In mathematics, the absolute value or modulus of a real number is the non-negative value of without regard to its sign.
Ada is a structured, statically typed, imperative, and object-oriented high-level computer programming language, extended from Pascal and other languages.
Addition (often signified by the plus symbol "+") is one of the four basic operations of arithmetic; the others are subtraction, multiplication and division.
ALGOL (short for "Algorithmic Language") is a family of imperative computer programming languages, originally developed in the mid-1950s, which greatly influenced many other languages and was the standard method for algorithm description used by the ACM in textbooks and academic sources for more than thirty years.
ALGOL 68 (short for Algorithmic Language 1968) is an imperative computer programming language that was conceived as a successor to the ALGOL 60 programming language, designed with the goal of a much wider scope of application and more rigorously defined syntax and semantics.
ALGOL W is a programming language.
Analytica is a visual software package developed by Lumina Decision Systems for creating, analyzing and communicating quantitative decision models.
Apple Inc. is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Cupertino, California, that designs, develops, and sells consumer electronics, computer software, and online services.
Arithmetic (from the Greek ἀριθμός arithmos, "number") is a branch of mathematics that consists of the study of numbers, especially the properties of the traditional operations on them—addition, subtraction, multiplication and division.
Associated Universities, Inc. (AUI) is a research management corporation that builds and operates facilities for the research community.
In chemistry and physics, the Avogadro constant (named after scientist Amedeo Avogadro) is the number of constituent particles, usually atoms or molecules, that are contained in the amount of substance given by one mole.
In exponentiation, the base is the number b in an expression of the form bn.
In mathematics and digital electronics, a binary number is a number expressed in the base-2 numeral system or binary numeral system, which uses only two symbols: typically 0 (zero) and 1 (one).
A binary prefix is a unit prefix for multiples of units in data processing, data transmission, and digital information, notably the bit and the byte, to indicate multiplication by a power of 2.
Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a United States Department of Energy national laboratory located in Upton, New York, on Long Island, and was formally established in 1947 at the site of Camp Upton, a former U.S. Army base.
C (as in the letter ''c'') is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.
C++ ("see plus plus") is a general-purpose programming language.
C++11 is a version of the standard for the programming language C++.
C++17 is the name for the most recent revision of the ISO/IEC 14882 standard for the C++ programming language.
C99 (previously known as C9X) is an informal name for ISO/IEC 9899:1999, a past version of the C programming language standard.
An electronic calculator is typically a portable electronic device used to perform calculations, ranging from basic arithmetic to complex mathematics.
Christmas is an annual festival commemorating the birth of Jesus Christ,Martindale, Cyril Charles.
The Christmas season, also called the festive season, or the holiday season (mainly in the U.S. and Canada; often simply called the holidays),, is an annually recurring period recognized in many Western and Western-influenced countries that is generally considered to run from late November to early January.
Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus.
Christmas traditions vary from country to country.
In mathematics, a coefficient is a multiplicative factor in some term of a polynomial, a series or any expression; it is usually a number, but may be any expression.
Cognitive dimensions or cognitive dimensions of notations are design principles for notations, user interfaces and programming languages, described by researchers Thomas R.G. Green and Marian Petre.
The Committee on Data for Science and Technology (CODATA) was established in 1966 as an interdisciplinary committee of the International Council for Science.
In mathematics, the common logarithm is the logarithm with base 10.
Communications of the ACM is the monthly journal of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM).
A computer program is a collection of instructions for performing a specific task that is designed to solve a specific class of problems.
Decimal floating-point (DFP) arithmetic refers to both a representation and operations on decimal floating-point numbers.
A decimal representation of a non-negative real number r is an expression in the form of a series, traditionally written as a sum where a0 is a nonnegative integer, and a1, a2,...
A decimal separator is a symbol used to separate the integer part from the fractional part of a number written in decimal form.
Division is one of the four basic operations of arithmetic, the others being addition, subtraction, and multiplication.
Double-precision floating-point format is a computer number format, usually occupying 64 bits in computer memory; it represents a wide dynamic range of numeric values by using a floating radix point.
The number is a mathematical constant, approximately equal to 2.71828, which appears in many different settings throughout mathematics.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
Engineering notation or engineering form is a version of scientific notation in which the exponent of ten must be divisible by three (i.e., they are powers of a thousand, but written as, for example, 106 instead of 10002).
In mathematics, an exponential function is a function of the form in which the argument occurs as an exponent.
Exponentiation is a mathematical operation, written as, involving two numbers, the base and the exponent.
In computing, floating-point arithmetic is arithmetic using formulaic representation of real numbers as an approximation so as to support a trade-off between range and precision.
Fortran (formerly FORTRAN, derived from Formula Translation) is a general-purpose, compiled imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing.
The fractional part or decimal part of a non‐negative real number x is the excess beyond that number's integer part.
The Hewlett-Packard Company (commonly referred to as HP) or shortened to Hewlett-Packard was an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Palo Alto, California.
The HP 48 is a series of graphing calculators using Reverse Polish Notation (RPN) and the RPL programming language, produced by Hewlett-Packard from 1990 until 2003.
The HP-16C Computer Scientist is a programmable pocket calculator that was produced by Hewlett-Packard between 1982 and 1989.
The HP-35 was Hewlett-Packard's first pocket calculator and the world's first scientific pocket calculator – a calculator with trigonometric and exponential functions.
The HP-65 is the first magnetic card-programmable handheld calculator.
IEEE 754-2008 (previously known as IEEE 754r) was published in August 2008 and is a significant revision to, and replaces, the IEEE 754-1985 floating point standard.
The inch (abbreviation: in or &Prime) is a unit of length in the (British) imperial and United States customary systems of measurement now formally equal to yard but usually understood as of a foot.
An integer (from the Latin ''integer'' meaning "whole")Integer 's first literal meaning in Latin is "untouched", from in ("not") plus tangere ("to touch").
The International System of Units (SI, abbreviated from the French Système international (d'unités)) is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement.
ISO 31-0 is the introductory part of international standard ISO 31 on quantities and units.
ISO 31-11:1992 was the part of international standard ISO 31 that defines mathematical signs and symbols for use in physical sciences and technology.
Java is a general-purpose computer-programming language that is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible.
The letter and digit code for resistance and capacitance values and tolerances, which is also known as RKM code or "R notation", is a notation to specify resistor and capacitor values defined in the international standard IEC 60062 (formerly IEC 62) since 1952.
The long and short scales are two of several large-number naming systems for integer powers of ten that use the same words with different meanings.
Lua (from meaning moon) is a lightweight, multi-paradigm programming language designed primarily for embedded use in applications.
Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.
MATLAB (matrix laboratory) is a multi-paradigm numerical computing environment and proprietary programming language developed by MathWorks.
McLean is an unincorporated community and census-designated place (CDP) in Fairfax County in Northern Virginia.
A metric prefix is a unit prefix that precedes a basic unit of measure to indicate a multiple or fraction of the unit.
In science, a multiple is the product of any quantity and an integer.
Multiplication (often denoted by the cross symbol "×", by a point "⋅", by juxtaposition, or, on computers, by an asterisk "∗") is one of the four elementary mathematical operations of arithmetic; with the others being addition, subtraction and division.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is one of the oldest physical science laboratories in the United States.
New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.
New Year's Day, also called simply New Year's or New Year, is observed on January 1, the first day of the year on the modern Gregorian calendar as well as the Julian calendar.
In the Gregorian calendar, New Year's Eve (also known as Old Year's Day or Saint Sylvester's Day in many countries), the last day of the year, is on 31 December which is the seventh day of Christmastide.
Programming languages typically support a set of operators: constructs which behave generally like functions, but which differ syntactically or semantically from usual functions.
Oracle Corporation is an American multinational computer technology corporation, headquartered in Redwood Shores, California.
An order of magnitude is an approximate measure of the number of digits that a number has in the commonly-used base-ten number system.
Perl is a family of two high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming languages, Perl 5 and Perl 6.
In physics, the Planck length, denoted, is a unit of length, equal to metres.
The Portable Operating System Interface (POSIX) is a family of standards specified by the IEEE Computer Society for maintaining compatibility between operating systems.
PPC Journal was an early hobbyist computer magazine, originally targeted at users of HP's first programmable calculator, the HP-65.
Printf format string refers to a control parameter used by a class of functions in the input/output libraries of C and many other programming languages.
Python is an interpreted high-level programming language for general-purpose programming.
In mathematics, a real number is a value of a continuous quantity that can represent a distance along a line.
Reviews of Modern Physics is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the American Physical Society.
Scilab is a free and open-source, cross-platform numerical computational package and a high-level, numerically oriented programming language.
is a Japanese multinational corporation that designs and manufactures electronic products, headquartered in Sakai-ku, Sakai.
The significand (also mantissa or coefficient) is part of a number in scientific notation or a floating-point number, consisting of its significant digits.
The significant figures (also known as the significant digits) of a number are digits that carry meaning contributing to its measurement resolution.
Simula is the name of two simulation programming languages, Simula I and Simula 67, developed in the 1960s at the Norwegian Computing Center in Oslo, by Ole-Johan Dahl and Kristen Nygaard.
The Single UNIX Specification (SUS) is the collective name of a family of standards for computer operating systems, compliance with which is required to qualify for using the "UNIX" trademark.
In writing, a space ( ) is a blank area that separates words, sentences, syllables (in syllabification) and other written or printed glyphs (characters).
Springer Nature is an academic publishing company created by the May 2015 merger of Springer Science+Business Media and Holtzbrinck Publishing Group's Nature Publishing Group, Palgrave Macmillan, and Macmillan Education.
Stanford University (officially Leland Stanford Junior University, colloquially the Farm) is a private research university in Stanford, California.
A subscript or superscript is a character (number, letter or symbol) that is (respectively) set slightly below or above the normal line of type.
Subtraction is an arithmetic operation that represents the operation of removing objects from a collection.
The Suzhou numerals, also known as Suzhou mazi (蘇州碼子), is a numeral system used in China before the introduction of Arabic numerals.
Swift is a general-purpose, multi-paradigm, compiled programming language developed by Apple Inc. for iOS, macOS, watchOS, tvOS, and Linux.
Texas Instruments Inc. (TI) is an American technology company that designs and manufactures semiconductors and various integrated circuits, which it sells to electronics designers and manufacturers globally.
In typography, a thin space is a space character that is usually or of an em in width.
As part of the design process, Texas Instruments (TI) decided to modify the base Latin-1 character set for use with its calculator interface.
The TI-83 series is a series of graphing calculators manufactured by Texas Instruments.
The TI-84 Plus is a graphing calculator made by Texas Instruments which was released in early 2004.
Typesetting is the composition of text by means of arranging physical typesDictionary.com Unabridged.
Unicode is a computing industry standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems.
The Wolfram Language is a general multi-paradigm programming language developed by Wolfram Research and is the programming language of the mathematical symbolic computation program Mathematica and the Wolfram Programming Cloud.
Wolfram Mathematica (usually termed Mathematica) is a modern technical computing system spanning most areas of technical computing — including neural networks, machine learning, image processing, geometry, data science, visualizations, and others.
Yu (Ю ю; italics: Ю ю) is a letter of the Cyrillic script used in East Slavic and Bulgarian alphabets.
2018 has been designated as the third International Year of the Reef by the International Coral Reef Initiative.
2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar, the 2019th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 19th year of the 3rd millennium, the 19th year of the 21st century, and the 10th and last year of the 2010s decade.
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