322 relations: Abdus Salam, Abraham Darby I, Abscissa and ordinate, Academy of sciences, Action at a distance, Aether (classical element), Age of Enlightenment, Air (classical element), Albert Einstein, Alchemy, Alexandre Koyré, Alexis Clairaut, Alkmaar, Almagest, Ambroise Paré, An Essay Concerning Human Understanding, Analog device, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek philosophy, Andreas Vesalius, Antoine Lavoisier, Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, Archimedes, Aristotelianism, Aristotle, Arithmometer, Artery, Astrology, Astronomer, Astronomy, Atmospheric pressure, Atom, Atomism, Axiom, Azygos vein, Baconian method, Barometer, Battlefield medicine, Blaise Pascal, Blast furnace, Blood, Bodleian Library, Boyle's law, Buoyancy, Byzantine science, Calculus, Cambridge University Press, Celestial spheres, Charcoal, Charles II of England, ..., Chemical reaction, Chemical revolution, Chemistry, Christiaan Huygens, Chromatic aberration, Circular motion, Classical antiquity, Classical element, Closed system, Coke (fuel), Columbia University, Comet, Compass, Conic section, Copernican heliocentrism, Copernican Revolution, Cosmology, Cosmos, David Hume, De humani corporis fabrica, De Magnete, De motu corporum in gyrum, De re metallica, De revolutionibus orbium coelestium, Deductive reasoning, Democritus, Denis Papin, Dialogue, Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems, Diffraction, Discourse on the Method, Dispersion (optics), Dispersive prism, Division (mathematics), Doubleday (publisher), Ductus venosus, Dynamics (mechanics), Early modern period, Earth, Earth (classical element), Earth's magnetic field, Edmond Halley, Edmund Gunter, Electricity, Electrification, Electrostatic generator, Electrostatics, Empiricism, Euclid's Elements, Eudoxus of Cnidus, Eurocentrism, European science in the Middle Ages, Evangelista Torricelli, Experiment, Fact, Fire (classical element), Fish, Florence, Formula, François Viète, Francis Bacon, Friction, Galen, Galilean moons, Galileo Galilei, General Scholium, Geocentric model, George Berkeley, Georgius Agricola, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Gravity, Greater omentum, Greek mathematics, Gregorian calendar, Gregorian telescope, Gresham College and the formation of the Royal Society, Gunpowder, Hans Lippershey, Heart, Heliocentrism, Henry Briggs (mathematician), Henry Oldenburg, Herbert Butterfield, Herman Boerhaave, Hermeticism, Hindu–Arabic numeral system, History of anatomy, History of science, History of science and technology in China, Human body, Ibn al-Haytham, Inductive reasoning, Industrial Revolution, Inertia, Information revolution, Inverse-square law, Isaac Newton, Jacob Metius, James Gregory (mathematician), Jean Sylvain Bailly, Jean-Baptiste Colbert, Johannes Kepler, John Bird (astronomer), John Donne, John Flamsteed, John Hadley, John Locke, John Napier, Jupiter, Karl Alfred Ritter von Zittel, Kepler's laws of planetary motion, KUHF, Large intestine, Lattice multiplication, Leibniz wheel, Leiden, Lens (optics), Leucippus, Ligature (medicine), Liver, Logarithm, Logic, Louis XIV of France, Louvre, Luminiferous aether, Machine, Magnetism, Mathematics, McGraw-Hill Education, Mechanical philosophy, Mediastinum, Medicine, Merriam-Webster, Methodology, Middle Ages, Millennium, Mining, Molecule, Multiculturalism, Multiplication, Napier's bones, Natural philosophy, Navigation, Netherlands, New Atlantis, New Latin, Newcomen atmospheric engine, Newton's law of universal gravitation, Newton's laws of motion, Newton's reflector, Newtonian telescope, Nicolaus Copernicus, Nominalism, Novum Organum, Objective (optics), Observational astronomy, Occult, Octant (instrument), Opticks, Optics, Otto von Guericke, Parabola, Parabolic reflector, Paracelsus, Parallax, Pascal's calculator, Peer review, Peter Harrison (historian), Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society, Philosophy, Philosophy of mathematics, Physical law, Physician, Physics, Pierre Fauchard, Pinhole camera, Pinwheel calculator, Planet, Pope Gregory XIII, Pressure, Printing press, Pseudodoxia Epidemica, Ptolemy, Pulmonary artery, Pulmonary pleurae, Pump, Pylorus, Pythagoreanism, Reductionism, Reflecting telescope, Refracting telescope, Refraction, Reijer Hooykaas, Renaissance, Renaissance of the 12th century, René Descartes, Robert Boyle, Robert Hooke, Robert Moray, Roger Cotes, Romanticism in science, Royal charter, Royal Society, Sacrum, Saturn, Scholasticism, Science, Science in the medieval Islamic world, Scientific method, Scientific priority, Sextant, Sine, Slide rule, Snake, Snell's law, South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society, Specular reflection, Sphenoid bone, Spherical aberration, Spleen, Stanley Jaki, Steam digester, Steam engine, Stellar parallax, Stephen Gray (scientist), Sternum, Stillman Drake, Sunspot, Surgery, Syllogism, Tabula rasa, Teleology, Telescope, Terrella, The Assayer, The Sceptical Chymist, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, Theorem, Theory of relativity, Thomas Browne, Thomas Hobbes, Thomas Kuhn, Thomas Newcomen, Thomas Savery, Thomas Thomson (chemist), Trajectory, Treatise on Light, Trigonometric functions, Tycho Brahe, University of Oxford, University of St Andrews, Vacuum, Vacuum pump, Vein, Ventricle (heart), Venus, Vestibule of the ear, Visible spectrum, Volume, Water (classical element), Wave, White, Willebrord Snellius, William Brouncker, 2nd Viscount Brouncker, William Gilbert (astronomer), William Harvey, William of Ockham, William Oughtred, William Whewell, World Scientific, Wound. 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Mohammad Abdus Salam Salam adopted the forename "Mohammad" in 1974 in response to the anti-Ahmadiyya decrees in Pakistan, similarly he grew his beard.
Abraham Darby, in his later life called Abraham Darby the Elder, now sometimes known for convenience as Abraham Darby I (14 April 1678 – 8 March 1717) was the first and best known of several men of that name.
In mathematics, the abscissa (plural abscissae or abscissæ or abscissas) and the ordinate are respectively the first and second coordinate of a point in a coordinate system.
An academy of sciences is a type of learned society or academy (as special scientific institution) dedicated to sciences that may or may not be state funded.
In physics, action at a distance is the concept that an object can be moved, changed, or otherwise affected without being physically touched (as in mechanical contact) by another object.
According to ancient and medieval science, aether (αἰθήρ aithēr), also spelled æther or ether and also called quintessence, is the material that fills the region of the universe above the terrestrial sphere.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Air is one of the four classical elements in ancient Greek philosophy and in Western alchemy.
Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).
Alchemy is a philosophical and protoscientific tradition practiced throughout Europe, Africa, Brazil and Asia.
Alexandre Koyré (29 August 1892 – 28 April 1964), also anglicized as Alexandre or Alexander Koyre, was a French philosopher of Russian origin who wrote on the history and philosophy of science.
Alexis Claude Clairaut (13 May 1713 – 17 May 1765) was a French mathematician, astronomer, and geophysicist.
Alkmaar is a city and municipality in the Netherlands, located in the province of North Holland.
The Almagest is a 2nd-century Greek-language mathematical and astronomical treatise on the apparent motions of the stars and planetary paths, written by Claudius Ptolemy. One of the most influential scientific texts of all time, its geocentric model was accepted for more than 1200 years from its origin in Hellenistic Alexandria, in the medieval Byzantine and Islamic worlds, and in Western Europe through the Middle Ages and early Renaissance until Copernicus.
Ambroise Paré (c. 1510 – 20 December 1590) was a French barber surgeon who served in that role for kings Henry II, Francis II, Charles IX and Henry III.
An Essay Concerning Human Understanding is a work by John Locke concerning the foundation of human knowledge and understanding.
Analog device is usually a combination of both analog machine and analog media that can together measure, record, reproduce, or broadcast continuous information, for example, the almost infinite number of grades of transparency, voltage, resistance, rotation, or pressure.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BC and continued throughout the Hellenistic period and the period in which Ancient Greece was part of the Roman Empire.
Andreas Vesalius (31 December 1514 – 15 October 1564) was a 16th-century Flemish anatomist, physician, and author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica (On the Fabric of the Human Body).
Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier (also Antoine Lavoisier after the French Revolution;; 26 August 17438 May 1794) CNRS (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique) was a French nobleman and chemist who was central to the 18th-century chemical revolution and who had a large influence on both the history of chemistry and the history of biology.
Antonie Philips van Leeuwenhoek FRS (24 October 1632 – 26 August 1723) was a Dutch businessman and scientist in the Golden Age of Dutch science and technology.
Archimedes of Syracuse (Ἀρχιμήδης) was a Greek mathematician, physicist, engineer, inventor, and astronomer.
Aristotelianism is a tradition of philosophy that takes its defining inspiration from the work of Aristotle.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
The Arithmometer or Arithmomètre was the first digital mechanical calculator strong enough and reliable enough to be used daily in an office environment.
An artery (plural arteries) is a blood vessel that takes blood away from the heart to all parts of the body (tissues, lungs, etc).
Astrology is the study of the movements and relative positions of celestial objects as a means for divining information about human affairs and terrestrial events.
An astronomer is a scientist in the field of astronomy who concentrates their studies on a specific question or field outside the scope of Earth.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
Atmospheric pressure, sometimes also called barometric pressure, is the pressure within the atmosphere of Earth (or that of another planet).
An atom is the smallest constituent unit of ordinary matter that has the properties of a chemical element.
Atomism (from Greek ἄτομον, atomon, i.e. "uncuttable", "indivisible") is a natural philosophy that developed in several ancient traditions.
An axiom or postulate is a statement that is taken to be true, to serve as a premise or starting point for further reasoning and arguments.
The azygos vein is a vein running up the side of the thoracic vertebral column draining itself towards the superior vena cava.
The Baconian method is the investigative method developed by Sir Francis Bacon.
A barometer is a scientific instrument used in meteorology to measure atmospheric pressure.
Battlefield medicine, also called field surgery and later combat casualty care, is the treatment of wounded combatants and non-combatants in or near an area of combat.
Blaise Pascal (19 June 1623 – 19 August 1662) was a French mathematician, physicist, inventor, writer and Catholic theologian.
A blast furnace is a type of metallurgical furnace used for smelting to produce industrial metals, generally pig iron, but also others such as lead or copper.
Blood is a body fluid in humans and other animals that delivers necessary substances such as nutrients and oxygen to the cells and transports metabolic waste products away from those same cells.
The Bodleian Library is the main research library of the University of Oxford, and is one of the oldest libraries in Europe.
Boyle's law (sometimes referred to as the Boyle–Mariotte law, or Mariotte's law) is an experimental gas law that describes how the pressure of a gas tends to increase as the volume of the container decreases.
In physics, buoyancy or upthrust, is an upward force exerted by a fluid that opposes the weight of an immersed object.
Byzantine science played an important role in the transmission of classical knowledge to the Islamic world and to Renaissance Italy, and also in the transmission of Islamic science to Renaissance Italy.
Calculus (from Latin calculus, literally 'small pebble', used for counting and calculations, as on an abacus), is the mathematical study of continuous change, in the same way that geometry is the study of shape and algebra is the study of generalizations of arithmetic operations.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
The celestial spheres, or celestial orbs, were the fundamental entities of the cosmological models developed by Plato, Eudoxus, Aristotle, Ptolemy, Copernicus, and others.
Charcoal is the lightweight black carbon and ash residue hydrocarbon produced by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances.
Charles II (29 May 1630 – 6 February 1685) was king of England, Scotland and Ireland.
A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the transformation of one set of chemical substances to another.
The chemical revolution, also called the first chemical revolution, was the early modern reformulation of chemistry that culminated in the law of conservation of mass and the oxygen theory of combustion.
Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with compounds composed of atoms, i.e. elements, and molecules, i.e. combinations of atoms: their composition, structure, properties, behavior and the changes they undergo during a reaction with other compounds.
Christiaan Huygens (Hugenius; 14 April 1629 – 8 July 1695) was a Dutch physicist, mathematician, astronomer and inventor, who is widely regarded as one of the greatest scientists of all time and a major figure in the scientific revolution.
In optics, chromatic aberration (abbreviated CA; also called chromatic distortion and spherochromatism) is an effect resulting from dispersion in which there is a failure of a lens to focus all colors to the same convergence point.
In physics, circular motion is a movement of an object along the circumference of a circle or rotation along a circular path.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Classical elements typically refer to the concepts in ancient Greece of earth, water, air, fire, and aether, which were proposed to explain the nature and complexity of all matter in terms of simpler substances.
A closed system is a physical system that does not allow certain types of transfers (such as transfer of mass and energy transfer) in or out of the system.
Coke is a fuel with a high carbon content and few impurities, usually made from coal.
Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.
A comet is an icy small Solar System body that, when passing close to the Sun, warms and begins to release gases, a process called outgassing.
A compass is an instrument used for navigation and orientation that shows direction relative to the geographic cardinal directions (or points).
In mathematics, a conic section (or simply conic) is a curve obtained as the intersection of the surface of a cone with a plane.
Copernican heliocentrism is the name given to the astronomical model developed by Nicolaus Copernicus and published in 1543.
The Copernican Revolution was the paradigm shift from the Ptolemaic model of the heavens, which described the cosmos as having Earth stationary at the center of the universe, to the heliocentric model with the Sun at the center of the Solar System.
Cosmology (from the Greek κόσμος, kosmos "world" and -λογία, -logia "study of") is the study of the origin, evolution, and eventual fate of the universe.
The cosmos is the universe.
David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.
De humani corporis fabrica libri septem (Latin for "On the fabric of the human body in seven books") is a set of books on human anatomy written by Andreas Vesalius (1514–1564) and published in 1543.
De Magnete, Magneticisque Corporibus, et de Magno Magnete Tellure (On the Magnet and Magnetic Bodies, and on That Great Magnet the Earth) is a scientific work published in 1600 by the English physician and scientist William Gilbert and his partner Aaron Dowling.
De motu corporum in gyrum ("On the motion of bodies in an orbit") is the presumed title of a manuscript by Isaac Newton sent to Edmond Halley in November 1684.
De re metallica (Latin for On the Nature of Metals) is a book cataloguing the state of the art of mining, refining, and smelting metals, published a year posthumously in 1556 due to a delay in preparing woodcuts for the text.
De revolutionibus orbium coelestium (On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres) is the seminal work on the heliocentric theory of the Renaissance astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus (1473–1543).
Deductive reasoning, also deductive logic, logical deduction is the process of reasoning from one or more statements (premises) to reach a logically certain conclusion.
Democritus (Δημόκριτος, Dēmókritos, meaning "chosen of the people") was an Ancient Greek pre-Socratic philosopher primarily remembered today for his formulation of an atomic theory of the universe.
Denis Papin FRS (22 August 1647 – 26 August 1713) was a French physicist, mathematician and inventor, best known for his pioneering invention of the steam digester, the forerunner of the pressure cooker and of the steam engine.
Dialogue (sometimes spelled dialog in American English) is a written or spoken conversational exchange between two or more people, and a literary and theatrical form that depicts such an exchange.
The Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems (Dialogo sopra i due massimi sistemi del mondo) is a 1632 Italian-language book by Galileo Galilei comparing the Copernican system with the traditional Ptolemaic system.
--> Diffraction refers to various phenomena that occur when a wave encounters an obstacle or a slit.
The Discourse on the Method (Discours de la méthode) is a philosophical and autobiographical treatise published by René Descartes in 1637.
In optics, dispersion is the phenomenon in which the phase velocity of a wave depends on its frequency.
In optics, a dispersive prism is an optical prism, usually having the shape of a geometrical triangular prism, used as a spectroscopic component.
Division is one of the four basic operations of arithmetic, the others being addition, subtraction, and multiplication.
Doubleday is an American publishing company founded as Doubleday & McClure Company in 1897 that by 1947 was the largest in the United States.
In the fetus, the ductus venosus (Arantius' duct after Julius Caesar Aranzi) shunts a portion of the left umbilical vein blood flow directly to the inferior vena cava.
Dynamics is the branch of applied mathematics (specifically classical mechanics) concerned with the study of forces and torques and their effect on motion, as opposed to kinematics, which studies the motion of objects without reference to these forces.
The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
Earth is one of the classical elements, in some systems numbering four along with air, fire, and water.
Earth's magnetic field, also known as the geomagnetic field, is the magnetic field that extends from the Earth's interior out into space, where it meets the solar wind, a stream of charged particles emanating from the Sun.
Edmond (or Edmund) Halley, FRS (–) was an English astronomer, geophysicist, mathematician, meteorologist, and physicist.
Edmund Gunter (1581 – 10 December 1626), was an English clergyman, mathematician, geometer and astronomer of Welsh descent.
Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.
Electrification is the process of powering by electricity and, in many contexts, the introduction of such power by changing over from an earlier power source.
An electrostatic generator, or electrostatic machine, is an electromechanical generator that produces static electricity, or electricity at high voltage and low continuous current.
Electrostatics is a branch of physics that studies electric charges at rest.
In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.
The Elements (Στοιχεῖα Stoicheia) is a mathematical treatise consisting of 13 books attributed to the ancient Greek mathematician Euclid in Alexandria, Ptolemaic Egypt c. 300 BC.
Eudoxus of Cnidus (Εὔδοξος ὁ Κνίδιος, Eúdoxos ho Knídios) was an ancient Greek astronomer, mathematician, scholar, and student of Archytas and Plato.
Eurocentrism (also Western-centrism) is a worldview centered on and biased towards Western civilization.
European science in the Middle Ages comprised the study of nature, mathematics and natural philosophy in medieval Europe.
Evangelista Torricelli; 15 October 1608 – 25 October 1647) was an Italian physicist and mathematician, best known for his invention of the barometer, but is also known for his advances in optics and work on the method of indivisibles.
An experiment is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis.
A fact is a statement that is consistent with reality or can be proven with evidence.
Fire has been an important part of all cultures and religions from pre-history to modern day and was vital to the development of civilization.
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
Florence (Firenze) is the capital city of the Italian region of Tuscany.
In science, a formula is a concise way of expressing information symbolically, as in a mathematical formula or a chemical formula.
François Viète (Franciscus Vieta; 1540 – 23 February 1603), Seigneur de la Bigotière, was a French mathematician whose work on new algebra was an important step towards modern algebra, due to its innovative use of letters as parameters in equations.
Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban, (22 January 15619 April 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, orator, and author.
Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements sliding against each other.
Aelius Galenus or Claudius Galenus (Κλαύδιος Γαληνός; September 129 AD – /), often Anglicized as Galen and better known as Galen of Pergamon, was a Greek physician, surgeon and philosopher in the Roman Empire.
The Galilean moons are the four largest moons of Jupiter—Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto.
Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564Drake (1978, p. 1). The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar, which was then in force throughout Christendom. In 1582 it was replaced in Italy and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar. Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar. – 8 January 1642) was an Italian polymath.
The General Scholium is an essay written by Isaac Newton, appended to his work of Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, known as the Principia.
In astronomy, the geocentric model (also known as geocentrism, or the Ptolemaic system) is a superseded description of the universe with Earth at the center.
George Berkeley (12 March 168514 January 1753) — known as Bishop Berkeley (Bishop of Cloyne) — was an Irish philosopher whose primary achievement was the advancement of a theory he called "immaterialism" (later referred to as "subjective idealism" by others).
Georgius Agricola (24 March 1494 – 21 November 1555) was a German mineralogist and metallurgist.
Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz (or; Leibnitz; – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath and philosopher who occupies a prominent place in the history of mathematics and the history of philosophy.
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.
The greater omentum (also the great omentum, omentum majus, gastrocolic omentum, epiploon, or, especially in animals, caul) is a large apron-like fold of visceral peritoneum that hangs down from the stomach.
Greek mathematics refers to mathematics texts and advances written in Greek, developed from the 7th century BC to the 4th century AD around the shores of the Eastern Mediterranean.
The Gregorian calendar is the most widely used civil calendar in the world.
The Gregorian telescope is a type of reflecting telescope designed by Scottish mathematician and astronomer James Gregory in the 17th century, and first built in 1673 by Robert Hooke.
The Gresham College group was a loose collection of scientists in England of the 1640s and 1650s, a precursor to the Royal Society of London.
Gunpowder, also known as black powder to distinguish it from modern smokeless powder, is the earliest known chemical explosive.
Hans Lippershey (1570 – buried 29 September 1619), also known as Johann Lippershey or Lipperhey, was a German-Dutch spectacle-maker.
The heart is a muscular organ in most animals, which pumps blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system.
Heliocentrism is the astronomical model in which the Earth and planets revolve around the Sun at the center of the Solar System.
Henry Briggs (February 1561 – 26 January 1630) was an English mathematician notable for changing the original logarithms invented by John Napier into common (base 10) logarithms, which are sometimes known as Briggsian logarithms in his honour.
Henry Oldenburg (also Henry Oldenbourg) FRS (c. 1619 as Heinrich Oldenburg – 5 September 1677) was a German theologian known as a diplomat, a natural philosopher and as the creator of scientific peer review.
Sir Herbert Butterfield (7 October 1900 – 20 July 1979) was Regius Professor of History and Vice-Chancellor of the University of Cambridge.
Herman Boerhaave (31 December 1668 – 23 September 1738)Underwood, E. Ashworth.
Hermeticism, also called Hermetism, is a religious, philosophical, and esoteric tradition based primarily upon writings attributed to Hermes Trismegistus ("Thrice Great").
The Hindu–Arabic numeral systemDavid Eugene Smith and Louis Charles Karpinski,, 1911 (also called the Arabic numeral system or Hindu numeral system) is a positional decimal numeral system that is the most common system for the symbolic representation of numbers in the world.
The history of anatomy extends from the earliest examinations of sacrificial victims to the sophisticated analyses of the body performed by modern scientists.
The history of science is the study of the development of science and scientific knowledge, including both the natural and social sciences.
Ancient Chinese scientists and engineers made significant scientific innovations, findings and technological advances across various scientific disciplines including the natural sciences, engineering, medicine, military technology, mathematics, geology and astronomy.
The human body is the entire structure of a human being.
Hasan Ibn al-Haytham (Latinized Alhazen; full name أبو علي، الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم) was an Arab mathematician, astronomer, and physicist of the Islamic Golden Age.
Inductive reasoning (as opposed to ''deductive'' reasoning or ''abductive'' reasoning) is a method of reasoning in which the premises are viewed as supplying some evidence for the truth of the conclusion.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
Inertia is the resistance of any physical object to any change in its position and state of motion.
The term information revolution describes current economic, social and technological trends beyond the Industrial Revolution.
The inverse-square law, in physics, is any physical law stating that a specified physical quantity or intensity is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the source of that physical quantity.
Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.
Jacob (Jacobus; sometimes James) Metius (after 1571–1624/1631) was a Dutch instrument-maker and a specialist in grinding lenses.
James Gregory FRS (November 1638 – October 1675) was a Scottish mathematician and astronomer.
Jean Sylvain Bailly (15 September 1736 – 12 November 1793) was a French astronomer, mathematician, freemason, and political leader of the early part of the French Revolution.
Jean-Baptiste Colbert (29 August 1619 – 6 September 1683) was a French politician who served as the Minister of Finances of France from 1665 to 1683 under the rule of King Louis XIV.
Johannes Kepler (December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630) was a German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer.
John Bird (1709–1776), the mathematical instrument maker, was born at Bishop Auckland.
John Donne (22 January 1572 – 31 March 1631) was an English poet and cleric in the Church of England.
John Flamsteed FRS (19 August 1646 – 31 December 1719) was an English astronomer and the first Astronomer Royal.
John Hadley (16 April 1682 – 14 February 1744) was an English mathematician, and laid claim to the invention of the octant, two years after Thomas Godfrey claimed the same.
John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".
John Napier of Merchiston (1550 – 4 April 1617); also signed as Neper, Nepair; nicknamed Marvellous Merchiston) was a Scottish landowner known as a mathematician, physicist, and astronomer. He was the 8th Laird of Merchiston. His Latinized name was Ioannes Neper. John Napier is best known as the discoverer of logarithms. He also invented the so-called "Napier's bones" and made common the use of the decimal point in arithmetic and mathematics. Napier's birthplace, Merchiston Tower in Edinburgh, is now part of the facilities of Edinburgh Napier University. Napier died from the effects of gout at home at Merchiston Castle and his remains were buried in the kirkyard of St Giles. Following the loss of the kirkyard there to build Parliament House, he was memorialised at St Cuthbert's at the west side of Edinburgh.
Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the Solar System.
Karl Alfred Ritter von Zittel (25 September 1839 – 5 January 1904) was a German palaeontologist.
In astronomy, Kepler's laws of planetary motion are three scientific laws describing the motion of planets around the Sun.
KUHF (branded as News 88.7) is a public radio station serving Greater Houston metropolitan area.
The large intestine, also known as the large bowel or colon, is the last part of the gastrointestinal tract and of the digestive system in vertebrates.
Lattice multiplication, also known as gelusia multiplication, sieve multiplication, shabakh, Venetian squares, or the Chinese lattice, is a method of multiplication that uses a lattice to multiply two multi-digit numbers.
A Leibniz wheel or stepped drum is a cylinder with a set of teeth of incremental lengths which, when coupled to a counting wheel, can be used in the calculating engine of a class of mechanical calculators.
Leiden (in English and archaic Dutch also Leyden) is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland, Netherlands.
A lens is a transmissive optical device that focuses or disperses a light beam by means of refraction.
Leucippus (Λεύκιππος, Leúkippos; fl. 5th cent. BCE) is reported in some ancient sources to have been a philosopher who was the earliest Greek to develop the theory of atomism—the idea that everything is composed entirely of various imperishable, indivisible elements called atoms.
In surgery or medical procedure, a ligature consists of a piece of thread (suture) tied around an anatomical structure, usually a blood vessel or another hollow structure (e.g. urethra) to shut it off.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
In mathematics, the logarithm is the inverse function to exponentiation.
Logic (from the logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.
Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), known as Louis the Great (Louis le Grand) or the Sun King (Roi Soleil), was a monarch of the House of Bourbon who reigned as King of France from 1643 until his death in 1715.
The Louvre, or the Louvre Museum, is the world's largest art museum and a historic monument in Paris, France.
In the late 19th century, luminiferous aether or ether ("luminiferous", meaning "light-bearing"), was the postulated medium for the propagation of light.
A machine uses power to apply forces and control movement to perform an intended action.
Magnetism is a class of physical phenomena that are mediated by magnetic fields.
Mathematics (from Greek μάθημα máthēma, "knowledge, study, learning") is the study of such topics as quantity, structure, space, and change.
McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.
The mechanical philosophy is a natural philosophy describing the universe as similar to a large-scale mechanism.
The mediastinum (from Medieval Latin mediastinus, "midway") is the central compartment of the thoracic cavity surrounded by loose connective tissue, as an undelineated region that contains a group of structures within the thorax.
Medicine is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease.
Merriam–Webster, Incorporated is an American company that publishes reference books which is especially known for its dictionaries.
Methodology is the systematic, theoretical analysis of the methods applied to a field of study.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
A millennium (plural millennia or, rarely, millenniums) is a period equal to 1000 years, also called kiloyears.
Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth, usually from an orebody, lode, vein, seam, reef or placer deposit.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
Multiculturalism is a term with a range of meanings in the contexts of sociology, political philosophy, and in colloquial use.
Multiplication (often denoted by the cross symbol "×", by a point "⋅", by juxtaposition, or, on computers, by an asterisk "∗") is one of the four elementary mathematical operations of arithmetic; with the others being addition, subtraction and division.
Napier's bones is a manually-operated calculating device created by John Napier of Merchiston for calculation of products and quotients of numbers.
Natural philosophy or philosophy of nature (from Latin philosophia naturalis) was the philosophical study of nature and the physical universe that was dominant before the development of modern science.
Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
New Atlantis is an incomplete utopian novel by Sir Francis Bacon, published in 1627.
New Latin (also called Neo-Latin or Modern Latin) was a revival in the use of Latin in original, scholarly, and scientific works between c. 1375 and c. 1900.
The atmospheric engine was invented by Thomas Newcomen in 1712, and is often referred to simply as a Newcomen engine.
Newton's law of universal gravitation states that a particle attracts every other particle in the universe with a force which is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between their centers.
Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that, together, laid the foundation for classical mechanics.
The first reflecting telescope built by Sir Isaac Newton in 1668 is a landmark in the history of telescopes, being the first known successful reflecting telescope.
The Newtonian telescope, also called the Newtonian reflector or just the Newtonian, is a type of reflecting telescope invented by the English scientist Sir Isaac Newton (1642–1727), using a concave primary mirror and a flat diagonal secondary mirror.
Nicolaus Copernicus (Mikołaj Kopernik; Nikolaus Kopernikus; Niklas Koppernigk; 19 February 1473 – 24 May 1543) was a Renaissance-era mathematician and astronomer who formulated a model of the universe that placed the Sun rather than the Earth at the center of the universe, likely independently of Aristarchus of Samos, who had formulated such a model some eighteen centuries earlier.
In metaphysics, nominalism is a philosophical view which denies the existence of universals and abstract objects, but affirms the existence of general or abstract terms and predicates.
The Novum Organum, fully Novum Organum Scientiarum ('new instrument of science'), is a philosophical work by Francis Bacon, written in Latin and published in 1620.
In optical engineering, the objective is the optical element that gathers light from the object being observed and focuses the light rays to produce a real image.
Observational astronomy is a division of astronomy that is concerned with recording data about the observable universe, in contrast with theoretical astronomy, which is mainly concerned with calculating the measurable implications of physical models.
The term occult (from the Latin word occultus "clandestine, hidden, secret") is "knowledge of the hidden".
The octant, also called reflecting quadrant, is a measuring instrument used primarily in navigation.
Opticks: or, A Treatise of the Reflexions, Refractions, Inflexions and Colours of Light is a book by English natural philosopher Isaac Newton that was published in English in 1704.
Optics is the branch of physics which involves the behaviour and properties of light, including its interactions with matter and the construction of instruments that use or detect it.
Otto von Guericke (originally spelled Gericke,; November 20, 1602 – May 11, 1686 (Julian calendar); November 30, 1602 – May 21, 1686 (Gregorian calendar)) was a German scientist, inventor, and politician.
In mathematics, a parabola is a plane curve which is mirror-symmetrical and is approximately U-shaped.
A parabolic (or paraboloid or paraboloidal) reflector (or dish or mirror) is a reflective surface used to collect or project energy such as light, sound, or radio waves.
Paracelsus (1493/4 – 24 September 1541), born Theophrastus von Hohenheim (full name Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim), was a Swiss physician, alchemist, and astrologer of the German Renaissance.
Parallax is a displacement or difference in the apparent position of an object viewed along two different lines of sight, and is measured by the angle or semi-angle of inclination between those two lines.
A Pascaline signed by Pascal in 1652 Top view and overview of the entire mechanism''Œuvres de Pascal'' in 5 volumes, ''La Haye'', 1779 Pascal's calculator (also known as the arithmetic machine or Pascaline) is a mechanical calculator invented by Blaise Pascal in the early 17th century.
Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people of similar competence to the producers of the work (peers).
Peter Harrison FAHA (born 1955) is an Australian Laureate Fellow and director of the at the University of Queensland.
Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Latin for Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy), often referred to as simply the Principia, is a work in three books by Isaac Newton, in Latin, first published 5 July 1687.
Philosophical Transactions, titled Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society (often abbreviated as Phil. Trans.) from 1776, is a scientific journal published by the Royal Society.
Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.
The philosophy of mathematics is the branch of philosophy that studies the assumptions, foundations, and implications of mathematics, and purports to provide a viewpoint of the nature and methodology of mathematics, and to understand the place of mathematics in people's lives.
A physical law or scientific law is a theoretical statement "inferred from particular facts, applicable to a defined group or class of phenomena, and expressible by the statement that a particular phenomenon always occurs if certain conditions be present." Physical laws are typically conclusions based on repeated scientific experiments and observations over many years and which have become accepted universally within the scientific community.
A physician, medical practitioner, medical doctor, or simply doctor is a professional who practises medicine, which is concerned with promoting, maintaining, or restoring health through the study, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, injury, and other physical and mental impairments.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
Pierre Fauchard (1678 – March 22, 1761) was a French physician, credited as being the "father of modern dentistry".
A pinhole camera is a simple camera without a lens but with a tiny aperture, a pinhole – effectively a light-proof box with a small hole in one side.
A pinwheel calculator was a class of mechanical calculator popular in the 19th and 20th century using, for its calculating engine, a set of wheels that had an adjustable number of teeth.
A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.
Pope Gregory XIII (Gregorius XIII; 7 January 1502 – 10 April 1585), born Ugo Boncompagni, was Pope of the Catholic Church from 13 May 1572 to his death in 1585.
Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed.
A printing press is a device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a print medium (such as paper or cloth), thereby transferring the ink.
Pseudodoxia Epidemica or Enquiries into very many received tenets and commonly presumed truths, also known simply as Pseudodoxia Epidemica or Vulgar Errors, is a work by Thomas Browne challenging and refuting the "vulgar" or common errors and superstitions of his age.
Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
A pulmonary artery is an artery in the pulmonary circulation that carries deoxygenated blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs.
The pulmonary pleurae (sing. pleura) are the two pleurae of the invaginated sac surrounding each lung and attaching to the thoracic cavity.
A pump is a device that moves fluids (liquids or gases), or sometimes slurries, by mechanical action.
The pylorus, or pyloric part, connects the stomach to the duodenum.
Pythagoreanism originated in the 6th century BC, based on the teachings and beliefs held by Pythagoras and his followers, the Pythagoreans, who were considerably influenced by mathematics and mysticism.
Reductionism is any of several related philosophical ideas regarding the associations between phenomena which can be described in terms of other simpler or more fundamental phenomena.
A reflecting telescope (also called a reflector) is a telescope that uses a single or a combination of curved mirrors that reflect light and form an image.
A refracting telescope (also called a refractor) is a type of optical telescope that uses a lens as its objective to form an image (also referred to a dioptric telescope).
Refraction is the change in direction of wave propagation due to a change in its transmission medium.
Reijer Hooykaas (1 August 1906 in Schoonhoven – 4 January 1994 in Zeist) was a Dutch historian of science.
The Renaissance is a period in European history, covering the span between the 14th and 17th centuries.
The Renaissance of the 12th century was a period of many changes at the outset of the high Middle Ages.
René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.
Robert Boyle (25 January 1627 – 31 December 1691) was an Anglo-Irish natural philosopher, chemist, physicist, and inventor.
Robert Hooke FRS (– 3 March 1703) was an English natural philosopher, architect and polymath.
Sir Robert Moray (alternative spellings: Murrey, Murray) FRS (1608 or 1609 – 4 July 1673) was a Scottish soldier, statesman, diplomat, judge, spy, freemason and natural philosopher.
Roger Cotes FRS (10 July 1682 – 5 June 1716) was an English mathematician, known for working closely with Isaac Newton by proofreading the second edition of his famous book, the Principia, before publication.
Romanticism (or the Age of Reflection, 1800–40) was an intellectual movement that originated in Western Europe as a counter-movement to the late-18th-century Enlightenment.
A royal charter is a formal document issued by a monarch as letters patent, granting a right or power to an individual or a body corporate.
The President, Council and Fellows of the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, commonly known as the Royal Society, is a learned society.
The sacrum (or; plural: sacra or sacrums) in human anatomy is a large, triangular bone at the base of the spine, that forms by the fusing of sacral vertebrae S1S5 between 18 and 30years of age.
Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun and the second-largest in the Solar System, after Jupiter.
Scholasticism is a method of critical thought which dominated teaching by the academics ("scholastics", or "schoolmen") of medieval universities in Europe from about 1100 to 1700, and a program of employing that method in articulating and defending dogma in an increasingly pluralistic context.
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
Science in the medieval Islamic world was the science developed and practised during the Islamic Golden Age under the Umayyads of Córdoba, the Abbadids of Seville, the Samanids, the Ziyarids, the Buyids in Persia, the Abbasid Caliphate and beyond, spanning the period c. 800 to 1250.
Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings.
In science, priority is the credit given to the individual or group of individuals who first made the discovery or propose the theory.
A sextant is a doubly reflecting navigation instrument that measures the angular distance between two visible objects.
In mathematics, the sine is a trigonometric function of an angle.
The slide rule, also known colloquially in the United States as a slipstick, is a mechanical analog computer.
Snakes are elongated, legless, carnivorous reptiles of the suborder Serpentes.
Snell's law (also known as Snell–Descartes law and the law of refraction) is a formula used to describe the relationship between the angles of incidence and refraction, when referring to light or other waves passing through a boundary between two different isotropic media, such as water, glass, or air.
The South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society (SPUMS) is a primary source of information for diving and hyperbaric medicine physiology worldwide.
Specular reflection, also known as regular reflection, is the mirror-like reflection of waves, such as light, from a surface.
The sphenoid bone is an unpaired bone of the neurocranium. It is situated in the middle of the skull towards the front, in front of the temporal bone and the basilar part of the occipital bone. The sphenoid bone is one of the seven bones that articulate to form the orbit. Its shape somewhat resembles that of a butterfly or bat with its wings extended.
Spherical aberration is an optical effect observed in an optical device (lens, mirror, etc.) that occurs due to the increased refraction of light rays when they strike a lens or a reflection of light rays when they strike a mirror near its edge, in comparison with those that strike close to the centre.
The spleen is an organ found in virtually all vertebrates.
Stanley L. Jaki (Jáki Szaniszló László), OSB (17 August 1924 in Győr, Hungary – 7 April 7 2009 in Madrid, Spain) was a Hungarian-born priest of the Benedictine order.
The steam digester (or bone digester, and also known as Papin’s digester) is a high-pressure cooker invented by French physicist Denis Papin in 1679.
A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid.
Stellar parallax is the apparent shift of position of any nearby star (or other object) against the background of distant objects.
Stephen Gray (December 1666 – 7 February 1736) was an English dyer and astronomer who was the first to systematically experiment with electrical conduction.
The sternum or breastbone is a long flat bone located in the center of the chest.
Stillman Drake (December 24, 1910 – October 6, 1993) was a Canadian historian of science best known for his work on Galileo Galilei (1564–1642).
Sunspots are temporary phenomena on the Sun's photosphere that appear as spots darker than the surrounding areas.
Surgery (from the χειρουργική cheirourgikē (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via chirurgiae, meaning "hand work") is a medical specialty that uses operative manual and instrumental techniques on a patient to investigate or treat a pathological condition such as a disease or injury, to help improve bodily function or appearance or to repair unwanted ruptured areas.
A syllogism (συλλογισμός syllogismos, "conclusion, inference") is a kind of logical argument that applies deductive reasoning to arrive at a conclusion based on two or more propositions that are asserted or assumed to be true.
Tabula rasa refers to the epistemological idea that individuals are born without built-in mental content and that therefore all knowledge comes from experience or perception.
Teleology or finality is a reason or explanation for something in function of its end, purpose, or goal.
A telescope is an optical instrument that aids in the observation of remote objects by collecting electromagnetic radiation (such as visible light).
A terrella (Latin for "little earth") is a small magnetised model ball representing the Earth, that is thought to have been invented by the English physician William Gilbert while investigating magnetism, and further developed 300 years later by the Norwegian scientist and explorer Kristian Birkeland, while investigating the aurora.
The Assayer (Il Saggiatore) was a book published in Rome by Galileo Galilei in October 1623 and is generally considered to be one of the pioneering works of the scientific method, first broaching the idea that the book of nature is to be read with mathematical tools rather than those of scholastic philosophy, as generally held at the time.
The Sceptical Chymist: or Chymico-Physical Doubts & Paradoxes is the title of a book by Robert Boyle, published in London in 1661.
The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962; second edition 1970; third edition 1996; fourth edition 2012) is a book about the history of science by the philosopher Thomas S. Kuhn.
In mathematics, a theorem is a statement that has been proven on the basis of previously established statements, such as other theorems, and generally accepted statements, such as axioms.
The theory of relativity usually encompasses two interrelated theories by Albert Einstein: special relativity and general relativity.
Sir Thomas Browne (19 October 1605 – 19 October 1682) was an English polymath and author of varied works which reveal his wide learning in diverse fields including science and medicine, religion and the esoteric.
Thomas Hobbes (5 April 1588 – 4 December 1679), in some older texts Thomas Hobbes of Malmesbury, was an English philosopher who is considered one of the founders of modern political philosophy.
Thomas Samuel Kuhn (July 18, 1922 – June 17, 1996) was an American physicist, historian and philosopher of science whose controversial 1962 book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions was influential in both academic and popular circles, introducing the term paradigm shift, which has since become an English-language idiom.
Thomas Newcomen (February 1664 – 5 August 1729) was an English inventor who created the first practical steam engine in 1712, the Newcomen atmospheric engine.
Thomas Savery (c. 1650 – 1715) was an English inventor and engineer, born at Shilstone, a manor house near Modbury, Devon, England.
Thomas Thomson (12 April 1773 – 2 July 1852) was a British chemist and mineralogist whose writings contributed to the early spread of Dalton's atomic theory.
A trajectory or flight path is the path that a massive object in motion follows through space as a function of time.
Treatise on Light (Traité de la Lumière) is a 1690 book written by the Dutch polymath Christiaan Huygens on his wave theory of light.
In mathematics, the trigonometric functions (also called circular functions, angle functions or goniometric functions) are functions of an angle.
Tycho Brahe (born Tyge Ottesen Brahe;. He adopted the Latinized form "Tycho Brahe" (sometimes written Tÿcho) at around age fifteen. The name Tycho comes from Tyche (Τύχη, meaning "luck" in Greek, Roman equivalent: Fortuna), a tutelary deity of fortune and prosperity of ancient Greek city cults. He is now generally referred to as "Tycho," as was common in Scandinavia in his time, rather than by his surname "Brahe" (a spurious appellative form of his name, Tycho de Brahe, only appears much later). 14 December 154624 October 1601) was a Danish nobleman, astronomer, and writer known for his accurate and comprehensive astronomical and planetary observations.
The University of Oxford (formally The Chancellor Masters and Scholars of the University of Oxford) is a collegiate research university located in Oxford, England.
The University of St Andrews (informally known as St Andrews University or simply St Andrews; abbreviated as St And, from the Latin Sancti Andreae, in post-nominals) is a British public research university in St Andrews, Fife, Scotland.
Vacuum is space devoid of matter.
A vacuum pump is a device that removes gas molecules from a sealed volume in order to leave behind a partial vacuum.
Veins are blood vessels that carry blood toward the heart.
A ventricle is one of two large chambers in the heart that collect and expel blood received from an atrium towards the peripheral beds within the body and lungs.
Venus is the second planet from the Sun, orbiting it every 224.7 Earth days.
The vestibule is the central part of the bony labyrinth in the inner ear, and is situated medial to the eardrum (tympanic cavity), behind the cochlea, and in front of the three semicircular canals.
The visible spectrum is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye.
Volume is the quantity of three-dimensional space enclosed by a closed surface, for example, the space that a substance (solid, liquid, gas, or plasma) or shape occupies or contains.
Water is one of the elements in ancient Greek philosophy, in the Asian Indian system Panchamahabhuta, and in the Chinese cosmological and physiological system Wu Xing.
In physics, a wave is a disturbance that transfers energy through matter or space, with little or no associated mass transport.
White is the lightest color and is achromatic (having no hue), because it fully reflects and scatters all the visible wavelengths of light.
Willebrord Snellius (born Willebrord Snel van Royen) (13 June 158030 October 1626) was a Dutch astronomer and mathematician, known in the English-speaking world as Snell.
William Brouncker, 2nd Viscount Brouncker, PRS (1620 – 5 April 1684) was an English mathematician who introduced Brouncker's formula, and was the first President of the Royal Society.
William Gilbert (24 May 1544 – 30 November 1603), also known as Gilberd, was an English physician, physicist and natural philosopher.
William Harvey (1 April 1578 – 3 June 1657) was an English physician who made seminal contributions in anatomy and physiology.
William of Ockham (also Occam, from Gulielmus Occamus; 1287 – 1347) was an English Franciscan friar and scholastic philosopher and theologian, who is believed to have been born in Ockham, a small village in Surrey.
William Oughtred (5 March 1574 – 30 June 1660) was an English mathematician and Anglican clergyman.
William Whewell (24 May 1794 – 6 March 1866) was an English polymath, scientist, Anglican priest, philosopher, theologian, and historian of science.
World Scientific Publishing is an academic publisher of scientific, technical, and medical books and journals headquartered in Singapore.
A wound is a type of injury which happens relatively quickly in which skin is torn, cut, or punctured (an open wound), or where blunt force trauma causes a contusion (a closed wound).