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Index Scleractinia

Scleractinia, also called stony corals or hard corals, are marine animals in the phylum Cnidaria that build themselves a hard skeleton. [1]

131 relations: Abyssal zone, Acropora, Acropora acuminata, Acroporidae, Agariciidae, Algae, Anthozoa, Aragonite, Asexual reproduction, Astrangia, Astrocoeniidae, Budding, Calcite, Calcium carbonate, Carden Wallace, Caribbean, Caryophylliidae, Cilium, Cladocora, Cnidaria, Cnidocyte, Coelosimilia, Coenosarc, Colony (biology), Common descent, Convergent evolution, Coral, Corallimorpharia, Corallite, Coscinaraeidae, Cretaceous, Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, Ctenactis echinata, Dendrophylliidae, Dinoflagellate, DNA sequencing, Dorothy Hill, Effects of global warming, Endodermis, Environmental issues with coral reefs, Epidermis (zoology), Ernst Haeckel, Euphylliidae, Family (biology), Fertilisation, Flabellidae, Fossil, Fragmentation (reproduction), Francis Grant Ogilvie, Fungiidae, ..., Gamete, Gastrovascular cavity, Genus, Gonad, Greenwood Publishing Group, Henri Milne-Edwards, Hermaphrodite, Hermatypic coral, Invertebrate, John Veron, John W. Wells, Jules Haime, Jurassic, Lobophylliidae, Meandrinidae, Medusa, Merulinidae, Mesentery, Mesentery (zoology), Mesoglea, Metamorphosis, Middle Triassic, Mitochondrion, Monophyly, Montlivaltiidae, Mucus, Mussidae, Ocean acidification, Oculina, Oculinidae, Orbicella annularis, Organic compound, Paleozoic, Pharynx, Photic zone, Phylogenetic tree, Phylum, Plankton, Planula, Pocillopora damicornis, Pocilloporidae, Polar regions of Earth, Polyp, Poritidae, Reef, Reef aquarium, Rhizangiidae, Ribosome, RNA, Ross Piper, Rugosa, Schizocyathidae, Scientific American, Scuba diving, Sea anemone, Septum, Septum (coral), Siderastreidae, Skeleton, Spawn (biology), Species, Species description, Stephen Palumbi, Substrate (biology), Symbiosis, Symmetry in biology, Tabulata, Taxon, Taxonomic rank, Taxonomy (biology), Temperate climate, Tentacle, Trabecula, Triassic, Tropics, Turbinoliidae, Type (biology), Walter Heywood Bryan, World Register of Marine Species, Zooplankton, Zooxanthellae. Expand index (81 more) »

Abyssal zone

The abyssal zone or abyssopelagic zone is a layer of the pelagic zone of the ocean.

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Acropora is a genus of small polyp stony coral in the phylum Cnidaria.

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Acropora acuminata

Acropora acuminata is a species of acroporid coral found in Australia, the Red Sea, the central Indo-Pacific, Japan, the northern Indian Ocean, the East China Sea, southeast Asia, and the western Pacific Ocean.

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Acroporidae is a family of small polyped stony corals in the phylum Cnidaria.

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The Agariciidae are a family of reef-building stony corals.

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Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.

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Anthozoa is a class of marine invertebrates which includes the sea anemones, stony corals, soft corals and gorgonians.

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Aragonite is a carbonate mineral, one of the two most common, naturally occurring, crystal forms of calcium carbonate, CaCO3 (the other forms being the minerals calcite and vaterite).

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Asexual reproduction

Asexual reproduction is a type of reproduction by which offspring arise from a single organism, and inherit the genes of that parent only; it does not involve the fusion of gametes, and almost never changes the number of chromosomes.

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Astrangia is a genus of stony corals in the family Rhizangiidae.

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Astrocoeniidae is a family of stony corals.

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Budding is a type of asexual reproduction in which a new organism develops from an outgrowth or bud due to cell division at one particular site.

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Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).

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Calcium carbonate

Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3.

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Carden Wallace

Carden Wallace (fl. 1970&ndash) is an Australian scientist who was the director of the Museum of Tropical Queensland from 1997 to 2003.

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The Caribbean is a region that consists of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (some surrounded by the Caribbean Sea and some bordering both the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean) and the surrounding coasts.

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The Caryophylliidae are a family of stony corals found from the tropics to temperate seas, and from shallow to very deep water.

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A cilium (the plural is cilia) is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells.

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Cladocora is a genus of corals in the order of stony corals.

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Cnidaria is a phylum containing over 10,000 species of animals found exclusively in aquatic (freshwater and marine) environments: they are predominantly marine species.

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A cnidocyte (also known as a cnidoblast or nematocyte) is an explosive cell containing one giant secretory organelle or cnida (plural cnidae) that defines the phylum Cnidaria (corals, sea anemones, hydrae, jellyfish, etc.). Cnidae are used for prey capture and defense from predators.

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Coelosimilia is a genus of extinct scleractinian coral from the Late Cretaceous period.

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In corals, the coenosarc is the living tissue overlying the stony skeletal material of the coral.

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Colony (biology)

In biology, a colony is composed of two or more conspecific individuals living in close association with, or connected to, one another.

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Common descent

Common descent describes how, in evolutionary biology, a group of organisms share a most recent common ancestor.

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Convergent evolution

Convergent evolution is the independent evolution of similar features in species of different lineages.

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Corals are marine invertebrates in the class Anthozoa of phylum Cnidaria.

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Corallimorpharia is an order of marine cnidarians closely related to stony or reef building corals (Scleractinia).

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A corallite is the skeletal cup, formed by an individual stony coral polyp, in which the polyp sits and into which it can retract.

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The Coscinaraeidae are a family of stony corals found in the Indo-Pacific region.

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The Cretaceous is a geologic period and system that spans 79 million years from the end of the Jurassic Period million years ago (mya) to the beginning of the Paleogene Period mya.

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Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event

The Cretaceous–Paleogene (K–Pg) extinction event, also known as the Cretaceous–Tertiary (K–T) extinction, was a sudden mass extinction of some three-quarters of the plant and animal species on Earth, approximately 66 million years ago.

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Ctenactis echinata

Ctenactis echinata is a free-living species of solitary disc coral in the family Fungiidae.

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The Dendrophylliidae are a family of stony corals.

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The dinoflagellates (Greek δῖνος dinos "whirling" and Latin flagellum "whip, scourge") are a large group of flagellate eukaryotes that constitute the phylum Dinoflagellata.

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DNA sequencing

DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule.

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Dorothy Hill

Dorothy Hill, AC, CBE, FAA, FRS (10 September 1907 – 23 April 1997) was an Australian geologist and palaeontologist, the first female professor at an Australian university, and the first female president of the Australian Academy of Science.

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Effects of global warming

The effects of global warming are the environmental and social changes caused (directly or indirectly) by human emissions of greenhouse gases.

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The endodermis is the central, innermost layer of cortex in some land plants.

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Environmental issues with coral reefs

Human impact on coral reefs is significant.

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Epidermis (zoology)

In zoology, the epidermis is an epithelium (sheet of cells) that covers the body of an eumetazoan (animal more complex than a sponge).

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Ernst Haeckel

Ernst Heinrich Philipp August Haeckel (16 February 1834 – 9 August 1919) was a German biologist, naturalist, philosopher, physician, professor, marine biologist, and artist who discovered, described and named thousands of new species, mapped a genealogical tree relating all life forms, and coined many terms in biology, including anthropogeny, ecology, phylum, phylogeny, and Protista. Haeckel promoted and popularised Charles Darwin's work in Germany and developed the influential but no longer widely held recapitulation theory ("ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny") claiming that an individual organism's biological development, or ontogeny, parallels and summarises its species' evolutionary development, or phylogeny.

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Euphylliidae (Greek eu-, true; Greek phyllon, leaf) is a family of marine stony corals of the Scleractinia order.

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Family (biology)

In biological classification, family (familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus.

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Fertilisation or fertilization (see spelling differences), also known as generative fertilisation, conception, fecundation, syngamy and impregnation, is the fusion of gametes to initiate the development of a new individual organism.

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Flabellidae is a family of marine corals.

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A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.

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Fragmentation (reproduction)

Fragmentation or clonal fragmentation in multi cellular or colonial organisms is a form of asexual reproduction or cloning in which an organism is split into fragments.

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Francis Grant Ogilvie

Sir Francis Grant Ogilvie CB FRSE (8 August 1858 – 14 December 1930) was a Scottish educator, museum director, and scientist.

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The Fungiidae are a family of Cnidaria, often known as mushroom corals.

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A gamete (from Ancient Greek γαμετή gamete from gamein "to marry") is a haploid cell that fuses with another haploid cell during fertilization (conception) in organisms that sexually reproduce.

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Gastrovascular cavity

The gastrovascular cavity is the primary organ of digestion and circulation in two major animal phyla: the Cnidaria (including jellyfish and corals) and Platyhelminthes (flatworms).

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A genus (genera) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of living and fossil organisms, as well as viruses, in biology.

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A gonad or sex gland or reproductive gland is a mixed gland that produces the gametes (sex cells) and sex hormones of an organism.

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Greenwood Publishing Group

ABC-CLIO/Greenwood is an educational and academic publisher (middle school through university level) which is today part of ABC-CLIO.

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Henri Milne-Edwards

Henri Milne-Edwards (23 October 1800 – 29 July 1885) was an eminent French zoologist.

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In biology, a hermaphrodite is an organism that has complete or partial reproductive organs and produces gametes normally associated with both male and female sexes.

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Hermatypic coral

Hermatypic corals are those corals in the order Scleractinia which build reefs by depositing hard calcareous material for their skeletons, forming the stony framework of the reef.

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Invertebrates are animals that neither possess nor develop a vertebral column (commonly known as a backbone or spine), derived from the notochord.

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John Veron

John Veron (b. 1945), credited in research as J. E. N. Veron, and in other writing as Charlie Veron, is a wide-ranging specialist in corals and reefs.Vernon, Charlie (2017). A Life Underwater. Penguin Random House. He is believed to have discovered more than twenty percent of the world's coral species. McCalman, Iain. (2014). Explorer Pleads to Save the Great Barrier Reef. Scientific American. https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/explorer-pleads-to-save-the-great-barrier-reef/.

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John W. Wells

John West Wells (July 15, 1907 – January 12, 1994) was an American paleontologist, biologist and geologist who focused his research on corals.

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Jules Haime

Jules Haime (28 March 1824, Tours – 28 September 1856, Paris) was a French geologist, paleontologist and zoologist known for his research of coral.

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The Jurassic (from Jura Mountains) was a geologic period and system that spanned 56 million years from the end of the Triassic Period million years ago (Mya) to the beginning of the Cretaceous Period Mya.

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Lobophylliidae is a family of large polyp stony corals.

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The Meandrinidae are a family of stony corals.

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In Greek mythology, Medusa (Μέδουσα "guardian, protectress") was a monster, a Gorgon, generally described as a winged human female with living venomous snakes in place of hair.

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The Merulinidae are a family of reef-building stony corals.

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The mesentery is a continuous set of tissues that attaches the intestines to the abdominal wall in humans and is formed by the double fold of peritoneum.

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Mesentery (zoology)

A mesentery is a membrane inside the body cavity of an animal.

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Mesoglea, also known as mesohyl, is the translucent, non-living, jelly-like substance found between the two epithelial cell layers (i.e., between the ectoderm and endoderm) in the bodies of cnidarians and sponges.

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Metamorphosis is a biological process by which an animal physically develops after birth or hatching, involving a conspicuous and relatively abrupt change in the animal's body structure through cell growth and differentiation.

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Middle Triassic

In the geologic timescale, the Middle Triassic is the second of three epochs of the Triassic period or the middle of three series in which the Triassic system is divided.

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The mitochondrion (plural mitochondria) is a double-membrane-bound organelle found in most eukaryotic organisms.

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In cladistics, a monophyletic group, or clade, is a group of organisms that consists of all the descendants of a common ancestor.

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Montlivaltiidae is a family of stony corals.

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Mucus is a slippery aqueous secretion produced by, and covering, mucous membranes.

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Mussidae is a family of stony coral in the order Scleractinia containing ten genera.

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Ocean acidification

Ocean acidification is the ongoing decrease in the pH of the Earth's oceans, caused by the uptake of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.

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Oculina is a genus of colonial stony coral in the family Oculinidae.

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Oculinidae is a family of colonial corals.

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Orbicella annularis

Orbicella annularis, commonly known as the boulder star coral, is a species of coral that lives in the western Atlantic Ocean and is the most thoroughly studied and most abundant species of reef-building coral in the Caribbean to date.

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Organic compound

In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.

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The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era (from the Greek palaios (παλαιός), "old" and zoe (ζωή), "life", meaning "ancient life") is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon.

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The pharynx (plural: pharynges) is the part of the throat that is behind the mouth and nasal cavity and above the esophagus and the larynx, or the tubes going down to the stomach and the lungs.

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Photic zone

The photic zone, euphotic zone (Greek for "well lit": εὖ "well" + φῶς "light"), or sunlight or (sunlit) zone is the uppermost layer of water in a lake or ocean that is exposed to intense sunlight.

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Phylogenetic tree

A phylogenetic tree or evolutionary tree is a branching diagram or "tree" showing the evolutionary relationships among various biological species or other entities—their phylogeny—based upon similarities and differences in their physical or genetic characteristics.

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In biology, a phylum (plural: phyla) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class.

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Plankton (singular plankter) are the diverse collection of organisms that live in large bodies of water and are unable to swim against a current.

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A planula is the free-swimming, flattened, ciliated, bilaterally symmetric larval form of various cnidarian species.

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Pocillopora damicornis

Pocillopora damicornis, the cauliflower or lace coral, is a species of stony coral in the family Pocilloporidae.

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The Pocilloporidae are a family of stony corals in the order Scleractinia occurring in the Pacific and Indian Oceans.

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Polar regions of Earth

The polar regions, also called the frigid zones, of Earth are the regions of the planet that surround its geographical poles (the North and South Poles), lying within the polar circles.

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A polyp in zoology is one of two forms found in the phylum Cnidaria, the other being the medusa.

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Poritidae is a family of stony corals.

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A reef is a bar of rock, sand, coral or similar material, lying beneath the surface of water.

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Reef aquarium

A reef aquarium or reef tank is a marine aquarium that prominently displays live corals and other marine invertebrates as well as fish that play a role in maintaining the tropical coral reef environment.

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Rhizangiidae is a family of stony corals in the order Scleractinia.

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The ribosome is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis (translation).

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Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a polymeric molecule essential in various biological roles in coding, decoding, regulation, and expression of genes.

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Ross Piper

Ross Piper is a British zoologist, entomologist, and explorer.

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The Rugosa, also called the Tetracorallia, are an extinct order of solitary and colonial corals that were abundant in Middle Ordovician to Late Permian seas.

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Schizocyathidae is a family of stony corals.

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Scientific American

Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.

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Scuba diving

Scuba diving is a mode of underwater diving where the diver uses a self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (scuba) which is completely independent of surface supply, to breathe underwater.

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Sea anemone

Sea anemones are a group of marine, predatory animals of the order Actiniaria.

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In biology, a septum (Latin for something that encloses; plural septa) is a wall, dividing a cavity or structure into smaller ones.

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Septum (coral)

In corals, a septum (plural septa) is one of the radiating vertical plates lying within the corallite wall.

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Siderastreidae is a family of reef building stony corals.

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The skeleton is the body part that forms the supporting structure of an organism.

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Spawn (biology)

Spawn is the eggs and sperm released or deposited into water by aquatic animals.

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In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.

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Species description

A species description is a formal description of a newly discovered species, usually in the form of a scientific paper.

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Stephen Palumbi

Stephen ("Steve") R. Palumbi (born: October 17, 1956, in Baltimore, MD) is the present Jane and Marshall Steel Jr.

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Substrate (biology)

In biology, a substrate is the surface on which an organism (such as a plant, fungus, or animal) lives.

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Symbiosis (from Greek συμβίωσις "living together", from σύν "together" and βίωσις "living") is any type of a close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms, be it mutualistic, commensalistic, or parasitic.

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Symmetry in biology

Symmetry in biology is the balanced distribution of duplicate body parts or shapes within the body of an organism.

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The tabulate corals, forming the order Tabulata, are an extinct form of coral.

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In biology, a taxon (plural taxa; back-formation from taxonomy) is a group of one or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to form a unit.

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Taxonomic rank

In biological classification, taxonomic rank is the relative level of a group of organisms (a taxon) in a taxonomic hierarchy.

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Taxonomy (biology)

Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.

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Temperate climate

In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.

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In zoology, a tentacle is a flexible, mobile, elongated organ present in some species of animals, most of them invertebrates.

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A trabecula (plural trabeculae, from Latin for "small beam") is a small, often microscopic, tissue element in the form of a small beam, strut or rod that supports or anchors a framework of parts within a body or organ.

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The Triassic is a geologic period and system which spans 50.6 million years from the end of the Permian Period 251.9 million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Jurassic Period Mya.

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The tropics are a region of the Earth surrounding the Equator.

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Turbinoliidae is a family of reef building stony corals.

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Type (biology)

In biology, a type is a particular specimen (or in some cases a group of specimens) of an organism to which the scientific name of that organism is formally attached.

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Walter Heywood Bryan

Walter Heywood (W.H.) Bryan (1891–1966) was an Australian geologist, educator and decorated military veteran.

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World Register of Marine Species

The World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) is a database that aims to provide an authoritative and comprehensive list of names of marine organisms.

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Zooplankton are heterotrophic (sometimes detritivorous) plankton.

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Zooxanthellae are single-celled dinoflagellates that are able to live in symbiosis with marine invertebrates such as corals, jellyfish, and sea anemones.

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Hard Corals, Hard coral, Hard corals, Madreporaria, Scleractina, Scleractinian corals, Scleractinians, Stony Coral, Stony Corals, Stony coral, Stony corals.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scleractinia

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