that was "cleansed" of Jews during The Holocaust.
Julius Schreck (13 July 1898 – 16 May 1936) was a senior Nazi official and close confidant of Adolf Hitler.
Junker Schools or Junkerschulen was a term introduced by Nazi Germany in 1937 for the SS leadership training facilities established at Bad Tölz and Braunschweig in 1934 and 1935.
Karl Dietrich Bracher (13 March 1922 – 19 September 2016) was a German political scientist and historian of the Weimar Republic and Nazi Germany.
Karl August Hanke (24 August 1903 – 8 June 1945) was the last Reichsführer of the Schutzstaffel (SS), and an official of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) in Nazi Germany.
Königsberg is the name for a former German city that is now Kaliningrad, Russia.
Kharkiv (Ха́рків), also known as Kharkov (Ха́рьков) from Russian, is the second-largest city in Ukraine.
Kiev or Kyiv (Kyiv; Kiyev; Kyjev) is the capital and largest city of Ukraine, located in the north central part of the country on the Dnieper.
Klagenfurt am WörtherseeLandesgesetzblatt 2008 vom 16.
Kościan (Kosten) is a town on the Obra canal in west-central Poland, with a population of 23 952 inhabitants as of June 2014.
Kosovo (Kosova or Kosovë; Косово) is a partially recognised state and disputed territory in Southeastern Europe that declared independence from Serbia in February 2008 as the Republic of Kosovo (Republika e Kosovës; Република Косово / Republika Kosovo).
Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.
Kriminalpolizei ("criminal police") is the standard term for the criminal investigation agency within the police forces of Germany, Austria and the German-speaking cantons of Switzerland.
Kristallnacht (lit. "Crystal Night") or Reichskristallnacht, also referred to as the Night of Broken Glass, Reichspogromnacht or simply Pogromnacht, and Novemberpogrome (Yiddish: קרישטאָל נאַכט krishtol nakt), was a pogrom against Jews throughout Nazi Germany on 9–10 November 1938, carried out by SA paramilitary forces and German civilians.
Kursk (p) is a city and the administrative center of Kursk Oblast, Russia, located at the confluence of the Kur, Tuskar, and Seym Rivers.
Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Spanish, French and Portuguese are spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic America.
Latvia (or; Latvija), officially the Republic of Latvia (Latvijas Republika), is a sovereign state in the Baltic region of Northern Europe.
Lüneburg (officially the Hanseatic City of Lüneburg, German: Hansestadt Lüneburg,, Low German Lümborg, Latin Luneburgum or Lunaburgum, Old High German Luneburc, Old Saxon Hliuni, Polabian Glain), also called Lunenburg in English, is a town in the German state of Lower Saxony.
The Le Paradis massacre was a war crime committed by members of the 14th Company, SS Division Totenkopf, under the command of Hauptsturmführer Fritz Knöchlein.
The Legion of French Volunteers Against Bolshevism (Légion des volontaires français contre le bolchévisme, or simply Légion des volontaires français, LVF) was a collaborationist militia of Vichy France founded on 8 July 1941.
The Liberation of Paris (also known as the Battle for Paris and Belgium; Libération de Paris) was a military action that took place during World War II from 19 August 1944 until the German garrison surrendered the French capital on 25 August 1944.
Lidice (Liditz) is a village in the Kladno District of the Czech Republic, northwest of Prague.
The following list of Gauleiters enumerates those who have held the Nazi party rank of Gauleiter, a type of regional party leader germane only within Adolf Hitler's system.
Between 1925 and 1945, the German Schutzstaffel (SS) grew from eight members to over a quarter of a million Waffen-SS and over a million Allgemeine-SS members.
The Los Angeles Times is a daily newspaper which has been published in Los Angeles, California since 1881.
The Low Countries or, in the geographic sense of the term, the Netherlands (de Lage Landen or de Nederlanden, les Pays Bas) is a coastal region in northwestern Europe, consisting especially of the Netherlands and Belgium, and the low-lying delta of the Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, and Ems rivers where much of the land is at or below sea level.
The Luftwaffe was the aerial warfare branch of the combined German Wehrmacht military forces during World War II.
Majdanek, or KL Lublin, was a German concentration and extermination camp built and operated by the SS on the outskirts of the city of Lublin during the German occupation of Poland in World War II.
The Malmedy massacre (1944) was a war crime in which 84 American prisoners of war were killed by their German captors near Malmedy, Belgium, during World War II.
The Malmedy massacre trial (U.S. vs. Valentin Bersin, et al.) was held in May–July 1946 in the former Dachau concentration camp to try the German Waffen-SS soldiers accused of the Malmedy massacre of December 17, 1944.
The Marinebrigade Ehrhardt was a Free Corps (Freikorps) group of around 6,000 men formed by Captain (Korvettenkapitän) Hermann Ehrhardt in the aftermath of World War I, also known as II Marine Brigade or the Ehrhardt Brigade.
The Mauthausen–Gusen concentration camp complex consisted of the Mauthausen concentration camp on a hill above the market town of Mauthausen (roughly east of Linz, Upper Austria) plus a group of nearly 100 further subcamps located throughout Austria and southern Germany.
Mława (מלאווע Mlave; 1941-45 Mielau) is a town in north-central Poland with 30,957 inhabitants in 2012.
The Meuse (la Meuse; Walloon: Moûze) or Maas (Maas; Maos or Maas) is a major European river, rising in France and flowing through Belgium and the Netherlands before draining into the North Sea.
The office of Minister President (Ministerpräsident), or Prime Minister, of Prussia existed in one form or another from 1702 until the abolition of Prussia in 1947.
Minsk (Мінск,; Минск) is the capital and largest city of Belarus, situated on the Svislach and the Nyamiha Rivers.
Monowitz (also called Monowitz-Buna or Auschwitz III) was initially established as a subcamp of Nazi Germany's Auschwitz concentration camp.
Mortain is a former commune in the Manche department in Normandy in north-western France.
Mossad (הַמוֹסָד,; الموساد,,; literally meaning "the Institute"), short for (המוסד למודיעין ולתפקידים מיוחדים, meaning "Institute for Intelligence and Special Operations"), is the national intelligence agency of Israel.
Munich (München; Minga) is the capital and the most populated city in the German state of Bavaria, on the banks of the River Isar north of the Bavarian Alps.
The Munich Agreement was a settlement permitting Nazi Germany's annexation of portions of Czechoslovakia along the country's borders mainly inhabited by German speakers, for which a new territorial designation, the "Sudetenland", was coined.
Nagykanizsa (Kan(j)iža, Velika Kan(j)iža; Großkirchen, Groß-Kanizsa, Canissa, Velika Kaniža, Kanije) is a medium-sized city in Zala County in southwestern Hungary.
Natzweiler-Struthof was a German-run concentration camp located in the Vosges Mountains close to the Alsatian village of Natzwiller (German Natzweiler) in France, and the town of Schirmeck, about 50 km (31 m) south west of the city of Strasbourg.
Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps (Konzentrationslager, KZ or KL) throughout the territories it controlled before and during the Second World War.
Nazi eugenics (Nationalsozialistische Rassenhygiene, "National Socialist racial hygiene") were Nazi Germany's racially based social policies that placed the biological improvement of the Aryan race or Germanic "Übermenschen" master race through eugenics at the center of Nazi ideology.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
The National Socialist German Workers' Party (abbreviated NSDAP), commonly referred to in English as the Nazi Party, was a far-right political party in Germany that was active between 1920 and 1945 and supported the ideology of Nazism.
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
The Neuengamme concentration camp was a German concentration camp, established in 1938 by the SS near the village of Neuengamme in the Bergedorf district of Hamburg, Germany.
Niederkirchnerstraße is a street in Berlin, Germany.
The Night of the Long Knives (German), also called Operation Hummingbird (German: Unternehmen Kolibri) or, in Germany, the Röhm Putsch, was a purge that took place in Nazi Germany from June 30 to July 2, 1934, when the National Socialist German Workers Party, or Nazis, carried out a series of political extrajudicial executions intended to consolidate Adolf Hitler's absolute hold on power in Germany.
A non-commissioned officer (NCO) is a military officer who has not earned a commission.
The Normandy landings were the landing operations on Tuesday, 6 June 1944 of the Allied invasion of Normandy in Operation Overlord during World War II.
The North African Campaign of the Second World War took place in North Africa from 10 June 1940 to 13 May 1943.
Nowy Dwór Gdański (Tiegenhof) is a town in Poland on the Tuja river in the Żuławy Wiślane region, capital of Nowy Dwór Gdański County, located in Pomeranian Voivodeship, with 10,171 inhabitants (2012).
The Nuremberg Laws (Nürnberger Gesetze) were antisemitic and racial laws in Nazi Germany.
The Nuremberg trials (Die Nürnberger Prozesse) were a series of military tribunals held by the Allied forces under international law and the laws of war after World War II.
Oberführer ("senior leader") was an early paramilitary rank of the Nazi Party (NSDAP) dating back to 1921.
Obergruppenführer ("senior group leader") was a Nazi Party paramilitary rank that was first created in 1932 as a rank of the ''Sturmabteilung'' (SA), and adopted by the Schutzstaffel (SS) one year later.
The Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (OKW, "High Command of the Armed Forces") was the High Command of the Wehrmacht (armed forces) of Nazi Germany during World War II.
Obernai (Alsatian: Owernah; Oberehnheim) commune in the Bas-Rhin department in Alsace in north-eastern France.
Obersalzberg is a mountainside retreat situated above the market town of Berchtesgaden in Bavaria, Germany.
The occupation of the Baltic states involved the military occupation of the three Baltic states—Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania—by the Soviet Union under the auspices of the 1939 Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact in June 1940 followed by their incorporation into the USSR as constituent republics in August 1940 - most Western powers never recognised this incorporation.
The Oder (Czech, Lower Sorbian and Odra, Oder, Upper Sorbian: Wódra) is a river in Central Europe.
The ODESSA is an American codename (from the German: Organisation der ehemaligen SS-Angehörigen, meaning: Organization of Former SS Members) coined in 1946 for a possible Nazi underground escape plan at the end of World War II by a group of SS officers with the aim of facilitating secret escape routes.
Odilo Globočnik (21 April 1904 – 31 May 1945) was an Austrian war criminal.
Operation Anthropoid was the code name for the assassination during World War II of Schutzstaffel (SS)-Obergruppenführer and General der Polizei Reinhard Heydrich, head of the Reichssicherheitshauptamt (Reich Main Security Office, RSHA), the combined security services of Nazi Germany, and acting Reichsprotektor of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia.
Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.
Operation Lüttich was a codename given to a German counter-attack during the Battle of Normandy, which took place around the American positions near Mortain from 7 August to 13 August 1944.
Operation Margarethe was the occupation of Hungary by Nazi German forces during World War II, as it was ordered by Hitler on 12 March 1944.
Operation Market Garden (17–25 September 1944) was an unsuccessful Allied military operation planned, and predominantly led, by the British.
Operation Reinhard or Operation Reinhardt (Aktion Reinhard or Aktion Reinhardt also Einsatz Reinhard or Einsatz Reinhardt) was the codename given to the secretive German Nazi plan to exterminate the majority of Polish Jews in the General Government district of German-occupied Poland during World War II.
Operation Spring Awakening (Unternehmen Frühlingserwachen) (6 – 16 March 1945) was the last major German offensive of World War II.
Operation Tannenberg (Unternehmen Tannenberg) was a codename for one of the extermination actions by Nazi Germany that was directed at the Polish nationals during the opening stages of World War II in Europe, part of the Generalplan Ost for the German colonization of the East.
The Ordnungspolizei (Order Police), abbreviated Orpo, were the uniformed police force in Nazi Germany between 1936 and 1945.
The Orne (Ptolemeus Olina) is a river in Normandy, within northwestern France.
Oswald Ludwig Pohl (30 June 1892 – 7 June 1951) was a German SS functionary during the Nazi era.
Otto Ohlendorf (4 February 1907 – 8 June 1951) was a German economist and SS functionary during the Nazi era.
Otto Albrecht Alfred von Bolschwing (15 October 1909 – 7 March 1982) was a German SS-Hauptsturmführer in the Nazi Sicherheitsdienst (SD), Hitler's SS intelligence agency.
Owińska (Treskau) is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Czerwonak, within Poznań County, Greater Poland Voivodeship, in west-central Poland.
A panzer corps (Panzerkorps) was a military formation type in Nazi Germany's Wehrmacht during World War II.
Panzergrenadier, shortened as PzGren (modern) or PzG (WWII), is a German term for motorised or mechanized infantry – that is, infantry transported in combat vehicles specialized for such tasks – as introduced during World War II.
A paramilitary is a semi-militarized force whose organizational structure, tactics, training, subculture, and (often) function are similar to those of a professional military, but which is not included as part of a state's formal armed forces.
Paul Blobel (13 August 1894 – 7 June 1951) was a German SS commander and convicted war criminal.
Paul Hausser (7 October 1880 – 21 December 1972) was a high-ranking commander in the Waffen-SS of Nazi Germany during World War II who played a key role in the post-war efforts by former members of the Waffen-SS to achieve historical and legal rehabilitation.
The Personal Staff of the Reich Leader of the SS (Hauptamt Persönlicher Stab Reichsführer-SS) was a main office of the SS which was established in 1933 by Heinrich Himmler to serve as a personal office coordinating various activities and projects subordinate to the Reichsführer-SS.
Piotr M. A. Cywiński (born 16 April 1972 in Warsaw) is a professional historian and Director of the Auschwitz-Birkenau State Museum, active participant and often initiator in the Polish-Jewish and Christian-Jewish dialogue, and an ecumenist devoted to reconciliation of the various denominations among the cultures of the borderlands.
Police state is a term denoting a government that exercises power arbitrarily through the power of the police force.
Prague (Praha, Prag) is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and also the historical capital of Bohemia.
"Pripyat swamps" ("Pripiatsee"), also "Pripyat march" was the codename of the punitive operation conducted by German forces in July and August 1941.
A prisoner of war (POW) is a person, whether combatant or non-combatant, who is held in custody by a belligerent power during or immediately after an armed conflict.
The racial policy of Nazi Germany was a set of policies and laws implemented in Nazi Germany (1933–45) based on a specific racist doctrine asserting the superiority of the Aryan race, which claimed scientific legitimacy.
Raul Hilberg (June 2, 1926 – August 4, 2007) was an Austrian-born Jewish-American political scientist and historian.
Ravensbrück was a German concentration camp exclusively for women from 1939 to 1945, located in northern Germany, north of Berlin at a site near the village of Ravensbrück (part of Fürstenberg/Havel).
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
The Reich Chancellery (Reichskanzlei) was the traditional name of the office of the Chancellor of Germany (then called Reichskanzler) in the period of the German Reich from 1878 to 1945.
The Reich Commissioner for the Consolidation of German Nationhood (Reichskommissar für die Festigung deutschen Volkstums, RKF, RKFDV) was an office in Nazi Germany which was held by Reichsführer-SS Heinrich Himmler.
The Reich Main Security OfficeReichssicherheitshauptamt is variously translated as "Reich Main Security Office", "Reich Security Main Office", "Reich Central Security Main Office", "Reich Security Central Office", "Reich Head Security Office", or "Reich Security Head Office".
Reichsführer-SS ("Reich Leader-SS") was a special title and rank that existed between the years of 1925 and 1945 for the commander of the Schutzstaffel (SS).
The Reichsmark (sign: ℛℳ) was the currency in Germany from 1924 until 20 June 1948 in West Germany, where it was replaced with the Deutsche Mark, and until 23 June in East Germany when it was replaced by the East German mark.
The Reichssicherheitsdienst (RSD, lit. "Reich security service") was an SS security force of Nazi Germany.
Reinhard Tristan Eugen Heydrich (7 March 1904 – 4 June 1942) was a high-ranking German Nazi official during World War II, and a main architect of the Holocaust.
--> The Rhine (Rhenus, Rein, Rhein, le Rhin,, Italiano: Reno, Rijn) is a European river that begins in the Swiss canton of Graubünden in the southeastern Swiss Alps, forms part of the Swiss-Liechtenstein, Swiss-Austrian, Swiss-German and then the Franco-German border, then flows through the German Rhineland and the Netherlands and eventually empties into the North Sea.
(22 April 1889 – 10 May 1945) was a high-ranking Nazi official in the SS.
Richard Lee Rhodes (born July 4, 1937) is an American historian, journalist and author of both fiction and non-fiction (which he prefers to call "verity"), including the Pulitzer Prize-winning The Making of the Atomic Bomb (1986), and most recently, Energy: A Human History (2018).
The Riga Ghetto was a small area in Maskavas Forštate, a neighborhood of Riga, Latvia, designated by the Nazis where Jews from Latvia, and later from Germany, were forced to live during World War II.
The Romani (also spelled Romany), or Roma, are a traditionally itinerant ethnic group, living mostly in Europe and the Americas and originating from the northern Indian subcontinent, from the Rajasthan, Haryana, Punjab and Sindh regions of modern-day India and Pakistan.
Rotary International is an international service organization whose stated purpose is to bring together business and professional leaders in order to provide humanitarian services, encourage high ethical standards in all vocations, and to advance goodwill and peace around the world.
The Royal Norfolk Regiment was a line infantry regiment of the British Army until 1959.
Rudolf Diels (16 December 1900 – 18 November 1957) was a German civil servant and head of the Gestapo in 1933–34.
Rudolf Höss (also Höß, Hoeß or Hoess; 25 November 1901 – 16 April 1947) was a Nazi German SS-Obersturmbannführer (lieutenant colonel) and the longest-serving commandant of Auschwitz concentration and extermination camp in World War II.
The Rumbula massacre is a collective term for incidents on November 30 and December 8, 1941 in which about 25,000 Jews were killed in or on the way to Rumbula forest near Riga, Latvia, during the Holocaust.
Sachsenhausen ("Saxon's Houses") or Sachsenhausen-Oranienburg was a Nazi concentration camp in Oranienburg, Germany, used primarily for political prisoners from 1936 to the end of the Third Reich in May 1945.
were the military nobility and officer caste of medieval and early-modern Japan.
The term secret police (or political police)Ilan Berman & J. Michael Waller, "Introduction: The Centrality of the Secret Police" in Dismantling Tyranny: Transitioning Beyond Totalitarian Regimes (Rowman & Littlefield, 2006), p. xv.
The Seine (La Seine) is a river and an important commercial waterway within the Paris Basin in the north of France.
Josef Dietrich (28 May 1892 – 21 April 1966) was an Oberst-Gruppenführer in the Waffen-SS, the armed paramilitary branch of the Schutzstaffel (SS), who commanded units up to army level during World War II.
Sicherheitsdienst (Security Service), full title Sicherheitsdienst des Reichsführers-SS (Security Service of the Reichsführer-SS), or SD, was the intelligence agency of the SS and the Nazi Party in Nazi Germany.
The Sicherheitspolizei (Security Police), often abbreviated as SiPo, was a term used in Germany for security police.
Simon Wiesenthal (31 December 190820 September 2005) was a Jewish Austrian Holocaust survivor, Nazi hunter, and writer.
Slavery is any system in which principles of property law are applied to people, allowing individuals to own, buy and sell other individuals, as a de jure form of property.
Slavs are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic linguistic group.
Sobibór (or Sobibor) was a Nazi German extermination camp built and operated by the SS near the railway station of Sobibór during World War II, within the semi-colonial territory of General Government of the occupied Second Polish Republic.
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
The Sonderaktion 1005 (Special Action 1005), also called Aktion 1005, or Enterdungsaktion (Exhumation Action) began in May 1942 during World War II to hide any evidence that people had been murdered by Nazi Germany in Aktion Reinhard in occupied Poland.
Sonderkommandos (special unit) were work units made up of German Nazi death camp prisoners.
Southern France or the South of France, colloquially known as le Midi, is a defined geographical area consisting of the regions of France that border the Atlantic Ocean south of the Marais Poitevin, Spain, the Mediterranean, and Italy.
The Soviet partisans were members of resistance movements that fought a guerrilla war against the Axis forces in the Soviet Union, the previously Soviet-occupied territories of interwar Poland in 1941–45 and eastern Finland.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
*Sowilō or *sæwelō is the reconstructed Proto-Germanic language name of the s-rune, meaning "sun".
The title of SS and police leader (SS- und Polizeiführer) was used to designate a senior Nazi official who commanded large units of the SS, Gestapo and the German uniformed police (Ordnungspolizei), prior to and during World War II.
The SS Cavalry Brigade (SS-Kavallerie-Brigade) was a unit of the German Waffen-SS during World War II.
The SS Court Main Office (Hauptamt SS-Gericht) - one of the 12 SS main departments - was the legal department of the SS in Nazi Germany.
The SS Education Office (SS-Schulungsamt) was one of the Nazi organizations responsible for the ideological indoctrination of members of the SS.
The SS-Führungshauptamt (SS Leadership Main Office) (SS-FHA) was the operational headquarters of the SS.
The SS Main Economic and Administrative Office (SS-Wirtschafts- und Verwaltungshauptamt), abbreviated SS-WVHA, was a Nazi organization responsible for managing the finances, supply systems and business projects for the Allgemeine-SS.
The SS Main Office (SS-Hauptamt) (SS-HA) was the central command office of the Schutzstaffel (SS) in Nazi Germany until 1940.
The SS Personnel Main Office (SS Personalhauptamt) was the central recording office for all officers and potential officers for the SS in Nazi Germany.
The SS Race and Settlement Main Office, (Rasse- und Siedlungshauptamt der SS, RuSHA), was the organization responsible for "safeguarding the racial 'purity' of the SS" within Nazi Germany.
The SS state of Burgundy (in German: «SS-Staat Burgund») or Order-State of Burgundy (in German: «Ordensstaat Burgund», a historical reference to the State of the Teutonic Order) was a proposed state which the leadership of Nazi Germany hoped to create in certain areas of Western Europe during World War II.
SS-Begleitkommando des Führers ("SS Escort Command of the Führer"), later known as the Führerbegleitkommando (Führer Escort Command; FBK) was originally an eight-man SS squad formed from a twelve-man security squad (known as the SS-Begleitkommando) tasked with protecting the life of Adolf Hitler during the early 1930s.
SS-Oberabschnitt Donau was the primary division command of the Allgemeine-SS in the country of Austria.
SS-Oberst-Gruppenführer was (from 1942 to 1945) the highest commissioned rank in the Schutzstaffel (SS), with the exception of Reichsführer-SS, held by SS commander Heinrich Himmler.
SS-Totenkopfverbände (SS-TV), rendered in English as Death's Head Units, was the SS organization responsible for administering the Nazi concentration camps for the Third Reich, among similar duties.
The SS-Verfügungstruppe (SS-VT) was formed in 1934 as combat troops for the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
The St Nazaire Raid or Operation Chariot was a successful British amphibious attack on the heavily defended Normandie dry dock at St Nazaire in German-occupied France during the Second World War.
Stabschef ("Chief of Staff") was an office and paramilitary rank in the Sturmabteilung (SA), the paramilitary stormtroopers associated with the Nazi Party.
Standartenführer ("standard leader") was a Nazi Party (NSDAP) paramilitary rank that was used in several NSDAP organizations, such as the SA, SS, NSKK and the NSFK.
Stoßtrupp-Hitler or Stosstrupp-Hitler ("Shock Troop-Hitler") was a small short-lived bodyguard unit set up specifically for Adolf Hitler in 1923.
The Sturmabteilung (SA), literally Storm Detachment, functioned as the original paramilitary wing of the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Sturmbannführer ("assault unit leader") was a Nazi Party paramilitary rank equivalent to major that was used in several Nazi organizations, such as the SA, SS, and the NSFK.
The Sudetenland (Czech and Sudety; Kraj Sudecki) is the historical German name for the northern, southern, and western areas of former Czechoslovakia which were inhabited primarily by Sudeten Germans.
Superior orders, often known as the Nuremberg defense, lawful orders or by the German phrase Befehl ist Befehl ("an order is an order"), is a plea in a court of law that a person—whether a member of the military, law enforcement, a firefighting force, or the civilian population—not be held guilty for actions ordered by a superior officer or an official.
The Order of Brothers of the German House of Saint Mary in Jerusalem (official names: Ordo domus Sanctæ Mariæ Theutonicorum Hierosolymitanorum, Orden der Brüder vom Deutschen Haus der Heiligen Maria in Jerusalem), commonly the Teutonic Order (Deutscher Orden, Deutschherrenorden or Deutschritterorden), is a Catholic religious order founded as a military order c. 1190 in Acre, Kingdom of Jerusalem.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich: A History of Nazi Germany is a book by William L. Shirer chronicling the rise and fall of Nazi Germany from the birth of Adolf Hitler in 1889 to the end of World War II in 1945.
The Third Reich Trilogy is a series of three narrative history books by the British historian Richard J. Evans covering the rise and collapse of Nazi Germany in detail, with a focus on the internal politics and the decision-making process.
Theodor Eicke (17 October 1892 – 26 February 1943) was a German senior Nazi official and Obergruppenführer of the SS, one of the key figures in the development of the concentration camp system in Germany used in the Holocaust.
The Third Battle of Kharkov was a series of battles on the Eastern Front of World War II, undertaken by the German Army Group South against the Red Army, around the city of Kharkov (or Kharkiv)Kharkov is the Russian language name of the city (Kharkiv the Ukrainian one); both Russian and Ukrainian were official languages in the Soviet Union (Source: & by Routledge) between 19 February and 15 March 1943.
Torzeniec is a village in the administrative district of Gmina Doruchów, within Ostrzeszów County, Greater Poland Voivodeship, in west-central Poland.
Totenkopf (i.e. skull, literally dead's head) is the German word for the skull and crossbones and death's head symbols.
Trawniki men (Trawnikimänner) were Central and Eastern European collaborators recruited from prisoner-of-war camps set up by Nazi Germany for Soviet Red Army soldiers captured in the border regions during Operation Barbarossa launched in June 1941.
Treblinka was an extermination camp, built and operated by Nazi Germany in occupied Poland during World War II.
Tsherim Soobzokov (24 August 1924, – 6 September 1985) was a Circassian man accused of collaborating with the Nazis during the invasion of the Soviet Union and serving as a Waffen-SS officer.
Tufts University is a private research university incorporated in the municipality of Medford, Massachusetts, United States.
During World War II, many military units formed of non-Russian volunteers were engaged on the Axis side on the Eastern Front and other theatres.
Ukrainian collaboration with Nazi Germany took place during the military occupation of modern-day Ukraine by Nazi Germany in World War II.
Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for those work relations, especially in modern or early modern history, in which people are employed against their will with the threat of destitution, detention, violence (including death), compulsion, or other forms of extreme hardship to themselves or members of their families.
The following is a general overview of the Heer main uniforms, though there were so many specialist uniforms and variations that not all (such as camouflage, Luftwaffe, tropical, extreme winter) can be included.
The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum (USHMM) is the United States' official memorial to the Holocaust.
In sociology, the upper middle class is the social group constituted by higher status members of the middle class.
Vire is a town and a former commune in the Calvados department in the Normandy region in northwestern France.
The Volksdeutsche Mittelstelle or VoMi (Coordination Centre for Ethnic Germans) was an NSDAP agency founded to manage the interests of the ethnic Germans (population of German ethnicity living outside the borders of Nazi Germany).
The Volkssturm ("people's storm") was a national militia established by Nazi Germany during the last months of World War II.
The Waffen-SS (Armed SS) was the armed wing of the Nazi Party's SS organisation.
The Walloon Legion (28. was a collaborationist volunteer unit recruited from Belgium's French-speaking population in Wallonia and Brussels during the German occupation of World War II. The Walloon Legion served in the Wehrmacht, later in the Waffen-SS, on the Eastern Front on both front line and reserve duties.
Walter Friedrich Schellenberg (16 January 1910 – 31 March 1952) was a German SS functionary during the Nazi era.
The Wannsee Conference (Wannseekonferenz) was a meeting of senior government officials of Nazi Germany and Schutzstaffel (SS) leaders, held in the Berlin suburb of Wannsee on 20 January 1942.
A war crime is an act that constitutes a serious violation of the laws of war that gives rise to individual criminal responsibility.
The Warsaw Ghetto Uprising (אױפֿשטאַנד אין װאַרשעװער געטאָ; powstanie w getcie warszawskim; Aufstand im Warschauer Ghetto) was the 1943 act of Jewish resistance that arose within the Warsaw Ghetto in German-occupied Poland during World War II, and which opposed Nazi Germany's final effort to transport the remaining Ghetto population to Treblinka.
Włocławek (Leslau) is a city located in central Poland along the Vistula (Wisła) River and is bordered by the Gostynińsko-Włocławski Park Krajobrazowy.
The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".
Western esotericism (also called esotericism and esoterism), also known as the Western mystery tradition, is a term under which scholars have categorised a wide range of loosely related ideas and movements which have developed within Western society.
Westphalia (Westfalen) is a region in northwestern Germany and one of the three historic parts of the state of North Rhine-Westphalia.
Wewelsburg is a Renaissance castle located in the village of Wewelsburg, which is a district of the town of Büren, Westphalia, in the Landkreis of Paderborn in the northeast of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
Wilhelm Höttl or Hoettl (19 March 1915 – 27 June 1999) was an Austrian Nazi Party member, and SS member who rose to the rank of SS-Sturmbannführer.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The Wormhoudt massacre (or Wormhout massacre) was the mass murder of 80 British and French POWs by Waffen-SS soldiers from the 1st SS Division Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler during the Battle of France in May 1940.
Wormhout (older version: Wormhoudt) is a commune in the Nord department in northern France.
Złoczew (1939-45 Schlötzau) is a town in Sieradz County, Łódź Voivodeship, Poland, with 3,371 inhabitants (2016).
Zyklon B (translated Cyclone B) was the trade name of a cyanide-based pesticide invented in Germany in the early 1920s.
The 10th SS Panzer Division "Frundsberg" (10.) was a German Waffen SS armoured division during World War II.
The 116th Panzer Division, also known as the "Windhund (Greyhound) Division", was a German armoured formation that saw combat during World War II.
The 11th Army (11.) was a World War II field army.
The 11th SS Volunteer Panzergrenadier Division Nordland (11.) was a Waffen-SS division recruited from foreign volunteers and conscripts.
12th SS Panzer Division "Hitlerjugend" (12.) was a German armoured division of the Waffen-SS during World War II.
The 13th Waffen Mountain Division of the SS "Handschar" (1st Croatian) was a mountain infantry division of the Waffen-SS, an armed branch of the German Nazi Party that served alongside but was never formally part of the Wehrmacht during World War II.
The 17th SS Panzergrenadier Division "Götz von Berlichingen" (17.) was a German Waffen-SS division that saw action on the Western Front during World War II.
The 1st SS Panzer Division "Leibstandarte SS Adolf Hitler", short LSSAH, (1.) began as Adolf Hitler's personal bodyguard, responsible for guarding the Führer's person, offices, and residences.
The 1st SS-Standarte was a regimental command of the Allgemeine-SS and one of the most important units in the General-SS order of battle.
The 21st Panzer Division was a German armoured division best known for its role in the battles of the North African Campaign from 1941–1943 during World War II when it was one of the two armoured divisions making up the Deutsches Afrikakorps (DAK).
The 21st Waffen Mountain Division of the SS "Skanderbeg" (1st Albanian) was a German mountain infantry division of the Waffen-SS, the armed wing of the German Nazi Party that served alongside, but was never formally part of, the Wehrmacht during World War II.
The 23rd SS Volunteer Panzer Grenadier Division Nederland (23. was a German Waffen-SS division comprising volunteers from the Netherlands. It saw action on the Eastern Front during World War II from November 1941. In February 1945, the 4th SS Brigade Nederland was merged into the SS Division Nordland, but after protests from the Dutch Nazi party, the National Socialist Movement in the Netherlands, it was formed into its own SS Panzergrenadier Division, although its strength never reached more than a brigade.
The 2nd Infantry Division ("Indianhead"; "2ID," "2nd ID", or "Second D") is a formation of the United States Army.
The 2nd Panzer Division (2nd Tank Division) was an armoured division in the German Army, the Wehrmacht, during World War II.
The 2nd SS Panzer Division "Das Reich" (2. SS-Panzerdivision "Das Reich".) was one of 38 divisions of the Waffen-SS of Nazi Germany during World War II.
The 33rd Waffen Grenadier Division of the SS Charlemagne (1st French) (33. and Charlemagne Regiment are collective names used for units of French volunteers in the Wehrmacht and later Waffen-SS during World War II. From estimates of 7,340 to 11,000 at its peak in 1944, the strength of the division fell to just sixty men in May 1945. They were one of the last Axis units to see action during World War II, when they participated in the defence of central Berlin and in the area of the Führerbunker. They were among the last to surrender during the final days of the Battle in Berlin.
The 4th SS Polizei Panzergrenadier Division (4. SS-Polizei-Panzergrenadier-Division) was one of the thirty-eight divisions fielded as part of the Waffen-SS during World War II.
The 5th SS Panzer Division "Wiking" (5. SS-Panzerdivision "Wiking".) was a Panzer division among the thirty eight Waffen-SS divisions of Nazi Germany.
The 6th Panzer Army (6. Panzer-Armee) was a formation of the German Army, formed in the autumn of 1944.
The 716th Static Infantry Division (German: 716. Infanterie-Division) was a World War II, German Army infantry division.
The 7th Panzer Division was an armored formation of the German Army in World War II.
The 8th SS Cavalry Division "Florian Geyer" was a German Waffen-SS cavalry division during World War II.
The 99th Infantry Division was a unit of the United States Army in World War II.
The 9th SS Panzer Division "Hohenstaufen" (9. SS-Panzerdivision "Hohenstaufen".) was a Waffen-SS armoured division of Nazi Germany during World War II.
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