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Abellio ScotRail, (Rèile na h-Alba), operating services under the name ScotRail, is the national train operating company of Scotland.
Aberdeen (Aiberdeen,; Obar Dheathain; Aberdonia) is Scotland's third most populous city, one of Scotland's 32 local government council areas and the United Kingdom's 37th most populous built-up area, with an official population estimate of 196,670 for the city of Aberdeen and for the local authority area.
Aberdeen International Airport (Port-adhair Eadar-nàiseanta Obar Dheathain) is an international airport, located at Dyce, a suburb of Aberdeen, Scotland, approximately northwest of Aberdeen city centre.
Aberdeen Football Club (also known as The Dons) is a Scottish professional football club based in Aberdeen, Scotland.
Abies grandis (grand fir, giant fir, lowland white fir, great silver fir, western white fir, Vancouver fir, or Oregon fir) is a fir native to the Pacific Northwest and Northern California of North America, occurring at altitudes of sea level to 1,800 m.
Academic publishing is the subfield of publishing which distributes academic research and scholarship.
Accordions (from 19th-century German Akkordeon, from Akkord—"musical chord, concord of sounds") are a family of box-shaped musical instruments of the bellows-driven free-reed aerophone type, colloquially referred to as a squeezebox.
In common law jurisdictions, an acquittal certifies that the accused is free from the charge of an offense, as far as the criminal law is concerned.
The Acts of Union were two Acts of Parliament: the Union with Scotland Act 1706 passed by the Parliament of England, and the Union with England Act passed in 1707 by the Parliament of Scotland.
The additional member system (AMS), also known as mixed-member proportional representation (MMP) outside the United Kingdom, is a mixed electoral system with one tier of single-member district representatives, and another tier of "additional members" elected to make the overall election results more proportional.
The Advanced Higher is an optional qualification which forms part of the Scottish secondary education system.
AGS Airports Limited is the United Kingdom-based owner of Aberdeen, Glasgow and Southampton Airports.
Air charter is the business of renting an entire aircraft (i.e., chartering) as opposed to individual aircraft seats (i.e., purchasing a ticket through a traditional airline).
Air Scotland was a low-cost airline based in Glasgow, Scotland.
An aircraft livery is a set of comprehensive insignia comprising color, graphic, and typographical identifiers which operators (airlines, but also governments, air forces and occasionally private and corporate owners) apply to their aircraft.
Alba is the Scottish Gaelic name for Scotland.
Berthold Konrad Hermann Albert Speer (March 19, 1905 – September 1, 1981) was a German architect who was, for most of World War II, Reich Minister of Armaments and War Production for Nazi Germany.
Alexander Elliot Anderson Salmond (born 31 December 1954) is a Scottish politician who served as the First Minister of Scotland from 2007 to 2014.
Alex Woolf, (born 1963) is a British medieval historian and academic.
Alexander I (medieval Gaelic: Alaxandair mac Maíl Coluim; modern Gaelic: Alasdair mac Mhaol Chaluim; c. 1078 – 23 April 1124), posthumously nicknamed The Fierce, was the King of Scotland from 1107 to his death.
Alexander III (Medieval Gaelic: Alaxandair mac Alaxandair; Modern Gaelic: Alasdair mac Alasdair) (4 September 1241 – 19 March 1286) was King of Scots from 1249 to his death.
Altnaharra (Allt na h-Eirbhe) is a small hamlet in Sutherland in the Highland region of northern Scotland.
American Heritage is a magazine dedicated to covering the history of the United States of America for a mainstream readership.
The American Revolutionary War (17751783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a global war that began as a conflict between Great Britain and its Thirteen Colonies which declared independence as the United States of America. After 1765, growing philosophical and political differences strained the relationship between Great Britain and its colonies. Patriot protests against taxation without representation followed the Stamp Act and escalated into boycotts, which culminated in 1773 with the Sons of Liberty destroying a shipment of tea in Boston Harbor. Britain responded by closing Boston Harbor and passing a series of punitive measures against Massachusetts Bay Colony. Massachusetts colonists responded with the Suffolk Resolves, and they established a shadow government which wrested control of the countryside from the Crown. Twelve colonies formed a Continental Congress to coordinate their resistance, establishing committees and conventions that effectively seized power. British attempts to disarm the Massachusetts militia at Concord, Massachusetts in April 1775 led to open combat. Militia forces then besieged Boston, forcing a British evacuation in March 1776, and Congress appointed George Washington to command the Continental Army. Concurrently, an American attempt to invade Quebec and raise rebellion against the British failed decisively. On July 2, 1776, the Continental Congress voted for independence, issuing its declaration on July 4. Sir William Howe launched a British counter-offensive, capturing New York City and leaving American morale at a low ebb. However, victories at Trenton and Princeton restored American confidence. In 1777, the British launched an invasion from Quebec under John Burgoyne, intending to isolate the New England Colonies. Instead of assisting this effort, Howe took his army on a separate campaign against Philadelphia, and Burgoyne was decisively defeated at Saratoga in October 1777. Burgoyne's defeat had drastic consequences. France formally allied with the Americans and entered the war in 1778, and Spain joined the war the following year as an ally of France but not as an ally of the United States. In 1780, the Kingdom of Mysore attacked the British in India, and tensions between Great Britain and the Netherlands erupted into open war. In North America, the British mounted a "Southern strategy" led by Charles Cornwallis which hinged upon a Loyalist uprising, but too few came forward. Cornwallis suffered reversals at King's Mountain and Cowpens. He retreated to Yorktown, Virginia, intending an evacuation, but a decisive French naval victory deprived him of an escape. A Franco-American army led by the Comte de Rochambeau and Washington then besieged Cornwallis' army and, with no sign of relief, he surrendered in October 1781. Whigs in Britain had long opposed the pro-war Tories in Parliament, and the surrender gave them the upper hand. In early 1782, Parliament voted to end all offensive operations in North America, but the war continued in Europe and India. Britain remained under siege in Gibraltar but scored a major victory over the French navy. On September 3, 1783, the belligerent parties signed the Treaty of Paris in which Great Britain agreed to recognize the sovereignty of the United States and formally end the war. French involvement had proven decisive,Brooks, Richard (editor). Atlas of World Military History. HarperCollins, 2000, p. 101 "Washington's success in keeping the army together deprived the British of victory, but French intervention won the war." but France made few gains and incurred crippling debts. Spain made some minor territorial gains but failed in its primary aim of recovering Gibraltar. The Dutch were defeated on all counts and were compelled to cede territory to Great Britain. In India, the war against Mysore and its allies concluded in 1784 without any territorial changes.
Amy Elizabeth Macdonald (born 25 August 1987) is a Scottish singer-songwriter, guitarist, and musician.
Andrew Moray (Norman French: Andreu de Moray; Andreas de Moravia), also known as Andrew de Moray, Andrew of Moray, or Andrew Murray, an esquire, was prominent in the Scottish Wars of Independence.
Andrew the Apostle (Ἀνδρέας; ⲁⲛⲇⲣⲉⲁⲥ, Andreas; from the early 1st century BC – mid to late 1st century AD), also known as Saint Andrew and referred to in the Orthodox tradition as the First-Called (Πρωτόκλητος, Prōtoklētos), was a Christian Apostle and the brother of Saint Peter.
Andrew "Andy" Stewart MBE (30 December 1933 – 11 October 1993) was a Scottish singer and entertainer.
Ann "Annie" Lennox, OBE (born 25 December 1954) is a Scottish singer, songwriter, political activist and philanthropist.
The Antonine Wall, known to the Romans as Vallum Antonini, was a turf fortification on stone foundations, built by the Romans across what is now the Central Belt of Scotland, between the Firth of Forth and the Firth of Clyde.
In law, an appeal is the process in which cases are reviewed, where parties request a formal change to an official decision.
Archibald Philip Primrose, 5th Earl of Rosebery, 1st Earl of Midlothian, (7 May 1847 – 21 May 1929) was a British Liberal politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from March 1894 to June 1895.
Argyll (archaically Argyle, Earra-Ghàidheal in modern Gaelic), sometimes anglicised as Argyllshire, is a historic county and registration county of western Scotland.
Art Nouveau is an international style of art, architecture and applied art, especially the decorative arts, that was most popular between 1890 and 1910.
Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle (22 May 1859 – 7 July 1930) was a British writer best known for his detective fiction featuring the character Sherlock Holmes.
Arthur's Seat is the main peak of the group of hills in Edinburgh, Scotland which form most of Holyrood Park, described by Robert Louis Stevenson as "a hill for magnitude, a mountain in virtue of its bold design".
The Arts and Crafts movement was an international movement in the decorative and fine arts that began in Britain and flourished in Europe and North America between about 1880 and 1920, emerging in Japan (the Mingei movement) in the 1920s.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
The Atholl Highlanders is a Scottish ceremonial infantry regiment.
The Atlantic Bronze Age is a cultural complex of the Bronze Age period of approximately 1300–700 BC that includes different cultures in Portugal, Andalusia, Galicia, France, Britain and Ireland.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
The Auld Alliance (Scots for "Old Alliance") was an alliance made in 1295 between the kingdoms of Scotland and France.
Óengus son of Fergus (*Onuist map Urguist; Old Irish: Óengus mac Fergusso, "Angus mac Fergus"), was king of the Picts from 732 until his death in 761.
Badenoch (from the Scottish Gaelic Bàideanach meaning drowned land) is a traditional district which today forms part of Badenoch and Strathspey, an area of Highland Council, in Scotland, bounded on the north by the Monadhliath Mountains, on the east by the Cairngorms and Braemar, on the south by Atholl and the Grampians, and on the west by Lochaber.
Bagpipes are a woodwind instrument using enclosed reeds fed from a constant reservoir of air in the form of a bag.
A ballistic missile submarine is a submarine capable of deploying submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs) with nuclear warheads.
A bank holiday is a public holiday in the United Kingdom, some Commonwealth countries, Hong Kong and the Republic of Ireland.
The Bank of England, formally the Governor and Company of the Bank of England, is the central bank of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the model on which most modern central banks have been based.
The Bank of Scotland plc (Bank o Scotland, Banca na h-Alba) is a commercial and clearing bank based in Edinburgh, Scotland.
The Banking Act 2009 (c 1) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that entered into force in part on the 21 February 2009 in order, amongst other things, to replace the Banking (Special Provisions) Act 2008.
A banknote (often known as a bill, paper money, or simply a note) is a type of negotiable promissory note, made by a bank, payable to the bearer on demand.
Barra (Barraigh, Eilean Bharraigh) is an island in the Outer Hebrides, Scotland, and the second southernmost inhabited island there, after the adjacent island of Vatersay to which it is connected by a short causeway.
The Battle of Altimarlach or Battle of Altimarlech was a Scottish clan battle that took place on 13 July 1680.
The Battle of Bannockburn (Blàr Allt nam Bànag or Blàr Allt a' Bhonnaich) 24 June 1314 was a significant Scottish victory in the First War of Scottish Independence, and a landmark in Scottish history.
The Battle of Baugé, fought between the English and a Franco-Scots army on 22 March 1421 at Baugé, France, east of Angers, was a major defeat for the English in the Hundred Years' War.
The Battle of Culloden (Blàr Chùil Lodair) was the final confrontation of the Jacobite rising of 1745.
The Battle of Dun Nechtain or Battle of Nechtansmere (Scottish Gaelic: Blàr Dhùn Neachdain, Old Irish: Dún Nechtain, Old Welsh: Gueith Linn Garan, Old English: Nechtansmere) was fought between the Picts, led by King Bridei Mac Bili, and the Northumbrians, led by King Ecgfrith, on 20 May 685.
The Battle of Flodden, Flodden Field, or occasionally Branxton (Brainston Moor) was a military combat in the War of the League of Cambrai between the Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of Scotland, resulting in an English victory.
The Battle of Mons Graupius was, according to Tacitus, a Roman military victory in what is now Scotland, taking place in AD 83 or, less probably, 84.
The Battle of Verneuil was a strategically important battle of the Hundred Years' War, fought on 17 August 1424 near Verneuil in Normandy and a significant English victory.
Bòrd na Gàidhlig is the executive non-departmental public body of the Scottish Government with responsibility for Gaelic.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
BBC Alba is a Scottish Gaelic language digital television channel jointly owned by the BBC and MG Alba.
BBC Radio nan Gàidheal is a Scottish radio station, broadcasting in Scottish Gaelic.
BBC Radio Scotland is BBC Scotland's national English-language radio network.
BBC Scotland is a division of the BBC and the main public broadcaster in Scotland.
Bede (italic; 672/3 – 26 May 735), also known as Saint Bede, Venerable Bede, and Bede the Venerable (Bēda Venerābilis), was an English Benedictine monk at the monastery of St.
Ben Nevis (Beinn Nibheis), in Scotland, is the highest mountain in the British Isles.
Benjamin Lynch (2 April 1913 – 6 August 1946) was a Scottish professional boxer who fought in the flyweight division.
Berwick Castle is a ruined castle in Berwick-upon-Tweed, Northumberland, England.
Berwick-upon-Tweed (Sooth Berwick, Bearaig a Deas) is a town in the county of Northumberland.
Biffy Clyro are a Scottish rock band that formed in Kilmarnock, East Ayrshire, composed of Simon Neil (guitar, lead vocals), James Johnston (bass, vocals) and Ben Johnston (drums, vocals).
Boards of Canada are a Scottish electronic music duo consisting of brothers Michael Sandison and Marcus Eoin.
The Book of Discipline refers to two works regulative of ecclesiastical order in the Church of Scotland, known as The First Book of Discipline (1560) and The Second Book of Discipline (1578), drawn up and printed in the Scottish Reformation.
Braemar is a village in Aberdeenshire, Scotland, around west of Aberdeen in the Highlands.
King Bridei III (or Bridei m. Beli; O.Ir.: Bruide mac Bili) (616/628?-693) was king of the Picts from 672 until 693.
The British Armed Forces, also known as Her/His Majesty's Armed Forces, are the military services responsible for the defence of the United Kingdom, its overseas territories and the Crown dependencies.
British cuisine is the set of cooking traditions and practices associated with the United Kingdom.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
The British Islands is a term within the law of the United Kingdom which since 1889 has referred collectively to the following four polities.
British Railways (BR), which from 1965 traded as British Rail, was the state-owned company that operated most of the rail transport in Great Britain between 1948 and 1997.
British Sign Language (BSL) is a sign language used in the United Kingdom (UK), and is the first or preferred language of some deaf people in the UK; there are 125,000 deaf adults in the UK who use BSL plus an estimated 20,000 children.
The British–Irish Council (BIC) is an intergovernmental organisation that aims to improve collaboration between its members in a number of areas including transport, the environment, and energy.
The British–Irish Parliamentary Assembly (BIPA, Tionól Pharlaiminteach na Breataine agus na hÉireann) is a deliberative body consisting of members elected to the parliaments of the United Kingdom, Ireland, Scotland, Wales, Northern Ireland and the British crown dependencies.
Brittany (Bretagne; Breizh, pronounced or; Gallo: Bertaèyn, pronounced) is a cultural region in the northwest of France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occupation.
The Brittonic, Brythonic or British Celtic languages (ieithoedd Brythonaidd/Prydeinig; yethow brythonek/predennek; yezhoù predenek) form one of the two branches of the Insular Celtic language family; the other is Goidelic.
Bryophytes are an informal group consisting of three divisions of non-vascular land plants (embryophytes): the liverworts, hornworts and mosses.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
A burgh was an autonomous municipal corporation in Scotland and Northern England, usually a town, or toun in Scots.
A Burns supper is a celebration of the life and poetry of the poet Robert Burns (25 January 175921 July 1796), the author of many Scots poems.
Bute House (Gaelic: Taigh Bhòid) is the official residence of the First Minister of Scotland located within Charlotte Square in Edinburgh, the capital city of Scotland.
The Cabinet of the United Kingdom is the collective decision-making body of Her Majesty's Government of the United Kingdom, composed of the Prime Minister and 21 cabinet ministers, the most senior of the government ministers.
The Cabinet Secretary for Culture, Tourism and External Affairs, commonly referred to as the Culture Secretary, is a Scottish Government Cabinet position with responsibility for Culture, the arts, relations between the Scottish Government and the European Union and other international affairs.
The Cabinet Secretary for Education and Skills, commonly referred to as the Education Secretary, is a position in the Scottish Government Cabinet responsible for all levels of education in Scotland.
The Cabinet Secretary for Health and Sport, commonly referred to as the Health Secretary, is a cabinet position in the Scottish Government.
The Cabinet Secretary for Justice, commonly referred to as the Justice Secretary, is a position in the Scottish Government Cabinet.
The Cairngorms (Scottish Gaelic: Am Monadh Ruadh) are a mountain range in the eastern Highlands of Scotland closely associated with the mountain of the Cairn Gorm.
Cairngorms National Park (Scottish Gaelic Pàirc Nàiseanta a' Mhonaidh Ruaidh) is a national park in north east Scotland, established in 2003.
Caithness (Gallaibh, Caitnes; Katanes) is a historic county, registration county and lieutenancy area of Scotland.
Caledonian Airways was a wholly private, independentindependent from government-owned corporations Scottish charter airline formed in April 1961.
The Caledonian Forest is the name given to the former (ancient old-growth) temperate rainforest of Scotland.
Caledonian MacBrayne (Caledonian Mac a' Bhriuthainn), usually shortened to CalMac, is the major operator of passenger and vehicle ferries, and ferry services, between the mainland of Scotland and 22 of the major islands on Scotland's west coast.
The Caledonian orogeny was a mountain building era recorded in the northern parts of Ireland and Britain, the Scandinavian Mountains, Svalbard, eastern Greenland and parts of north-central Europe.
The Caledonians (Caledones or Caledonii; Καληδώνες, Kalēdōnes) or the Caledonian Confederacy were a Brittonic-speaking (Celtic) tribal confederacy in what is now Scotland during the Iron Age and Roman eras.
According to Tacitus, Calgacus (sometimes Calgacos or Galgacus) was a chieftain of the Caledonian Confederacy who fought the Roman army of Gnaeus Julius Agricola at the Battle of Mons Graupius in northern Scotland in AD 83 or 84.
Adam Richard Wiles (born 17 January 1984), known professionally as Calvin Harris, is a Scottish DJ, singer, songwriter, and record producer.
Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
The Cambrian Period was the first geological period of the Paleozoic Era, and of the Phanerozoic Eon.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
The Campsie Fells (also known as the Campsies) are a range of hills in central Scotland, stretching east to west from Denny Muir to Dumgoyne, in Stirlingshire and overlooking Strathkelvin to the south.
A cantilever bridge is a bridge built using cantilevers, structures that project horizontally into space, supported on only one end.
The Carnoustie Golf Links are in Carnoustie, Angus, Scotland.
Dame Carol Ann Duffy HonFBA HonFRSE (born 23 December 1955) is a Scottish poet and playwright.
The Catholic Church in Scotland (An Eaglais Chaitligeach; Catholic Kirk), overseen by the Scottish Bishops' Conference, is part of the worldwide Catholic Church headed by the Pope.
Catholic emancipation or Catholic relief was a process in the Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in the late 18th century and early 19th century that involved reducing and removing many of the restrictions on Roman Catholics introduced by the Act of Uniformity, the Test Acts and the penal laws.
Cawdor (Roman Fort), located near the small village of Easter Galcantray (15 miles east of Inverness), is suspected of being one of the northernmost Roman forts in Great Britain, though this evidence is controversial.
The Britons, also known as Celtic Britons or Ancient Britons, were Celtic people who inhabited Great Britain from the British Iron Age into the Middle Ages, at which point their culture and language diverged into the modern Welsh, Cornish and Bretons (among others).
The Celtic Connections festival started in 1994 in Glasgow, Scotland, and has since been held every January.
The Celtic Football Club is a professional football club based in Glasgow, Scotland, which plays in the Scottish Premiership.
The Celtic harp is a triangular harp traditional to Wales, Brittany, Ireland and Scotland.
The Celtic languages are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family.
A number of law codes have in the past been in use in the various Celtic nations since the Middle Ages.
The Celtic Media Festival, formerly known as the Celtic Film and Television Festival, aims to promote the languages and cultures of the Celtic nations in film, on television, radio and new media.
The Celtic nations are territories in western Europe where Celtic languages or cultural traits have survived.
The Celtic Revival (also referred to as the Celtic Twilight or Celtomania) was a variety of movements and trends in the 19th and 20th centuries that saw a renewed interest in aspects of Celtic culture.
The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
A central bank, reserve bank, or monetary authority is an institution that manages a state's currency, money supply, and interest rates.
The Central Belt of Scotland is the area of highest population density within Scotland.
Central Europe is the region comprising the central part of Europe.
The Central Lowlands or Midland Valley is a geologically defined area of relatively low-lying land in southern Scotland.
There is some debate as to the location of the geographical centre of Scotland.
Charles Rennie Mackintosh (7 June 1868 – 10 December 1928) was a Scottish architect, designer, water colourist and artist.
Charles VII (22 February 1403 – 22 July 1461), called the Victorious (le Victorieux)Charles VII, King of France, Encyclopedia of the Hundred Years War, ed.
The Cheque and Credit Clearing Company Limited is a UK membership-based industry body whose 11 members are the UK clearing banks.
The Church of Scotland (The Scots Kirk, Eaglais na h-Alba), known informally by its Scots language name, the Kirk, is the national church of Scotland.
City status in the United Kingdom is granted by the monarch of the United Kingdom to a select group of communities:, there are 69 cities in the United Kingdom – 51 in England, six in Wales, seven in Scotland and five in Northern Ireland.
Civil law, civilian law, or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of Roman law, the main feature of which is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.
Civil parishes, as units of local government in Scotland, were abolished by the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1929.
The Clisham (An Cliseam) is a mountain on the island of Harris in the Western Isles of Scotland.
The Clydebank Blitz comprised two devastating Luftwaffe air raids on the shipbuilding town of Clydebank in Scotland which took place in March 1941.
Clydesdale Bank plc is a commercial bank in Scotland.
Cock-a-leekie soup is a Scottish soup dish consisting of leeks and peppered chicken stock, often thickened with rice, or sometimes barley.
Cocteau Twins were a Scottish rock band active from 1979 to 1997.
The colonial history of the United States covers the history of European colonization of the Americas from the start of colonization in the early 16th century until their incorporation into the United States of America.
Saint Columba (Colm Cille, 'church dove'; Columbkille; 7 December 521 – 9 June 597) was an Irish abbot and missionary credited with spreading Christianity in what is today Scotland at the start of the Hiberno-Scottish mission.
Columbia University Press is a university press based in New York City, and affiliated with Columbia University.
The Commission on Scottish Devolution, (Coimisean Fèin-riaghlaidh na h-Alba, Commeessioun on Scots Devolutioun), also referred to as the Calman Commission, Scottish Parliament Commission or Review was established by an opposition Labour Party motion passed by the Scottish Parliament on 6 December 2007, with the support of the Conservatives and Liberal Democrats.
Common Brittonic was an ancient Celtic language spoken in Britain.
Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.
The Commonwealth Games are an international multi-sport event involving athletes from the Commonwealth of Nations.
The Company of Scotland Trading to Africa and the Indies, also called the Scottish Darien Company, was an overseas trading company created by an act of the Parliament of Scotland in 1695.
With the death of King Alexander III in 1286, the crown of Scotland passed to his only surviving descendant, his three-year-old granddaughter Margaret, the Maid of Norway.
Conflict of laws concerns relations across different legal jurisdictions between natural persons, companies, corporations and other legal entities, their legal obligations and the appropriate forum and procedure for resolving disputes between them.
A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchy in which the sovereign exercises authority in accordance with a written or unwritten constitution.
Continental or mainland Europe is the continuous continent of Europe excluding its surrounding islands.
The Corpus Juris (or Iuris) Civilis ("Body of Civil Law") is the modern name for a collection of fundamental works in jurisprudence, issued from 529 to 534 by order of Justinian I, Eastern Roman Emperor.
The United Kingdom (UK) comprises four countries: England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales.
A country is a region that is identified as a distinct national entity in political geography.
The Court of Session (Cùirt an t-Seisein; Coort o Session) is the supreme civil court of Scotland, and constitutes part of the College of Justice; the supreme criminal court of Scotland is the High Court of Justiciary.
The Court of the Lord Lyon (the Lyon Court) is a standing court of law which regulates heraldry in Scotland.
The courts of Scotland are responsible for administration of justice in Scotland, under statutory, common law and equitable provisions within Scots law.
The Covenanters were a Scottish Presbyterian movement that played an important part in the history of Scotland, and to a lesser extent that of England and Ireland, during the 17th century.
Cramond (Cathair Amain) is a village and suburb in the north-west of Edinburgh, Scotland, at the mouth of the River Almond where it enters the Firth of Forth.
The ICC Cricket World Cup is the international championship of One Day International (ODI) cricket.
Crown dependencies are three island territories off the coast of Britain which are self-governing possessions of the Crown.
The Crown of Scotland is the crown that was used at the coronation of the monarchs of Scotland.
The Cuillin (An Cuilthionn or An Cuiltheann) is a range of rocky mountains located on the Isle of Skye in Scotland.
Cullen skink is a thick Scottish soup made of smoked haddock, potatoes and onions.
Culpable homicide is a categorisation of certain offences in various jurisdictions within the Commonwealth of Nations which involves the illegal killing of a person either with or without an intention to kill depending upon how a particular jurisdiction has defined the offence.
The culture of Scotland refers to the patterns of human activity and symbolism associated with Scotland and the Scottish people.
Cumbernauld (Cummernaud; meeting of the streams) is a town in North Lanarkshire, Scotland.
Curling is a sport in which players slide stones on a sheet of ice towards a target area which is segmented into four concentric circles.
Curriculum for Excellence is the national curriculum for Scottish schools for learners from age 3 to 15.
The Daily Record is a Scottish tabloid newspaper based in Glasgow.
The Damnonii (also referred to as Damnii) were a Brittonic people of the late 2nd century who lived in what became the Kingdom of Strathclyde by the Early Middle Ages, and is now southern Scotland.
The Darien scheme was an unsuccessful attempt by the Kingdom of Scotland to become a world trading nation by establishing a colony called "Caledonia" on the Isthmus of Panama on the Gulf of Darién in the late 1690s.
Dauvit Broun, FRSE, FBA (David Brown) (born 1961) is a Scottish historian and academic.
David I or Dauíd mac Maíl Choluim (Modern: Daibhidh I mac Chaluim; – 24 May 1153) was a 12th-century ruler who was Prince of the Cumbrians from 1113 to 1124 and later King of the Scots from 1124 to 1153.
David II (Medieval Gaelic: Daibhidh a Briuis, Modern Gaelic: Dàibhidh Bruis; Norman French: Dauid de Brus, Early Scots: Dauid Brus; 5 March 132422 February 1371) was King of Scots for over 41 years, from 1329 until his death in 1371.
David Gordon Mundell, (born 27 May 1962) is a British Conservative Party politician and solicitor.
The Davidian Revolution is a term given by many scholars to the changes which took place in the Kingdom of Scotland during the reign of David I (1124–1153).
Dál Riata or Dál Riada (also Dalriada) was a Gaelic overkingdom that included parts of western Scotland and northeastern Ireland, on each side of the North Channel.
Deacon Blue are a Scottish pop rock band formed in Glasgow during 1985.
In the fields of horticulture and botany, the term deciduous (/dɪˈsɪdʒuəs/) means "falling off at maturity" and "tending to fall off", in reference to trees and shrubs that seasonally shed leaves, usually in the autumn; to the shedding of petals, after flowering; and to the shedding of ripe fruit.
The Declaration of Arbroath is a declaration of Scottish independence, made in 1320.
The Deputy First Minister of Scotland (Leas-Phrìomh Mhinistear na h-Alba; Heid Meinister Depute o Scotland) is the deputy to the First Minister of Scotland.
Devolution is the statutory delegation of powers from the central government of a sovereign state to govern at a subnational level, such as a regional or local level.
In the United Kingdom, devolution (fèin-riaghlaidh, datganoli; Irish: Dílárú) refers to the statutory granting of powers from the Parliament of the United Kingdom to the Scottish Parliament, the National Assembly for Wales, the Northern Ireland Assembly and the London Assembly and to their associated executive bodies the Scottish Government, the Welsh Government, the Northern Ireland Executive and in England, the Greater London Authority and combined authorities.
DFDS Seaways is a large Danish shipping company that operates passenger and freight services across northern Europe.
A dialect continuum or dialect chain is a spread of language varieties spoken across some geographical area such that neighbouring varieties differ only slightly, but the differences accumulate over distance so that widely separated varieties are not mutually intelligible.
The Disruption of 1843 was a schism or division within the established Church of Scotland, in which 450 evangelical ministers of the Church broke away, over the issue of the Church's relationship with the State, to form the Free Church of Scotland.
A district court was the least authoritative type of criminal court of Scotland.
Domestic policy are administrative decisions that are directly related to all issues and activity within a nation's borders.
Donald Campbell Dewar (21 August 1937 – 11 October 2000) was a Scottish politician, the inaugural First Minister of Scotland and an advocate of Scottish devolution.
Double jeopardy is a procedural defence that prevents an accused person from being tried again on the same (or similar) charges and on the same facts, following a valid acquittal or conviction.
Field Marshal Douglas Haig, 1st Earl Haig, (19 June 1861 – 29 January 1928), was a senior officer of the British Army.
Duke of Hamilton is a title in the Peerage of Scotland, created in 1643.
Duke of Rothesay (Diùc Baile Bhòid, Duik o Rothesay) is a dynastic title of the heir apparent to the British throne, currently Prince Charles.
Dumfries (possibly from Dùn Phris) is a market town and former royal burgh within the Dumfries and Galloway council area of Scotland, United Kingdom.
Dunbar is a coastal town in East Lothian on the south-east coast of Scotland, approximately east of Edinburgh and from the English border north of Berwick-upon-Tweed.
Dundee (Dùn Dè) is Scotland's fourth-largest city and the 51st-most-populous built-up area in the United Kingdom.
John Duns, commonly called Duns Scotus (1266 – 8 November 1308), is generally considered to be one of the three most important philosopher-theologians of the High Middle Ages (together with Thomas Aquinas and William of Ockham).
An earl is a member of the nobility.
Early Irish law, also called Brehon law, comprised the statutes which governed everyday life in Early Medieval Ireland.
The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.
The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.
Early Scots was the emerging literary language of the Northern Middle English speaking parts of Scotland in the period before 1450.
The East Coast Main Line (ECML) is a major railway link between London and Edinburgh via Peterborough, Doncaster, York, Darlington, Durham and Newcastle; it is presently electrified along the whole route.
East Kilbride (Cille Bhrìghde an Ear) is the largest town in South Lanarkshire in Scotland and the 6th largest settlement in Scotland.
East Lothian (Aest Lowden, Lodainn an Ear), is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland, and a lieutenancy area.
EBSCO Industries is an American company headquartered in Birmingham, Alabama.
The economy of Scotland had an estimated nominal gross domestic product (GDP) of up to £152 billion in 2015.
Edinburgh (Dùn Èideann; Edinburgh) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas.
Edinburgh Airport (Edinburgh Airport, Port-adhair Dhùn Èideann) is an airport located in the Ingliston area of the City of Edinburgh, Scotland.
The Edinburgh Evening News is a local newspaper based in Edinburgh, Scotland, that was founded by John Wilson (1844–1909) and first published in 1873.
Edinburgh University Press is a scholarly publisher of academic books and journals, based in Edinburgh, Scotland.
The Education Act 1496 was an act of the Parliament of Scotland (1496 c. 87) that required landowners to send their eldest sons to school to study Latin, arts and law.
Education in England is overseen by the United Kingdom's Department for Education.
Education in Scotland is overseen by the Scottish Government and has a history of universal provision of public education, and the Scottish education system is distinctly different from those in the other countries of the United Kingdom.
Edward Bruce, Earl of Carrick (Norman French: Edward de Brus; Edubard a Briuis; Modern Scottish Gaelic: Eideard or Iomhair Bruis; – 14 October 1318), was a younger brother of Robert the Bruce, King of Scotland.
Edward I (17/18 June 1239 – 7 July 1307), also known as Edward Longshanks and the Hammer of the Scots (Malleus Scotorum), was King of England from 1272 to 1307.
Edwin George Morgan (27 April 1920 – 17 August 2010), The Independent.
Scotland has elections to several bodies: the Scottish Parliament, the United Kingdom Parliament, the European Parliament, local councils and community councils.
Electronics manufacturing services (EMS) is a term used for companies that design, manufacture, test, distribute, and provide return/repair services for electronic components and assemblies for original equipment manufacturers (OEMs).
The Elementary Education Act 1870, commonly known as Forster's Education Act, set the framework for schooling of all children between the ages of 5 and 12 in England and Wales.
Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom and the other Commonwealth realms.
Adele Emily Sandé, (born 10 March 1987), known professionally as Emeli Sandé, is a British singer and songwriter.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Endemism is the ecological state of a species being unique to a defined geographic location, such as an island, nation, country or other defined zone, or habitat type; organisms that are indigenous to a place are not endemic to it if they are also found elsewhere.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
England and Wales is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four countries of the United Kingdom.
English law is the common law legal system of England and Wales, comprising mainly criminal law and civil law, each branch having its own courts and procedures.
The European Union (EU) has expanded a number of times throughout its history by way of the accession of new member states to the Union.
Eskdalemuir is a civil parish and small village in Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland, with a population of 265.
The Indigenous peoples of Europe are the focus of European ethnology, the field of anthropology related to the various indigenous groups that reside in the nations of Europe.
Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.
The Eurasian beaver or European beaver (Castor fiber) is a species of beaver which was once widespread in Eurasia.
The Eurofighter Typhoon is a twin-engine, canard-delta wing, multirole fighter.
The European Champion Clubs' Cup, also known as Coupe des Clubs Champions Européens, or simply the European Cup, is a trophy awarded annually by UEFA to the football club that wins the UEFA Champions League.
The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) is a European treaty (CETS 148) adopted in 1992 under the auspices of the Council of Europe to protect and promote historical regional and minority languages in Europe.
European cuisine, or alternatively Western cuisine, is a generalised term collectively referring to the cuisines of Europe and other Western countries,.
The European Parliament (EP) is the directly elected parliamentary institution of the European Union (EU).
The European pine marten (Martes martes), known most commonly as the pine marten in Anglophone Europe, and less commonly also known as pineten, baum marten, or sweet marten, is an animal native to Northern Europe belonging to the mustelid family, which also includes mink, otter, badger, wolverine, and weasel.
Euston railway station (also known as London Euston) is a central London railway terminus on Euston Road in the London Borough of Camden, managed by Network Rail.
The Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) is an archipelago in the South Atlantic Ocean on the Patagonian Shelf.
The Faroe Islands (Føroyar; Færøerne), sometimes called the Faeroe Islands, is an archipelago between the Norwegian Sea and the North Atlantic, about halfway between Norway and Iceland, north-northwest of Scotland.
In geology, a fault is a planar fracture or discontinuity in a volume of rock, across which there has been significant displacement as a result of rock-mass movement.
Fáilte Ireland is the National Tourism Development Authority of Ireland.
A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central (federal) government.
The Festival Interceltique de Lorient (French), Gouelioù Etrekeltiek An Oriant (Breton) or Inter-Celtic Festival of Lorient in English, is an annual Celtic festival, located in the city of Lorient, Brittany, France.
Field Marshal has been the highest rank in the British Army since 1736.
The Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA; French for "International Federation of Association Football") is an association which describes itself as an international governing body of association football, futsal, and beach soccer.
The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football competition contested by the senior men's national teams of the members of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA), the sport's global governing body.
A fighter aircraft is a military aircraft designed primarily for air-to-air combat against other aircraft, as opposed to bombers and attack aircraft, whose main mission is to attack ground targets.
The First Minister of Scotland (Prìomh Mhinistear na h-Alba; Heid Meinister o Scotland) is the leader of the Scottish Government.
A first-past-the-post (FPTP) voting method is one in which voters indicate on a ballot the candidate of their choice, and the candidate who receives the most votes wins.
The Firth of Forth (Linne Foirthe) is the estuary (firth) of several Scottish rivers including the River Forth.
A flag carrier is a transportation company, such as an airline or shipping company, that, being locally registered in a given sovereign state, enjoys preferential rights or privileges accorded by the government for international operations.
"Flower of Scotland" (Flouer o Scotland, Flùr na h-Alba) is a Scottish song, used frequently at special occasions and sporting events.
Forteviot (Fothair Tabhaicht) (Ordnance Survey) is a village in Strathearn, Scotland on the south bank of the River Earn between Dunning and Perth.
The Forth Bridge is a cantilever railway bridge across the Firth of Forth in the east of Scotland, west of Edinburgh City Centre.
The Fortingall Yew is an ancient European yew (Taxus baccata) in the churchyard of the village of Fortingall in Perthshire, Scotland.
Fortriu or the Kingdom of Fortriu is the name given by historians for a Pictish kingdom recorded between the 4th and 10th centuries, and often used synonymously with Pictland in general.
Sir Frank Fraser Darling FRSE LLD (born Frank Darling, 23 June 1903 – 22 October 1979) was an English ecologist, ornithologist, farmer, conservationist and author, who is strongly associated with the highlands and islands of Scotland.
Franz Ferdinand are a Scottish indie rock band, formed in 2002 and based in Glasgow.
The Free Church of Scotland was a Scottish denomination which was formed in 1843 by a large withdrawal from the established Church of Scotland in a schism or division known as the Disruption of 1843.
The Free Church of Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: An Eaglais Shaor) is an Evangelical and Reformed Presbyterian denomination in Scotland.
The Free Presbyterian Church of Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: An Eaglais Shaor Chlèireach) was formed in 1893 and claims to be the spiritual descendant of the Scottish Reformation: its web-site states that it is 'the constitutional heir of the historic Church of Scotland'.
French cuisine consists of the cooking traditions and practices from France.
The Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act 2005 (Achd na Gàidhlig (Alba) 2005) is an Act of the Scottish Parliament passed in 2005, and is the first piece of legislation to give formal recognition to the Scottish Gaelic language.
The Gaels (Na Gaeil, Na Gàidheil, Ny Gaeil) are an ethnolinguistic group native to northwestern Europe.
Galloway (Gallovidia) is a region in southwestern Scotland comprising the historic counties of Wigtownshire and Kirkcudbrightshire.
Game or quarry is any animal hunted for sport or for food.
The Garde Écossaise (Scots Guard) was an elite Scottish military unit founded in 1418 by the Valois Charles VII of France, to be personal bodyguards to the French monarchy.
The Gask Ridge is the modern name given to an early series of fortifications, built by the Romans in Scotland, close to the Highland Line.
The General Certificate of Education (GCE) Advanced Level, or A Level, is a main school leaving qualification in England, Wales, Northern Ireland, the Channel Islands and the Isle of Man.
Genealogy (from γενεαλογία from γενεά, "generation" and λόγος, "knowledge"), also known as family history, is the study of families and the tracing of their lineages and history.
The General Assembly of the Church of Scotland is the sovereign and highest court of the Church of Scotland, and is thus the Church's governing body.
The General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE) is an academic qualification, generally taken in a number of subjects by pupils in secondary education in England, Wales and Northern Ireland.
George MacDonald (10 December 1824 – 18 September 1905) was a Scottish author, poet and Christian minister.
George T. Flom (April 12, 1871 – January 4, 1960) was an American professor of linguistics and author of numerous reference books.
Girvan (Inbhir Gharbhain, "mouth of the River Girvan") is a burgh in Carrick, South Ayrshire, Scotland.
Glasgow (Glesga; Glaschu) is the largest city in Scotland, and third most populous in the United Kingdom.
Glasgow Airport, also unofficially Glasgow International Airport, formerly Abbotsinch Airport, is an international airport in Scotland, located west of Glasgow city centre.
Glasgow Central (Glaschu Mheadhain, Glesga Central) (also known simply as Central) is the major mainline rail terminus in Glasgow, Scotland.
Glasgow Prestwick Airport (IATA: PIK, ICAO: EGPK) is an international airport serving the west of Scotland, situated northeast of the town of Prestwick in South Ayrshire and from the city centre of Glasgow.
The Glasgow School was a circle of influential artists and designers that began to coalesce in Glasgow, Scotland in the 1870s, and flourished from the 1890s to around 1910.
Gleneagles (Scottish Gaelic: Gleann na h-Eaglais/Gleann Eagas) is a glen which connects with Glen Devon to form a pass through the Ochil Hills of Perth and Kinross in Scotland.
Glenrothes (Gleann Rathais) is a town situated in the heart of Fife, in east-central Scotland.
The Global Financial Centres Index (GFCI) is a ranking of the competitiveness of financial centres based on over 29,000 financial centre assessments from an online questionnaire together with over 100 indices from organisations such as the World Bank, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), and the Economist Intelligence Unit.
Global Infrastructure Partners (GIP) is an infrastructure investment fund making both equity and selected debt investments.
The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III, Prince of Orange, who was James's nephew and son-in-law.
Gnaeus Julius Agricola (13 June 40 – 23 August 93) was a Gallo-Roman general responsible for much of the Roman conquest of Britain.
The golden eagle (Aquila chrysaetos) is one of the best-known birds of prey in the Northern Hemisphere.
Golf is a club-and-ball sport in which players use various clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a course in as few strokes as possible.
Golf in Scotland was first recorded in the 15th century, and the modern game of golf was first developed and established in the country.
The Governor of California is the head of government of the U.S. state of California.
The Grampian Mountains (Am Monadh in Gaelic) are one of the three major mountain ranges in Scotland, occupying a considerable portion of the Scottish Highlands in northwest Scotland.
The Grand Fleet was the main fleet of the British Royal Navy during the First World War.
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
The Great Highland bagpipe (a' phìob mhòr "the great pipe") is a type of bagpipe native to Scotland.
In the United Kingdom the Great Officers of State are traditional ministers of The Crown who either inherit their positions or are appointed to exercise certain largely ceremonial functions or to operate as members of the government.
Greater Glasgow is an urban settlement in Scotland consisting of all localities which are physically attached to the city of Glasgow, forming with it a single contiguous urban area (or conurbation).
Greycrook is a village off the A68 and the A699, in the Scottish Borders, approximately 0.5 km south-east of St Boswells, and close to Dryburgh, Dryburgh Abbey, Maxton, Newtown St Boswells, and the River Tweed.
Greyfriars Kirk, today Greyfriars Tolbooth & Highland Kirk, is a parish kirk (church) of the Church of Scotland in central Edinburgh, Scotland.
The G8, reformatted as G7 from 2014 due to the suspension of Russia's participation, was an inter-governmental political forum from 1997 until 2014, with the participation of some major industrialized countries in the world, that viewed themselves as democracies.
The Guardians of Scotland were the de facto heads of state of Scotland during the First Interregnum of 1290–1292, and the Second Interregnum of 1296–1306.
Guernsey is an island in the English Channel off the coast of Normandy.
The Gulf Stream, together with its northern extension the North Atlantic Drift, is a warm and swift Atlantic ocean current that originates in the Gulf of Mexico and stretches to the tip of Florida, and follows the eastern coastlines of the United States and Newfoundland before crossing the Atlantic Ocean.
Hadrian's Wall (Vallum Aelium), also called the Roman Wall, Picts' Wall, or Vallum Hadriani in Latin, was a defensive fortification in the Roman province of Britannia, begun in AD 122 in the reign of the emperor Hadrian.
Haggis is a savoury pudding containing sheep's pluck (heart, liver, and lungs); minced with onion, oatmeal, suet, spices, and salt, mixed with stock, traditionally encased in the animal's stomach though now often in an artificial casing instead.
Hamilton Crescent is a cricket ground located in the Partick area of Glasgow, Scotland.
Harris (Scottish Gaelic) is the southern and more mountainous part of Lewis and Harris, the largest island in the Outer Hebrides, Scotland.
HBOS plc is a banking and insurance company in the United Kingdom, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Lloyds Banking Group, having been taken over in January 2009.
The Health and Social Care Directorates are a set of directorates of the Scottish Government.
Heavy industry is industry that involves one or more characteristics such as large and heavy products; large and heavy equipment and facilities (such as heavy equipment, large machine tools, and huge buildings); or complex or numerous processes.
The Hebridean Celtic Festival (Scottish Gaelic: Fèis Cheilteach Innse Gall) or HebCelt is an international Celtic music festival, which takes place annually in Stornoway on Lewis, in the Outer Hebrides of Scotland.
The Hebrides (Innse Gall,; Suðreyjar) compose a widespread and diverse archipelago off the west coast of mainland Scotland.
Yr Hen Ogledd, in English the Old North, is the region of Northern England and the southern Scottish Lowlands inhabited by the Celtic Britons of sub-Roman Britain in the Early Middle Ages.
Henry VII (Harri Tudur; 28 January 1457 – 21 April 1509) was the King of England and Lord of Ireland from his seizure of the crown on 22 August 1485 to his death on 21 April 1509.
The High Court of Justiciary is the supreme criminal court in Scotland.
The High Kings of Ireland (Ard-Rí na hÉireann) were sometimes historical and sometimes legendary figures who had, or who are claimed to have had, lordship over the whole of Ireland.
In the Scottish secondary education system, the Higher is one of the national school-leaving certificate exams and university entrance qualifications of the Scottish Qualifications Certificate (SQC) offered by the Scottish Qualifications Authority.
Highland (A' Ghàidhealtachd;, Heilan) is a council area in the Scottish Highlands and is the largest local government area in the United Kingdom.
Highland Airways was an airline based in Inverness, Scotland.
The Highland Boundary Fault is a major fault zone that traverses Scotland from Arran and Helensburgh on the west coast to Stonehaven in the east.
Highland Cathedral is a popular melody for the Great Highland Bagpipe.
The Highland Clearances (Fuadaichean nan Gàidheal, the "eviction of the Gaels") were the evictions of a significant number of tenants in the Scottish Highlands mostly during the 18th and 19th centuries.
Highland English or Highland and Island English is the variety of Scottish English spoken by many in the Scottish Highlands and the Hebrides.
Highland games are events held in spring and summer in Scotland and other countries as a way of celebrating Scottish and Celtic culture, especially that of the Scottish Highlands.
The Highland Potato Famine (Gaiseadh a' bhuntàta) was a period of 19th century Highland and Scottish history (1846 to roughly 1856) over which the agricultural communities of the Hebrides and the western Gàidhealtachd (Scottish Highlands) saw their potato crop (upon which they had become over-reliant) repeatedly devastated by potato blight.
The Highlands and Islands of Scotland are broadly the Scottish Highlands, plus Orkney, Shetland and the Western Isles.
Highlands and Islands Airports Limited (HIAL) is the company that owns and operates 11 airports in the Scottish Highlands, the Northern Isles and the Western Isles.
The Highlands and Islands Medical Service (HIMS) provided state funded healthcare to a population covering half of Scotland's landmass from its launch in 1913 until the creation of Scotland's National Health Service (NHS) in 1948.
Hinduism in Scotland is all aspects of the Hindu religion in Scotland.
The decision of the Parliament of Scotland to ratify the Treaty of Union in 1707 was not unanimous and, from that time, individuals and organisations have advocated the reinstatement of a Scottish Parliament.
The earliest date at which Jews arrived in Scotland is not known.
Her Majesty's Naval Base, Clyde (HMNB Clyde; also HMS Neptune) primarily sited at Faslane is one of three operating bases in the United Kingdom for the Royal Navy (the others being HMNB Devonport and HMNB Portsmouth).
The Holy Loch; (Scottish Gaelic "An Loch Sianta/Seunta") is a Sea Loch, a part of the Cowal peninsula coast of the Firth of Clyde, in Argyll and Bute, Scotland.
Holyrood (Halyruid, Taigh an Ròid) is an area in Edinburgh, the capital of Scotland.
The House of Hanover (or the Hanoverians; Haus Hannover) is a German royal dynasty that ruled the Electorate and then the Kingdom of Hanover, and also provided monarchs of Great Britain and Ireland from 1714 to 1800 and ruled the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from its creation in 1801 until the death of Queen Victoria in 1901.
The House of Stuart, originally Stewart, was a European royal house that originated in Scotland.
Hugh Redwald Trevor-Roper, Baron Dacre of Glanton, (15 January 1914 – 26 January 2003), was a British historian of early modern Britain and Nazi Germany.
The Hundred Years' War was a series of conflicts waged from 1337 to 1453 by the House of Plantagenet, rulers of the Kingdom of England, against the House of Valois, over the right to rule the Kingdom of France.
A hunter-gatherer is a human living in a society in which most or all food is obtained by foraging (collecting wild plants and pursuing wild animals), in contrast to agricultural societies, which rely mainly on domesticated species.
An ice age is a period of long-term reduction in the temperature of Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental and polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers.
Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ignis meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main rock types, the others being sedimentary and metamorphic.
In my defens God me defend is the motto of both the Royal coat of arms of the Kingdom of Scotland and Royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom used in Scotland.
The Independent Labour Party (ILP) was a British political party of the left, established in 1893, when the Liberals appeared reluctant to endorse working-class candidates, representing the interests of the majority.
In the United Kingdom, independent schools (also private schools) are fee-paying private schools, governed by an elected board of governors and independent of many of the regulations and conditions that apply to state-funded schools.
In biogeography, a species is defined as indigenous to a given region or ecosystem if its presence in that region is the result of only natural process, with no human intervention.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
The INF Netball World Cup is a quadrennial international netball world championship co-ordinated by the International Netball Federation (INF), inaugurated in 1963.
Infratil Limited is a New Zealand-based infrastructure investment company.
The Inner Hebrides (Scottish Gaelic: Na h-Eileanan a-staigh, "the inner isles") is an archipelago off the west coast of mainland Scotland, to the south east of the Outer Hebrides.
Intermediate 1 (Scottish Gaelic: Meadhan Ìre 1) is an educational qualification in Scotland on the Scottish Qualifications Authority (SQA) Scottish Qualifications Certificate (SQC) achievement ladder similar to General Level at Standard Grades; it is the next step after Access 3.
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from various national standards organizations.
An interregnum (plural interregna or interregnums) is a period of discontinuity or "gap" in a government, organization, or social order.
Inverness (from the Inbhir Nis, meaning "Mouth of the River Ness", Inerness) is a city in the Scottish Highlands.
Inverness Airport (Port-adhair Inbhir Nis) is an international airport situated at Dalcross, north-east of the city of Inverness, Scotland.
Irish Catholics are an ethnoreligious group native to Ireland that are both Catholic and Irish.
The Irish Sea (Muir Éireann / An Mhuir Mheann, Y Keayn Yernagh, Erse Sea, Muir Èireann, Ulster-Scots: Airish Sea, Môr Iwerddon) separates the islands of Ireland and Great Britain; linked to the Celtic Sea in the south by St George's Channel, and to the Inner Seas off the West Coast of Scotland in the north by the Straits of Moyle.
Irn-Bru ("iron brew") is a Scottish carbonated soft drink, often described as "Scotland's other national drink" (after whisky).
Irvine Welsh (born 27 September 1958) is a Scottish novelist, playwright and short story writer.
Irvine (Irvin, Irbhinn) is an ancient settlement, in medieval times a royal burgh, and now a new town on the coast of the Firth of Clyde in North Ayrshire, Scotland.
"Is There for Honest Poverty", commonly known as "A Man's a Man for A' That", is a 1795 song by Robert Burns, written in Scots and English, famous for its expression of egalitarian ideas of society, which may be seen as expressing the ideas of liberalism that arose in the 18th century.
Islay (Ìle) is the southernmost island of the Inner Hebrides of Scotland.
Arran (Eilean Arainn) or the Isle of Arran is the largest island in the Firth of Clyde and the seventh largest Scottish island, at.
The Isle of Man (Ellan Vannin), also known simply as Mann (Mannin), is a self-governing British Crown dependency in the Irish Sea between the islands of Great Britain and Ireland.
The Isthmus of Panama (Istmo de Panamá), also historically known as the Isthmus of Darien (Istmo de Darién), is the narrow strip of land that lies between the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean, linking North and South America.
Sir James Matthew Barrie, 1st Baronet, (9 May 1860 19 June 1937) was a Scottish novelist and playwright, best remembered today as the creator of Peter Pan.
Jack Wilson McConnell, Baron McConnell of Glenscorrodale, (born 30 June 1960) is a Scottish politician and a Labour life peer in the House of Lords.
The Jacobite rising of 1715 (Bliadhna Sheumais) (also referred to as the Fifteen or Lord Mar's Revolt), was the attempt by James Francis Edward Stuart (also called the Old Pretender) to regain the thrones of England, Ireland and Scotland for the exiled House of Stuart.
The Jacobite rising of 1745 or 'The '45' (Bliadhna Theàrlaich, "The Year of Charles") is the name commonly used for the attempt by Charles Edward Stuart to regain the British throne for the House of Stuart.
Jacobitism (Seumasachas, Seacaibíteachas, Séamusachas) was a political movement in Great Britain and Ireland that aimed to restore the Roman Catholic Stuart King James II of England and Ireland (as James VII in Scotland) and his heirs to the thrones of England, Scotland, France and Ireland.
James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish scientist in the field of mathematical physics.
James Graham, 3rd Duke of Montrose, KG, KT, PC (8 September 1755 – 30 December 1836), styled Marquess of Graham until 1790, was a Scottish nobleman and statesman.
James II and VII (14 October 1633O.S. – 16 September 1701An assertion found in many sources that James II died 6 September 1701 (17 September 1701 New Style) may result from a miscalculation done by an author of anonymous "An Exact Account of the Sickness and Death of the Late King James II, as also of the Proceedings at St. Germains thereupon, 1701, in a letter from an English gentleman in France to his friend in London" (Somers Tracts, ed. 1809–1815, XI, pp. 339–342). The account reads: "And on Friday the 17th instant, about three in the afternoon, the king died, the day he always fasted in memory of our blessed Saviour's passion, the day he ever desired to die on, and the ninth hour, according to the Jewish account, when our Saviour was crucified." As 17 September 1701 New Style falls on a Saturday and the author insists that James died on Friday, "the day he ever desired to die on", an inevitable conclusion is that the author miscalculated the date, which later made it to various reference works. See "English Historical Documents 1660–1714", ed. by Andrew Browning (London and New York: Routledge, 2001), 136–138.) was King of England and Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII, from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688.
James IV (17 March 1473 – 9 September 1513) was the King of Scotland from 11 June 1488 to his death.
James Macpherson (Gaelic: Seumas MacMhuirich or Seumas Mac a' Phearsain; 27 October 1736 – 17 February 1796) was a Scottish writer, poet, literary collector and politician, known as the "translator" of the Ossian cycle of epic poems.
James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625.
James Watt (30 January 1736 (19 January 1736 OS) – 25 August 1819) was a Scottish inventor, mechanical engineer, and chemist who improved on Thomas Newcomen's 1712 Newcomen steam engine with his Watt steam engine in 1781, which was fundamental to the changes brought by the Industrial Revolution in both his native Great Britain and the rest of the world.
First described by French art critic and collector Philippe Burty in 1872, Japonism, from the French Japonisme, is the study of Japanese art and artistic talent.
Edmund Gerald "Jerry" Brown Jr. (born April 7, 1938) is an American politician, author and lawyer serving as the 39th and current Governor of California since 2011, previously holding the position from 1975 to 1983, making him the state's longest-serving Governor.
Jersey (Jèrriais: Jèrri), officially the Bailiwick of Jersey (Bailliage de Jersey; Jèrriais: Bailliage dé Jèrri), is a Crown dependency located near the coast of Normandy, France.
Jim Watt MBE (born 18 July 1948) is a Scottish former boxer and commentator who became world champion in the lightweight division when Roberto Durán left the title vacant in 1979 and the WBC had him fight Alfredo Pitalua.
Joan of Arc (Jeanne d'Arc; 6 January c. 1412Modern biographical summaries often assert a birthdate of 6 January for Joan, which is based on a letter from Lord Perceval de Boulainvilliers on 21 July 1429 (see Pernoud's Joan of Arc By Herself and Her Witnesses, p. 98: "Boulainvilliers tells of her birth in Domrémy, and it is he who gives us an exact date, which may be the true one, saying that she was born on the night of Epiphany, 6 January"). – 30 May 1431), nicknamed "The Maid of Orléans" (La Pucelle d'Orléans), is considered a heroine of France for her role during the Lancastrian phase of the Hundred Years' War and was canonized as a Roman Catholic saint.
John Balliol (– late 1314), known derisively as Toom Tabard (meaning "empty coat") was King of Scots from 1292 to 1296.
John Barbour (c.1320 – 13 March 1395) was a Scottish poet and the first major named literary figure to write in Scots.
John III Comyn, Lord of Badenoch and Lord of Lochaber, also known simply as the Red Comyn (c. 1269 – 10 February 1306), was a Scottish nobleman who was an important figure in the First War of Scottish Independence, and was Guardian of Scotland during the Second Interregnum (1296–1306).
John Knox (– 24 November 1572) was a Scottish minister, theologian, and writer who was a leader of the country's Reformation.
John Smith (13 September 1938 – 12 May 1994) was a Scottish Labour Party politician who served as Leader of the Labour Party from July 1992 until his death from a heart attack in May 1994.
John Stewart, Earl of Buchan (c. 1381 – 17 August 1424) was a Scottish nobleman and soldier who fought alongside Scotland's French allies during the Hundred Years War.
John Ramsay Swinney (born 13 April 1964) is a Scottish politician serving as Deputy First Minister of Scotland and Cabinet Secretary for Education and Skills.
The House of Lords, in addition to having a legislative function, historically also had a judicial function.
A justice of the peace court is the least authoritative type of criminal court in Scotland.
Kagyu Samye Ling Monastery and Tibetan Centre is a Tibetan Buddhist complex associated with the Karma Kagyu school located at Eskdalemuir, near Langholm, Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland.
The Kamchatka Peninsula (полуо́стров Камча́тка, Poluostrov Kamchatka) is a 1,250-kilometre-long (780 mi) peninsula in the Russian Far East, with an area of about 270,000 km2 (100,000 sq mi).
Karlheinz Pintsch (1909 -?) was the long serving senior adjutant to Rudolf Hess who was the Deputy Führer to Adolf Hitler in Nazi Germany.
James Keir Hardie (15 August 185626 September 1915) was a Scottish socialist, politician, and trade unionist.
Ken Buchanan MBE (born 28 June 1945) is a British retired professional boxer and the former Undisputed World Lightweight ChampionGutteridge, Reg.
Kenneth MacAlpin (Medieval Gaelic: Cináed mac Ailpin, Modern Gaelic: Coinneach mac Ailpein; 810 – 13 February 858), known in most modern regnal lists as Kenneth I, was a king of the Picts who, according to national myth, was the first king of Scots.
The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,Parliament of the Kingdom of England.
The Kingdom of Ireland (Classical Irish: Ríoghacht Éireann; Modern Irish: Ríocht Éireann) was a nominal state ruled by the King or Queen of England and later the King or Queen of Great Britain that existed in Ireland from 1542 until 1800.
The Kingdom of Scotland (Rìoghachd na h-Alba; Kinrick o Scotland) was a sovereign state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843.
Kinloch Castle (Caisteal Cheann Locha) is a late Victorian mansion located on the Isle of Rùm, one of the Small Isles off the west coast of Scotland.
Kintyre (Cinn Tìre) is a peninsula in western Scotland, in the southwest of Argyll and Bute.
Kirk is a Scottish and Northern English word meaning "church", or more specifically, the Church of Scotland.
Kyle of Lochalsh (from the Scottish Gaelic Caol Loch Aillse, "strait of the foaming loch") is a village on the northwest coast of Scotland, 63 miles (100 km) west of Inverness.
The Labour Party is a centre-left political party in the United Kingdom.
Labrador is the continental-mainland part of the Canadian province of Newfoundland and Labrador.
Laird is a generic name for the owner of a large, long-established Scottish estate, roughly equivalent to an esquire in England, yet ranking above the same in Scotland.
The languages of Scotland are the languages spoken or once spoken in Scotland.
The last glacial period occurred from the end of the Eemian interglacial to the end of the Younger Dryas, encompassing the period years ago.
Late Latin is the scholarly name for the written Latin of Late Antiquity.
The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period of European history lasting from 1250 to 1500 AD.
The law of heraldic arms (or laws of heraldry) governs the "bearing of arms", that is, the possession, use or display of arms, also called coats of arms, coat armour or armorial bearings.
Scottish legal institutions in the High Middle Ages are, for the purposes of this article, the informal and formal systems which governed and helped to manage Scottish society between the years 900 and 1288, a period roughly corresponding with the general European era usually called the High Middle Ages.
Legio IX Hispana ("9th Legion – Spanish"), also written Legio nona Hispana or Legio VIIII Hispana, was a legion of the Imperial Roman army that existed from the 1st century BC until at least AD 120.
A Legislative Consent Motion (also known as a Sewel motion in Scotland) is a motion passed by either the Scottish Parliament, Welsh Assembly, or Northern Ireland Assembly, in which it agrees that the Parliament of the United Kingdom may pass legislation on a devolved issue over which the devolved body has regular legislative authority.
Letters patent (always in the plural) are a type of legal instrument in the form of a published written order issued by a monarch, president, or other head of state, generally granting an office, right, monopoly, title, or status to a person or corporation.
A liberal education is a system or course of education suitable for the cultivation of a free (Latin: liber) human being.
The Liberal Party was one of the two major parties in the United Kingdom – with the opposing Conservative Party – in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
The Limes Britannicus ("British Limes") is a relatively modern collective name sometimes used for those fortifications and defensive ramparts that were built to protect the north, the coasts, and major transport routes of Roman Britain.
A links is the oldest style of golf course, first developed in Scotland.
List of Constituencies in the Parliament of Scotland at the time of the Union is a list of the constituencies of the Parliament of Scotland (the Estates of Scotland) during the period shortly before the Union between the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England.
This article contains a list of the oldest existing universities in continuous operation in the world.
The monarch of Scotland was the head of state of the Kingdom of Scotland.
Livingston (Leivinstoun, Baile Dhùn Lèibhe) is the largest town in West Lothian, Scotland.
Lloyds Banking Group plc is a major British financial institution formed through the acquisition of HBOS by Lloyds TSB in 2009.
The local government areas of Scotland were redefined by the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973 and redefined again by the Local Government etc (Scotland) Act 1994.
Local government in Scotland is organised through 32 unitary authorities designated as Councils which consist of councillors elected every five years by registered voters in each of the council areas.
Loch Fyne (Loch Fìne), meaning Loch of the Vine or Wine, is a sea loch off the Firth of Clyde and forms part of the coast of the Cowal peninsula.
Loch Lomond (Loch Laomainn - 'Lake of the Elms'Richens, R. J. (1984) Elm, Cambridge University Press.) is a freshwater Scottish loch which crosses the Highland Boundary Fault, often considered the boundary between the lowlands of Central Scotland and the Highlands.
Loch Ness (Loch Nis) is a large, deep, freshwater loch in the Scottish Highlands extending for approximately southwest of Inverness.
Lochaber (Loch Abar) is a name applied to areas of the Scottish Highlands.
Loganair Limited is a Scottish regional airline founded in 1962, with its registered office on the grounds of Glasgow Airport in Paisley, Renfrewshire.
London North Eastern Railway (LNER) is a British train operating company that operates the InterCity East Coast franchise.
The Luftwaffe was the aerial warfare branch of the combined German Wehrmacht military forces during World War II.
MacCormick v Lord Advocate 1953 SC 396, 1953 SLT 255 was a UK administrative law and Scottish legal action on whether Queen Elizabeth II was entitled to use the numeral "II" in her title in use in Scotland, there having never been an earlier Elizabeth reigning in Scotland.
Machair (sometimes machar in English) refers to a fertile low-lying grassy plain found on part of the northwest coastlines of Ireland and Scotland, in particular the Outer Hebrides.
A makar is a term from Scottish literature for a poet or bard, often thought of as a royal court poet.
Malawi (or; or maláwi), officially the Republic of Malawi, is a landlocked country in southeast Africa that was formerly known as Nyasaland.
Mallaig; (Malaig) is a port in Lochaber, on the west coast of the Highlands of Scotland.
Manchester University Press is the university press of the University of Manchester, England and a publisher of academic books and journals.
Manslaughter is a common law legal term for homicide considered by law as less culpable than murder.
Margaret Tudor (28 November 1489 – 18 October 1541) was Queen of Scots from 1503 until 1513 by marriage to James IV of Scotland and then, after her husband died fighting the English, she became regent for their son James V of Scotland from 1513 until 1515.
Margaret, Maid of Norway (9 April 1283 – 26 September 1290) was a Norwegian princess who was recognised as Queen of Scots following the death of her grandfather, King Alexander III, in March 1286.
Mary II (30 April 1662 – 28 December 1694) was Queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland, co-reigning with her husband and first cousin, King William III and II, from 1689 until her death; popular histories usually refer to their joint reign as that of William and Mary.
Mary, Queen of Scots (8 December 1542 – 8 February 1587), also known as Mary Stuart or Mary I, reigned over Scotland from 14 December 1542 to 24 July 1567.
A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the voters to a parliament.
A Member of the European Parliament (MEP) is a person who has been elected to serve as a popular representative in the European Parliament.
Member of the Scottish Parliament (MSP) (Ball Pàrlamaid na h-Alba (BPA) in Gaelic, Memmer o the Scots Pairliament (MSP) in Scots) is the title given to any one of the 129 individuals elected to serve in the Scottish Parliament.
Merrick (Gaelic: Mearaig) is the highest mountain in the Southern Uplands of southern Scotland and is part of the Range of the Awful Hand.
In Old World archaeology, Mesolithic (Greek: μέσος, mesos "middle"; λίθος, lithos "stone") is the period between the Upper Paleolithic and the Neolithic.
The Mid Lanarkshire by-election, 1888 was a parliamentary by-election held on 27 April 1888 for the House of Commons constituency of Mid Lanarkshire in Scotland.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
The Minister for Europe, Migration and International Development is a junior ministerial post in the Scottish Government.
A mixed economy is variously defined as an economic system blending elements of market economies with elements of planned economies, free markets with state interventionism, or private enterprise with public enterprise.
Modern art includes artistic work produced during the period extending roughly from the 1860s to the 1970s, and denotes the styles and philosophy of the art produced during that era.
The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy of the United Kingdom, its dependencies and its overseas territories.
Moorland or moor is a type of habitat found in upland areas in temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands and montane grasslands and shrublands biomes, characterised by low-growing vegetation on acidic soils.
Moray (Moireibh or Moireabh, Moravia, Mýræfi) is one of the 32 Local Government council areas of Scotland.
The Moray Firth (Scottish Gaelic: An Cuan Moireach, Linne Mhoireibh or Caolas Mhoireibh) is a roughly triangular inlet (or firth) of the North Sea, north and east of Inverness, which is in the Highland council area of north of Scotland.
In early medieval Scotland, a mormaer was the Gaelic name for a regional or provincial ruler, theoretically second only to the King of Scots, and the senior of a Taoiseach (chieftain).
The mountain hare (Lepus timidus), also known as blue hare, tundra hare, variable hare, white hare, snow hare, alpine hare, and Irish hare, is a Palearctic hare that is largely adapted to polar and mountainous habitats.
Muirfield is a privately owned links which is the home of The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers.
Scotland is internationally known for its traditional music, which remained vibrant throughout the 20th century and into the 21st, when many traditional forms worldwide lost popularity to pop music.
A number of songs are used as Scottish anthems, most notably "Flower of Scotland", "Caledonia", "Scotland the Brave" and "Scots Wha Hae".
The National Archives of Scotland (NAS) are the national archives of Scotland, based in Edinburgh.
A national church is a Christian church associated with a specific ethnic group or nation state.
The National Conversation was the name given to the Scottish Government's public consultation exercise regarding possible future changes in the power of the devolved Scottish Parliament and the possibility of Scottish independence, a policy objective of the Scottish National Party, who at the time were the minority government with power over devolved affairs in Scotland, as the Scottish Government.
A national day is a designated date on which celebrations mark the nationhood of a nation or non-sovereign country.
A national emblem is an emblem or seal that is reserved for use by a nation state or multi-national state as a symbol of that nation.
The National Health Service (Scotland) Act 1947 came into effect on 5 July 1948 and created the National Health Service in Scotland.
National identity is one's identity or sense of belonging to one state or to one nation.
The National Library of Scotland (Leabharlann Nàiseanta na h-Alba, Naitional Leebrar o Scotland) is the legal deposit library of Scotland and is one of the country's National Collections.
A national myth is an inspiring narrative or anecdote about a nation's past.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
Network Rail is the owner (via its subsidiary Network Rail Infrastructure Ltd, which was known as Railtrack plc before 2002) and infrastructure manager of most of the rail network in England, Scotland and Wales.
New Zealand English (NZE) is the variant of the English language spoken by most English-speaking New Zealanders.
Newtonmore (Scottish Gaelic: Baile Ùr an t-Slèibh) is a village in the Highland council area of Scotland.
The next Scottish Parliament election is due to be held on 6 May, 2021 to elect 129 members to the Scottish Parliament.
The next general election in the United Kingdom is scheduled to be held on 5 May 2022 under the Fixed-term Parliaments Act 2011.
NHS Scotland, sometimes styled NHSScotland is the publicly funded healthcare system in Scotland.
Niall Campbell Ferguson (born 18 April 1964) Niall Ferguson is a conservative British historian and political commentator.
Nicola Ferguson Sturgeon (born 19 July 1970) is a Scottish politician who is the current First Minister of Scotland and leader of the Scottish National Party (SNP), in office since November 2014.
The Classification of Territorial Units for Statistics (NUTS; French: Nomenclature des unités territoriales statistiques) is a geocode standard for referencing the subdivisions of countries for statistical purposes.
The North Channel (known in Irish and Scottish Gaelic as Sruth na Maoile, in Scots as the Sheuch and alternatively in English as the Straits of Moyle or Sea of Moyle) is the strait between north-eastern Northern Ireland and south-western Scotland.
The North Sea (Mare Germanicum) is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.
North Sea oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons, comprising liquid petroleum and natural gas, produced from petroleum reservoirs beneath the North Sea.
The northern gannet (Morus bassanus) is a seabird, the largest species of the gannet family, Sulidae.
Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.
The Northern Ireland Executive is the devolved government of Northern Ireland, an administrative branch of the legislature Northern Ireland Assembly.
Northern Ireland law refers to the legal system of statute and common law operating in Northern Ireland since the partition of Ireland established Northern Ireland as a separate jurisdiction within the United Kingdom in 1921.
The Northern Isles (Northren Isles; Na h-Eileanan a Tuath; Norðreyjar) are a pair of archipelagos off the north coast of mainland Scotland, comprising Orkney and Shetland.
Not proven is a verdict available to a court in Scotland.
In October 1952, the United Kingdom (UK) became the third country to independently develop and test nuclear weapons.
An ocean current is a seasonal directed movement of sea water generated by forces acting upon this mean flow, such as wind, the Coriolis effect, breaking waves, cabbing, temperature and salinity differences, while tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the Sun and Moon.
An oceanic or highland climate, also known as a marine or maritime climate, is the Köppen classification of climate typical of west coasts in higher middle latitudes of continents, and generally features cool summers (relative to their latitude) and cool winters, with a relatively narrow annual temperature range and few extremes of temperature, with the exception for transitional areas to continental, subarctic and highland climates.
The Ochil Hills (Monadh Ochail – from a Celtic word root, compare Old Welsh uchel meaning 'high') is a range of hills in Scotland north of the Forth valley bordered by the towns of Stirling, Alloa, Kinross, Auchterarder and Perth.
The Office for National Statistics (ONS) is the executive office of the UK Statistics Authority, a non-ministerial department which reports directly to the UK Parliament.
The Office of Rail and Road (ORR) is a non-ministerial government department responsible for the economic and safety regulation of Britain's railways, and the economic monitoring of Highways England.
The Office of the Secretary of State for Scotland, often referred to as the Scotland Office (Scottish Gaelic: An Oifis Albannach), is a UK government department headed by the Secretary of State for Scotland and responsible for Scottish affairs.
An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in a particular country, state, or other jurisdiction.
The Old Course at St Andrews is considered the oldest golf course in the world, a public course over common land in St Andrews, Fife, Scotland.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century.
The Old Red Sandstone is an assemblage of rocks in the North Atlantic region largely of Devonian age.
An open economy is an economy in which there are economic activities between the domestic community and outside.
A chivalric order, order of chivalry, order of knighthood or equestrian order is an order, confraternity or society of knights typically founded during or in inspiration of the original Catholic military orders of the Crusades (circa 1099-1291), paired with medieval concepts of ideals of chivalry.
The Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle is an order of chivalry associated with Scotland.
The origins of the Kingdom of Alba pertain to the origins of the Kingdom of Alba, or the Gaelic Kingdom of Scotland, either as a mythological event or a historical process, during the Early Middle Ages.
Orkney (Orkneyjar), also known as the Orkney Islands, is an archipelago in the Northern Isles of Scotland, situated off the north coast of Great Britain.
Ossian (Irish Gaelic/Scottish Gaelic: Oisean) is the narrator and purported author of a cycle of epic poems published by the Scottish poet James Macpherson from 1760.
The Outer Hebrides, also known as the Western Isles (Na h-Eileanan Siar or Na h-Eileanan an Iar), Innse Gall ("islands of the strangers") or the Long Isle or the Long Island (An t-Eilean Fada), is an island chain off the west coast of mainland Scotland.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Scotland: Scotland – country that is part of the United Kingdom.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The Paleozoic (or Palaeozoic) Era (from the Greek palaios (παλαιός), "old" and zoe (ζωή), "life", meaning "ancient life") is the earliest of three geologic eras of the Phanerozoic Eon.
The Pan Celtic Festival (Féile Pan Cheilteach) is a Celtic-language music festival held annually in the week following Easter, since its inauguration in 1971.
Paolo Giovanni Nutini (born 9 January 1987) is a Scottish singer, songwriter and musician from Paisley.
In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative body of government.
Parliament House in Edinburgh, Scotland, was home to the pre-Union Parliament of Scotland, and now houses the Supreme Courts of Scotland.
The Parliament of England was the legislature of the Kingdom of England, existing from the early 13th century until 1707, when it became the Parliament of Great Britain after the political union of England and Scotland created the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Parliament of Great Britain was formed in 1707 following the ratification of the Acts of Union by both the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland.
The Parliament of Scotland was the legislature of the Kingdom of Scotland.
The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.
Paul Mitchell (born 18 December 1968 in Edinburghhttp://www.dailyrecord.co.uk/football/spl/celtic/2009/03/14/bbc-commentator-doesn-t-want-repeat-of-previous-league-cup-match-86908-21197146/) is a Scottish football commentator for BBC Scotland and was their main commentator for a six-year period from 2004–2010.
Perth (Peairt) is a city in central Scotland, located on the banks of the River Tay.
Perverting the course of justice is an offence committed when a person prevents justice from being served on him/herself or on another party.
Peter Heather (born 8 June 1960) is a historian of Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages, currently Professor of Medieval History at King's College London.
The PGA Tour (stylized in all capital letters as PGA TOUR by its officials) is the organizer of the main professional golf tours played primarily by men in the United States and North America.
The Picts were a tribal confederation of peoples who lived in what is today eastern and northern Scotland during the Late Iron Age and Early Medieval periods.
The Pinophyta, also known as Coniferophyta or Coniferae, or commonly as conifers, are a division of vascular land plants containing a single extant class, Pinopsida.
A pipe band is a musical ensemble consisting of pipers and drummers.
A pitched battle or set piece battle is a battle in which both sides choose the fighting location and time.
The Pleistocene (often colloquially referred to as the Ice Age) is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations.
A poet laureate (plural: poets laureate) is a poet officially appointed by a government or conferring institution, typically expected to compose poems for special events and occasions.
The Poles (Polacy,; singular masculine: Polak, singular feminine: Polka), commonly referred to as the Polish people, are a nation and West Slavic ethnic group native to Poland in Central Europe who share a common ancestry, culture, history and are native speakers of the Polish language.
A political union is a type of state which is composed of or created out of smaller states.
The Community Charge, commonly known as the poll tax, was a system of taxation introduced in replacement of domestic rates in Scotland from 1989, prior to its introduction in England and Wales from 1990.
Pope John XXII (Ioannes XXII; 1244 – 4 December 1334), born Jacques Duèze (or d'Euse), was Pope from 7 August 1316 to his death in 1334.
Portarlington is a historic coastal township located on the Bellarine Peninsula, 28 km from the city of Geelong, in the state of Victoria, Australia.
The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum.
The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known as the pound and less commonly referred to as Sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha.
The Precambrian (or Pre-Cambrian, sometimes abbreviated pЄ, or Cryptozoic) is the earliest part of Earth's history, set before the current Phanerozoic Eon.
Archaeology and geology continue to reveal the secrets of prehistoric Scotland, uncovering a complex past before the Romans brought Scotland into the scope of recorded history.
Presbyterian (or presbyteral) polity is a method of church governance ("ecclesiastical polity") typified by the rule of assemblies of presbyters, or elders.
Presbyterianism is a part of the reformed tradition within Protestantism which traces its origins to Britain, particularly Scotland, and Ireland.
The President of the Russian Federation (Prezident Rossiyskoy Federatsii) is the elected head of state of the Russian Federation, as well as holder of the highest office in Russia and commander-in-chief of the Russian Armed Forces.
The Scottish Government has proposed holding a second referendum on Scottish independence from the United Kingdom (UK).
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
Protohistory is a period between prehistory and history, during which a culture or civilization has not yet developed writing but other cultures have already noted its existence in their own writings.
QS World University Rankings is an annual publication of university rankings by Quacquarelli Symonds (QS).
Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2.
The Quiraing (in Gaelic: A' Chuith-Raing) is a landslip on the eastern face of Meall na Suiramach, the northernmost summit of the Trotternish on the Isle of Skye, Scotland.
Royal Air Force Lossiemouth or more commonly RAF Lossiemouth or Lossie is a military airfield located on the western edge of the town of Lossiemouth in Moray, north-east Scotland.
Rangers Football Club are a football club in Glasgow, Scotland, who play in the Scottish Premiership, the first tier of the Scottish Professional Football League.
Rùm(), a Scottish Gaelic name often anglicised to Rum, is one of the Small Isles of the Inner Hebrides, in the district of Lochaber, Scotland.
Red Clydeside is the era of political radicalism that characterised the city of Glasgow in Scotland, and urban areas around the city on the banks of the River Clyde such as Clydebank, Greenock, Dumbarton and Paisley.
The red kite (Milvus milvus) is a medium-large bird of prey in the family Accipitridae, which also includes many other diurnal raptors such as eagles, buzzards, and harriers.
The red squirrel or Eurasian red squirrel (Sciurus vulgaris) is a species of tree squirrel in the genus Sciurus common throughout Eurasia.
A regional language is a language spoken in an area of a sovereign state, whether it be a small area, a federal state or province, or some wider area.
Regnal numbers are ordinal numbers used to distinguish among persons with the same name who held the same office.
Religion in Scotland includes all forms of religious organisation and practice.
Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.
In the United Kingdom reserved matters and excepted matters are the areas of government policy where the UK Parliament had kept the power (jurisdiction) to make laws (legislate) in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland.
Rhona Brankin (born 19 January 1950) is a former Labour Co-operative Member of the Scottish Parliament for the Midlothian constituency.
A rift valley is a linear-shaped lowland between several highlands or mountain ranges created by the action of a geologic rift or fault.
The River Forth is a major river, long, whose drainage basin covers much of Stirlingshire in Scotland's Central Belt.
The River Oykel (Òiceall / Abhainn Òiceall) is a major river in northern Scotland that is famous for its salmon fishing.
The River Tay (Tatha) is the longest river in Scotland and the seventh-longest in the United Kingdom.
The River Tweed, or Tweed Water (Abhainn Thuaidh, Watter o Tweid), is a river long that flows east across the Border region in Scotland and northern England.
Robert Burns (25 January 175921 July 1796), also known as Rabbie Burns, the Bard of Ayrshire, Ploughman Poet and various other names and epithets, was a Scottish poet and lyricist.
Robert II (2 March 1316 – 19 April 1390) reigned as King of Scots from 1371 to his death as the first monarch of the House of Stewart.
Robert Louis Balfour Stevenson (13 November 1850 – 3 December 1894) was a Scottish novelist, poet, essayist, musician and travel writer.
Robert Haldane Smith, Baron Smith of Kelvin, (born 8 August 1944 at Glasgow) is a British businessman and former Governor of the British Broadcasting Corporation.
Robert I (11 July 1274 – 7 June 1329), popularly known as Robert the Bruce (Medieval Gaelic: Roibert a Briuis; modern Scottish Gaelic: Raibeart Bruis; Norman French: Robert de Brus or Robert de Bruys; Early Scots: Robert Brus; Robertus Brussius), was King of Scots from 1306 until his death in 1329.
The rock ptarmigan (Lagopus muta) is a medium-sized gamebird in the grouse family.
Roman Britain (Britannia or, later, Britanniae, "the Britains") was the area of the island of Great Britain that was governed by the Roman Empire, from 43 to 410 AD.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome, including the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the Twelve Tables (c. 449 BC), to the Corpus Juris Civilis (AD 529) ordered by Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I. Roman law forms the basic framework for civil law, the most widely used legal system today, and the terms are sometimes used synonymously.
A Roman legion (from Latin legio "military levy, conscription", from legere "to choose") was a large unit of the Roman army.
Romanticism (also known as the Romantic era) was an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement that originated in Europe toward the end of the 18th century, and in most areas was at its peak in the approximate period from 1800 to 1850.
Rosyth (Ros Fhìobh, "headland of Fife") is a town on the Firth of Forth, three miles (4.8 km) south of the centre of Dunfermline.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.
The Royal Bank of Scotland (Banca Rìoghail na h-Alba, Ryal Bank o Scotland, Banc Brenhinol yr Alban), commonly abbreviated as RBS, is one of the retail banking subsidiaries of The Royal Bank of Scotland Group plc, together with NatWest and Ulster Bank.
The Royal Banner of the Royal Arms of Scotland, also known as the Royal Banner of Scotland, or more commonly the Lion Rampant of Scotland, and historically as the Royal Standard of Scotland, (Bratach rìoghail na h-Alba, Ryal banner o Scotland) or Banner of the King of Scots, is the Royal Banner of Scotland, and historically, the Royal Standard of the Kingdom of Scotland.
The royal coat of arms of the United Kingdom, or the Royal Arms for short, is the official coat of arms of the British monarch, currently Queen Elizabeth II.
The Royal Logistic Corps (RLC) provides logistic support functions to the British Army.
The Royal Mile (Ryal Mile) is the name given to a succession of streets forming the main thoroughfare of the Old Town of the city of Edinburgh in Scotland.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
The Royal Regiment of Scotland is the senior and only Scottish line infantry regiment of the British Army Infantry.
The Royal Scots Dragoon Guards (Carabiniers and Greys) (SCOTS DG) is a cavalry regiment of the British Army, and the senior Scottish regiment.
The Royal Scottish Geographical Society (RSGS) is an educational charity founded in 1884 and now based in Perth, Scotland.
The Royal Standards of the United Kingdom refers to either one of two similar flags used by Queen Elizabeth II in her capacity as Sovereign of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories.
Royal Troon Golf Club in South Ayrshire |float.
Rudolf Walter Richard Hess (Heß in German; 26 April 1894 – 17 August 1987), was a prominent politician in Nazi Germany.
The Rugby League World Cup is an international rugby league tournament, contested by national teams of the Rugby League International Federation, which was first held in France in 1954, the first World Cup in either rugby code.
The Rugby World Cup is a men's rugby union tournament contested every four years between the top international teams.
Runrig are a Scottish Celtic rock group formed in Skye, in 1973 under the name 'The Run Rig Dance Band'.
The rutabaga (from Swedish dialectal word rotabagge), swede (from Swedish turnip, being introduced from Sweden), or neep (from its Latin name Brassica napobrassica) is a root vegetable that originated as a cross between the cabbage and the turnip.
Saint Andrew's Day is the feast day of Saint Andrew.
Saint Margaret of Scotland (Scots: Saunt Magret, c. 1045 – 16 November 1093), also known as Margaret of Wessex, was an English princess and a Scottish queen.
A saltire, also called Saint Andrew's Cross, is a heraldic symbol in the form of a diagonal cross, like the shape of the letter X in Roman type.
Scandinavia is a region in Northern Europe, with strong historical, cultural and linguistic ties.
Scapa Flow viewed from its eastern end in June 2009 Scapa Flow is a body of water in the Orkney Islands, Scotland, sheltered by the islands of Mainland, Graemsay, Burray,S.
The School Establishment Act 1616 was an Act of the Scottish Privy Council dated 10 December 1616.
Scone (Sgàin; Scuin) is a village in Perth and Kinross, Scotland.
Scotch is an adjective meaning "of Scotland".
Scotch broth is a filling soup, originating in Scotland but now obtainable worldwide.
Scoti or Scotti is a Latin name for the Gaels,Duffy, Seán.
Scotia is a Latin placename derived from Scoti, a Latin name for the Gaels.
Scotland constitutes a single constituency of the European Parliament.
The Scotland Act 1998 (c. 46) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom which established the devolved Scottish Parliament with tax varying powers and the Scottish Government (then Scottish Executive).
The Scotland Act 2012 is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Scotland Act 2016 is an act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
Scotland in the Late Middle Ages, between the deaths of Alexander III in 1286 and James IV in 1513, established its independence from England under figures including William Wallace in the late 13th century and Robert Bruce in the 14th century.
The Scotland Malawi Partnership (SMP) is a non-profit umbrella organisation which co-ordinates the activities of Scottish individuals and organisations with existing links to Malawi, and aims to foster further links between both countries.
The Scotland national football team represents Scotland in international football and is controlled by the Scottish Football Association.
"Scotland the Brave" (Alba an Àigh) is a Scottish patriotic song.
ScotRail (Rèile na h-Alba) has been the brand name used for all Scottish regional and commuter rail services, including some cross-border services, since September 1983.
The Scots Guards (SG), part of the Guards Division, is one of the Foot Guards regiments of the British Army.
Scots is the Germanic language variety spoken in Lowland Scotland and parts of Ulster (where the local dialect is known as Ulster Scots).
Scots law is the legal system of Scotland.
Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) is a species of pine that is native to Eurasia, ranging from Western Europe to Eastern Siberia, south to the Caucasus Mountains and Anatolia, and north to well inside the Arctic Circle in Scandinavia.
"Scots Wha Hae" (English: Scots, Who Have; Brosnachadh Bhruis) is a patriotic song of Scotland written using both words of the Scots language and English, which served for centuries as an unofficial national anthem of the country, but has lately been largely supplanted by "Scotland the Brave" and "Flower of Scotland".
Scottish Airlines (Prestwick) Limited was formed in 1946 as a subsidiary of Scottish Aviation Limited.
Scottish Americans or Scots Americans (Scottish Gaelic: Ameireaganaich Albannach; Scots-American) are Americans whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in Scotland.
The Scottish Borders (The Mairches, "The Marches"; Scottish Gaelic: Crìochan na h-Alba) is one of 32 council areas of Scotland.
Scottish Canadians are people of Scottish descent or heritage living in Canada.
A Scottish clan (from Gaelic clann, "children") is a kinship group among the Scottish people.
The Scottish Conservatives (Pàrtaidh Tòraidheach na h-Alba), officially the Scottish Conservative and Unionist Party, is the part of the Conservative Party in the United Kingdom that operates in Scotland.
Scottish Country dance (SCD) is the distinctively Scottish form of country dance, itself a form of social dance involving groups of couples of dancers tracing progressive patterns.
The Scottish crossbill (Loxia scotica) is a small passerine bird in the finch family Fringillidae.
The Scottish Football Association Challenge Cup,, Scottish Football Association.
The Scottish devolution referendum of 1997 was a pre-legislative referendum held in Scotland on 11 September 1997 over whether there was support for the creation of a Scottish Parliament with devolved powers, and whether the Parliament should have tax-varying powers.
The Scottish Division was a British Army Infantry command, training and administrative apparatus designated for all Scottish line infantry units.
The Scottish Enlightenment (Scots Enlichtenment, Soillseachadh na h-Alba) was the period in 18th and early 19th century Scotland characterised by an outpouring of intellectual and scientific accomplishments.
The seven dioceses of the Scottish Episcopal Church (Eaglais Easbaigeach na h-Alba) make up the ecclesiastical province of the Anglican Communion in Scotland.
The Scottish Football Association (also known as the SFA and the Scottish FA; Scottish Gaelic: Comann Ball-coise na h-Alba; Scots Fitbaw Association), is the governing body of football in Scotland and has the ultimate responsibility for the control and development of football in Scotland.
Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes also referred to simply as Gaelic (Gàidhlig) or the Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland.
The Scottish Government (Riaghaltas na h-Alba; Scots Govrenment) is the executive of the devolved Scottish Parliament.
The Scottish Green Party (Pàrtaidh Uaine na h-Alba; Scots Green Pairty) is a green political party in Scotland.
The Highlands (the Hielands; A’ Ghàidhealtachd, "the place of the Gaels") are a historic region of Scotland.
Scottish independence (Scots unthirldom; Neo-eisimeileachd na h-Alba) is a political aim of various political parties, advocacy groups, and individuals in Scotland (which is a country of the United Kingdom) for the country to become an independent sovereign state.
A referendum on Scottish independence from the United Kingdom took place on Thursday 18 September 2014.
The Scottish Labour Party (Pàrtaidh Làbarach na h-Alba, Scots Labour Pairty; branded Scottish Labour) is the devolved Scotland section of the United Kingdom Labour Party.
The Scottish Labour Party (SLP), also known as the Scottish Parliamentary Labour Party, was formed by Robert Bontine Cunninghame Graham, the first socialist MP in the parliament of the United Kingdom, who later went on to become the first president of the Scottish National Party, and Keir Hardie, who later became the first leader of the British Labour Party.
The Scottish Liberal Democrats (Libearal Deamocratach na h-Alba, Scots Leeberal Democrats) is a liberal and social-liberal political party in Scotland.
The Lowlands (the Lallans or the Lawlands; a' Ghalldachd, "the place of the foreigner") are a cultural and historic region of Scotland.
Scottish national identity is a term referring to the sense of national identity, as embodied in the shared and characteristic culture, languages and traditions, of the Scottish people.
The Scottish National Party (SNP; Pàrtaidh Nàiseanta na h-Alba, Scots Naitional Pairtie) is a Scottish nationalist and social-democratic political party in Scotland.
Scottish Natural Heritage (SNH; Dualchas Nàdair na h-Alba) is the Scottish public body responsible for the country's natural heritage, especially its natural, genetic and scenic diversity.
The Scottish Parliament (Pàrlamaid na h-Alba; Scots: The Scots Pairlament) is the devolved national, unicameral legislature of Scotland.
The Scottish Parliament Building (Pàrlamaid na h-Alba, Scots Pairlament Biggin) is the home of the Scottish Parliament at Holyrood, within the UNESCO World Heritage Site in central Edinburgh.
The 2007 Scottish Parliament election was held on Thursday 3 May 2007 to elect members to the Scottish Parliament.
The 2011 Scottish Parliament election was held on Thursday, 5 May 2011 to elect 129 members to the Scottish Parliament.
The Scottish general election, 2016 was held on Thursday, 5 May 2016 section 4 to elect 129 members to the Scottish Parliament.
The Scottish people (Scots: Scots Fowk, Scottish Gaelic: Albannaich), or Scots, are a nation and ethnic group native to Scotland. Historically, they emerged from an amalgamation of two Celtic-speaking peoples, the Picts and Gaels, who founded the Kingdom of Scotland (or Alba) in the 9th century. Later, the neighbouring Celtic-speaking Cumbrians, as well as Germanic-speaking Anglo-Saxons and Norse, were incorporated into the Scottish nation. In modern usage, "Scottish people" or "Scots" is used to refer to anyone whose linguistic, cultural, family ancestral or genetic origins are from Scotland. The Latin word Scoti originally referred to the Gaels, but came to describe all inhabitants of Scotland. Considered archaic or pejorative, the term Scotch has also been used for Scottish people, primarily outside Scotland. John Kenneth Galbraith in his book The Scotch (Toronto: MacMillan, 1964) documents the descendants of 19th-century Scottish pioneers who settled in Southwestern Ontario and affectionately referred to themselves as 'Scotch'. He states the book was meant to give a true picture of life in the community in the early decades of the 20th century. People of Scottish descent live in many countries other than Scotland. Emigration, influenced by factors such as the Highland and Lowland Clearances, Scottish participation in the British Empire, and latterly industrial decline and unemployment, have resulted in Scottish people being found throughout the world. Scottish emigrants took with them their Scottish languages and culture. Large populations of Scottish people settled the new-world lands of North and South America, Australia and New Zealand. Canada has the highest level of Scottish descendants per capita in the world and the second-largest population of Scottish descendants, after the United States. Scotland has seen migration and settlement of many peoples at different periods in its history. The Gaels, the Picts and the Britons have their respective origin myths, like most medieval European peoples. Germanic peoples, such as the Anglo-Saxons, arrived beginning in the 7th century, while the Norse settled parts of Scotland from the 8th century onwards. In the High Middle Ages, from the reign of David I of Scotland, there was some emigration from France, England and the Low Countries to Scotland. Some famous Scottish family names, including those bearing the names which became Bruce, Balliol, Murray and Stewart came to Scotland at this time. Today Scotland is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, and the majority of people living there are British citizens.
The Scottish Prison Service (SPS) (Seirbheis nam Prìosan Albannach) is an executive agency of the Scottish Government tasked with managing prisons and Young Offender Institutions.
The Scottish Qualifications Authority (SQA; Gaelic: Ùghdarras Theisteanas na h-Alba) is the executive non-departmental public body of the Scottish Government responsible for accrediting educational awards.
The Scottish Reform Act 1832 was an Act of Parliament that introduced wide-ranging changes to the election laws of Scotland.
The Scottish Reformation was the process by which Scotland broke with the Papacy and developed a predominantly Calvinist national Kirk (church), which was strongly Presbyterian in outlook.
The Scottish Renaissance was a mainly literary movement of the early to mid-20th century that can be seen as the Scottish version of modernism.
The Scottish Rugby Union (SRU; Aonadh Rugbaidh na h-Alba) is the governing body of rugby union in Scotland.
The Scottish variable rate (SVR) was a mechanism which would have enabled the Scottish Government to vary (down or up) the basic rate of UK income tax by up to 3p in the pound.
The Scottish wildcat (Felis silvestris grampia), or Highlands tiger, is a dark coloured subspecies of the European wildcat native to Scotland.
A seal is a device for making an impression in wax, clay, paper, or some other medium, including an embossment on paper, and is also the impression thus made.
Seanad Éireann (Senate of Ireland) is the government upper house of the Oireachtas (the Irish legislature), which also comprises the President of Ireland and Dáil Éireann (the lower house).
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Scotland (Rùnaire Stàite na h-Alba, Secretar o State for Scotland) is the principal minister of Her Majesty's Government in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland representing Scotland.
Self-governance, self-government, or autonomy, is an abstract concept that applies to several scales of organization.
Septimius Severus (Lucius Septimius Severus Augustus; 11 April 145 – 4 February 211), also known as Severus, was Roman emperor from 193 to 211.
Serco Group plc is a provider of public services with headquarters based in Hook, Hampshire.
The seven ill years was a period of national famine in Scotland in the 1690s.
A sheriff court (cùirt an t-siorraim) is the principal local civil and criminal court in Scotland, with exclusive jurisdiction over all civil cases with a monetary up to, and with the jurisdiction to hear any criminal case except treason, murder, and rape which are in the exclusive jurisdiction of the High Court of Justiciary.
Shetland (Old Norse: Hjaltland), also called the Shetland Islands, is a subarctic archipelago of Scotland that lies northeast of Great Britain.
The Shetland Bus (Norwegian Bokmål: Shetlandsbussene, def. pl.) was the nickname of a clandestine special operations group that made a permanent link between Shetland, Scotland and German-occupied Norway from 1941 until the Occupation of Norway by Nazi Germany ended on 8 May 1945.
Shinty (camanachd, iomain) is a team game played with sticks and a ball.
The counties or shires of Scotland (Siorrachdan na h-Alba) are geographic subdivisions of Scotland established in the Middle Ages.
Shirley Ann Manson (born 26 August 1966) is a Scottish singer, songwriter, musician and record producer.
Shona McRory Robison (born 26 May 1966) is a Scottish politician who is the Scottish National Party Member of the Scottish Parliament for Dundee City East since 2011 and was Cabinet Secretary for Health and Sport 2014–2018.
A Sikh (ਸਿੱਖ) is a person associated with Sikhism, a monotheistic religion that originated in the 15th century based on the revelation of Guru Nanak.
Silicon Glen is a nickname for the high tech sector of Scotland, the name inspired by Silicon Valley in California.
The Silurian is a geologic period and system spanning 24.6 million years from the end of the Ordovician Period, at million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Devonian Period, Mya.
Skara Brae is a stone-built Neolithic settlement, located on the Bay of Skaill on the west coast of Mainland, the largest island in the Orkney archipelago of Scotland.
Skye, or the Isle of Skye (An t-Eilean Sgitheanach or Eilean a' Cheò), is the largest and northernmost of the major islands in the Inner Hebrides of Scotland.
The Smith Commission was announced by Prime Minister David Cameron on 19 September 2014 in the wake of the 'No' vote in the 2014 Scottish independence referendum.
The Solway Firth (Tràchd Romhra) is a firth that forms part of the border between England and Scotland, between Cumbria (including the Solway Plain) and Dumfries and Galloway.
The Southern Uplands are the southernmost and least populous of mainland Scotland's three major geographic areas (the others being the Central Lowlands and the Highlands).
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
A spice is a seed, fruit, root, bark, or other plant substance primarily used for flavoring, coloring or preserving food.
The St Andrew's Day Bank Holiday (Scotland) Act 2007 is an Act of the Scottish Parliament that officially designates St. Andrew's Day (30 November) to be a bank holiday in Scotland.
St Andrews (S.; Saunt Aundraes; Cill Rìmhinn) is a town on the east coast of Fife in Scotland, 10 miles (16 km) southeast of Dundee and 30 miles (50 km) northeast of Edinburgh.
Standard Grades (Ìre Choitcheann) were Scotland's educational qualifications for students aged around 14 to 16 years, which were replaced with Scottish Qualifications Authority's National exams as part of the major shake up of Scotland's education system as part of Scottish Credit and Qualifications Framework overhaul.
Standard Life Aberdeen plc is an investment company with headquarters in Edinburgh and operations around the globe.
A state-owned enterprise (SOE) is a business enterprise where the state has significant control through full, majority, or significant minority ownership.
Steelmaking is the process for producing steel from iron ore and scrap.
Stirling (Stirlin; Sruighlea) is a city in central Scotland.
The stoat (Mustela erminea), also known as the short-tailed weasel or simply the weasel in Ireland where the least weasel does not occur, is a mammal of the genus Mustela of the family Mustelidae native to Eurasia and North America, distinguished from the least weasel by its larger size and longer tail with a prominent black tip.
Stonehaven is a town in Aberdeenshire, Scotland.
STV is a television channel serving Scotland.
The Supreme Court of the United Kingdom is the supreme court in all matters under English and Welsh law, Northern Irish law and Scottish civil law.
Susan Magdalane Boyle (born 1 April 1961) is a Scottish singer who came to international attention when she appeared as a contestant on the TV programme Britain's Got Talent on 11 April 2009, singing "I Dreamed a Dream" from Les Misérables.
Publius (or Gaius) Cornelius Tacitus (–) was a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire.
Tartan (breacan) is a pattern consisting of criss-crossed horizontal and vertical bands in multiple colours.
Tartan Day is a North American celebration of Scottish heritage on April 6, the date on which the Declaration of Arbroath was signed in 1320.
Television in Scotland mostly consists of UK-wide broadcasts, with variations at different times which are specific to Scotland.
In geography, the temperate or tepid climates of Earth occur in the middle latitudes, which span between the tropics and the polar regions of Earth.
The territorial evolution of the British Empire is considered to have begun with the foundation of the English colonial empire in the late 16th century.
The tertiary sector or service sector is the third of the three economic sectors of the three-sector theory.
Texas are a Scottish pop rock band from Glasgow.
The Brus, also known as The Bruce, is a long narrative poem, in Early Scots, of just under 14,000 octosyllabic lines composed by John Barbour which gives a historic and chivalric account of the actions of Robert the Bruce and the Black Douglas in the Scottish Wars of Independence during a period from the circumstances leading up the English invasion of 1296 through to Scotland's restored position in the years between the Truce of 1328 and the death of Thomas Randolph, Earl of Moray in 1332.
The Courier & Advertiser, more commonly known as simply The Courier, is a newspaper published by D. C. Thomson & Co. in Dundee, Scotland.
The Crown is the state in all its aspects within the jurisprudence of the Commonwealth realms and their sub-divisions (such as Crown dependencies, provinces, or states).
The Fratellis are a Scottish rock band from Glasgow, formed in 2005.
The Herald is a Scottish broadsheet newspaper founded in 1783.
The National is a Scottish daily newspaper that is owned by the publisher Newsquest.
The Open Championship, often referred to as The Open or the British Open, is the oldest of the four major championships in professional golf.
The Press and Journal is a daily regional newspaper serving northern and highland Scotland including the cities of Aberdeen and Inverness.
The Protectorate was the period during the Commonwealth (or, to monarchists, the Interregnum) when England and Wales, Ireland and Scotland were governed by a Lord Protector as a republic.
The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews is the oldest and most prestigious golf club in the world.
The Scotsman is a Scottish compact newspaper and daily news website headquartered in Edinburgh.
The Tablet is a self-described progressive Catholic international weekly review published in London.
"The Thistle o’ Scotland" was originally called "The Badge of Scotland" but it is more commonly known as "The Thistle o' Scotland".
The Times is a British daily (Monday to Saturday) national newspaper based in London, England.
The View are a Scottish indie rock band.
Theresa Mary May (Brasier; born 1 October 1956) is a British politician serving as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party since 2016.
Thistle is the common name of a group of flowering plants characterised by leaves with sharp prickles on the margins, mostly in the family Asteraceae.
Thomas Chalmers (17 March 1780 – 31 May 1847), was a Scottish minister, professor of theology, political economist, and a leader of the Church of Scotland and of the Free Church of Scotland.
Professor Thomas Owen Clancy is an American academic and historian who specializes in the literature of the Celtic Dark Ages, especially that of Scotland.
Tiree (Tiriodh) is the most westerly island in the Inner Hebrides of Scotland.
The Tobacco Lords (or "Virginia Dons") were Glasgow merchants who in the 18th century made enormous fortunes by trading in tobacco from Great Britain's American Colonies.
Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born 6 May 1953) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1997 to 2007 and Leader of the Labour Party from 1994 to 2007.
The total fertility rate (TFR), sometimes also called the fertility rate, absolute/potential natality, period total fertility rate (PTFR), or total period fertility rate (TPFR) of a population is the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime if.
Transport Scotland (Còmhdhail Alba) was created on 1 January 2006 as the national transport agency of Scotland.
The Treaty of Edinburgh (also known as the Treaty of Leith) was a treaty drawn up on 5 July 1560 between the Commissioners of Queen Elizabeth I of England with the assent of the Scottish Lords of the Congregation, and the French representatives of King Francis II of France (husband of Mary Queen of Scots) to formally conclude the Siege of Leith and replace the Auld Alliance with France with a new Anglo-Scottish accord, while maintaining the peace between England and France agreed by the Treaty of Cateau-Cambresis.
The Treaty of Perpetual Peace was signed by James IV of Scotland and Henry VII of England in 1502.
The Treaty of Perth, signed 2 July 1266, ended military conflict between Magnus VI of Norway and Alexander III of Scotland over the sovereignty of the Hebrides and the Isle of Man.
The Treaty of Union is the name usually now given to the agreement which led to the creation of the new state of Great Britain, stating that England (which already included Wales) and Scotland were to be "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain",: Both Acts of Union and the Treaty state in Article I: That the Two Kingdoms of Scotland and England, shall upon 1 May next ensuing the date hereof, and forever after, be United into One Kingdom by the Name of GREAT BRITAIN.
The Treaty of York was an agreement between the kings Henry III of England and Alexander II of Scotland, signed at York on 25 September 1237, which affirmed that Northumberland, Cumberland, and Westmorland were subject to English sovereignty.
The Trident missile is a submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) equipped with multiple independently targetable reentry vehicles (MIRV).
A trunk road, trunk highway, or strategic road is a major road, usually connecting two or more cities, ports, airports and other places, which is the recommended route for long-distance and freight traffic.
In physical geography, tundra is a type of biome where the tree growth is hindered by low temperatures and short growing seasons.
Twin Atlantic are a Scottish alternative rock band from Glasgow, Scotland.
Udal law is a Norse derived legal system, which is found in Shetland and Orkney, Scotland and in Manx law in the Isle of Man.
The UEFA Cup Winners' Cup (abbreviated as CWC) was a football club competition contested annually by the most recent winners of all European domestic cup competitions.
The UEFA Super Cup is an annual football match organised by UEFA and contested by the reigning champions of the two main European club competitions, the UEFA Champions League and the UEFA Europa League.
The UGM-27 Polaris missile was a two-stage solid-fueled nuclear-armed submarine-launched ballistic missile.
Uist or The Uists (Uibhist) are two islands and part of the Outer Hebrides of Scotland.
Ulster (Ulaidh or Cúige Uladh, Ulster Scots: Ulstèr or Ulster) is a province in the north of the island of Ireland.
The Ulster Scots (Ulster-Scots: Ulstèr-Scotch), also called Ulster-Scots people (Ulstèr-Scotch fowk) or, outside the British Isles, Scots-Irish (Scotch-Airisch), are an ethnic group in Ireland, found mostly in the Ulster region and to a lesser extent in the rest of Ireland.
In government, unicameralism (Latin uni, one + camera, chamber) is the practice of having one legislative or parliamentary chamber.
The unicorn is a legendary creature that has been described since antiquity as a beast with a single large, pointed, spiraling horn projecting from its forehead.
The Union Jack, or Union Flag, is the national flag of the United Kingdom.
The Union of the Crowns (Aonadh nan Crùintean; Union o the Crouns) was the accession of James VI of Scotland to the thrones of England and Ireland, and the consequential unification for some purposes (such as overseas diplomacy) of the three realms under a single monarch on 24 March 1603.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The 2015 United Kingdom general election was held on 7 May 2015 to elect 650 members to the House of Commons.
The 2017 United Kingdom general election took place on Thursday 8 June, having been announced just under two months earlier by Prime Minister Theresa May on 18 April 2017 after it was discussed at cabinet.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
Universities in Scotland includes all universities and university colleges in Scotland, founded between the fifteenth century and the present day.
The University of Aberdeen is a public research university in Aberdeen, Scotland.
The University of Edinburgh (abbreviated as Edin. in post-nominals), founded in 1582, is the sixth oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's ancient universities.
The University of Glasgow (Oilthigh Ghlaschu; Universitas Glasguensis; abbreviated as Glas. in post-nominals) is the fourth-oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's four ancient universities.
The University of St Andrews (informally known as St Andrews University or simply St Andrews; abbreviated as St And, from the Latin Sancti Andreae, in post-nominals) is a British public research university in St Andrews, Fife, Scotland.
The University of Strathclyde is a public research university located in Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom.
The University of the West of Scotland, formerly the University of Paisley, is a public university with four campuses in south-western Scotland, in the towns of Paisley, Hamilton, Dumfries and Ayr, as well as a campus in London.
The University of Wales Press (Gwasg Prifysgol Cymru) was founded in 1922 as a central service of the University of Wales.
Vere Gordon Childe (14 April 1892 – 19 October 1957), better known as V. Gordon Childe, was an Australian archaeologist and philologist who specialized in the study of European prehistory.
The Vanguard class is a class of nuclear-powered ballistic missile submarines (SSBNs) in service with the Royal Navy.
Vascular plants (from Latin vasculum: duct), also known as tracheophytes (from the equivalent Greek term trachea) and also higher plants, form a large group of plants (c. 308,312 accepted known species) that are defined as those land plants that have lignified tissues (the xylem) for conducting water and minerals throughout the plant.
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
Virginia (officially the Commonwealth of Virginia) is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains.
Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin (a; born 7 October 1952) is a Russian statesman and former intelligence officer serving as President of Russia since 2012, previously holding the position from 2000 until 2008.
François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on Christianity as a whole, especially the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech and separation of church and state.
The Votadini, also known as the Wotādīni, Votādīni or Otadini, were a Celtic people of the Iron Age in Great Britain.
Sir Walter Scott, 1st Baronet (15 August 1771 – 21 September 1832) was a Scottish historical novelist, playwright, poet and historian.
Wanlockhead is a village in Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland, nestling in the Lowther Hills and one mile south of Leadhills at the head of the Mennock Pass, which forms part of the Southern Uplands.
The Wars of Scottish Independence were a series of military campaigns fought between the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England in the late 13th and early 14th centuries.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
Waverley is a historical novel by Sir Walter Scott (1771–1832).
The Waverley Novels are a long series of novels by Sir Walter Scott (1771–1832).
The Welsh Government (Llywodraeth Cymru) is the devolved government for Wales.
Welsh (Cymraeg or y Gymraeg) is a member of the Brittonic branch of the Celtic languages.
Welsh-language literature (llenyddiaeth Gymraeg) has been produced continuously since the emergence of Welsh from Brythonic as a distinct language c. 5th century AD.
The West Coast Main Line (WCML) is one of the most important railway corridors in the United Kingdom, connecting the major cities of London, Birmingham, Liverpool, Manchester, and Glasgow.
The West of Scotland Cricket Club is a cricket club based in Glasgow, Scotland.
The western capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus), also known as the wood grouse, heather cock, or just capercaillie, is the largest member of the grouse family.
Whisky or whiskey is a type of distilled alcoholic beverage made from fermented grain mash.
The white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) is a very large eagle widely distributed across Eurasia.
The wild boar (Sus scrofa), also known as the wild swine,Heptner, V. G.; Nasimovich, A. A.; Bannikov, A. G.; Hoffman, R. S. (1988), Volume I, Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Libraries and National Science Foundation, pp.
Wilful fire-raising is a common law offence under Scots law applicable to deliberately starting fires with intent to cause damage to property.
William Ewart Gladstone, (29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a British statesman of the Liberal Party.
William III (Willem; 4 November 1650 – 8 March 1702), also widely known as William of Orange, was sovereign Prince of Orange from birth, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland and Overijssel in the Dutch Republic from 1672 and King of England, Ireland and Scotland from 1689 until his death in 1702.
William Murdoch (sometimes spelled Murdock) (21 August 1754 – 15 November 1839) was a Scottish engineer and inventor.
William the Lion (Mediaeval Gaelic: Uilliam mac Eanric (i.e. William, son of Henry); Modern Gaelic: Uilleam mac Eanraig), sometimes styled William I, also known by the nickname Garbh, "the Rough",Uilleam Garbh; e.g. Annals of Ulster, s.a. 1214.6; Annals of Loch Cé, s.a. 1213.10.
William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, (26 June 1824 – 17 December 1907) was a Scots-Irish mathematical physicist and engineer who was born in Belfast in 1824.
Sir William Wallace (Scottish Gaelic: Uilleam Uallas; Norman French: William le Waleys; died 23 August 1305) was a Scottish knight who became one of the main leaders during the Wars of Scottish Independence.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
Zeebrugge (from: Brugge aan zee meaning "Bruges on Sea", Zeebruges) is a village on the coast of Belgium and a subdivision of Bruges, for which it is the modern port.
154 (Scottish) Regiment is a regiment of the British Army's Royal Logistic Corps.
The 1970 British Commonwealth Games (Scottish Gaelic: Geamannan a 'Cho-fhlaitheis Bhreatainn 1970) were held in Edinburgh, Scotland, from 16 July to 25 July 1970.
The 1986 Commonwealth Games (Scottish Gaelic: Geamannan a 'Cho-fhlaitheis 1986) were held in Edinburgh, Scotland, between 24 July and 2 August 1986.
The 2014 Commonwealth Games (Geamannan a' Cho-fhlaitheis 2014), officially known as the XX Commonwealth Games and commonly known as Glasgow 2014, (Glaschu 2014), was an international multi-sport event celebrated in the tradition of the Commonwealth Games as governed by the Commonwealth Games Federation (CGF).
Auld Country, Autonomous Province of Scotland, Communications in Scotland, East coast of Scotland, H-Alba, Maps of scotland, North Great Britain, North of Great Britain, Northern Great Britain, SCOTLAND, Scot Land, Scotchland, Scotia minor, Scotland's, Scotland, UK, Scotlander, Scotlanders, Scottish Nation, Scottish nation, Scottland, The Scottish Nation, United Kingdom: Scotland.