152 relations: Activator (phosphor), Alkali metal, Alpha particle, Anisotropy, Annihilation, Anthracene, Argon, Aromatic hydrocarbon, Atomic nucleus, Atomic number, Atomic recoil, Avalanche photodiode, Backscatter, Band gap, Barium fluoride, Benzene, Beta decay, Beta particle, Birks' law, Bismuth, Bismuth germanate, Boron, Borosilicate glass, Bravais lattice, Bremsstrahlung, Butyl PBD, Cadmium, Cadmium tungstate, Caesium fluoride, Caesium iodide, Calcium fluoride, Carrier generation and recombination, Cerium, CERN, Charged particle, Coincidence circuit, Collimated light, Compton scattering, Cost, Coulomb's law, Cross section (physics), Crystal, Decalin, Density, Dosimetry, Electron, Electron hole, Electronic band structure, Energy gap, Europium, ..., Excited state, Exciton, Fine structure, Fluorescence, Furnace, Gadolinium, Gadolinium oxyorthosilicate, Gadolinium oxysulfide, Gamma ray, Gamma spectroscopy, Glass, Ground state, Halide, Helium, Hydrogen, Hygroscopy, Interface (journal), Ionization, Ionizing radiation, Krypton, Lanthanum(III) bromide, Lanthanum(III) chloride, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Lead, Liquid scintillation counting, Lithium iodide, Luminescence, Lutetium, Lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate, Mean free path, Metastability, Molecular orbital, Molecular vibration, Molecule, Naphthalene, Neutron, Neutron cross section, Neutron detection, Neutron temperature, Nitrogen, Noble gas, Normal mode, Nuclear cross section, Nuclear fission product, Nuclear physics, Nuclear reaction, Oxygen, Pair production, Particle radiation, Particle shower, Phosphorescence, Photodiode, Photoelectric effect, Photomultiplier, Photon, Polyethylene naphthalate, Polystyrene, Polyvinyl toluene, POPOP, Positron, Positron emission tomography, Potassium iodide, Proton, Quantum efficiency, Quenching (fluorescence), Radiation hardening, Radioactive contamination, Refractive index, Samuel Curran, Scattering, Scheelite, Scintillating bolometer, Scintillation (physics), Scintillation counter, Silicate, Silicon photomultiplier, Singlet state, Sodium iodide, Solution, Solvent, Spinthariscope, Stilbene, Stolzite, Stopping power (particle radiation), Survey meter, Terphenyl, Thallium, Toluene, Total absorption spectroscopy, Triplet state, Ultraviolet, Valence and conduction bands, Valence electron, Wavelength, Wavelength shifter, Well logging, William Crookes, Xenon, Xylene, Yttrium aluminium garnet, Zinc sulfide, 2,5-Diphenyloxazole. Expand index (102 more) » « Shrink index
In phosphors and scintillators, the activator is the element added as dopant to the crystal of the material to create desired type of nonhomogeneities.
The alkali metals are a group (column) in the periodic table consisting of the chemical elements lithium (Li), sodium (Na), potassium (K),The symbols Na and K for sodium and potassium are derived from their Latin names, natrium and kalium; these are still the names for the elements in some languages, such as German and Russian.
Alpha particles consist of two protons and two neutrons bound together into a particle identical to a helium-4 nucleus.
Anisotropy, is the property of being directionally dependent, which implies different properties in different directions, as opposed to isotropy.
In particle physics, annihilation is the process that occurs when a subatomic particle collides with its respective antiparticle to produce other particles, such as an electron colliding with a positron to produce two photons.
Anthracene is a solid polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) of formula C14H10, consisting of three fused benzene rings.
Argon is a chemical element with symbol Ar and atomic number 18.
An aromatic hydrocarbon or arene (or sometimes aryl hydrocarbon) is a hydrocarbon with sigma bonds and delocalized pi electrons between carbon atoms forming a circle.
The atomic nucleus is the small, dense region consisting of protons and neutrons at the center of an atom, discovered in 1911 by Ernest Rutherford based on the 1909 Geiger–Marsden gold foil experiment.
The atomic number or proton number (symbol Z) of a chemical element is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom.
Atomic recoil is the result of the interaction of an atom with an energetic elementary particle, when the momentum of the interacting particle is transferred to the atom as whole without altering non-translational degrees of freedom of the atom.
An avalanche photodiode (APD) is a highly sensitive semiconductor electronic device that exploits the photoelectric effect to convert light to electricity.
In physics, backscatter (or backscattering) is the reflection of waves, particles, or signals back to the direction from which they came.
In solid-state physics, a band gap, also called an energy gap or bandgap, is an energy range in a solid where no electron states can exist.
Barium fluoride (BaF2) is a chemical compound of barium and fluorine and is a salt.
Benzene is an important organic chemical compound with the chemical formula C6H6.
In nuclear physics, beta decay (β-decay) is a type of radioactive decay in which a beta ray (fast energetic electron or positron) and a neutrino are emitted from an atomic nucleus.
A beta particle, also called beta ray or beta radiation, (symbol β) is a high-energy, high-speed electron or positron emitted by the radioactive decay of an atomic nucleus during the process of beta decay.
Birks' law (named after British physicist John B. Birks) is an empirical formula for the light yield per path length as a function of the energy loss per path length for a particle traversing a scintillator, and gives a relation that is not linear at high loss rates.
Bismuth is a chemical element with symbol Bi and atomic number 83.
Bismuth germanium oxide or bismuth germanate is an inorganic chemical compound of bismuth, germanium and oxygen.
Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5.
Borosilicate glass is a type of glass with silica and boron trioxide as the main glass-forming constituents.
In geometry and crystallography, a Bravais lattice, named after, is an infinite array of discrete points in three dimensional space generated by a set of discrete translation operations described by: where ni are any integers and ai are known as the primitive vectors which lie in different directions and span the lattice.
Bremsstrahlung, from bremsen "to brake" and Strahlung "radiation"; i.e., "braking radiation" or "deceleration radiation", is electromagnetic radiation produced by the deceleration of a charged particle when deflected by another charged particle, typically an electron by an atomic nucleus.
Butyl PBD or b-PBD is a fluorescent organic compound used in the Liquid Scintillator Neutrino Detector (LSND) at Los Alamos National Laboratory, USA.
Cadmium is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48.
Cadmium tungstate (CdWO4 or CWO), the cadmium salt of tungstic acid, is a dense, chemically inert solid which is used as a scintillation crystal to detect gamma rays.
Caesium fluoride or cesium fluoride is an inorganic compound usually encountered as a hygroscopic white solid.
Caesium iodide or cesium iodide (chemical formula CsI) is the ionic compound of caesium and iodine.
Calcium fluoride is the inorganic compound of the elements calcium and fluorine with the formula CaF2.
In the solid-state physics of semiconductors, carrier generation and recombination are processes by which mobile charge carriers (electrons and electron holes) are created and eliminated.
Cerium is a chemical element with symbol Ce and atomic number 58.
The European Organization for Nuclear Research (Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire), known as CERN (derived from the name Conseil européen pour la recherche nucléaire), is a European research organization that operates the largest particle physics laboratory in the world.
In physics, a charged particle is a particle with an electric charge.
In physics, a coincidence circuit is an electronic device with one output and two (or more) inputs.
Collimated light is light whose rays are parallel, and therefore will spread minimally as it propagates.
Compton scattering, discovered by Arthur Holly Compton, is the scattering of a photon by a charged particle, usually an electron.
In production, research, retail, and accounting, a cost is the value of money that has been used up to produce something or deliver a service, and hence is not available for use anymore.
Coulomb's law, or Coulomb's inverse-square law, is a law of physics for quantifying the amount of force with which stationary electrically charged particles repel or attract each other.
When two particles interact, their mutual cross section is the area transverse to their relative motion within which they must meet in order to scatter from each other.
A crystal or crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (such as atoms, molecules, or ions) are arranged in a highly ordered microscopic structure, forming a crystal lattice that extends in all directions.
Decalin (decahydronaphthalene, also known as bicyclodecane), a bicyclic organic compound, is an industrial solvent.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
Radiation dosimetry in the fields of health physics and radiation protection is the measurement, calculation and assessment of the ionizing radiation dose absorbed by the human body.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
In physics, chemistry, and electronic engineering, an electron hole (often simply called a hole) is the lack of an electron at a position where one could exist in an atom or atomic lattice.
In solid-state physics, the electronic band structure (or simply band structure) of a solid describes the range of energies that an electron within the solid may have (called energy bands, allowed bands, or simply bands) and ranges of energy that it may not have (called band gaps or forbidden bands).
In solid-state physics, an energy gap is an energy range in a solid where no electron states exist, i.e. an energy range where the density of states vanishes.
Europium is a chemical element with symbol Eu and atomic number 63.
In quantum mechanics, an excited state of a system (such as an atom, molecule or nucleus) is any quantum state of the system that has a higher energy than the ground state (that is, more energy than the absolute minimum).
An exciton is a bound state of an electron and an electron hole which are attracted to each other by the electrostatic Coulomb force.
In atomic physics, the fine structure describes the splitting of the spectral lines of atoms due to electron spin and relativistic corrections to the non-relativistic Schrödinger equation.
Fluorescence is the emission of light by a substance that has absorbed light or other electromagnetic radiation.
A furnace is a device used for high-temperature heating.
Gadolinium is a chemical element with symbol Gd and atomic number 64.
Gadolinium oxyorthosilicate (known as GSO) is a type of scintillating inorganic crystal used for imaging in nuclear medicine and for calorimetry in particle physics.
Gadolinium oxysulfide (Gd2O2S), also called gadolinium sulfoxylate, GOS or Gadox, is an inorganic compound, a mixed oxide-sulfide of gadolinium.
A gamma ray or gamma radiation (symbol γ or \gamma), is penetrating electromagnetic radiation arising from the radioactive decay of atomic nuclei.
Gamma-ray spectroscopy is the quantitative study of the energy spectra of gamma-ray sources, in such as the nuclear industry, geochemical investigation, and astrophysics.
Glass is a non-crystalline amorphous solid that is often transparent and has widespread practical, technological, and decorative usage in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optoelectronics.
The ground state of a quantum mechanical system is its lowest-energy state; the energy of the ground state is known as the zero-point energy of the system.
A halide is a binary phase, of which one part is a halogen atom and the other part is an element or radical that is less electronegative (or more electropositive) than the halogen, to make a fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide, astatide, or theoretically tennesside compound.
Helium (from lit) is a chemical element with symbol He and atomic number 2.
Hydrogen is a chemical element with symbol H and atomic number 1.
Hygroscopy is the phenomenon of attracting and holding water molecules from the surrounding environment, which is usually at normal or room temperature.
Interface is a quarterly open access scientific journal published by the Electrochemical Society covering developments in electrochemistry and solid-state chemistry, as well as news and information about and for members of the society.
Ionization or ionisation, is the process by which an atom or a molecule acquires a negative or positive charge by gaining or losing electrons to form ions, often in conjunction with other chemical changes.
Ionizing radiation (ionising radiation) is radiation that carries enough energy to liberate electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them.
Krypton (from translit "the hidden one") is a chemical element with symbol Kr and atomic number 36.
Lanthanum(III) bromide (LaBr3) is an inorganic halide salt of lanthanum.
Lanthanum chloride is the inorganic compound with the formula LaCl3.
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), commonly referred to as Berkeley Lab, is a United States national laboratory located in the Berkeley Hills near Berkeley, California that conducts scientific research on behalf of the United States Department of Energy (DOE).
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Liquid scintillation counting is the measurement of activity of a sample of radioactive material which uses the technique of mixing the active material with a liquid scintillator (e.g. Zinc sulfide), and counting the resultant photon emissions.
Lithium iodide, or LiI, is a compound of lithium and iodine.
Luminescence is emission of light by a substance not resulting from heat; it is thus a form of cold-body radiation.
Lutetium is a chemical element with symbol Lu and atomic number 71.
Lutetium-yttrium oxyorthosilicate, also known as LYSO, is an inorganic chemical compound with main use as a scintillator crystal.
In physics, the mean free path is the average distance traveled by a moving particle (such as an atom, a molecule, a photon) between successive impacts (collisions), which modify its direction or energy or other particle properties.
In physics, metastability is a stable state of a dynamical system other than the system's state of least energy.
In chemistry, a molecular orbital (MO) is a mathematical function describing the wave-like behavior of an electron in a molecule.
A molecular vibration occurs when atoms in a molecule are in periodic motion while the molecule as a whole has constant translational and rotational motion.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
Naphthalene is an organic compound with formula.
In nuclear and particle physics, the concept of a neutron cross section is used to express the likelihood of interaction between an incident neutron and a target nucleus.
Neutron detection is the effective detection of neutrons entering a well-positioned detector.
The neutron detection temperature, also called the neutron energy, indicates a free neutron's kinetic energy, usually given in electron volts.
Nitrogen is a chemical element with symbol N and atomic number 7.
The noble gases (historically also the inert gases) make up a group of chemical elements with similar properties; under standard conditions, they are all odorless, colorless, monatomic gases with very low chemical reactivity.
A normal mode of an oscillating system is a pattern of motion in which all parts of the system move sinusoidally with the same frequency and with a fixed phase relation.
The nuclear cross section of a nucleus is used to characterize the probability that a nuclear reaction will occur.
Nuclear fission products are the atomic fragments left after a large atomic nucleus undergoes nuclear fission.
Nuclear physics is the field of physics that studies atomic nuclei and their constituents and interactions.
In nuclear physics and nuclear chemistry, a nuclear reaction is semantically considered to be the process in which two nuclei, or else a nucleus of an atom and a subatomic particle (such as a proton, neutron, or high energy electron) from outside the atom, collide to produce one or more nuclides that are different from the nuclide(s) that began the process.
Oxygen is a chemical element with symbol O and atomic number 8.
Pair production is the creation of an elementary particle and its antiparticle from a neutral boson.
Particle radiation is the radiation of energy by means of fast-moving subatomic particles.
In particle physics, a shower is a cascade of secondary particles produced as the result of a high-energy particle interacting with dense matter.
Phosphorescence is a type of photoluminescence related to fluorescence.
A photodiode is a semiconductor device that converts light into an electrical current.
The photoelectric effect is the emission of electrons or other free carriers when light shines on a material.
Photomultiplier tubes (photomultipliers or PMTs for short), members of the class of vacuum tubes, and more specifically vacuum phototubes, are extremely sensitive detectors of light in the ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared ranges of the electromagnetic spectrum.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
Polyethylene naphthalate (poly(ethylene 2,6-naphthalate or PEN) is a polyester derived from naphthalene-2,6-dicarboxylic acid and ethylene glycol. As such it is related to poly(ethylene)terephthalate, but with superior barrier properties.
Polystyrene (PS) is a synthetic aromatic hydrocarbon polymer made from the monomer styrene.
Polyvinyltoluene (PVT, polyvinyl toluene) is a synthetic polymer of alkylbenzenes with a linear formula n. Commercial vinyl toluene is a mixture of methyl styrene isomers File:Chemical_formula_for_polyvinyl_tolulene.png|chemical formula for PVT.
POPOP or 1,4-bis(5-phenyloxazol-2-yl) benzene is a scintillator.
The positron or antielectron is the antiparticle or the antimatter counterpart of the electron.
Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.
Potassium iodide is a chemical compound, medication, and dietary supplement.
The term quantum efficiency (QE) may apply to incident photon to converted electron (IPCE) ratio, of a photosensitive device or it may refer to the TMR effect of a Magnetic Tunnel Junction.
Quenching refers to any process which decreases the fluorescence intensity of a given substance.
Radiation hardening is the act of making electronic components and systems resistant to damage or malfunctions caused by ionizing radiation (particle radiation and high-energy electromagnetic radiation), such as those encountered in outer space and high-altitude flight, around nuclear reactors and particle accelerators, or during nuclear accidents or nuclear warfare.
Radioactive contamination, also called radiological contamination, is the deposition of, or presence of radioactive substances on surfaces or within solids, liquids or gases (including the human body), where their presence is unintended or undesirable (from the International Atomic Energy Agency - IAEA - definition).
In optics, the refractive index or index of refraction of a material is a dimensionless number that describes how light propagates through that medium.
Sir Samuel Crowe Curran (23 May 1912 – 25 February 1998), FRS, FRSE DL LLD, was a physicist and the first Principal and Vice-Chancellor of the University of Strathclyde – the first of the new technical universities in Britain.
Scattering is a general physical process where some forms of radiation, such as light, sound, or moving particles, are forced to deviate from a straight trajectory by one or more paths due to localized non-uniformities in the medium through which they pass.
Scheelite is a calcium tungstate mineral with the chemical formula CaWO4.
A scintillating bolometer (or luminescent bolometer) is a scientific instrument used particle physics in the search for events with low energy deposition.
Scintillation is a flash of light produced in a transparent material by the passage of a particle (an electron, an alpha particle, an ion, or a high-energy photon).
A scintillation counter is an instrument for detecting and measuring ionizing radiation by using the excitation effect of incident radiation on a scintillator material, and detecting the resultant light pulses.
In chemistry, a silicate is any member of a family of anions consisting of silicon and oxygen, usually with the general formula, where 0 ≤ x Silicate anions are often large polymeric molecules with an extense variety of structures, including chains and rings (as in polymeric metasilicate), double chains (as in, and sheets (as in. In geology and astronomy, the term silicate is used to mean silicate minerals, ionic solids with silicate anions; as well as rock types that consist predominantly of such minerals. In that context, the term also includes the non-ionic compound silicon dioxide (silica, quartz), which would correspond to x.
Silicon photomultipliers, often called "SiPM" in the literature, are solid-state single-photon-sensitive devices based on Single-photon avalanche diode (SPAD) implemented on common silicon substrate.
In quantum mechanics, a singlet state usually refers to a system in which all electrons are paired.
Sodium iodide (chemical formula NaI) is an ionic compound formed from the chemical reaction of sodium metal and iodine.
In chemistry, a solution is a special type of homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances.
A solvent (from the Latin solvō, "loosen, untie, solve") is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically distinct liquid, solid or gas), resulting in a solution.
A spinthariscope is a device for observing individual nuclear disintegrations caused by the interaction of ionizing radiation with a phosphor (see radioluminescence) or scintillator.
Stilbene may refer to one of the two stereoisomers of 1,2-diphenylethene.
Stolzite is a mineral, a lead tungstate; with the formula PbWO4.
Stopping power in nuclear physics is defined as the retarding force acting on charged particles, typically alpha and beta particles, due to interaction with matter, resulting in loss of particle energy.
Survey meters in radiation protection are hand-held ionising radiation measurement instruments used to check such as personnel, equipment and the environment for radioactive contamination and ambient radiation.
Terphenyls are a group of closely related aromatic hydrocarbons.
Thallium is a chemical element with symbol Tl and atomic number 81.
Toluene, also known as toluol, is an aromatic hydrocarbon.
Total absorption spectroscopy is a measurement technique that allows the measurement of the gamma radiation emitted in the different nuclear gamma transitions that may take place in the daughter nucleus after its unstable parent has decayed by means of the beta decay process.
In quantum mechanics, a triplet is a quantum state of a system with a spin of quantum number s.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
In solid-state physics, the valence band and conduction band are the bands closest to the Fermi level and thus determine the electrical conductivity of the solid.
In chemistry, a valence electron is an outer shell electron that is associated with an atom, and that can participate in the formation of a chemical bond if the outer shell is not closed; in a single covalent bond, both atoms in the bond contribute one valence electron in order to form a shared pair.
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.
A wavelength shifter is a photofluorescent material that absorbs higher frequency photons and emits lower frequency photons.
Well logging, also known as borehole logging is the practice of making a detailed record (a well log) of the geologic formations penetrated by a borehole.
Sir William Crookes (17 June 1832 – 4 April 1919) was a British chemist and physicist who attended the Royal College of Chemistry in London, and worked on spectroscopy.
Xenon is a chemical element with symbol Xe and atomic number 54.
Xylene (from Greek ξύλο, xylo, "wood"), xylol or dimethylbenzene is any one of three isomers of dimethylbenzene, or a combination thereof.
Yttrium aluminium garnet (YAG, Y3Al5O12) is a synthetic crystalline material of the garnet group.
Zinc sulfide (or zinc sulphide) is an inorganic compound with the chemical formula of ZnS.
2,5-Diphenyloxazole (PPO) is an organic scintillator.
Crystal scintillator, Organic scintillator, Plastic scintillator, Scintilator, Scintillant, Scintillating material, Scintillation detector, Scintillation detectors, Scintillator detectors, Scintillators.