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Scientific method

Index Scientific method

Scientific method is an empirical method of knowledge acquisition, which has characterized the development of natural science since at least the 17th century, involving careful observation, which includes rigorous skepticism about what one observes, given that cognitive assumptions about how the world works influence how one interprets a percept; formulating hypotheses, via induction, based on such observations; experimental testing and measurement of deductions drawn from the hypotheses; and refinement (or elimination) of the hypotheses based on the experimental findings. [1]

399 relations: A priori and a posteriori, Abductive reasoning, Abner Shimony, Academic journal, Accademia dei Lincei, Accuracy and precision, Acta Crystallographica, Adenine, Aerodynamics, Against Method, Al-Battani, Alan Chalmers, Albert Einstein, Allen Newell, Almagest, Alternative hypothesis, Analogy, Analysis, Andreas Vesalius, Anti-realism, Appeal to novelty, Apsidal precession, Arabs, Aristotle, Armchair theorizing, Arthur Burks, Arthur Eddington, Avery–MacLeod–McCarty experiment, Awareness, Axiom, Backward chaining, Ball lightning, Baruch Brody, Bas van Fraassen, Bayes' theorem, Bayesian inference, Bayesian probability, Beauty, Benjamin Cummings, Benjamin Franklin, Big data, Biochemistry, Biodiversity, Blinded experiment, Book of Optics, Branches of science, Brazil, Bruno Latour, Camera obscura, Canter and gallop, ..., Carl Friedrich Gauss, Cartesian doubt, Chaldea, Chargaff's rules, Charles M. Falco, Charles Sanders Peirce, Charles Sanders Peirce bibliography, Chi-squared test, Conceptual model, Confirmation bias, Conjecture, Consciousness, Constructivism (mathematics), Contingency (philosophy), Corollary, Correlation and dependence, Counterexample, Crystal, Cytosine, Data sharing, David Hockney, David Hume, Deductive reasoning, Demarcation problem, Diffraction, DNA, DNA replication, Dogma, Donald MacCrimmon MacKay, Drug design, Duhem–Quine thesis, Eadweard Muybridge, Earth, Eclipse, Education, Electric current, Electricity, Elegance, Empirical evidence, Empirical limits in science, Empiricism, Epicurus, Epistemic theories of truth, Epistemology, Equivalence principle, Ernest Nagel, Ethnic groups in Europe, Euclid, Eugene Wigner, Euler characteristic, Evidence-based medicine, Evolution, Evolutionary algorithm, Excavation (archaeology), Existential quantification, Experiment, Experimentum crucis, Extended evolutionary synthesis, Factor analysis, Fallibilism, Falsifiability, Francis Bacon, Francis Crick, Francisco Sanches, Free will, Fuzzy logic, Galileo Galilei, General relativity, Generalization, Genetic code, Genetics, Georg Wilhelm Richmann, George Berkeley, George Pólya, Gerald Holton, Gestalt psychology, Giambattista della Porta, Golgi apparatus, Gravitational field, Gravity, Greece, Gregor Mendel, Gregory Chaitin, Groupthink, Guanine, Hans-Georg Gadamer, Heinemann (publisher), Heinrich Hertz, Henry H. Bauer, Heredity, Heuristic, Hilary Putnam, Hindsight bias, Hipparchus, Historical method, History of Iran, Holism in science, House of Elzevir, How to Solve It, How We Think, Human error, Hydrogen bond, Hypothesis, Hypothetico-deductive model, I. Bernard Cohen, Ian Hacking, Ian Shelton, Ibn al-Haytham, Imre Lakatos, Independent scientist, India, Inductive reasoning, Inductivism, Inference, Informal mathematics, Information theory, Inquiry, Inquiry-based learning, Isaac Newton, Jabir ibn Hayyan, James Watson, Jerry Donohue, Johannes Kepler, John Dewey, John Earman, John Ioannidis, John Locke, John R. Platt, John Stuart Mill, John Ziman, Junk science, Kamioka Observatory, Karl Popper, Kevin Padian, Knowledge, Large Hadron Collider, Latin translations of the 12th century, Lawrence Bragg, Lee Smolin, Leiden, Length, Leon M. Lederman, Light, Linus Pauling, List of cognitive biases, Lodewijk Elzevir, Loeb Classical Library, Logic, Logical consequence, Logical positivism, Logical truth, Louis Pasteur, Luck, Ludwik Fleck, Luis de la Peña, Mars rover, Marshall Warren Nirenberg, Mass, Mathematical model, Mathematical proof, Maurice Wilkins, Measurement, Mechanics, Mercury (planet), Mertonian norms, Message passing, Methodology, Michael Polanyi, Michael Shermer, Mill's Methods, Minute and second of arc, Molecular biology, Molecular genetics, Molecule, Motion (physics), Murray Gell-Mann, Nassim Nicholas Taleb, National Science Foundation, Natural language, Natural science, Naturalism (philosophy), Nature, Nature (journal), Neutrino, New York City, Newton's laws of motion, Nicholas Maxwell, Noam Chomsky, Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine, Normal science, Normative science, Norwood Russell Hanson, Novum Organum, Nucleic acid double helix, Nucleotide, Null hypothesis, Observable, Observation, Observational error, Observational study, Occam's razor, Operational definition, Operationalization, Orbit, Pappus of Alexandria, Paradigm, Paris, Particle accelerator, Pathological science, Paul Feyerabend, Paul Thagard, Peer review, Perihelion and aphelion, Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica, Philosophical methodology, Philosophical realism, Philosophical skepticism, Philosophy of science, Photo 51, Physics First, Placebo, Poincaré conjecture, Post-normal science, Postdiction, Postmodernism, Poverty of the stimulus, Pragmatic maxim, Pragmaticism, Príncipe, Predictability, Prediction, Predictive analytics, Prior Analytics, Problem of induction, Problem solving, Prometheus Books, Proofs and Refutations, Pseudoscience, Quantitative research, Rationalism, Raymond Gosling, Reason, Reference class problem, Regression analysis, Relativity of simultaneity, René Descartes, Replication crisis, Reproducibility, Research, Research data archiving, Revelation, Review, Reviews of Modern Physics, Ricci flow, Richard Dawkins, Richard J. Bernstein, Richard Rorty, Roger Bacon, Ronald Giere, Rosalind Franklin, Royal Astronomical Society, Royal Observatory, Greenwich, Salt, Santa Fe Institute, Scholarly method, Science, Science and Civilisation in China, Science and Hypothesis, Science studies, Science wars, Scientific community, Scientific control, Scientific instrument, Scientific method and religion, Scientific modelling, Scientific realism, Scientific Revolution, Scientific theory, Semi-Thue system, Sensualism, Situated cognition, Skepticism, SN 1987A, Sobral, Ceará, Social research, Social science, Sociology of scientific knowledge, Solar eclipse, Spacetime, Special relativity, Spectrometer, St. Elmo's fire, Statistical population, Statistics, Stillman Drake, Stoicism, Strong inference, Strong programme, Systems theory, Tautology (logic), Testability, That Nothing Is Known, The Assayer, The Black Swan: The Impact of the Highly Improbable, The Character of Physical Law, The Double Helix, The Logic of Scientific Discovery, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Mathematics in the Natural Sciences, Theorem, Theory of relativity, Thermometer, Thomas Kuhn, Thought experiment, Thymine, Time, Tobacco mosaic virus, Transdisciplinarity, Triple helix, Twenty Questions, Two New Sciences, Tycho Brahe, Uncertainty, Underdetermination, Understanding, Unit of measurement, Universal quantification, University of Cambridge, University of Rochester, Verificationism, Visual system, Voltmeter, Weight, Weighting, Werner Heisenberg, Wesley C. Salmon, What Is This Thing Called Science?, What Mad Pursuit, Where Mathematics Comes From, William Glen (geologist), William Ian Beardmore Beveridge, William McComas, William of Ockham, William Whewell, Wolters Kluwer, World Data Center, X-ray, X-ray crystallography, Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft. Expand index (349 more) »

A priori and a posteriori

The Latin phrases a priori ("from the earlier") and a posteriori ("from the latter") are philosophical terms of art popularized by Immanuel Kant's Critique of Pure Reason (first published in 1781, second edition in 1787), one of the most influential works in the history of philosophy.

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Abductive reasoning

Abductive reasoning (also called abduction,For example: abductive inference, or retroduction) is a form of logical inference which starts with an observation or set of observations then seeks to find the simplest and most likely explanation.

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Abner Shimony

Abner Eliezer Shimony (March 10, 1928 – August 8, 2015) was an American physicist and philosopher.

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Academic journal

An academic or scholarly journal is a periodical publication in which scholarship relating to a particular academic discipline is published.

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Accademia dei Lincei

The Accademia dei Lincei (literally the "Academy of the Lynx-Eyed", but anglicised as the Lincean Academy) is an Italian science academy, located at the Palazzo Corsini on the Via della Lungara in Rome, Italy.

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Accuracy and precision

Precision is a description of random errors, a measure of statistical variability.

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Acta Crystallographica

Acta Crystallographica is a series of peer-reviewed scientific journals, with articles centred on crystallography, published by the International Union of Crystallography (IUCr).

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Adenine (A, Ade) is a nucleobase (a purine derivative).

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Aerodynamics, from Greek ἀήρ aer (air) + δυναμική (dynamics), is the study of the motion of air, particularly its interaction with a solid object, such as an airplane wing.

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Against Method

Against Method: Outline of an Anarchist Theory of Knowledge is a 1975 book about the philosophy of science by Paul Feyerabend, in which the author argues that science is an anarchic enterprise, not a nomic (customary) one.

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Abū ʿAbd Allāh Muḥammad ibn Jābir ibn Sinān al-Raqqī al-Ḥarrānī aṣ-Ṣābiʾ al-Battānī (Arabic: محمد بن جابر بن سنان البتاني) (Latinized as Albategnius, Albategni or Albatenius) (c. 858 – 929) was an Arab astronomer, astrologer, and mathematician.

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Alan Chalmers

Alan Francis Chalmers (born 1939) is a British-Australian philosopher of science and associate professor at the University of Sydney.

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Albert Einstein

Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 – 18 April 1955) was a German-born theoretical physicist who developed the theory of relativity, one of the two pillars of modern physics (alongside quantum mechanics).

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Allen Newell

Allen Newell (March 19, 1927 – July 19, 1992) was a researcher in computer science and cognitive psychology at the RAND Corporation and at Carnegie Mellon University’s School of Computer Science, Tepper School of Business, and Department of Psychology.

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The Almagest is a 2nd-century Greek-language mathematical and astronomical treatise on the apparent motions of the stars and planetary paths, written by Claudius Ptolemy. One of the most influential scientific texts of all time, its geocentric model was accepted for more than 1200 years from its origin in Hellenistic Alexandria, in the medieval Byzantine and Islamic worlds, and in Western Europe through the Middle Ages and early Renaissance until Copernicus.

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Alternative hypothesis

In statistical hypothesis testing, the alternative hypothesis (or maintained hypothesis or research hypothesis) and the null hypothesis are the two rival hypotheses which are compared by a statistical hypothesis test.

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Analogy (from Greek ἀναλογία, analogia, "proportion", from ana- "upon, according to" + logos "ratio") is a cognitive process of transferring information or meaning from a particular subject (the analog, or source) to another (the target), or a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process.

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Analysis is the process of breaking a complex topic or substance into smaller parts in order to gain a better understanding of it.

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Andreas Vesalius

Andreas Vesalius (31 December 1514 – 15 October 1564) was a 16th-century Flemish anatomist, physician, and author of one of the most influential books on human anatomy, De humani corporis fabrica (On the Fabric of the Human Body).

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In analytic philosophy, anti-realism is an epistemological position first articulated by British philosopher Michael Dummett.

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Appeal to novelty

The appeal to novelty (also called argumentum ad novitatem) is a fallacy in which one prematurely claims that an idea or proposal is correct or superior, exclusively because it is new and modern.

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Apsidal precession

In celestial mechanics, apsidal precession or orbital precession is the precession (rotation) of the orbit of a celestial body.

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Arabs (عَرَب ISO 233, Arabic pronunciation) are a population inhabiting the Arab world.

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Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.

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Armchair theorizing

Armchair theorizing, armchair philosophizing, or armchair scholarship is an approach to providing new developments in a field that does not involve the collection of new information but, rather, a careful analysis or synthesis of existent scholarship.

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Arthur Burks

Arthur Walter Burks (October 13, 1915 – May 14, 2008) was an American mathematician who worked in the 1940s as a senior engineer on the project that contributed to the design of the ENIAC, the first general-purpose electronic digital computer.

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Arthur Eddington

Sir Arthur Stanley Eddington (28 December 1882 – 22 November 1944) was an English astronomer, physicist, and mathematician of the early 20th century who did his greatest work in astrophysics.

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Avery–MacLeod–McCarty experiment

The Avery–MacLeod–McCarty experiment was an experimental demonstration, reported in 1944 by Oswald Avery, Colin MacLeod, and Maclyn McCarty, that DNA is the substance that causes bacterial transformation, in an era when it had been widely believed that it was proteins that served the function of carrying genetic information (with the very word protein itself coined to indicate a belief that its function was primary).

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Awareness is the ability to directly know and perceive, to feel, or to be cognizant of events.

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An axiom or postulate is a statement that is taken to be true, to serve as a premise or starting point for further reasoning and arguments.

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Backward chaining

Backward chaining (or backward reasoning) is an inference method that can be described colloquially as working backward from the goal(s).

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Ball lightning

Ball lightning is an unexplained and potentially dangerous atmospheric electrical phenomenon.

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Baruch Brody

Baruch A. Brody (21 April 1943 – 30 May 2018) was an American bioethicist who was among the first scholars in the field of applied ethics to write about abortion in the era following Roe v. Wade.

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Bas van Fraassen

Bastiaan Cornelis van Fraassen (born 5 April 1941) is a Dutch-American philosopher.

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Bayes' theorem

In probability theory and statistics, Bayes’ theorem (alternatively Bayes’ law or Bayes' rule, also written as Bayes’s theorem) describes the probability of an event, based on prior knowledge of conditions that might be related to the event.

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Bayesian inference

Bayesian inference is a method of statistical inference in which Bayes' theorem is used to update the probability for a hypothesis as more evidence or information becomes available.

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Bayesian probability

Bayesian probability is an interpretation of the concept of probability, in which, instead of frequency or propensity of some phenomenon, probability is interpreted as reasonable expectation representing a state of knowledge or as quantification of a personal belief.

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Beauty is a characteristic of an animal, idea, object, person or place that provides a perceptual experience of pleasure or satisfaction.

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Benjamin Cummings

Benjamin Cummings specializes in science and is a publishing imprint of Pearson Education, the world's largest education publishing and technology company, which is part of Pearson PLC, the global publisher and former owner of Penguin Books and the Financial Times.

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Benjamin Franklin

Benjamin Franklin (April 17, 1790) was an American polymath and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.

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Big data

Big data is data sets that are so big and complex that traditional data-processing application software are inadequate to deal with them.

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Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.

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Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.

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Blinded experiment

A blind or blinded-experiment is an experiment in which information about the test is masked (kept) from the participant, to reduce or eliminate bias, until after a trial outcome is known.

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Book of Optics

The Book of Optics (Kitāb al-Manāẓir; Latin: De Aspectibus or Perspectiva; Italian: Deli Aspecti) is a seven-volume treatise on optics and other fields of study composed by the medieval Arab scholar Ibn al-Haytham, known in the West as Alhazen or Alhacen (965– c. 1040 AD).

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Branches of science

The branches of science, also referred to as sciences, "scientific fields", or "scientific disciplines" are commonly divided into three major groups.

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Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.

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Bruno Latour

Bruno Latour (born 22 June 1947) is a French philosopher, anthropologist and sociologist.

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Camera obscura

Camera obscura (plural camera obscura or camera obscuras; from Latin, meaning "dark room": camera "(vaulted) chamber or room," and obscura "darkened, dark"), also referred to as pinhole image, is the natural optical phenomenon that occurs when an image of a scene at the other side of a screen (or for instance a wall) is projected through a small hole in that screen as a reversed and inverted image (left to right and upside down) on a surface opposite to the opening.

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Canter and gallop

The canter and gallop are variations on the fastest gait that can be performed by a horse or other equine.

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Carl Friedrich Gauss

Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (Gauß; Carolus Fridericus Gauss; 30 April 177723 February 1855) was a German mathematician and physicist who made significant contributions to many fields, including algebra, analysis, astronomy, differential geometry, electrostatics, geodesy, geophysics, magnetic fields, matrix theory, mechanics, number theory, optics and statistics.

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Cartesian doubt

Cartesian doubt is a form of methodological skepticism associated with the writings and methodology of René Descartes (15961650).

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Chaldea or Chaldaea was a Semitic-speaking nation that existed between the late 10th or early 9th and mid-6th centuries BC, after which it and its people were absorbed and assimilated into Babylonia.

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Chargaff's rules

Chargaff's rules state that DNA from any cell of all organisms should have a 1:1 ratio (base Pair Rule) of pyrimidine and purine bases and, more specifically, that the amount of guanine should be equal to cytosine and the amount of adenine should be equal to thymine.

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Charles M. Falco

Charles M. Falco (born August 17, 1948) is an American experimental physicist and an expert on the magnetic and optical properties of thin film materials.

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Charles Sanders Peirce

Charles Sanders Peirce ("purse"; 10 September 1839 – 19 April 1914) was an American philosopher, logician, mathematician, and scientist who is sometimes known as "the father of pragmatism".

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Charles Sanders Peirce bibliography

This Charles Sanders Peirce bibliography consolidates numerous references to Charles Sanders Peirce's writings, including letters, manuscripts, publications, and Nachlass.

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Chi-squared test

A chi-squared test, also written as test, is any statistical hypothesis test where the sampling distribution of the test statistic is a chi-squared distribution when the null hypothesis is true.

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Conceptual model

A conceptual model is a representation of a system, made of the composition of concepts which are used to help people know, understand, or simulate a subject the model represents.

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Confirmation bias

Confirmation bias, also called confirmatory bias or myside bias,David Perkins, a professor and researcher at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, coined the term "myside bias" referring to a preference for "my" side of an issue.

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In mathematics, a conjecture is a conclusion or proposition based on incomplete information, for which no proof has been found.

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Consciousness is the state or quality of awareness, or, of being aware of an external object or something within oneself.

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Constructivism (mathematics)

In the philosophy of mathematics, constructivism asserts that it is necessary to find (or "construct") a mathematical object to prove that it exists.

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Contingency (philosophy)

In philosophy and logic, contingency is the status of propositions that are neither true under every possible valuation (i.e. tautologies) nor false under every possible valuation (i.e. contradictions).

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A corollary is a statement that follows readily from a previous statement.

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Correlation and dependence

In statistics, dependence or association is any statistical relationship, whether causal or not, between two random variables or bivariate data.

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In logic, and especially in its applications to mathematics and philosophy, a counterexample is an exception to a proposed general rule or law.

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A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.

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Cytosine (C) is one of the four main bases found in DNA and RNA, along with adenine, guanine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).

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Data sharing

Data sharing is the practice of making data used for scholarly research available to other investigators.

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David Hockney

David Hockney, (born 9 July 1937) is an English painter, draftsman, printmaker, stage designer and photographer.

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David Hume

David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.

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Deductive reasoning

Deductive reasoning, also deductive logic, logical deduction is the process of reasoning from one or more statements (premises) to reach a logically certain conclusion.

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Demarcation problem

The demarcation problem in the philosophy of science is about how to distinguish between science and non-science, including between science, pseudoscience, and other products of human activity, like art and literature, and beliefs.

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--> Diffraction refers to various phenomena that occur when a wave encounters an obstacle or a slit.

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Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) is a thread-like chain of nucleotides carrying the genetic instructions used in the growth, development, functioning and reproduction of all known living organisms and many viruses.

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DNA replication

In molecular biology, DNA replication is the biological process of producing two identical replicas of DNA from one original DNA molecule.

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The term dogma is used in pejorative and non-pejorative senses.

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Donald MacCrimmon MacKay

Donald MacCrimmon MacKay (9 August 1922 – 6 February 1987) was a British physicist, and professor at the Department of Communication and Neuroscience at Keele University in Staffordshire, England, known for his contributions to information theory and the theory of brain organisation.

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Drug design

Drug design, often referred to as rational drug design or simply rational design, is the inventive process of finding new medications based on the knowledge of a biological target.

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Duhem–Quine thesis

The Duhem–Quine thesis, also called the Duhem–Quine problem, after Pierre Duhem and Willard Van Orman Quine, is that it is impossible to test a scientific hypothesis in isolation, because an empirical test of the hypothesis requires one or more background assumptions (also called auxiliary assumptions or auxiliary hypotheses).

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Eadweard Muybridge

Eadweard Muybridge (9 April 1830 – 8 May 1904, born Edward James Muggeridge) was an English photographer important for his pioneering work in photographic studies of motion, and early work in motion-picture projection.

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Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.

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An eclipse is an astronomical event that occurs when an astronomical object is temporarily obscured, either by passing into the shadow of another body or by having another body pass between it and the viewer.

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Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits.

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Electric current

An electric current is a flow of electric charge.

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Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion of electric charge.

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Elegance is beauty that shows unusual effectiveness and simplicity.

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Empirical evidence

Empirical evidence, also known as sensory experience, is the information received by means of the senses, particularly by observation and documentation of patterns and behavior through experimentation.

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Empirical limits in science

In philosophy of science, the empirical limits of science define problems with observation, and thus are limits of human ability to inquire and answer questions about phenomena.

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In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.

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Epicurus (Ἐπίκουρος, Epíkouros, "ally, comrade"; 341–270 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher who founded a school of philosophy now called Epicureanism.

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Epistemic theories of truth

In philosophy, epistemic theories of truth are attempts to analyze the notion of truth in terms of epistemic notions such as knowledge, belief, acceptance, verification, justification, and perspective.

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Epistemology is the branch of philosophy concerned with the theory of knowledge.

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Equivalence principle

In the theory of general relativity, the equivalence principle is any of several related concepts dealing with the equivalence of gravitational and inertial mass, and to Albert Einstein's observation that the gravitational "force" as experienced locally while standing on a massive body (such as the Earth) is the same as the pseudo-force experienced by an observer in a non-inertial (accelerated) frame of reference.

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Ernest Nagel

Ernest Nagel (November 16, 1901 – September 20, 1985) was an American philosopher of science.

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Ethnic groups in Europe

The Indigenous peoples of Europe are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that reside in the nations of Europe.

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Euclid (Εὐκλείδης Eukleidēs; fl. 300 BC), sometimes given the name Euclid of Alexandria to distinguish him from Euclides of Megara, was a Greek mathematician, often referred to as the "founder of geometry" or the "father of geometry".

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Eugene Wigner

Eugene Paul "E.

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Euler characteristic

In mathematics, and more specifically in algebraic topology and polyhedral combinatorics, the Euler characteristic (or Euler number, or Euler–Poincaré characteristic) is a topological invariant, a number that describes a topological space's shape or structure regardless of the way it is bent.

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Evidence-based medicine

Evidence-based medicine (EBM) is an approach to medical practice intended to optimize decision-making by emphasizing the use of evidence from well-designed and well-conducted research.

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Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.

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Evolutionary algorithm

In artificial intelligence, an evolutionary algorithm (EA) is a subset of evolutionary computation, a generic population-based metaheuristic optimization algorithm.

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Excavation (archaeology)

In archaeology, excavation is the exposure, processing and recording of archaeological remains.

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Existential quantification

In predicate logic, an existential quantification is a type of quantifier, a logical constant which is interpreted as "there exists", "there is at least one", or "for some".

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An experiment is a procedure carried out to support, refute, or validate a hypothesis.

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Experimentum crucis

In the sciences, an experimentum crucis (English: crucial experiment or critical experiment) is an experiment capable of decisively determining whether or not a particular hypothesis or theory is superior to all other hypotheses or theories whose acceptance is currently widespread in the scientific community.

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Extended evolutionary synthesis

The extended evolutionary synthesis consists of a set of theoretical concepts more comprehensive than the earlier modern synthesis of evolutionary biology that took place between 1918 and 1942.

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Factor analysis

Factor analysis is a statistical method used to describe variability among observed, correlated variables in terms of a potentially lower number of unobserved variables called factors.

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Broadly speaking, fallibilism (from Medieval Latin: fallibilis, "liable to err") is the philosophical claim that no belief can have justification which guarantees the truth of the belief.

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A statement, hypothesis, or theory has falsifiability (or is falsifiable) if it can logically be proven false by contradicting it with a basic statement.

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Francis Bacon

Francis Bacon, 1st Viscount St Alban, (22 January 15619 April 1626) was an English philosopher, statesman, scientist, jurist, orator, and author.

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Francis Crick

Francis Harry Compton Crick (8 June 1916 – 28 July 2004) was a British molecular biologist, biophysicist, and neuroscientist, most noted for being a co-discoverer of the structure of the DNA molecule in 1953 with James Watson, work which was based partly on fundamental studies done by Rosalind Franklin, Raymond Gosling and Maurice Wilkins.

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Francisco Sanches

Francisco Sanches or Francisco Sánchez (c. 1550 – November 16, 1623) was a Spanish-PortugueseElaine Limbrick and Douglas Thomson (ed), Quod nihil scitur, Cambridge University Press, 1988, pp.

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Free will

Free will is the ability to choose between different possible courses of action unimpeded.

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Fuzzy logic

Fuzzy logic is a form of many-valued logic in which the truth values of variables may be any real number between 0 and 1.

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Galileo Galilei

Galileo Galilei (15 February 1564Drake (1978, p. 1). The date of Galileo's birth is given according to the Julian calendar, which was then in force throughout Christendom. In 1582 it was replaced in Italy and several other Catholic countries with the Gregorian calendar. Unless otherwise indicated, dates in this article are given according to the Gregorian calendar. – 8 January 1642) was an Italian polymath.

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General relativity

General relativity (GR, also known as the general theory of relativity or GTR) is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics.

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A generalization (or generalisation) is the formulation of general concepts from specific instances by abstracting common properties.

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Genetic code

The genetic code is the set of rules used by living cells to translate information encoded within genetic material (DNA or mRNA sequences) into proteins.

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Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.

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Georg Wilhelm Richmann

Georg Wilhelm Richmann (Russian: Георг Вильгельм Рихман) (22 July 1711 – 6 August 1753), (Old Style: 11 July 1711 – 26 July 1753) was a Baltic German physicist.

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George Berkeley

George Berkeley (12 March 168514 January 1753) — known as Bishop Berkeley (Bishop of Cloyne) — was an Irish philosopher whose primary achievement was the advancement of a theory he called "immaterialism" (later referred to as "subjective idealism" by others).

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George Pólya

George Pólya (Pólya György; December 13, 1887 – September 7, 1985) was a Hungarian mathematician.

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Gerald Holton

Gerald Holton is an American physicist, historian of science, and educator, whose professional interests also include philosophy of science and the fostering of careers of young men and women.

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Gestalt psychology

Gestalt psychology or gestaltism (from Gestalt "shape, form") is a philosophy of mind of the Berlin School of experimental psychology.

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Giambattista della Porta

Giambattista della Porta (1535? – 4 February 1615), also known as Giovanni Battista Della Porta, was an Italian scholar, polymath and playwright who lived in Naples at the time of the Scientific Revolution and Reformation.

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Golgi apparatus

The Golgi apparatus, also known as the Golgi complex, Golgi body, or simply the Golgi, is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.

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Gravitational field

In physics, a gravitational field is a model used to explain the influence that a massive body extends into the space around itself, producing a force on another massive body.

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Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.

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No description.

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Gregor Mendel

Gregor Johann Mendel (Řehoř Jan Mendel; 20 July 1822 – 6 January 1884) was a scientist, Augustinian friar and abbot of St. Thomas' Abbey in Brno, Margraviate of Moravia.

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Gregory Chaitin

Gregory John Chaitin (born 15 November 1947) is an Argentine-American mathematician and computer scientist.

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Groupthink is a psychological phenomenon that occurs within a group of people in which the desire for harmony or conformity in the group results in an irrational or dysfunctional decision-making outcome.

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Guanine (or G, Gua) is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the others being adenine, cytosine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).

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Hans-Georg Gadamer

Hans-Georg Gadamer (February 11, 1900 – March 13, 2002) was a German philosopher of the continental tradition, best known for his 1960 magnum opus Truth and Method (Wahrheit und Methode) on hermeneutics.

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Heinemann (publisher)

Heinemann is a publisher of professional resources and a provider of educational services established in 1978 in Portsmouth, New Hampshire, as a U.S. subsidiary of Heinemann UK.

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Heinrich Hertz

Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (22 February 1857 – 1 January 1894) was a German physicist who first conclusively proved the existence of the electromagnetic waves theorized by James Clerk Maxwell's electromagnetic theory of light.

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Henry H. Bauer

Henry Hermann Bauer (born November 16, 1931) is an emeritus professor of chemistry and science studies at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University (Virginia Tech).

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Heredity is the passing on of traits from parents to their offspring, either through asexual reproduction or sexual reproduction, the offspring cells or organisms acquire the genetic information of their parents.

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A heuristic technique (εὑρίσκω, "find" or "discover"), often called simply a heuristic, is any approach to problem solving, learning, or discovery that employs a practical method, not guaranteed to be optimal, perfect, logical, or rational, but instead sufficient for reaching an immediate goal.

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Hilary Putnam

Hilary Whitehall Putnam (July 31, 1926 – March 13, 2016) was an American philosopher, mathematician, and computer scientist, and a major figure in analytic philosophy in the second half of the 20th century.

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Hindsight bias

Hindsight bias, also known as the knew-it-all-along effect or creeping determinism, is the inclination, after an event has occurred, to see the event as having been predictable, despite there having been little or no objective basis for predicting it.

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Hipparchus of Nicaea (Ἵππαρχος, Hipparkhos) was a Greek astronomer, geographer, and mathematician.

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Historical method

Historical method comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use primary sources and other evidence, including the evidence of archaeology, to research and then to write histories in the form of accounts of the past.

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History of Iran

The history of Iran, commonly also known as Persia in the Western world, is intertwined with the history of a larger region, also to an extent known as Greater Iran, comprising the area from Anatolia, the Bosphorus, and Egypt in the west to the borders of Ancient India and the Syr Darya in the east, and from the Caucasus and the Eurasian Steppe in the north to the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in the south.

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Holism in science

Holism in science, or holistic science, is an approach to research that emphasizes the study of complex systems.

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House of Elzevir

Elzevir is the name of a celebrated family of Dutch booksellers, publishers, and printers of the 17th and early 18th centuries.

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How to Solve It

How to Solve It (1945) is a small volume by mathematician George Pólya describing methods of problem solving.

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How We Think

How We Think is a book written by the American educational philosopher John Dewey, published in 1910.

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Human error

Human error has been cited as a primary cause contributing factor in disasters and accidents in industries as diverse as nuclear power (e.g., the Three Mile Island accident), aviation (see pilot error), space exploration (e.g., the Space Shuttle Challenger Disaster and Space Shuttle Columbia disaster), and medicine (see medical error).

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Hydrogen bond

A hydrogen bond is a partially electrostatic attraction between a hydrogen (H) which is bound to a more electronegative atom such as nitrogen (N), oxygen (O), or fluorine (F), and another adjacent atom bearing a lone pair of electrons.

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A hypothesis (plural hypotheses) is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon.

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Hypothetico-deductive model

The hypothetico-deductive model or method is a proposed description of scientific method.

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I. Bernard Cohen

Ierome Bernard Cohen (1 March 1914 – 20 June 2003) was the Victor S. Thomas Professor of the history of science at Harvard University and the author of many books on the history of science and, in particular, Isaac Newton.

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Ian Hacking

Ian MacDougall Hacking (born February 18, 1936) is a Canadian philosopher specializing in the philosophy of science.

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Ian Shelton

Ian Keith Shelton (born 30 March 1957) is a Canadian astronomer who discovered SN 1987A, the first modern supernova close and bright enough to be visible to the naked eye.

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Ibn al-Haytham

Hasan Ibn al-Haytham (Latinized Alhazen; full name أبو علي، الحسن بن الحسن بن الهيثم) was an Arab mathematician, astronomer, and physicist of the Islamic Golden Age.

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Imre Lakatos

Imre Lakatos (Lakatos Imre; November 9, 1922 – February 2, 1974) was a Hungarian philosopher of mathematics and science, known for his thesis of the fallibility of mathematics and its 'methodology of proofs and refutations' in its pre-axiomatic stages of development, and also for introducing the concept of the 'research programme' in his methodology of scientific research programmes.

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Independent scientist

An independent scientist (historically also known as gentleman scientist) is a financially independent scientist who pursues scientific study without direct affiliation to a public institution such as a university or government-run research and development body.

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India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.

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Inductive reasoning

Inductive reasoning (as opposed to ''deductive'' reasoning or ''abductive'' reasoning) is a method of reasoning in which the premises are viewed as supplying some evidence for the truth of the conclusion.

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Inductivism is the traditional model of scientific method attributed to Francis Bacon, who in 1620 vowed to subvert allegedly traditional thinking.

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Inferences are steps in reasoning, moving from premises to logical consequences.

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Informal mathematics

Informal mathematics, also called naïve mathematics, has historically been the predominant form of mathematics at most times and in most cultures, and is the subject of modern ethno-cultural studies of mathematics.

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Information theory

Information theory studies the quantification, storage, and communication of information.

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An inquiry is any process that has the aim of augmenting knowledge, resolving doubt, or solving a problem.

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Inquiry-based learning

Inquiry-based learning (also enquiry-based learning in British English) is a form of active learning that starts by posing questions, problems or scenarios—rather than simply presenting established facts or portraying a smooth path to knowledge.

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Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.

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Jabir ibn Hayyan

Abu Mūsā Jābir ibn Hayyān (جابر بن حیانl fa, often given the nisbas al-Bariqi, al-Azdi, al-Kufi, al-Tusi or al-Sufi; fl. c. 721c. 815), also known by the Latinization Geber, was a polymath: a chemist and alchemist, astronomer and astrologer, engineer, geographer, philosopher, physicist, and pharmacist and physician.

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James Watson

James Dewey Watson (born April 6, 1928) is an American molecular biologist, geneticist and zoologist, best known as one of the co-discoverers of the structure of DNA in 1953 with Francis Crick and Rosalind Franklin.

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Jerry Donohue

Jerry Donohue (June 12, 1920 – February 13, 1985) was an American theoretical and physical chemist.

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Johannes Kepler

Johannes Kepler (December 27, 1571 – November 15, 1630) was a German mathematician, astronomer, and astrologer.

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John Dewey

John Dewey (October 20, 1859 – June 1, 1952) was an American philosopher, psychologist, Georgist, and educational reformer whose ideas have been influential in education and social reform.

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John Earman

John Earman (born 1942) is an American philosopher of physics.

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John Ioannidis

John P. A. Ioannidis (born August 21, 1965 in New York City) is a Professor of Medicine and of Health Research and Policy at Stanford University School of Medicine and a Professor of Statistics at Stanford University School of Humanities and Sciences.

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John Locke

John Locke (29 August 1632 – 28 October 1704) was an English philosopher and physician, widely regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers and commonly known as the "Father of Liberalism".

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John R. Platt

For other people named John Platt, see John Platt. John Rader Platt (March 25, 1918 in Jacksonville, Florida – June 17, 1992 in Boston) was an American physicist and biophysicist, professor at the University of Chicago, noted for his pioneering work on strong inference in the 1960s and his analysis of social science in the 1970s.

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John Stuart Mill

John Stuart Mill, also known as J.S. Mill, (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher, political economist, and civil servant.

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John Ziman

John Michael Ziman (16 May 1925 – 2 January 2005) was a British-born New Zealand physicist and humanist who worked in the area of condensed matter physics.

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Junk science

The expression junk science is used to describe scientific data, research, or analysis considered by the person using the phrase to be spurious or fraudulent.

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Kamioka Observatory

The is a neutrino and gravitational waves laboratory located underground in the Mozumi Mine of the Kamioka Mining and Smelting Co. near the Kamioka section of the city of Hida in Gifu Prefecture, Japan.

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Karl Popper

Sir Karl Raimund Popper (28 July 1902 – 17 September 1994) was an Austrian-British philosopher and professor.

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Kevin Padian

Kevin Padian (born 1951) is a Professor of Integrative Biology at the University of California, Berkeley, Curator of Paleontology, University of California Museum of Paleontology and President of the National Center for Science Education.

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Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, or understanding of someone or something, such as facts, information, descriptions, or skills, which is acquired through experience or education by perceiving, discovering, or learning.

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Large Hadron Collider

The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is the world's largest and most powerful particle collider, the most complex experimental facility ever built and the largest single machine in the world.

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Latin translations of the 12th century

Latin translations of the 12th century were spurred by a major search by European scholars for new learning unavailable in western Europe at the time; their search led them to areas of southern Europe, particularly in central Spain and Sicily, which recently had come under Christian rule following their reconquest in the late 11th century.

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Lawrence Bragg

Sir William Lawrence Bragg, (31 March 1890 – 1 July 1971) was an Australian-born British physicist and X-ray crystallographer, discoverer (1912) of Bragg's law of X-ray diffraction, which is basic for the determination of crystal structure.

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Lee Smolin

Lee Smolin (born June 6, 1955) is an American theoretical physicist, a faculty member at the Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, an adjunct professor of physics at the University of Waterloo and a member of the graduate faculty of the philosophy department at the University of Toronto.

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Leiden (in English and archaic Dutch also Leyden) is a city and municipality in the province of South Holland, Netherlands.

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In geometric measurements, length is the most extended dimension of an object.

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Leon M. Lederman

Leon Max Lederman (born July 15, 1922) is an American experimental physicist who received the Wolf Prize in Physics in 1982, along with Martin Lewis Perl, for their research on quarks and leptons, and the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1988, along with Melvin Schwartz and Jack Steinberger, for their research on neutrinos.

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Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.

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Linus Pauling

Linus Carl Pauling (February 28, 1901 – August 19, 1994) was an American chemist, biochemist, peace activist, author, educator, and husband of American human rights activist Ava Helen Pauling.

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List of cognitive biases

Cognitive biases are systematic patterns of deviation from norm or rationality in judgment, and are often studied in psychology and behavioral economics.

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Lodewijk Elzevir

Lodewijk Elzevir (c. 1540, Leuven – 4 February 1617, Leiden), originally Lodewijk or Louis Elsevier or Elzevier, was a printer, born in the city of Leuven (today in Belgium, then part of the Habsburg Netherlands or Spanish Netherlands).

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Loeb Classical Library

The Loeb Classical Library (LCL; named after James Loeb) is a series of books, today published by Harvard University Press, which presents important works of ancient Greek and Latin literature in a way designed to make the text accessible to the broadest possible audience, by presenting the original Greek or Latin text on each left-hand page, and a fairly literal translation on the facing page.

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Logic (from the logikḗ), originally meaning "the word" or "what is spoken", but coming to mean "thought" or "reason", is a subject concerned with the most general laws of truth, and is now generally held to consist of the systematic study of the form of valid inference.

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Logical consequence

Logical consequence (also entailment) is a fundamental concept in logic, which describes the relationship between statements that hold true when one statement logically follows from one or more statements.

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Logical positivism

Logical positivism and logical empiricism, which together formed neopositivism, was a movement in Western philosophy whose central thesis was verificationism, a theory of knowledge which asserted that only statements verifiable through empirical observation are cognitively meaningful.

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Logical truth

Logical truth is one of the most fundamental concepts in logic, and there are different theories on its nature.

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Louis Pasteur

Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French biologist, microbiologist and chemist renowned for his discoveries of the principles of vaccination, microbial fermentation and pasteurization.

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Luck is the experience of notably positive, negative, or improbable events.

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Ludwik Fleck

Ludwik Fleck (11 July 1896 – 5 June 1961) was a Polish and Israeli physician and biologist who did important work in epidemic typhus in Lwów, Poland, with Rudolf WeiglT.

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Luis de la Peña

Luis Fernando de la Peña-Auerbach known as Luis de la Peña is a Mexican physicist, born in Mexico City in 1931.

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Mars rover

A Mars rover is an automated motor vehicle that propels itself across the surface of the planet Mars upon arrival.

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Marshall Warren Nirenberg

Marshall Warren Nirenberg (April 10, 1927 – January 15, 2010) was a Jewish American biochemist and geneticist.

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Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.

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Mathematical model

A mathematical model is a description of a system using mathematical concepts and language.

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Mathematical proof

In mathematics, a proof is an inferential argument for a mathematical statement.

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Maurice Wilkins

Maurice Hugh Frederick Wilkins (15 December 1916 – 5 October 2004) was a New Zealand-born British physicist and molecular biologist, and Nobel laureate whose research contributed to the scientific understanding of phosphorescence, isotope separation, optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction, and to the development of radar.

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Measurement is the assignment of a number to a characteristic of an object or event, which can be compared with other objects or events.

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Mechanics (Greek μηχανική) is that area of science concerned with the behaviour of physical bodies when subjected to forces or displacements, and the subsequent effects of the bodies on their environment.

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Mercury (planet)

Mercury is the smallest and innermost planet in the Solar System.

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Mertonian norms

In 1942, Robert K. Merton introduced "four sets of institutional imperatives taken to comprise the ethos of modern science...

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Message passing

In computer science, message passing is a technique for invoking behavior (i.e., running a program) on a computer.

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Methodology is the systematic, theoretical analysis of the methods applied to a field of study.

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Michael Polanyi

Michael Polanyi, (11 March 1891 – 22 February 1976) was a Hungarian-British polymath, who made important theoretical contributions to physical chemistry, economics, and philosophy.

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Michael Shermer

Michael Brant Shermer (born September 8, 1954) is an American science writer, historian of science, founder of The Skeptics Society, and editor-in-chief of its magazine Skeptic, which is largely devoted to investigating pseudoscientific and supernatural claims.

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Mill's Methods

Mill's Methods are five methods of induction described by philosopher John Stuart Mill in his 1843 book A System of Logic.

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Minute and second of arc

A minute of arc, arcminute (arcmin), arc minute, or minute arc is a unit of angular measurement equal to of one degree.

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Molecular biology

Molecular biology is a branch of biology which concerns the molecular basis of biological activity between biomolecules in the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between DNA, RNA, proteins and their biosynthesis, as well as the regulation of these interactions.

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Molecular genetics

Molecular genetics is the field of biology that studies the structure and function of genes at a molecular level and thus employs methods of both molecular biology and genetics.

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A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

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Motion (physics)

In physics, motion is a change in position of an object over time.

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Murray Gell-Mann

Murray Gell-Mann (born September 15, 1929) is an American physicist who received the 1969 Nobel Prize in physics for his work on the theory of elementary particles.

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Nassim Nicholas Taleb

Nassim Nicholas Taleb (نسيم نقولا طالب., alternatively Nessim or Nissim, born 1960) is a Lebanese–American essayist, scholar, statistician, former trader, and risk analyst, whose work focuses on problems of randomness, probability, and uncertainty.

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National Science Foundation

The National Science Foundation (NSF) is a United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering.

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Natural language

In neuropsychology, linguistics, and the philosophy of language, a natural language or ordinary language is any language that has evolved naturally in humans through use and repetition without conscious planning or premeditation.

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Natural science

Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on empirical evidence from observation and experimentation.

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Naturalism (philosophy)

In philosophy, naturalism is the "idea or belief that only natural (as opposed to supernatural or spiritual) laws and forces operate in the world." Adherents of naturalism (i.e., naturalists) assert that natural laws are the rules that govern the structure and behavior of the natural universe, that the changing universe at every stage is a product of these laws.

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Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, or material world or universe.

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Nature (journal)

Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.

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A neutrino (denoted by the Greek letter ν) is a fermion (an elementary particle with half-integer spin) that interacts only via the weak subatomic force and gravity.

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New York City

The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.

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Newton's laws of motion

Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that, together, laid the foundation for classical mechanics.

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Nicholas Maxwell

Nicholas Maxwell (born 3 July 1937) is a philosopher who has devoted much of his working life to arguing that there is an urgent need to bring about a revolution in academia so that it seeks and promotes wisdom and does not just acquire knowledge.

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Noam Chomsky

Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, social critic and political activist.

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Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine

The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine (Nobelpriset i fysiologi eller medicin), administered by the Nobel Foundation, is awarded once a year for outstanding discoveries in the fields of life sciences and medicine.

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Normal science

Normal science, identified and elaborated on by Thomas Samuel Kuhn in The Structure of Scientific Revolutions, is the regular work of scientists theorizing, observing, and experimenting within a settled paradigm or explanatory framework.

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Normative science

In the applied sciences, normative science is a type of information that is developed, presented, or interpreted based on an assumed, usually unstated, preference for a particular policy or class of policies.

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Norwood Russell Hanson

Norwood Russell Hanson (August 17, 1924 – April 18, 1967) was an American philosopher of science.

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Novum Organum

The Novum Organum, fully Novum Organum Scientiarum ('new instrument of science'), is a philosophical work by Francis Bacon, written in Latin and published in 1620.

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Nucleic acid double helix

In molecular biology, the term double helix refers to the structure formed by double-stranded molecules of nucleic acids such as DNA.

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Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA), both of which are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.

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Null hypothesis

In inferential statistics, the term "null hypothesis" is a general statement or default position that there is no relationship between two measured phenomena, or no association among groups.

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In physics, an observable is a dynamic variable that can be measured.

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Observation is the active acquisition of information from a primary source.

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Observational error

Observational error (or measurement error) is the difference between a measured value of a quantity and its true value.

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Observational study

In fields such as epidemiology, social sciences, psychology and statistics, an observational study draws inferences from a sample to a population where the independent variable is not under the control of the researcher because of ethical concerns or logistical constraints.

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Occam's razor

Occam's razor (also Ockham's razor or Ocham's razor; Latin: lex parsimoniae "law of parsimony") is the problem-solving principle that, the simplest explanation tends to be the right one.

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Operational definition

An operational definition is the articulation of operationalization (or statement of procedures) used in defining the terms of a process (or set of validation tests) needed to determine the nature of an item or phenomenon (a variable, term, or object) and its properties such as duration, quantity, extension in space, chemical composition, etc.

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In research design, especially in psychology, social sciences, life sciences, and physics, operationalization is a process of defining the measurement of a phenomenon that is not directly measurable, though its existence is indicated by other phenomena.

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In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an object, such as the trajectory of a planet around a star or a natural satellite around a planet.

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Pappus of Alexandria

Pappus of Alexandria (Πάππος ὁ Ἀλεξανδρεύς; c. 290 – c. 350 AD) was one of the last great Greek mathematicians of Antiquity, known for his Synagoge (Συναγωγή) or Collection (c. 340), and for Pappus's hexagon theorem in projective geometry.

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In science and philosophy, a paradigm is a distinct set of concepts or thought patterns, including theories, research methods, postulates, and standards for what constitutes legitimate contributions to a field.

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Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.

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Particle accelerator

A particle accelerator is a machine that uses electromagnetic fields to propel charged particles to nearly light speed and to contain them in well-defined beams.

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Pathological science

Pathological science is an area of research where "people are tricked into false results...

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Paul Feyerabend

Paul Karl Feyerabend (January 13, 1924 – February 11, 1994) was an Austrian-born philosopher of science best known for his work as a professor of philosophy at the University of California, Berkeley, where he worked for three decades (1958–1989).

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Paul Thagard

Paul Thagard (born September 28, 1950) is a Canadian philosopher who specializes in philosophy, cognitive science, and the philosophy of science.

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Peer review

Peer review is the evaluation of work by one or more people of similar competence to the producers of the work (peers).

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Perihelion and aphelion

The perihelion of any orbit of a celestial body about the Sun is the point where the body comes nearest to the Sun.

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Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica

Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica (Latin for Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy), often referred to as simply the Principia, is a work in three books by Isaac Newton, in Latin, first published 5 July 1687.

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Philosophical methodology

Philosophical method (or philosophical methodology) is the study of how to do philosophy.

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Philosophical realism

Realism (in philosophy) about a given object is the view that this object exists in reality independently of our conceptual scheme.

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Philosophical skepticism

Philosophical skepticism (UK spelling: scepticism; from Greek σκέψις skepsis, "inquiry") is a philosophical school of thought that questions the possibility of certainty in knowledge.

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Philosophy of science

Philosophy of science is a sub-field of philosophy concerned with the foundations, methods, and implications of science.

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Photo 51

Photograph 51 is the nickname given to an X-ray diffraction image of crystallized DNA taken by Raymond Gosling in May 1952, working as a PhD student under the supervision of Rosalind Franklin, at King's College London in Sir John Randall's group.

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Physics First

Physics First is an educational program that teaches a basic physics course in the ninth grade (usually 15-year-olds), rather than the biology course which is more standard in public schools.

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A placebo is a substance or treatment of no intended therapeutic value.

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Poincaré conjecture

In mathematics, the Poincaré conjecture is a theorem about the characterization of the 3-sphere, which is the hypersphere that bounds the unit ball in four-dimensional space.

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Post-normal science

Post-normal science (PNS) represents a novel approach for the use of science on issues where "facts uncertain, values in dispute, stakes high and decisions urgent".

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Postdiction involves explanation after the fact.

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Postmodernism is a broad movement that developed in the mid- to late-20th century across philosophy, the arts, architecture, and criticism and that marked a departure from modernism.

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Poverty of the stimulus

Poverty of the stimulus (POS) is the argument from linguistics that children are not exposed to rich enough data within their linguistic environments to acquire every feature of their language.

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Pragmatic maxim

The pragmatic maxim, also known as the maxim of pragmatism or the maxim of pragmaticism, is a maxim of logic formulated by Charles Sanders Peirce.

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Pragmaticism is a term used by Charles Sanders Peirce for his pragmatic philosophy starting in 1905, in order to distance himself and it from pragmatism, the original name, which had been used in a manner he did not approve of in the "literary journals".

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Príncipe is the smaller, northern major island of the country of São Tomé and Príncipe lying off the west coast of Africa in the Gulf of Guinea.

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Predictability is the degree to which a correct prediction or forecast of a system's state can be made either qualitatively or quantitatively.

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A prediction (Latin præ-, "before," and dicere, "to say"), or forecast, is a statement about a future event.

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Predictive analytics

Predictive analytics encompasses a variety of statistical techniques from predictive modelling, machine learning, and data mining that analyze current and historical facts to make predictions about future or otherwise unknown events.

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Prior Analytics

The Prior Analytics (Ἀναλυτικὰ Πρότερα; Analytica Priora) is Aristotle's work on deductive reasoning, which is known as his syllogistic.

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Problem of induction

The problem of induction is the philosophical question of whether inductive reasoning leads to knowledge understood in the classic philosophical sense, highlighting the apparent lack of justification for.

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Problem solving

Problem solving consists of using generic or ad hoc methods, in an orderly manner, to find solutions to problems.

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Prometheus Books

Prometheus Books is a publishing company founded in August 1969 by the philosopher Paul Kurtz (who was also the founder of the Council for Secular Humanism, Center for Inquiry, and co-founder of the Committee for Skeptical Inquiry).

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Proofs and Refutations

Proofs and Refutations is a 1976 book by philosopher Imre Lakatos expounding his view of the progress of mathematics.

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Pseudoscience consists of statements, beliefs, or practices that are claimed to be both scientific and factual, but are incompatible with the scientific method.

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Quantitative research

In natural sciences and social sciences, quantitative research is the systematic empirical investigation of observable phenomena via statistical, mathematical or computational techniques.

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In philosophy, rationalism is the epistemological view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification".

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Raymond Gosling

Raymond George Gosling (15 July 1926 – 18 May 2015) was a British scientist.

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Reason is the capacity for consciously making sense of things, establishing and verifying facts, applying logic, and changing or justifying practices, institutions, and beliefs based on new or existing information.

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Reference class problem

In statistics, the reference class problem is the problem of deciding what class to use when calculating the probability applicable to a particular case.

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Regression analysis

In statistical modeling, regression analysis is a set of statistical processes for estimating the relationships among variables.

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Relativity of simultaneity

In physics, the relativity of simultaneity is the concept that distant simultaneity – whether two spatially separated events occur at the same time – is not absolute, but depends on the observer's reference frame.

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René Descartes

René Descartes (Latinized: Renatus Cartesius; adjectival form: "Cartesian"; 31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist.

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Replication crisis

The replication crisis (or replicability crisis or reproducibility crisis) is a methodological crisis in science in which scholars have found that the results of many scientific studies are difficult or impossible to replicate or reproduce on subsequent investigation, either by independent researchers or by the original researchers themselves.

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Reproducibility is the closeness of the agreement between the results of measurements of the same measurand carried out under changed conditions of measurement.

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Research comprises "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories.

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Research data archiving

Research data archiving is the long-term storage of scholarly research data, including the natural sciences, social sciences, and life sciences.

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In religion and theology, revelation is the revealing or disclosing of some form of truth or knowledge through communication with a deity or other supernatural entity or entities.

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A review is an evaluation of a publication, service, or company such as a movie (a movie review), video game (video game review), musical composition (music review of a composition or recording), book (book review); a piece of hardware like a car, home appliance, or computer; or an event or performance, such as a live music concert, play, musical theater show, dance show, or art exhibition.

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Reviews of Modern Physics

Reviews of Modern Physics is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Physical Society.

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Ricci flow

In differential geometry, the Ricci flow (Italian) is an intrinsic geometric flow.

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Richard Dawkins

Clinton Richard Dawkins (born 26 March 1941) is an English ethologist, evolutionary biologist, and author.

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Richard J. Bernstein

Richard Jacob Bernstein (born May 14, 1932) is an American philosopher who teaches at The New School for Social Research, and has written extensively about a broad array of issues and philosophical traditions including Classical American Pragmatism, Neopragmatism, Critical Theory, Deconstruction, Social Philosophy, Political Philosophy, and Hermeneutics.

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Richard Rorty

Richard McKay Rorty (October 4, 1931 – June 8, 2007) was an American philosopher.

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Roger Bacon

Roger Bacon (Rogerus or Rogerius Baconus, Baconis, also Rogerus), also known by the scholastic accolade Doctor, was an English philosopher and Franciscan friar who placed considerable emphasis on the study of nature through empiricism.

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Ronald Giere

Ronald Giere is an American philosopher of science who is an emeritus professor of philosophy at the University of Minnesota.

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Rosalind Franklin

Rosalind Elsie Franklin (25 July 192016 April 1958) was an English chemist and X-ray crystallographer who made contributions to the understanding of the molecular structures of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), RNA (ribonucleic acid), viruses, coal, and graphite.

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Royal Astronomical Society

The Royal Astronomical Society (RAS) is a learned society that began as the Astronomical Society of London in 1820 to support astronomical research (mainly carried on at the time by 'gentleman astronomers' rather than professionals).

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Royal Observatory, Greenwich

The Royal Observatory, Greenwich (ROG; known as the Old Royal Observatory from 1957 to 1998, when the working Royal Greenwich Observatory, RGO, moved from Greenwich to Herstmonceux) is an observatory situated on a hill in Greenwich Park, overlooking the River Thames.

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Salt, table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.

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Santa Fe Institute

The Santa Fe Institute (SFI) is an independent, nonprofit theoretical research institute located in Santa Fe (New Mexico, United States) and dedicated to the multidisciplinary study of the fundamental principles of complex adaptive systems, including physical, computational, biological, and social systems.

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Scholarly method

The scholarly method or scholarship is the body of principles and practices used by scholars to make their claims about the world as valid and trustworthy as possible, and to make them known to the scholarly public.

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R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.

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Science and Civilisation in China

Science and Civilisation in China (1954–) is a series of books initiated and edited by British biochemist, historian and sinologist Joseph Needham, Ph.D (1900–1995).

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Science and Hypothesis

Science and Hypothesis (La Science et l'Hypothèse) is a book by French mathematician Henri Poincaré, first published in 1902.

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Science studies

Science studies is an interdisciplinary research area that seeks to situate scientific expertise in broad social, historical, and philosophical contexts.

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Science wars

The science wars were a series of intellectual exchanges, between scientific realists and postmodernist critics, about the nature of scientific theory and intellectual inquiry.

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Scientific community

The scientific community is a diverse network of interacting scientists.

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Scientific control

A scientific control is an experiment or observation designed to minimize the effects of variables other than the independent variable.

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Scientific instrument

A scientific instrument is, broadly speaking, a device or tool used for scientific purposes, including the study of both natural phenomena and theoretical research.

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Scientific method and religion

Some controversies exist over the relationship of scientific method to religion.

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Scientific modelling

Scientific modelling is a scientific activity, the aim of which is to make a particular part or feature of the world easier to understand, define, quantify, visualize, or simulate by referencing it to existing and usually commonly accepted knowledge.

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Scientific realism

Scientific realism is the view that the universe described by science is real regardless of how it may be interpreted.

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Scientific Revolution

The Scientific Revolution was a series of events that marked the emergence of modern science during the early modern period, when developments in mathematics, physics, astronomy, biology (including human anatomy) and chemistry transformed the views of society about nature.

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Scientific theory

A scientific theory is an explanation of an aspect of the natural world that can be repeatedly tested, in accordance with the scientific method, using a predefined protocol of observation and experiment.

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Semi-Thue system

In theoretical computer science and mathematical logic a string rewriting system (SRS), historically called a semi-Thue system, is a rewriting system over strings from a (usually finite) alphabet.

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Sensualism is the persistent or excessive pursuit of sensual pleasures and interests.

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Situated cognition

Situated cognition is a theory that posits that knowing is inseparable from doing by arguing that all knowledge is situated in activity bound to social, cultural and physical contexts.

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Skepticism (American English) or scepticism (British English, Australian English) is generally any questioning attitude or doubt towards one or more items of putative knowledge or belief.

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SN 1987A

SN 1987A was a peculiar type II supernova in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a dwarf galaxy satellite of the Milky Way.

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Sobral, Ceará

Sobral is a municipality in the state of Ceará, Brazil.

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Social research

Social research is a research conducted by social scientists following a systematic plan.

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Social science

Social science is a major category of academic disciplines, concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society.

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Sociology of scientific knowledge

The sociology of scientific knowledge (SSK) is the study of science as a social activity, especially dealing with "the social conditions and effects of science, and with the social structures and processes of scientific activity." The sociology of scientific ignorance (SSI) is complementary to the sociology of scientific knowledge.

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Solar eclipse

A solar eclipse (as seen from the planet Earth) is a type of eclipse that occurs when the Moon passes between the Sun and Earth, and when the Moon fully or partially blocks ("occults") the Sun.

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In physics, spacetime is any mathematical model that fuses the three dimensions of space and the one dimension of time into a single four-dimensional continuum.

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Special relativity

In physics, special relativity (SR, also known as the special theory of relativity or STR) is the generally accepted and experimentally well-confirmed physical theory regarding the relationship between space and time.

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A spectrometer is a scientific instrument used to separate and measure spectral components of a physical phenomenon.

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St. Elmo's fire


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Statistical population

In statistics, a population is a set of similar items or events which is of interest for some question or experiment.

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Statistics is a branch of mathematics dealing with the collection, analysis, interpretation, presentation, and organization of data.

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Stillman Drake

Stillman Drake (December 24, 1910 – October 6, 1993) was a Canadian historian of science best known for his work on Galileo Galilei (1564–1642).

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Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded by Zeno of Citium in Athens in the early 3rd century BC.

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Strong inference

In philosophy of science, strong inference is a model of scientific inquiry that emphasizes the need for alternative hypotheses, rather than a single hypothesis to avoid confirmation bias.

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Strong programme

The strong programme or strong sociology is a variety of the sociology of scientific knowledge (SSK) particularly associated with David Bloor, Barry Barnes, Harry Collins, Donald A. MacKenzie, and John Henry.

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Systems theory

Systems theory is the interdisciplinary study of systems.

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Tautology (logic)

In logic, a tautology (from the Greek word ταυτολογία) is a formula or assertion that is true in every possible interpretation.

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Testability, a property applying to an empirical hypothesis, involves two components.

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That Nothing Is Known

That Nothing Is Known (Quod nihil scitur) is a 1581 book by the philosopher Francisco Sanches.

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The Assayer

The Assayer (Il Saggiatore) was a book published in Rome by Galileo Galilei in October 1623 and is generally considered to be one of the pioneering works of the scientific method, first broaching the idea that the book of nature is to be read with mathematical tools rather than those of scholastic philosophy, as generally held at the time.

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The Black Swan: The Impact of the Highly Improbable

The Black Swan: The Impact of the Highly Improbable is a book by the essayist, scholar, philosopher, and statistician Nassim Nicholas Taleb, released April 17, 2007 by Random House.

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The Character of Physical Law

The Character of Physical Law is a series of seven lectures by physicist Richard Feynman concerning the nature of the laws of physics.

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The Double Helix

The Double Helix: A Personal Account of the Discovery of the Structure of DNA is an autobiographical account of the discovery of the double helix structure of DNA written by James D. Watson and published in 1968.

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The Logic of Scientific Discovery

The Logic of Scientific Discovery is a 1959 book about the philosophy of science by Karl Popper.

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The Structure of Scientific Revolutions

The Structure of Scientific Revolutions (1962; second edition 1970; third edition 1996; fourth edition 2012) is a book about the history of science by the philosopher Thomas S. Kuhn.

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The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Mathematics in the Natural Sciences

"The Unreasonable Effectiveness of Mathematics in the Natural Sciences" is the title of an article published in 1960 by the physicist Eugene Wigner.

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In mathematics, a theorem is a statement that has been proven on the basis of previously established statements, such as other theorems, and generally accepted statements, such as axioms.

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Theory of relativity

The theory of relativity usually encompasses two interrelated theories by Albert Einstein: special relativity and general relativity.

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A thermometer is a device that measures temperature or a temperature gradient.

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Thomas Kuhn

Thomas Samuel Kuhn (July 18, 1922 – June 17, 1996) was an American physicist, historian and philosopher of science whose controversial 1962 book The Structure of Scientific Revolutions was influential in both academic and popular circles, introducing the term paradigm shift, which has since become an English-language idiom.

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Thought experiment

A thought experiment (Gedankenexperiment, Gedanken-Experiment or Gedankenerfahrung) considers some hypothesis, theory, or principle for the purpose of thinking through its consequences.

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---> Thymine (T, Thy) is one of the four nucleobases in the nucleic acid of DNA that are represented by the letters G–C–A–T.

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Time is the indefinite continued progress of existence and events that occur in apparently irreversible succession from the past through the present to the future.

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Tobacco mosaic virus

Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) is a positive-sense single stranded RNA virus, genus tobamovirus that infects a wide range of plants, especially tobacco and other members of the family Solanaceae.

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Transdisciplinarity connotes a research strategy that crosses many disciplinary boundaries to create a holistic approach.

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Triple helix

In geometry, a triple helix (plural triple helices) is a set of three congruent geometrical helices with the same axis, differing by a translation along the axis.

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Twenty Questions

Twenty Questions is a spoken parlor game which encourages deductive reasoning and creativity.

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Two New Sciences

The Discourses and Mathematical Demonstrations Relating to Two New Sciences (Discorsi e Dimostrazioni Matematiche Intorno a Due Nuove Scienze), published in 1638 was Galileo's final book and a scientific testament covering much of his work in physics over the preceding thirty years.

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Tycho Brahe

Tycho Brahe (born Tyge Ottesen Brahe;. He adopted the Latinized form "Tycho Brahe" (sometimes written Tÿcho) at around age fifteen. The name Tycho comes from Tyche (Τύχη, meaning "luck" in Greek, Roman equivalent: Fortuna), a tutelary deity of fortune and prosperity of ancient Greek city cults. He is now generally referred to as "Tycho," as was common in Scandinavia in his time, rather than by his surname "Brahe" (a spurious appellative form of his name, Tycho de Brahe, only appears much later). 14 December 154624 October 1601) was a Danish nobleman, astronomer, and writer known for his accurate and comprehensive astronomical and planetary observations.

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Uncertainty has been called "an unintelligible expression without a straightforward description".

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In the philosophy of science, underdetermination refers to situations where the evidence available is insufficient to identify which belief one should hold about that evidence.

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Understanding is a psychological process related to an abstract or physical object, such as a person, situation, or message whereby one is able to think about it and use concepts to deal adequately with that object.

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Unit of measurement

A unit of measurement is a definite magnitude of a quantity, defined and adopted by convention or by law, that is used as a standard for measurement of the same kind of quantity.

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Universal quantification

In predicate logic, a universal quantification is a type of quantifier, a logical constant which is interpreted as "given any" or "for all".

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University of Cambridge

The University of Cambridge (informally Cambridge University)The corporate title of the university is The Chancellor, Masters, and Scholars of the University of Cambridge.

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University of Rochester

The University of Rochester (U of R or UR) frequently referred to as Rochester, is a private research university in Rochester, New York.

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Verificationism, also known as the verification idea or the verifiability criterion of meaning, is the philosophical doctrine that only statements that are empirically verifiable (i.e. verifiable through the senses) are cognitively meaningful, or else they are truths of logic (tautologies).

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Visual system

The visual system is the part of the central nervous system which gives organisms the ability to process visual detail, as well as enabling the formation of several non-image photo response functions.

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A voltmeter is an instrument used for measuring electrical potential difference between two points in an electric circuit.

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In science and engineering, the weight of an object is related to the amount of force acting on the object, either due to gravity or to a reaction force that holds it in place.

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The process of weighting involves emphasizing the contribution of some aspects of a phenomenon (or of a set of data) to a final effect or result, giving them more weight in the analysis.

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Werner Heisenberg

Werner Karl Heisenberg (5 December 1901 – 1 February 1976) was a German theoretical physicist and one of the key pioneers of quantum mechanics.

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Wesley C. Salmon

Wesley C. Salmon (August 9, 1925 – April 22, 2001) was an American philosopher of science renowned for his work on the nature of scientific explanation.

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What Is This Thing Called Science?

What Is This Thing Called Science? is a best-selling textbook by Alan Chalmers.

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What Mad Pursuit

What Mad Pursuit: A Personal View of Scientific Discovery is a book published in 1988 and written by Francis Crick, the English co-discoverer in 1953 of the structure of DNA.

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Where Mathematics Comes From

Where Mathematics Comes From: How the Embodied Mind Brings Mathematics into Being (hereinafter WMCF) is a book by George Lakoff, a cognitive linguist, and Rafael E. Núñez, a psychologist.

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William Glen (geologist)

William Glen, Ph.D. is a geologist and historian of science.

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William Ian Beardmore Beveridge

William Ian Beardmore (WIB) Beveridge was an Australian animal pathologist and director of the Institute of Animal Pathology, University of Cambridge.

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William McComas

William McComas (1795 – June 3, 1865) was a Virginia lawyer and politician who also served in the Virginia Senate, United States House of Representatives and voted against secession in the Virginia Secession Convention of 1861.

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William of Ockham

William of Ockham (also Occam, from Gulielmus Occamus; 1287 – 1347) was an English Franciscan friar and scholastic philosopher and theologian, who is believed to have been born in Ockham, a small village in Surrey.

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William Whewell

William Whewell (24 May 1794 – 6 March 1866) was an English polymath, scientist, Anglican priest, philosopher, theologian, and historian of science.

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Wolters Kluwer

Wolters Kluwer N.V. is a global information services company.

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World Data Center

The World Data Centre (WDC) system was created to archive and distribute data collected from the observational programmes of the 1957-1958 International Geophysical Year by the International Council of Science (ICSU).

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X-rays make up X-radiation, a form of electromagnetic radiation.

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X-ray crystallography

X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.

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Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft

The Zeitschrift der Deutschen Morgenländischen Gesellschaft (ZDMG), lit.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scientific_method

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