230 relations: Abdomen, African Invertebrates, Amber, American Arachnological Society, Amino acid, Analgesic, Anaphylaxis, Anatomical terms of location, Anatomy, Ancient Egypt, Animal Behaviour (journal), Antidote, Antimalarial medication, Antimicrobial peptides, Antivenom, Anxiolytic, Appendage, Arachnid, Arthropod leg, Asian Ethnology, Autonomic nervous system, Babylonian astronomy, Baja California, Barron's Educational Series, Benzodiazepine, Beta-Carboline, Biology Letters, Blacklight, Book lung, Boreal ecosystem, Bothriuridae, Buthidae, Caraboctonidae, Carapace, Carboniferous, Carcinus maenas, Carl Ludwig Koch, Cenozoic, Centruroides, Cephalothorax, Chactidae, Chaerilus, Chela (organ), Chelicerae, Chelicerata, Chinese cuisine, Chloride channel, Chlorotoxin, Cladistics, Cold compression therapy, ..., Courtship, Cytolysis, Dawn (newspaper), Deathstalker, Dermatology, Dervish, Devonian, Diplocentridae, Ecdysis, Embryo, Endemism, Eugène Simon, Eurypterid, Euscorpiidae, Euscorpius, Euscorpius flavicaudis, Exoskeleton, Family (biology), Fattail scorpion, Filmmaking, First aid, Fossil, Fossorial, Genetics, Glioma, Gondwana, Gondwanascorpio emzantsiensis, Gonopore, Guanine, Habitat, Hemiscorpiidae, Heterometrus swammerdami, History of Arizona State University, Holocene, Hottentotta, Hottentotta caboverdensis, Hottentotta tamulus, Human sexuality, Hypersensitivity, Hypertensive emergency, Imaginova, Immunosuppressive drug, India, Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine, Inflammatory bowel disease, Instar, Islamic art, Isle of Sheppey, Iuridae, Journal of Biological Chemistry, Journal of Zoology, Karl Kraepelin, KCNA3, Kilim, Kilim motifs, L'Age d'Or, Liocheles australasiae, List of scorpions of Australia, Littoral zone, Luis Buñuel, Maharashtra, Malaria, Mangaon, Mating, Maurotoxin, Mayo Clinic, Medicine Hat, Mesobuthus eupeus, Mesosoma, Mesozoic, Metasoma, Middle English, MIT Press, Morphology (biology), Motif (visual arts), Multiple sclerosis, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, Neo-Babylonian Empire, Neurotoxicity, New Scientist, Nocturnality, Northern Hemisphere, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Ocean, Oceania, Old French, Ontogeny, Operculum (animal), Opioid, Opisthosoma, Opistophthalmus, Order (biology), Oscillation, Oviparity, Ovoviviparity, Pakistan, Palaeophonus, Paleozoic, Pandinus, Paracetamol, Paraisobuthus, Parthenogenesis, Paruroctonus boreus, Patagonia, Pecten (biology), Pedipalp, Peptide, Pharaoh, Pheromone, Photophobia (biology), Pierre André Latreille, Plant development, Plasmodium berghei, Plasmodium falciparum, Potassium, Predation, Psammophile, Pseudochactidae, R. I. Pocock, Random House, Repetek Biosphere State Reserve, Respiratory system, Rheumatoid arthritis, Romanization, Sclerite, Sclerotin, Scorpio (astrology), Scorpio maurus, Scorpion, Scorpionidae, Scorpiops, Serket, Sexual cannibalism, Shandong cuisine, Sheerness, Silurian, Somite, Species, Spermatophore, Spiracle, Stanford University Press, Sternum (arthropod anatomy), Stinger, Superstitionia, Surrealism, Symptomatic treatment, T cell, Tagma (biology), Taiga, Tail, Tamerlan Thorell, Taxonomic rank, Taxonomy (biology), Telson, Teratology, Tergum, Texas A&M University, Thatta District, The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, The Journal of Experimental Biology, Tityus serrulatus, Tityus stigmurus, Toxicon, Trends (journals), Tundra, Turkmenistan, Typhlochactas mitchelli, Ultraviolet, Uric acid, Uroplectes lineatus, Vaejovidae, Vaejovis janssi, Vasodilation, Venom, Vesicle (biology and chemistry), Xanthine, Zodiac, 23rd parallel north, 38th parallel north, 50th parallel north. Expand index (180 more) » « Shrink index
The abdomen (less formally called the belly, stomach, tummy or midriff) constitutes the part of the body between the thorax (chest) and pelvis, in humans and in other vertebrates.
African Invertebrates is a peer-reviewed open access scientific journal that covers the taxonomy, systematics, biogeography, ecology, conservation, and palaeontology of Afrotropical invertebrates, whether terrestrial, freshwater, or marine.
Amber is fossilized tree resin, which has been appreciated for its color and natural beauty since Neolithic times.
The American Arachnological Society (AAS) is a scientific organization founded in 1972 in order to promote the study of arachnids by seeking to achieve closer cooperation and understanding between amateur and professional arachnologists along with publication of the Journal of Arachnology. The society holds annual meetings around the United States and membership is open to all individuals who share the common objectives held by the society.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
An analgesic or painkiller is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve analgesia, relief from pain.
Anaphylaxis is a serious allergic reaction that is rapid in onset and may cause death.
Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy of animals, including humans.
Anatomy (Greek anatomē, “dissection”) is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organisms and their parts.
Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient Northeastern Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River - geographically Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt, in the place that is now occupied by the countries of Egypt and Sudan.
Animal Behaviour is a double-blind peer-reviewed scientific journal established in 1953 as The British Journal of Animal Behaviour, before obtaining its current title in 1958.
An antidote is a substance which can counteract a form of poisoning.
Antimalarial medications, also known as antimalarials, are designed to prevent or cure malaria.
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), also called host defense peptides (HDPs) are part of the innate immune response found among all classes of life.
Antivenom, also known as antivenin, venom antiserum and antivenom immunoglobulin, is a medication made from antibodies which is used to treat certain venomous bites and stings.
An anxiolytic (also antipanic or antianxiety agent) is a medication or other intervention that inhibits anxiety.
In invertebrate biology, an appendage (or outgrowth) is an external body part, or natural prolongation, that protrudes from an organism's body (in vertebrate biology, an example would be a vertebrate's limbs).
Arachnids are a class (Arachnida) of joint-legged invertebrate animals (arthropods), in the subphylum Chelicerata.
The arthropod leg is a form of jointed appendage of arthropods, usually used for walking.
Asian Ethnology is an open access, peer-reviewed journal dedicated to the promotion of research on the peoples and cultures of Asia.
The autonomic nervous system (ANS), formerly the vegetative nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that supplies smooth muscle and glands, and thus influences the function of internal organs.
The history of astronomy in Mesopotamia, and the world, begins with the Sumerians who developed the earliest writing system—known as cuneiform—around 3500–3200 BC.
Baja CaliforniaSometimes informally referred to as Baja California Norte (North Lower California) to distinguish it from both the Baja California Peninsula, of which it forms the northern half, and Baja California Sur, the adjacent state that covers the southern half of the peninsula.
Barron's Educational Series, Inc. is an American test preparation company, founded in 1939 as a publisher of materials to help students to prepare for college entrance examinations, and that offers online college entrance exam preparation classes.
Benzodiazepines (BZD, BZs), sometimes called "benzos", are a class of psychoactive drugs whose core chemical structure is the fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.
β-Carboline (9H-pyridoindole), also known as norharmane, is a nitrogen containing heterocycle.
Biology Letters is a peer-reviewed, biological, scientific journal published by the Royal Society.
A blacklight (or often black light), also referred to as a UV-A light, Wood's lamp, or simply ultraviolet light, is a lamp that emits long-wave (UV-A) ultraviolet light and not much visible light.
A book lung is a type of respiration organ used for atmospheric gas exchange that is found in many arachnids, such as scorpions and spiders.
A boreal ecosystem is an ecosystem with a subarctic climate in the Northern Hemisphere, roughly between latitude 50° to 70°N.
The Bothriuridae are a Subfamily of scorpions, comprising 151 species in 16 genera: The family has representatives in temperate and subtropical habitats from four continents: South America, Africa, Asia and Australia.
The Buthidae are the largest family of scorpions, containing about 80 genera and over 800 species as of mid-2008.
The Caraboctonidae (hairy scorpions) make up the superfamily Iuroidea.
A carapace is a dorsal (upper) section of the exoskeleton or shell in a number of animal groups, including arthropods, such as crustaceans and arachnids, as well as vertebrates, such as turtles and tortoises.
The Carboniferous is a geologic period and system that spans 60 million years from the end of the Devonian Period million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Permian Period, Mya.
Carcinus maenas is a common littoral crab.
Carl Ludwig Koch (21 September 1778 – 23 August 1857) was a German entomologist and arachnologist.
The Cenozoic Era meaning "new life", is the current and most recent of the three Phanerozoic geological eras, following the Mesozoic Era and, extending from 66 million years ago to the present day.
Centruroides is a genus of scorpions belonging to the family Buthidae.
The cephalothorax, also called prosoma in some groups, is a tagma of various arthropods, comprising the head and the thorax fused together, as distinct from the abdomen behind.
Chactidae is a family of scorpions.
Chaerilus is a genus of scorpions, the only genus in the monotypic family Chaerilidae.
A chela, also named claw, nipper, or pincer, is a pincer-like organ terminating certain limbs of some arthropods.
The chelicerae are the mouthparts of the Chelicerata, an arthropod group that includes arachnids, horseshoe crabs, and sea spiders.
The subphylum Chelicerata (New Latin, from French chélicère, from Greek khēlē "claw, chela" and kéras "horn") constitutes one of the major subdivisions of the phylum Arthropoda.
Chinese cuisine is an important part of Chinese culture, which includes cuisine originating from the diverse regions of China, as well as from Chinese people in other parts of the world.
Chloride channels are a superfamily of poorly understood ion channels specific for chloride.
Chlorotoxin is a 36-amino acid peptide found in the venom of the deathstalker scorpion (Leiurus quinquestriatus) which blocks small-conductance chloride channels.
Cladistics (from Greek κλάδος, cládos, i.e., "branch") is an approach to biological classification in which organisms are categorized in groups ("clades") based on the most recent common ancestor.
Cold compression therapy, also known as hilotherapy, combines two of the principles of rest, ice, compression, elevation to reduce pain and swelling from a sports or activity injury to soft tissues and recommended by orthopedic surgeons following surgery.
Courtship is the period of development towards an intimate relationship wherein people (usually a couple) get to know each other and decide if there will be an engagement or other romantic arrangement.
Cytolysis, or osmotic lysis, occurs when a cell bursts due to an osmotic imbalance that has caused excess water to diffuse into the cell.
DAWN is Pakistan's oldest, leading and most widely read English-language newspaper.
The deathstalker (Leiurus quinquestriatus) is a species of scorpion, a member of the Buthidae family.
Dermatology (from ancient Greek δέρμα, derma which means skin and λογία, logia) is the branch of medicine dealing with the skin, nails, hair and its diseases.
A dervish or darvesh (from درویش, Darvīsh) is someone guiding a Sufi Muslim ascetic down a path or "tariqah", known for their extreme poverty and austerity.
The Devonian is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic, spanning 60 million years from the end of the Silurian, million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Carboniferous, Mya.
Diplocentridae is a family of scorpions.
Ecdysis is the moulting of the cuticle in many invertebrates of the clade Ecdysozoa.
An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism.
Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.
Eugène Louis Simon (30 April 1848 – 17 November 1924) was a French naturalist who worked particularly on insects and spiders, but also on birds and plants.
Eurypterids, often informally called sea scorpions, are an extinct group of arthropods related to arachnids that include the largest known arthropods to have ever lived.
Euscorpiidae is a family of scorpions.
Euscorpius is a genus of scorpions, commonly called small wood-scorpions.
Euscorpius flavicaudis, or the European yellow-tailed scorpion, is a small black scorpion with yellow-brown legs and tail (metasoma).
An exoskeleton (from Greek έξω, éxō "outer" and σκελετός, skeletós "skeleton") is the external skeleton that supports and protects an animal's body, in contrast to the internal skeleton (endoskeleton) of, for example, a human.
In biological classification, family (familia, plural familiae) is one of the eight major taxonomic ranks; it is classified between order and genus.
Fattail scorpion or fat-tailed scorpion is the common name given to scorpions of the genus Androctonus, one of the most dangerous groups of scorpions species in the world.
Filmmaking (or, in an academic context, film production) is the process of making a film, generally in the sense of films intended for extensive theatrical exhibition.
First aid is the assistance given to any person suffering a sudden illness or injury, with care provided to preserve life, prevent the condition from worsening, or to promote recovery.
A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.
Cape ground squirrel. A fossorial (from Latin fossor, "digger") is an animal adapted to digging and lives primarily, but not solely, underground.
Genetics is the study of genes, genetic variation, and heredity in living organisms.
A glioma is a type of tumor that starts in the glial cells of the brain or the spine.
Gondwana, or Gondwanaland, was a supercontinent that existed from the Neoproterozoic (about 550 million years ago) until the Carboniferous (about 320 million years ago).
Gondwanascorpio emzantsiensis is an extinct Gondwanan scorpion that lived 360 million years ago in the Devonian.
A gonopore, sometimes called a gonadopore, is a genital pore in many invertebrates.
Guanine (or G, Gua) is one of the four main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA, the others being adenine, cytosine, and thymine (uracil in RNA).
In ecology, a habitat is the type of natural environment in which a particular species of organism lives.
Hemiscorpiidae is a family of scorpions with 72 described species in 12 genera.
Heterometrus swammerdami, commonly called the giant forest scorpion, holds the record for being the world's largest scorpion species at 23 cm (9 inches) in length, and it can weigh as much as.
The history of Arizona State University began March 12, 1885 with the founding of the establishment originally named the Territorial Normal School at Tempe.
The Holocene is the current geological epoch.
Hottentotta is a genus of scorpion belonging to the family Buthidae.
Hottentotta caboverdensis is a species of scorpions of the family Buthidae.
Hottentotta tamulus, the Indian red scorpion (Tamil: செந்தேள்; also known as the eastern Indian scorpion), is a species of scorpion belonging to the family Buthidae.
Human sexuality is the way people experience and express themselves sexually.
Hypersensitivity (also called hypersensitivity reaction or intolerance) refers to undesirable reactions produced by the normal immune system, including allergies and autoimmunity.
A hypertensive emergency, also known as malignant hypertension, is high blood pressure with potentially life-threatening symptoms and signs indicative of acute impairment of one or more organ systems (especially the central nervous system, cardiovascular system or the kidneys).
Imaginova Corporation is a U.S. digital commerce company based in Watsonville, California.
Immunosuppressive drugs or immunosuppressive agents or antirejection medications are drugs that inhibit or prevent activity of the immune system.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine is a peer-reviewed open-access medical journal published on behalf of the Indian Society of Critical Care Medicine.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory conditions of the colon and small intestine.
An instar (from the Latin "form", "likeness") is a developmental stage of arthropods, such as insects, between each moult (ecdysis), until sexual maturity is reached.
Islamic art encompasses the visual arts produced from the 7th century onward by people who lived within the territory that was inhabited by or ruled by culturally Islamic populations.
The Isle of Sheppey is an island off the northern coast of Kent, England in the Thames Estuary, some to the east of London.
Iuridae is a family of scorpions in the order Scorpiones.
The Journal of Biological Chemistry is a weekly peer-reviewed scientific journal that was established in 1905.
The Journal of Zoology is a scientific journal concerning zoology, the study of animals.
Karl Matthias Friedrich Magnus Kraepelin (14 December 1848, Neustrelitz – 28 June 1915, Hamburg) was a German naturalist who specialised in the study of scorpions, centipedes, spiders and solfugids, and was noted for his monograph (Berlin) in 1899, which was an exhaustive survey of the taxonomy of the Order Scorpiones.
Potassium voltage-gated channel, shaker-related subfamily, member 3, also known as KCNA3 or Kv1.3, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KCNA3 gene.
A kilim (Kilim کیلیم, Kilim, Kilim, گلیم gelīm) is a flat tapestry-woven carpet or rug traditionally produced in countries of the former Ottoman Empire, Iran, Azerbaijan and Turkic countries of Central Asia.
Many motifs are used in traditional kilims, handmade flat-woven rugs, each with many variations.
L'Age d'Or (L'Âge d'Or), commonly translated as The Golden Age or Age of Gold, is a 1930 French surrealist satirical comedy film directed by Luis Buñuel about the insanities of modern life, the hypocrisy of the sexual mores of bourgeois society and the value system of the Roman Catholic Church.
Liocheles australasiae, the Dwarf Wood Scorpion, is a species of scorpions belonging to the family Hemiscorpiidae.
This is a list of scorpions of Australia.
The littoral zone is the part of a sea, lake or river that is close to the shore.
Luis Buñuel Portolés (22 February 1900 – 29 July 1983) was a Spanish filmmaker who worked in Spain, Mexico and France.
Maharashtra (abbr. MH) is a state in the western region of India and is India's second-most populous state and third-largest state by area.
Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease affecting humans and other animals caused by parasitic protozoans (a group of single-celled microorganisms) belonging to the Plasmodium type.
Mangaon is a small town and taluka in the Konkan region of Maharashtra, India.
In biology, mating (or mateing in British English) is the pairing of either opposite-sex or hermaphroditic organisms, usually for the purposes of sexual reproduction.
Maurotoxin (abbreviated MTX) is a peptide toxin from the venom of the Tunisian chactoid scorpion Scorpio maurus palmatus, from which it was first isolated and from which the chemical gets its name.
The Mayo Clinic is a nonprofit academic medical center based in Rochester, Minnesota focused on integrated clinical practice, education, and research.
Medicine Hat is a city in southeast Alberta, Canada located along the South Saskatchewan River.
Mesobuthus eupeus is a polymorphic scorpion species belonging to the well-known family Buthidae.
The mesosoma is the middle part of the body, or tagma, of arthropods whose body is composed of three parts, the other two being the prosoma and the metasoma.
The Mesozoic Era is an interval of geological time from about.
The metasoma is the posterior part of the body, or tagma, of arthropods whose body is composed of three parts, the other two being the prosoma and the mesosoma.
Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.
The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States).
Morphology is a branch of biology dealing with the study of the form and structure of organisms and their specific structural features.
In art and iconography, a motif is an element of an image.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged.
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) is the United States federal agency responsible for conducting research and making recommendations for the prevention of work-related injury and illness.
The Neo-Babylonian Empire (also Second Babylonian Empire) was a period of Mesopotamian history which began in 626 BC and ended in 539 BC.
Neurotoxicity is a form of toxicity in which a biological, chemical, or physical agent produces an adverse effect on the structure or function of the central and/or peripheral nervous system.
New Scientist, first published on 22 November 1956, is a weekly, English-language magazine that covers all aspects of science and technology.
Nocturnality is an animal behavior characterized by being active during the night and sleeping during the day.
The Northern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is north of the Equator.
The Norwegian University of Science and Technology (Norges teknisk-naturvitenskapelige universitet, abbreviated NTNU) is a public research university with campuses in the cities of Trondheim, Gjøvik, and Ålesund in Norway, and has become the largest university in Norway, following the university merger in 2016.
An ocean (the sea of classical antiquity) is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere.
Oceania is a geographic region comprising Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia and Australasia.
Old French (franceis, françois, romanz; Modern French: ancien français) was the language spoken in Northern France from the 8th century to the 14th century.
Ontogeny (also ontogenesis or morphogenesis) is the origination and development of an organism, usually from the time of fertilization of the egg to the organism's mature form—although the term can be used to refer to the study of the entirety of an organism's lifespan.
An operculum is an anatomical feature, a stiff structure resembling a lid or a small door that opens and closes, and thus controls contact between the outside world and an internal part of an animal.
Opioids are substances that act on opioid receptors to produce morphine-like effects.
The opisthosoma is the posterior part of the body in some arthropods, behind the prosoma (cephalothorax).
Opistophthalmus is a genus of scorpions known commonly as burrowing scorpions, tri-colored scorpions, serkets, or hissing scorpions.
In biological classification, the order (ordo) is.
Oscillation is the repetitive variation, typically in time, of some measure about a central value (often a point of equilibrium) or between two or more different states.
Oviparous animals are animals that lay eggs, with little or no other embryonic development within the mother.
Ovoviviparity, ovovivipary, or ovivipary, is a mode of reproduction in animals in which embryos that develop inside eggs remain in the mother's body until they are ready to hatch.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Palaeophonus (meaning ancient killer) is the oldest known genus of scorpion.
The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era (from the Greek palaios (παλαιός), "old" and zoe (ζωή), "life", meaning "ancient life") is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon.
Pandinus is a genus of large scorpions belonging to the family Scorpionidae.
--> Acetanilide was the first aniline derivative serendipitously found to possess analgesic as well as antipyretic properties, and was quickly introduced into medical practice under the name of Antifebrin by A. Cahn and P. Hepp in 1886. But its unacceptable toxic effects, the most alarming being cyanosis due to methemoglobinemia, prompted the search for less toxic aniline derivatives. Harmon Northrop Morse had already synthesised paracetamol at Johns Hopkins University via the reduction of ''p''-nitrophenol with tin in glacial acetic acid in 1877, but it was not until 1887 that clinical pharmacologist Joseph von Mering tried paracetamol on humans. In 1893, von Mering published a paper reporting on the clinical results of paracetamol with phenacetin, another aniline derivative. Von Mering claimed that, unlike phenacetin, paracetamol had a slight tendency to produce methemoglobinemia. Paracetamol was then quickly discarded in favor of phenacetin. The sales of phenacetin established Bayer as a leading pharmaceutical company. Overshadowed in part by aspirin, introduced into medicine by Heinrich Dreser in 1899, phenacetin was popular for many decades, particularly in widely advertised over-the-counter "headache mixtures", usually containing phenacetin, an aminopyrine derivative of aspirin, caffeine, and sometimes a barbiturate. Paracetamol is the active metabolite of phenacetin and acetanilide, both once popular as analgesics and antipyretics in their own right. However, unlike phenacetin, acetanilide and their combinations, paracetamol is not considered carcinogenic at therapeutic doses. Von Mering's claims remained essentially unchallenged for half a century, until two teams of researchers from the United States analyzed the metabolism of acetanilide and paracetamol. In 1947 David Lester and Leon Greenberg found strong evidence that paracetamol was a major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and in a subsequent study they reported that large doses of paracetamol given to albino rats did not cause methemoglobinemia. In three papers published in the September 1948 issue of the Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, Bernard Brodie, Julius Axelrod and Frederick Flinn confirmed using more specific methods that paracetamol was the major metabolite of acetanilide in human blood, and established that it was just as efficacious an analgesic as its precursor. They also suggested that methemoglobinemia is produced in humans mainly by another metabolite, phenylhydroxylamine. A follow-up paper by Brodie and Axelrod in 1949 established that phenacetin was also metabolised to paracetamol. This led to a "rediscovery" of paracetamol. It has been suggested that contamination of paracetamol with 4-aminophenol, the substance von Mering synthesised it from, may be the cause for his spurious findings. Paracetamol was first marketed in the United States in 1950 under the name Triagesic, a combination of paracetamol, aspirin, and caffeine. Reports in 1951 of three users stricken with the blood disease agranulocytosis led to its removal from the marketplace, and it took several years until it became clear that the disease was unconnected. Paracetamol was marketed in 1953 by Sterling-Winthrop Co. as Panadol, available only by prescription, and promoted as preferable to aspirin since it was safe for children and people with ulcers. In 1955, paracetamol was marketed as Children's Tylenol Elixir by McNeil Laboratories. In 1956, 500 mg tablets of paracetamol went on sale in the United Kingdom under the trade name Panadol, produced by Frederick Stearns & Co, a subsidiary of Sterling Drug Inc. In 1963, paracetamol was added to the British Pharmacopoeia, and has gained popularity since then as an analgesic agent with few side-effects and little interaction with other pharmaceutical agents. Concerns about paracetamol's safety delayed its widespread acceptance until the 1970s, but in the 1980s paracetamol sales exceeded those of aspirin in many countries, including the United Kingdom. This was accompanied by the commercial demise of phenacetin, blamed as the cause of analgesic nephropathy and hematological toxicity. In 1988 Sterling Winthrop was acquired by Eastman Kodak which sold the over the counter drug rights to SmithKline Beecham in 1994. Available without a prescription since 1959, it has since become a common household drug. Patents on paracetamol have long expired, and generic versions of the drug are widely available.
Paraisobuthus is an extinct genus of scorpion from the Upper Carboniferous of Europe and North America.
Parthenogenesis (from the Greek label + label) is a natural form of asexual reproduction in which growth and development of embryos occur without fertilization.
Paruroctonus boreus, sometimes called the northern scorpion, is a species of scorpion of the family Vaejovidae that can be as far north as 50° N. Several anecdotal reports show them found near Medicine Hat, Alberta during dry years.
Patagonia is a sparsely populated region located at the southern end of South America, shared by Argentina and Chile.
A pecten (plural pectens or pectines) is a comb-like structure, widely found in the biological world.
Pedipalps (commonly shortened to palps or palpi) are the second pair of appendages of chelicerates – a group of arthropods including spiders, scorpions, horseshoe crabs, and sea spiders.
Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.
Pharaoh (ⲡⲣ̅ⲣⲟ Prro) is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty (c. 3150 BCE) until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until circa 1200 BCE.
A pheromone (from Ancient Greek φέρω phero "to bear" and hormone, from Ancient Greek ὁρμή "impetus") is a secreted or excreted chemical factor that triggers a social response in members of the same species.
In biology, photophobia (adjective: photophobic) refers to negative response to light.
Pierre André Latreille (29 November 1762 – 6 February 1833) was a French zoologist, specialising in arthropods.
Plants produce new tissues and structures throughout their life from meristems located at the tips of organs, or between mature tissues.
Plasmodium berghei is a protozoan parasite that causes malaria in certain rodents.
Plasmodium falciparum is a unicellular protozoan parasite of humans, and the deadliest species of Plasmodium that cause malaria in humans.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
Predation is a biological interaction where a predator (a hunting animal) kills and eats its prey (the organism that is attacked).
A psammophile is a plant or animal that prefers or thrives in sandy areas.
Pseudochactidae is a scorpion family.
Reginald Innes Pocock F.R.S. (4 March 1863 – 9 August 1947) was a British zoologist.
Random House is an American book publisher and the largest general-interest paperback publisher in the world.
Repetek Biosphere State Reserve, often referred to as Repetek Nature or Desert Reserve, (Repetek goraghanasy, Репетек горагханасы) is a desert nature reserve (zapovednik) of Turkmenistan, located in Lebap Province, East Karakum Desert, near Amu Darya.
The respiratory system (also respiratory apparatus, ventilatory system) is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects joints.
Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics, is the conversion of writing from a different writing system to the Roman (Latin) script, or a system for doing so.
A sclerite (Greek σκληρός, sklēros, meaning "hard") is a hardened body part.
Sclerotin is a component of the cuticles of various Arthropoda, most familiarly insects.
Scorpio is the eighth astrological sign in the Zodiac, originating from the constellation of Scorpius.
Scorpio maurus is a species of North African and Middle Eastern scorpion, also known as the large-clawed scorpion or Israeli gold scorpion.
Scorpions are predatory arachnids of the order Scorpiones.
The Scorpionidae (burrowing scorpions or pale-legged scorpions) make up the superfamily Scorpionoidea.
Scorpiops is a genus of scorpions in the family Euscorpiidae.
Serket (also known as Serqet, Selket, Selqet, or Selcis) is the goddess of fertility, nature, animals, medicine, magic, and healing venomous stings and bites in Egyptian mythology, originally the deification of the scorpion.
Sexual cannibalism is when a female cannibalizes her mate prior to, during, or after copulation.
Shandong cuisine (山東菜), more commonly known in Chinese as Lu cuisine, is one of the Eight Culinary Traditions of Chinese cuisine and one of the Four Great Traditions.
Sheerness is a town beside the mouth of the River Medway on the north-west corner of the Isle of Sheppey in north Kent, England.
The Silurian is a geologic period and system spanning 24.6 million years from the end of the Ordovician Period, at million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Devonian Period, Mya.
Somites (outdated: primitive segments) are divisions of the body of an animal or embryo.
In biology, a species is the basic unit of classification and a taxonomic rank, as well as a unit of biodiversity, but it has proven difficult to find a satisfactory definition.
A spermatophore or sperm ampulla is a capsule or mass containing spermatozoa created by males of various animal species, especially salamanders and arthropods, and transferred in entirety to the female's ovipore during reproduction.
Spiracles are openings on the surface of some animals, which usually lead to respiratory systems.
The Stanford University Press (SUP) is the publishing house of Stanford University.
The sternum (pl. "sterna") is the ventral portion of a segment of an arthropod thorax or abdomen.
A stinger, or sting, is a sharp organ found in various animals (typically arthropods) capable of injecting venom, usually by piercing the epidermis of another animal.
Superstitionia donensis is a species of scorpion, the only species in the genus Superstitionia and the family Superstitioniidae.
Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, and is best known for its visual artworks and writings.
Symptomatic treatment is any medical therapy of a disease that only affects its symptoms, not its cause, i.e., its etiology.
A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.
In biology a tagma (Greek: τάγμα, plural tagmata – τάγματα) is a specialized grouping of multiple segments or metameres into a coherently functional morphological unit.
Taiga (p; from Turkic), also known as boreal forest or snow forest, is a biome characterized by coniferous forests consisting mostly of pines, spruces and larches.
The tail is the section at the rear end of an animal's body; in general, the term refers to a distinct, flexible appendage to the torso.
Tord Tamerlan Teodor Thorell (3 May 1830 – 22 December 1901) was a Swedish arachnologist.
In biological classification, taxonomic rank is the relative level of a group of organisms (a taxon) in a taxonomic hierarchy.
Taxonomy is the science of defining and naming groups of biological organisms on the basis of shared characteristics.
The telson is the posterior-most division of the body of an arthropod.
Teratology is the study of abnormalities of physiological development.
A tergum (Latin for "the back"; plural terga, associated adjective tergal) is the dorsal ('upper') portion of an arthropod segment other than the head.
Texas A&M University (Texas A&M or A&M) is a coeducational public research university in College Station, Texas, United States.
Thatta District (ضلو ٺٽو; ضِلع ٹهٹہ) is located in the southern area, locally called Laar, of the province of Sindh, Pakistan.
The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (AHD) is an American dictionary of English published by Boston publisher Houghton Mifflin, the first edition of which appeared in 1969.
The Journal of Experimental Biology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal in the field of comparative physiology and integrative biology.
Tityus serrulatus, the Brazilian yellow scorpion, is a species of scorpion belonging to the family Buthidae.
Tityus stigmurus is a species of scorpion from the family Buthidae that can be found in Brazil.
Toxicon is a peer-reviewed scientific journal of toxinology and the official journal of the International Society on Toxinology.
Trends is a series of scientific journals owned by Elsevier that publish review articles in a range of areas of biology.
In physical geography, tundra is a type of biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons.
Turkmenistan (or; Türkmenistan), (formerly known as Turkmenia) is a sovereign state in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west.
Typhlochactas mitchelli is a species of scorpion of the family Typhlochactidae.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
Uric acid is a heterocyclic compound of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and hydrogen with the formula C5H4N4O3.
Uroplectes lineatus is a scorpion, endemic to the Western Cape of South Africa.
Vaejovidae is a family of scorpions, comprising 17 genera, all found in Mexico and the southwestern United States.
Vaejovis janssi is a species of scorpion endemic to the Revillagigedo Islands in Mexico.
Vasodilation is the widening of blood vessels.
Venomous Animals Venom is a form of toxin secreted by an animal for the purpose of causing harm to another.
In cell biology, a vesicle is a small structure within a cell, or extracellular, consisting of fluid enclosed by a lipid bilayer.
Xanthine (or; archaically xanthic acid) (3,7-dihydropurine-2,6-dione), is a purine base found in most human body tissues and fluids and in other organisms.
The zodiac is an area of the sky that extends approximately 8° north or south (as measured in celestial latitude) of the ecliptic, the apparent path of the Sun across the celestial sphere over the course of the year.
The 23rd parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 23 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 38th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 38 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 50th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 50 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.