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Scots language

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Scots is the Germanic language variety spoken in Lowland Scotland and parts of Ulster (where the local dialect is known as Ulster Scots). [1]

258 relations: A Drunk Man Looks at the Thistle, A. J. Aitken, Abstand and ausbau languages, Acts of Union 1707, Adam Smith, Adjective, Adverb, Aeneid, Affirmation and negation, Affricate consonant, Alexander Boswell, Lord Auchinleck, Alexander Gray (poet), Allan Ramsay (poet), Alveolar consonant, Andrew of Wyntoun, Anglic languages, Anglo-Frisian languages, Anglo-Saxons, Apologetic apostrophe, Approximant consonant, Article (grammar), Augustan literature, Auld Alliance, Auld Lang Syne, Ayr, Ayr Academy, Ayrshire, BBC News, Billy Kay (writer), Blind Harry, Border ballad, Bungi Creole, Burgh, Burns supper, But'n'Ben A-Go-Go, Caithness, Campbeltown, Carlisle, Cumbria, Catullus, Cèilidh, Celtic languages, Central consonant, Central Scots, Charles Murray (poet), Code-switching, Cognate, College of Justice, Consonant, Corby, Counties of Ireland, ..., County Antrim, County Armagh, County Donegal, County Down, County Londonderry, Culzean Castle, Curriculum for Excellence, Cyberpunk, Danish language, David Hume, David I of Scotland, David Lyndsay, Dialect, Diasystem, Dictionary of the Scots Language, Diglossia, Doric dialect (Scotland), Douglas Young (classicist), Dutch language, Early Scots, Eastern Michigan University, Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press, Edith Anne Robertson, Education Scotland, Elocution, Eneados, European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, Finzean, Francis Sempill, Fricative consonant, Galloway, Gavin Douglas, General Register Office for Scotland, George MacDonald, Germanic languages, Germanic strong verb, Germanic umlaut, Germanic weak verb, Gerund, Glasgow patter, Glottal consonant, Goidelic languages, Good Friday Agreement, Guinea (coin), Hebrides, Heinz Kloss, Hugh MacDiarmid, Ian Maclaren, Insular Scots, Interdental consonant, International Phonetic Alphabet, Ireland, Irvine Welsh, Isle of Arran, J. K. Annand, J. M. Barrie, James Boswell, James Hogg, James Orr (poet), James VI and I, John Barbour (poet), John Buchan, Kailyard school, Kent, King James Version, Kingdom of Great Britain, Kingdom of Northumbria, Labial consonant, Lady Grizel Baillie, Lallans, Language, Language attrition, Language change, Language convergence, Language death, Language policy, Language shift, Languages of the United Kingdom, Lateral consonant, Latin, Latin script, List of Scottish monarchs, Literary language, Liz Lochhead, Loch, Low Countries, Mackenzie (surname), Mary of Guise, Matthew Fitt, Métis, Medium of instruction, Menzies, Middle English, Middle Irish, Middle Low German, Middle Scots, Mixed language, Modern English, Modern Scots, Molière, Multimedia, Nasal consonant, Natural language, Neologism, New Testament, Norman language, North Britain, North Sea Germanic, Northern Ireland, Northern Isles, Northern Scots, Northern Subject Rule, Northumbrian dialect (Old English), Norwegian language, Noun, Nursery rhyme, Old English, Old Norse, Oor Wullie, Orthography, Palatal consonant, Parliament of Scotland, Participle, Phonological history of Scots, Plantation of Ulster, Plural, Pluricentric language, Possessive, Postalveolar consonant, Present tense, Prestige (sociolinguistics), Rab Wilson, Regional language, Regular and irregular verbs, Relative pronoun, Republic of Ireland, Rhotic consonant, River Forth, Robert Burns, Robert Fergusson, Robert Garioch, Robert Henryson, Robert Louis Stevenson, Robert McLellan, Robert Sempill, Robert Sempill the younger, Romance languages, Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam, Scotch (adjective), Scotland, Scotticism, Scottish clan, Scottish Corpus of Texts and Speech, Scottish English, Scottish Enlightenment, Scottish Gaelic, Scottish Government, Scottish Highlands, Scottish literature, Scottish Lowlands, Scottish Parliament, Scottish people, Scottish Renaissance, Scottish vowel length rule, Second language, Sister language, Southern Scots, Standard English, Stop consonant, Subject–verb–object, Sydney Goodsir Smith, Tartuffe, Text corpus, The Broons, The Complaynt of Scotland, The North/South Language Body, The Sunday Post, The Wallace (poem), Thomas Sheridan (actor), Trainspotting (novel), Treaty of Union, Trill consonant, Ulster, Ulster Scots dialects, Ulster-Scots Agency, Union of the Crowns, United Kingdom, United Kingdom census, 2001, University of Aberdeen, University of California, University of St Andrews, Variety (linguistics), Velar consonant, Verb, Vernacular, Victorian era, Virgil, Vowel length, Walter Scott, Wayne State University, West Germanic languages, William Dunbar, William Flower (officer of arms), William Laidlaw, William Lorimer (scholar), World War II, Yogh. Expand index (208 more) »

A Drunk Man Looks at the Thistle

A Drunk Man Looks at the Thistle is a long poem by Hugh MacDiarmid written in Scots and published in 1926.

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A. J. Aitken

Adam Jack Aitken (19 June 1921 – 11 February 1998) was a Scottish lexicographer and leading scholar of the Scots language.

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Abstand and ausbau languages

In sociolinguistics, an abstand language is a language variety or cluster of varieties with significant linguistic distance from all others, while an ausbau language is a standard variety, possibly with related dependent varieties.

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Acts of Union 1707

The Acts of Union were two Acts of Parliament: the Union with Scotland Act 1706 passed by the Parliament of England, and the Union with England Act passed in 1707 by the Parliament of Scotland.

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Adam Smith

Adam Smith (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher and author as well as a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy and a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment era.

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Adjective

In linguistics, an adjective (abbreviated) is a describing word, the main syntactic role of which is to qualify a noun or noun phrase, giving more information about the object signified.

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Adverb

An adverb is a word that modifies a verb, adjective, another adverb, determiner, noun phrase, clause, or sentence.

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Aeneid

The Aeneid (Aeneis) is a Latin epic poem, written by Virgil between 29 and 19 BC, that tells the legendary story of Aeneas, a Trojan who travelled to Italy, where he became the ancestor of the Romans.

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Affirmation and negation

In linguistics and grammar, affirmation and negation (abbreviated respectively and) are the ways that grammar encode negative and positive polarity in verb phrases, clauses, or other utterances.

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Affricate consonant

An affricate is a consonant that begins as a stop and releases as a fricative, generally with the same place of articulation (most often coronal).

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Alexander Boswell, Lord Auchinleck

Alexander Boswell, Lord Auchinleck, 8th Laird of Auchinleck (1706–1782) was a judge of the supreme courts of Scotland.

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Alexander Gray (poet)

Sir Alexander Gray CBE, FRSE (6 January 1882 – 17 February 1968) was a Scottish civil servant, economist, academic, translator, writer and poet.

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Allan Ramsay (poet)

Allan Ramsay (15 October 16867 January 1758) was a Scottish poet (or makar), playwright, publisher, librarian, and impresario of early Enlightenment Edinburgh.

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Alveolar consonant

Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth.

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Andrew of Wyntoun

Andrew Wyntoun, known as Andrew of Wyntoun, was a Scottish poet, a canon and prior of Loch Leven on St Serf's Inch and later, a canon of St. Andrews.

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Anglic languages

The Anglic languages (also called the English languages or Insular Germanic languages) are a group of linguistic varieties including Old English and the languages descended from it.

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Anglo-Frisian languages

The Anglo-Frisian languages are the West Germanic languages which include Anglic (or English) and Frisian.

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Anglo-Saxons

The Anglo-Saxons were a people who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.

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Apologetic apostrophe

The 'apologetic'Graham W. (1977) The Scots Word Book, The Ramsay Head Press, Edinburgh, p.11 or parochial apostrophe is the distinctive use of apostrophes in Modern Scots orthography.

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Approximant consonant

Approximants are speech sounds that involve the articulators approaching each other but not narrowly enough nor with enough articulatory precision to create turbulent airflow.

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Article (grammar)

An article (with the linguistic glossing abbreviation) is a word that is used with a noun (as a standalone word or a prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope.

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Augustan literature

Augustan literature (sometimes referred to misleadingly as Georgian literature) is a style of British literature produced during the reigns of Queen Anne, King George I, and George II in the first half of the 18th century and ending in the 1740s, with the deaths of Alexander Pope and Jonathan Swift, in 1744 and 1745, respectively.

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Auld Alliance

The Auld Alliance (Scots for "Old Alliance") was an alliance made in 1295 between the kingdoms of Scotland and France.

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Auld Lang Syne

"Auld Lang Syne" (note "s" rather than "z") is a Scots poem written by Robert Burns in 1788 and set to the tune of a traditional folk song (Roud # 6294).

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Ayr

Ayr (Inbhir Àir, "Mouth of the River Ayr") is a large town and former Royal Burgh on the west coast of Ayrshire in Scotland.

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Ayr Academy

Ayr Academy is a non-denominational secondary school situated currently within the Cragie Estate area at University Avenue in Ayr, South Ayrshire.

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Ayrshire

Ayrshire (Siorrachd Inbhir Àir) is an historic county and registration county in south-west Scotland, located on the shores of the Firth of Clyde.

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BBC News

BBC News is an operational business division of the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) responsible for the gathering and broadcasting of news and current affairs.

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Billy Kay (writer)

Billy Kay is a Scottish writer, broadcaster and language activist.

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Blind Harry

Blind Harry (1440 – 1492), also known as Harry, Hary or Henry the Minstrel, is renowned as the author of The Actes and Deidis of the Illustre and Vallyeant Campioun Schir William Wallace, more commonly known as The Wallace.

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Border ballad

The Anglo-Scottish border has a long tradition of balladry, such that a whole group of songs exists that are often called "border ballads", because they were collected in that region.

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Bungi Creole

No description.

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Burgh

A burgh was an autonomous municipal corporation in Scotland and Northern England, usually a town, or toun in Scots.

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Burns supper

A Burns supper is a celebration of the life and poetry of the poet Robert Burns (25 January 175921 July 1796), the author of many Scots poems.

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But'n'Ben A-Go-Go

But n Ben A-Go-Go is a science fiction work by Scots writer Matthew Fitt, notable for being entirely in the Scots language.

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Caithness

Caithness (Gallaibh, Caitnes; Katanes) is a historic county, registration county and lieutenancy area of Scotland.

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Campbeltown

Campbeltown; (Ceann Loch Chille Chiarain or Ceann Locha) is a town and former royal burgh in Argyll and Bute, Scotland.

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Carlisle, Cumbria

Carlisle (or from Cumbric: Caer Luel Cathair Luail) is the county town of Cumbria.

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Catullus

Gaius Valerius Catullus (c. 84 – c. 54 BC) was a Latin poet of the late Roman Republic who wrote chiefly in the neoteric style of poetry, which is about personal life rather than classical heroes.

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Cèilidh

A cèilidh or céilí is a traditional Scottish or Irish social gathering.

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Celtic languages

The Celtic languages are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family.

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Central consonant

A central consonant, also known as a median consonant, is a consonant sound that is produced when air flows across the center of the mouth over the tongue.

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Central Scots

Central Scots is a group of dialects of Scots.

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Charles Murray (poet)

Charles Murray (27 September 1864 – 12 April 1941) was a poet who wrote in the Doric dialect of Scots.

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Code-switching

In linguistics, code-switching occurs when a speaker alternates between two or more languages, or language varieties, in the context of a single conversation.

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Cognate

In linguistics, cognates are words that have a common etymological origin.

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College of Justice

The College of Justice includes the Supreme Courts of Scotland, and its associated bodies.

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Consonant

In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a speech sound that is articulated with complete or partial closure of the vocal tract.

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Corby

Corby is a town and borough in the county of Northamptonshire, England.

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Counties of Ireland

The counties of Ireland (contaetha na hÉireann; Ulster-Scots: coonties o Airlann) are sub-national divisions that have been, and in some cases continue to be, used to geographically demarcate areas of local government.

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County Antrim

County Antrim (named after the town of Antrim)) is one of six counties that form Northern Ireland. Adjoined to the north-east shore of Lough Neagh, the county covers an area of and has a population of about 618,000. County Antrim has a population density of 203 people per square kilometre or 526 people per square mile. It is also one of the thirty-two traditional counties of Ireland, as well as part of the historic province of Ulster. The Glens of Antrim offer isolated rugged landscapes, the Giant's Causeway is a unique landscape and a UNESCO World Heritage Site, Bushmills produces whiskey, and Portrush is a popular seaside resort and night-life area. The majority of Belfast, the capital city of Northern Ireland, is in County Antrim, with the remainder being in County Down. It is currently one of only two counties of Ireland to have a majority of the population from a Protestant background, according to the 2001 census. The other is County Down to the south.

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County Armagh

County Armagh (named after its county town, Armagh) is one of six counties that form Northern Ireland.

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County Donegal

County Donegal (Contae Dhún na nGall) is a county of Ireland in the province of Ulster.

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County Down

County Down is one of six counties that form Northern Ireland in the northeast of the island of Ireland.

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County Londonderry

County Londonderry (Contae Dhoire; Ulster-Scots: Coontie Lunnonderrie), also known as County Derry, is one of the six counties of Northern Ireland.

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Culzean Castle

Culzean Castle (see yogh; Cullain) is a castle overlooking the Firth of Clyde, near Maybole, Carrick, on the Ayrshire coast of Scotland.

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Curriculum for Excellence

Curriculum for Excellence is the national curriculum for Scottish schools for learners from age 3 to 15.

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Cyberpunk

Cyberpunk is a subgenre of science fiction in a futuristic setting that tends to focus on a "combination of lowlife and high tech" featuring advanced technological and scientific achievements, such as artificial intelligence and cybernetics, juxtaposed with a degree of breakdown or radical change in the social order.

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Danish language

Danish (dansk, dansk sprog) is a North Germanic language spoken by around six million people, principally in Denmark and in the region of Southern Schleswig in northern Germany, where it has minority language status.

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David Hume

David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.

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David I of Scotland

David I or Dauíd mac Maíl Choluim (Modern: Daibhidh I mac Chaluim; – 24 May 1153) was a 12th-century ruler who was Prince of the Cumbrians from 1113 to 1124 and later King of the Scots from 1124 to 1153.

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David Lyndsay

Sir David Lyndsay of the Mount (c. 1490 – c. 1555; alias Lindsay) was a Scottish herald who gained the highest heraldic office of Lyon King of Arms.

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Dialect

The term dialect (from Latin,, from the Ancient Greek word,, "discourse", from,, "through" and,, "I speak") is used in two distinct ways to refer to two different types of linguistic phenomena.

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Diasystem

In the field of dialectology, a diasystem or polylectal grammar is a linguistic analysis set up to encode or represent a range of related varieties in a way that displays their structural differences.

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Dictionary of the Scots Language

The Dictionary of the Scots Language (DSL) (Dictionar o the Scots Leid) is an online Scots-English dictionary, now run by Scottish Language Dictionaries, a charity and limited company.

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Diglossia

In linguistics, diglossia is a situation in which two dialects or languages are used by a single language community.

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Doric dialect (Scotland)

Doric, the popular name for Mid Northern Scots or Northeast Scots, refers to the Scots language as spoken in the northeast of Scotland.

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Douglas Young (classicist)

Douglas Cuthbert Colquhoun Young (5 June 1913 – 23 October 1973) was a Scottish poet, scholar, translator and politician.

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Dutch language

The Dutch language is a West Germanic language, spoken by around 23 million people as a first language (including the population of the Netherlands where it is the official language, and about sixty percent of Belgium where it is one of the three official languages) and by another 5 million as a second language.

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Early Scots

Early Scots was the emerging literary language of the Northern Middle English speaking parts of Scotland in the period before 1450.

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Eastern Michigan University

Eastern Michigan University (EMU) is a comprehensive, co-educational public university in Ypsilanti, Michigan.

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Edinburgh

Edinburgh (Dùn Èideann; Edinburgh) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas.

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Edinburgh University Press

Edinburgh University Press is a scholarly publisher of academic books and journals, based in Edinburgh, Scotland.

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Edith Anne Robertson

Edith Anne Robertson (10 Jan 1883 – 31 Jan 1973) was a Scottish poet who wrote in both the English and Scots tongues.

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Education Scotland

Education Scotland (Foghlam Alba, Eddication Scotland) is an Executive Agency of the Scottish Government, tasked with improving the quality of the country's education system.

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Elocution

Elocution is the study of formal speaking in pronunciation, grammar, style, and tone.

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Eneados

The Eneados is a translation into Middle Scots of the Latin Virgil's Aeneid, completed by the poet and clergyman Gavin Douglas in 1513.

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European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages

The European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages (ECRML) is a European treaty (CETS 148) adopted in 1992 under the auspices of the Council of Europe to protect and promote historical regional and minority languages in Europe.

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Finzean

Finzean (Fìnnean) is a rural community, electoral polling district, community council area and former ecclesiastical parish, which forms the southern part of the Parish of Birse, Aberdeenshire, Scotland.

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Francis Sempill

Francis Sempill (1616? – March 1682) was a son of Robert Sempill the younger.

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Fricative consonant

Fricatives are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together.

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Galloway

Galloway (Gallovidia) is a region in southwestern Scotland comprising the historic counties of Wigtownshire and Kirkcudbrightshire.

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Gavin Douglas

Gavin Douglas (c. 1474 – September 1522) was a Scottish bishop, makar and translator.

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General Register Office for Scotland

The General Register Office for Scotland (GROS) (Oifis Choitcheann a' Chlàraidh na h-Alba) was a non-ministerial directorate of the Scottish Government that administered the registration of births, deaths, marriages, divorces and adoptions in Scotland.

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George MacDonald

George MacDonald (10 December 1824 – 18 September 1905) was a Scottish author, poet and Christian minister.

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Germanic languages

The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.

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Germanic strong verb

In the Germanic languages, a strong verb is a verb that marks its past tense by means of changes to the stem vowel (ablaut).

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Germanic umlaut

The Germanic umlaut (sometimes called i-umlaut or i-mutation) is a type of linguistic umlaut in which a back vowel changes to the associated front vowel (fronting) or a front vowel becomes closer to (raising) when the following syllable contains,, or.

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Germanic weak verb

In Germanic languages, weak verbs are by far the largest group of verbs, which are therefore often regarded as the norm (the regular verbs), but they are not historically the oldest or most original group.

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Gerund

A gerund (abbreviated) is any of various nonfinite verb forms in various languages, most often, but not exclusively, one that functions as a noun.

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Glasgow patter

The Glasgow patter, or Glaswegian, is a Scots dialect spoken in and around Glasgow, Scotland.

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Glottal consonant

Glottal consonants are consonants using the glottis as their primary articulation.

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Goidelic languages

The Goidelic or Gaelic languages (teangacha Gaelacha; cànanan Goidhealach; çhengaghyn Gaelgagh) form one of the two groups of Insular Celtic languages, the other being the Brittonic languages.

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Good Friday Agreement

The Good Friday Agreement (GFA) or Belfast Agreement (Comhaontú Aoine an Chéasta or Comhaontú Bhéal Feirste; Ulster-Scots: Guid Friday Greeance or Bilfawst Greeance) was a major political development in the Northern Ireland peace process of the 1990s.

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Guinea (coin)

The guinea was a coin of approximately one quarter ounce of gold that was minted in Great Britain between 1663 and 1814.

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Hebrides

The Hebrides (Innse Gall,; Suðreyjar) compose a widespread and diverse archipelago off the west coast of mainland Scotland.

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Heinz Kloss

Heinz Kloss (30 October 1904, Halle, Saxony-Anhalt – 13 June 1987) was a German linguist and internationally recognised authority on linguistic minorities.

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Hugh MacDiarmid

Christopher Murray Grieve (11 August 1892 – 9 September 1978), known by his pen name Hugh MacDiarmid, was a Scottish poet, journalist, essayist and political figure.

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Ian Maclaren

Rev.

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Insular Scots

Insular Scots comprises varieties of Lowland Scots generally subdivided into.

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Interdental consonant

Interdental consonants are produced by placing the tip of the tongue between the upper and lower front teeth.

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International Phonetic Alphabet

The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin alphabet.

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Ireland

Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.

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Irvine Welsh

Irvine Welsh (born 27 September 1958) is a Scottish novelist, playwright and short story writer.

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Isle of Arran

Arran (Eilean Arainn) or the Isle of Arran is the largest island in the Firth of Clyde and the seventh largest Scottish island, at.

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J. K. Annand

James King Annand MBE (2 February 1908 – 8 June 1993) was a Scottish poet best known for his children's poems.

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J. M. Barrie

Sir James Matthew Barrie, 1st Baronet, (9 May 1860 19 June 1937) was a Scottish novelist and playwright, best remembered today as the creator of Peter Pan.

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James Boswell

James Boswell, 9th Laird of Auchinleck (29 October 1740 – 19 May 1795), was a Scottish biographer and diarist, born in Edinburgh.

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James Hogg

James Hogg (1770 – 21 November 1835) was a Scottish poet, novelist and essayist who wrote in both Scots and English.

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James Orr (poet)

James Orr (1770 – 24 April 1816), known as the Bard of Ballycarry, was a poet or rhyming weaver from Ballycarry, Co.

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James VI and I

James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625.

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John Barbour (poet)

John Barbour (c.1320 – 13 March 1395) was a Scottish poet and the first major named literary figure to write in Scots.

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John Buchan

John Buchan, 1st Baron Tweedsmuir, (26 August 1875 – 11 February 1940) was a Scottish novelist, historian, and Unionist politician who served as Governor General of Canada, the 15th since Canadian Confederation.

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Kailyard school

The Kailyard school of Scottish fiction (1880-1914) was developed in the last decades of the 19th century as a reaction against what was seen as increasingly coarse writing representing Scottish life complete with all its blemishes.

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Kent

Kent is a county in South East England and one of the home counties.

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King James Version

The King James Version (KJV), also known as the King James Bible (KJB) or simply the Version (AV), is an English translation of the Christian Bible for the Church of England, begun in 1604 and completed in 1611.

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Kingdom of Great Britain

The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,Parliament of the Kingdom of England.

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Kingdom of Northumbria

The Kingdom of Northumbria (Norþanhymbra rīce) was a medieval Anglian kingdom in what is now northern England and south-east Scotland.

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Labial consonant

Labial consonants are consonants in which one or both lips are the active articulator.

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Lady Grizel Baillie

Lady Grizel Baillie (née Hume; 25 December 1665 – 6 December 1746) was a Scottish songwriter.

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Lallans

Lallans (a variant of the Modern Scots word lawlands meaning the lowlands of Scotland), is a term that was traditionally used to refer to the Scots language as a whole.

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Language

Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.

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Language attrition

Language attrition is the process of losing a native, or first, language.

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Language change

Language change is variation over time in a language's phonological, morphological, semantic, syntactic, and other features.

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Language convergence

Language convergence is a type of linguistic change in which languages come to structurally resemble one another as a result of prolonged language contact and mutual interference.

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Language death

In linguistics, language death occurs when a language loses its last native speaker.

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Language policy

Many countries have a language policy designed to favor or discourage the use of a particular language or set of languages.

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Language shift

Language shift, also known as language transfer or language replacement or language assimilation, is the process whereby a community of speakers of a language shifts to speaking a completely different language, usually over an extended period of time.

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Languages of the United Kingdom

English, in various dialects, is the most widely spoken language of the United Kingdom, however there are a number of regional languages also spoken. There are 11 indigenous languages spoken across the British Isles: 5 Celtic, 3 Germanic, and 3 Romance. There are also many immigrant languages spoken in the British Isles, mainly within inner city areas; these languages are mainly from South Asia and Eastern Europe. The de facto official language of the United Kingdom is English, which is spoken by approximately 59.8 million residents, or 98% of the population, over the age of three.According to the 2011 census, 53,098,301 people in England and Wales, 5,044,683 people in Scotland, and 1,681,210 people in Northern Ireland can speak English "well" or "very well"; totalling 59,824,194. Therefore, out of the 60,815,385 residents of the UK over the age of three, 98% can speak English "well" or "very well". An estimated 700,000 people speak Welsh in the UK,, by Hywel M Jones, page 115, 13.5.1.6, England. Published February 2012. Retrieved 28 March 2016. an official language in Wales and the only de jure official language in any part of the UK. Approximately 1.5 million people in the UK speak Scots—although there is debate as to whether this is a distinct language, or a variety of English.A.J. Aitken in The Oxford Companion to the English Language, Oxford University Press 1992. p.894 There is some discussion of the languages of the United Kingdom's three Crown dependencies (Jersey, Guernsey and the Isle of Man), though they are not part of the United Kingdom.

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Lateral consonant

A lateral is an l-like consonant in which the airstream proceeds along the sides of the tongue, but it is blocked by the tongue from going through the middle of the mouth.

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Latin

Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.

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Latin script

Latin or Roman script is a set of graphic signs (script) based on the letters of the classical Latin alphabet, which is derived from a form of the Cumaean Greek version of the Greek alphabet, used by the Etruscans.

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List of Scottish monarchs

The monarch of Scotland was the head of state of the Kingdom of Scotland.

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Literary language

A literary language is the form of a language used in the writing of the language.

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Liz Lochhead

Liz Lochhead (born 26 December 1947) is a Scottish poet, playwright, translator and broadcaster.

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Loch

Loch is the Irish, Scottish Gaelic and Scots word for a lake or for a sea inlet.

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Low Countries

The Low Countries or, in the geographic sense of the term, the Netherlands (de Lage Landen or de Nederlanden, les Pays Bas) is a coastal region in northwestern Europe, consisting especially of the Netherlands and Belgium, and the low-lying delta of the Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, and Ems rivers where much of the land is at or below sea level.

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Mackenzie (surname)

Mackenzie, MacKenzie and McKenzie are Scottish surnames.

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Mary of Guise

Mary of Guise (Marie; 22 November 1515 – 11 June 1560), also called Mary of Lorraine, ruled Scotland as regent from 1554 until her death.

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Matthew Fitt

Matthew Fitt is a Scots poet and novelist.

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Métis

The Métis are members of ethnic groups native to Canada and parts of the United States that trace their descent to indigenous North Americans and European settlers.

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Medium of instruction

A medium of instruction (plural: usually mediums of instruction, but the archaic media of instruction is still used by some) is a language used in teaching.

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Menzies

Menzies is a Scottish surname.

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Middle English

Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.

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Middle Irish

Middle Irish (sometimes called Middle Gaelic, An Mheán-Ghaeilge) is the Goidelic language which was spoken in Ireland, most of Scotland and the Isle of Man from circa 900-1200 AD; it is therefore a contemporary of late Old English and early Middle English.

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Middle Low German

Middle Low German or Middle Saxon (ISO 639-3 code gml) is a language that is the descendant of Old Saxon and the ancestor of modern Low German.

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Middle Scots

Middle Scots was the Anglic language of Lowland Scotland in the period from 1450 to 1700.

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Mixed language

Although every language is mixed to some extent, by virtue of containing loanwords, it is a matter of controversy whether a term mixed language can meaningfully distinguish the contact phenomena of certain languages (such as those listed below) from the type of contact and borrowing seen in all languages.

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Modern English

Modern English (sometimes New English or NE as opposed to Middle English and Old English) is the form of the English language spoken since the Great Vowel Shift in England, which began in the late 14th century and was completed in roughly 1550.

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Modern Scots

Modern Scots comprises the varieties of Scots traditionally spoken in Lowland Scotland, and parts of Ulster, from 1700.

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Molière

Jean-Baptiste Poquelin, known by his stage name Molière (15 January 162217 February 1673), was a French playwright, actor and poet, widely regarded as one of the greatest writers in the French language and universal literature.

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Multimedia

Multimedia is content that uses a combination of different content forms such as text, audio, images, animations, video and interactive content.

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Nasal consonant

In phonetics, a nasal, also called a nasal occlusive, nasal stop in contrast with a nasal fricative, or nasal continuant, is an occlusive consonant produced with a lowered velum, allowing air to escape freely through the nose.

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Natural language

In neuropsychology, linguistics, and the philosophy of language, a natural language or ordinary language is any language that has evolved naturally in humans through use and repetition without conscious planning or premeditation.

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Neologism

A neologism (from Greek νέο- néo-, "new" and λόγος lógos, "speech, utterance") is a relatively recent or isolated term, word, or phrase that may be in the process of entering common use, but that has not yet been fully accepted into mainstream language.

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New Testament

The New Testament (Ἡ Καινὴ Διαθήκη, trans. Hē Kainḕ Diathḗkē; Novum Testamentum) is the second part of the Christian biblical canon, the first part being the Old Testament, based on the Hebrew Bible.

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Norman language

No description.

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North Britain

"North Britain" is a term which has been occasionally used, particularly in the 17th and 18th centuries, for either the northern part of Great Britain or to Scotland, which occupies the northernmost third of the island.

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North Sea Germanic

North Sea Germanic, also known as Ingvaeonic, is a postulated grouping of the northern West Germanic languages, consisting of Old Frisian, Old English and Old Saxon and their descendants.

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Northern Ireland

Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.

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Northern Isles

The Northern Isles (Northren Isles; Na h-Eileanan a Tuath; Norðreyjar) are a pair of archipelagos off the north coast of mainland Scotland, comprising Orkney and Shetland.

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Northern Scots

Northern Scots refers to the dialects of Modern Scots traditionally spoken in eastern parts of the north of Scotland.

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Northern Subject Rule

The Northern Subject Rule is a grammatical pattern that occurs in Northern English and Scots dialects.

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Northumbrian dialect (Old English)

Northumbrian was a dialect of Old English spoken in the Anglian Kingdom of Northumbria.

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Norwegian language

Norwegian (norsk) is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language.

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Noun

A noun (from Latin nōmen, literally meaning "name") is a word that functions as the name of some specific thing or set of things, such as living creatures, objects, places, actions, qualities, states of existence, or ideas.

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Nursery rhyme

A nursery rhyme is a traditional poem or song for children in Britain and many other countries, but usage of the term only dates from the late 18th/early 19th century.

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Old English

Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.

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Old Norse

Old Norse was a North Germanic language that was spoken by inhabitants of Scandinavia and inhabitants of their overseas settlements from about the 9th to the 13th century.

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Oor Wullie

Oor Wullie (Our William) is a Scottish comic strip published in the D.C. Thomson newspaper The Sunday Post.

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Orthography

An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language.

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Palatal consonant

Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth).

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Parliament of Scotland

The Parliament of Scotland was the legislature of the Kingdom of Scotland.

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Participle

A participle is a form of a verb that is used in a sentence to modify a noun, noun phrase, verb, or verb phrase, and plays a role similar to an adjective or adverb.

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Phonological history of Scots

This is a presentation of the phonological history of the Scots language.

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Plantation of Ulster

The Plantation of Ulster (Plandáil Uladh; Ulster-Scots: Plantin o Ulstèr) was the organised colonisation (plantation) of Ulstera province of Irelandby people from Great Britain during the reign of James VI and I. Most of the colonists came from Scotland and England, although there was a small number of Welsh settlers.

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Plural

The plural (sometimes abbreviated), in many languages, is one of the values of the grammatical category of number.

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Pluricentric language

A pluricentric language or polycentric language is a language with several interacting codified standard versions, often corresponding to different countries.

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Possessive

A possessive form (abbreviated) is a word or grammatical construction used to indicate a relationship of possession in a broad sense.

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Postalveolar consonant

Postalveolar consonants (sometimes spelled post-alveolar) are consonants articulated with the tongue near or touching the back of the alveolar ridge, farther back in the mouth than the alveolar consonants, which are at the ridge itself but not as far back as the hard palate, the place of articulation for palatal consonants.

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Present tense

The present tense (abbreviated or) is a grammatical tense whose principal function is to locate a situation or event in present time.

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Prestige (sociolinguistics)

Prestige is the level of regard normally accorded a specific language or dialect within a speech community, relative to other languages or dialects.

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Rab Wilson

Rab Wilson (born 1 September 1960, New Cumnock, Ayrshire) is a Scottish poet who writes mainly in the Scots language.

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Regional language

A regional language is a language spoken in an area of a sovereign state, whether it be a small area, a federal state or province, or some wider area.

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Regular and irregular verbs

A regular verb is any verb whose conjugation follows the typical pattern, or one of the typical patterns, of the language to which it belongs.

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Relative pronoun

A relative pronoun marks a relative clause; it has the same referent in the main clause of a sentence that the relative modifies.

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Republic of Ireland

Ireland (Éire), also known as the Republic of Ireland (Poblacht na hÉireann), is a sovereign state in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland.

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Rhotic consonant

In phonetics, rhotic consonants, or "R-like" sounds, are liquid consonants that are traditionally represented orthographically by symbols derived from the Greek letter rho, including r in the Latin script and p in the Cyrillic script.

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River Forth

The River Forth is a major river, long, whose drainage basin covers much of Stirlingshire in Scotland's Central Belt.

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Robert Burns

Robert Burns (25 January 175921 July 1796), also known as Rabbie Burns, the Bard of Ayrshire, Ploughman Poet and various other names and epithets, was a Scottish poet and lyricist.

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Robert Fergusson

Robert Fergusson (5 September 1750 – 16 October 1774) was a Scottish poet.

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Robert Garioch

Robert Garioch Sutherland, (9 May 1909 – 26 April 1981), was a Scottish poet and translator.

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Robert Henryson

Robert Henryson (Middle Scots: Robert Henrysoun) was a poet who flourished in Scotland in the period c. 1460–1500.

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Robert Louis Stevenson

Robert Louis Balfour Stevenson (13 November 1850 – 3 December 1894) was a Scottish novelist, poet, essayist, musician and travel writer.

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Robert McLellan

Robert McLellan OBE (1907–1985) was a Scottish dramatist, poet and writer of the Linmill Stories, working principally in the Scots language.

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Robert Sempill

Robert Sempill (the elder) (c. 1530–1595), Scottish ballad-writer, was in all probability a cadet of illegitimate birth of the noble house of Sempill or Semple.

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Robert Sempill the younger

Robert Sempill, the younger (1595?–1663?), Scottish poet, son of James Sempill, was educated at the University of Glasgow, having matriculated in March 1613.

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Romance languages

The Romance languages (also called Romanic languages or Neo-Latin languages) are the modern languages that began evolving from Vulgar Latin between the sixth and ninth centuries and that form a branch of the Italic languages within the Indo-European language family.

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Rubaiyat of Omar Khayyam

Rubáiyát of Omar Khayyám is the title that Edward FitzGerald gave to his 1859 translation of a selection of quatrains (rubāʿiyāt) attributed to Omar Khayyam (1048–1131), dubbed "the Astronomer-Poet of Persia".

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Scotch (adjective)

Scotch is an adjective meaning "of Scotland".

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Scotland

Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.

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Scotticism

A Scotticism is a phrase or word which is characteristic of dialects of the Scots language.

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Scottish clan

A Scottish clan (from Gaelic clann, "children") is a kinship group among the Scottish people.

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Scottish Corpus of Texts and Speech

The Scottish Corpus of Texts & Speech (SCOTS) is an ongoing project to build a corpus of modern-day (post-1940) written and spoken texts in Scottish English and varieties of Scots.

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Scottish English

Scottish English refers to the varieties of English spoken in Scotland.

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Scottish Enlightenment

The Scottish Enlightenment (Scots Enlichtenment, Soillseachadh na h-Alba) was the period in 18th and early 19th century Scotland characterised by an outpouring of intellectual and scientific accomplishments.

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Scottish Gaelic

Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes also referred to simply as Gaelic (Gàidhlig) or the Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland.

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Scottish Government

The Scottish Government (Riaghaltas na h-Alba; Scots Govrenment) is the executive of the devolved Scottish Parliament.

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Scottish Highlands

The Highlands (the Hielands; A’ Ghàidhealtachd, "the place of the Gaels") are a historic region of Scotland.

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Scottish literature

Scottish literature is literature written in Scotland or by Scottish writers.

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Scottish Lowlands

The Lowlands (the Lallans or the Lawlands; a' Ghalldachd, "the place of the foreigner") are a cultural and historic region of Scotland.

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Scottish Parliament

The Scottish Parliament (Pàrlamaid na h-Alba; Scots: The Scots Pairlament) is the devolved national, unicameral legislature of Scotland.

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Scottish people

The Scottish people (Scots: Scots Fowk, Scottish Gaelic: Albannaich), or Scots, are a nation and ethnic group native to Scotland. Historically, they emerged from an amalgamation of two Celtic-speaking peoples, the Picts and Gaels, who founded the Kingdom of Scotland (or Alba) in the 9th century. Later, the neighbouring Celtic-speaking Cumbrians, as well as Germanic-speaking Anglo-Saxons and Norse, were incorporated into the Scottish nation. In modern usage, "Scottish people" or "Scots" is used to refer to anyone whose linguistic, cultural, family ancestral or genetic origins are from Scotland. The Latin word Scoti originally referred to the Gaels, but came to describe all inhabitants of Scotland. Considered archaic or pejorative, the term Scotch has also been used for Scottish people, primarily outside Scotland. John Kenneth Galbraith in his book The Scotch (Toronto: MacMillan, 1964) documents the descendants of 19th-century Scottish pioneers who settled in Southwestern Ontario and affectionately referred to themselves as 'Scotch'. He states the book was meant to give a true picture of life in the community in the early decades of the 20th century. People of Scottish descent live in many countries other than Scotland. Emigration, influenced by factors such as the Highland and Lowland Clearances, Scottish participation in the British Empire, and latterly industrial decline and unemployment, have resulted in Scottish people being found throughout the world. Scottish emigrants took with them their Scottish languages and culture. Large populations of Scottish people settled the new-world lands of North and South America, Australia and New Zealand. Canada has the highest level of Scottish descendants per capita in the world and the second-largest population of Scottish descendants, after the United States. Scotland has seen migration and settlement of many peoples at different periods in its history. The Gaels, the Picts and the Britons have their respective origin myths, like most medieval European peoples. Germanic peoples, such as the Anglo-Saxons, arrived beginning in the 7th century, while the Norse settled parts of Scotland from the 8th century onwards. In the High Middle Ages, from the reign of David I of Scotland, there was some emigration from France, England and the Low Countries to Scotland. Some famous Scottish family names, including those bearing the names which became Bruce, Balliol, Murray and Stewart came to Scotland at this time. Today Scotland is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, and the majority of people living there are British citizens.

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Scottish Renaissance

The Scottish Renaissance was a mainly literary movement of the early to mid-20th century that can be seen as the Scottish version of modernism.

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Scottish vowel length rule

The Scottish vowel length rule (also known as Aitken's law after A. J. Aitken, the Scottish linguist who formulated it) describes how vowel length in Scots, Scottish English, and, to some extent, Mid-Ulster English is conditioned by the phonetic environment of the target vowel.

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Second language

A person's second language or L2, is a language that is not the native language of the speaker, but that is used in the locale of that person.

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Sister language

In historical linguistics, sister languages, also known as sibling languages or brother languages are cognate languages; that is, languages that descend from a common ancestral language, the so-called proto-language.

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Southern Scots

Southern Scots is the dialect (or group of dialects) of Scots spoken in the Scottish Borders counties of mid and east Dumfriesshire, Roxburghshire and Selkirkshire, with the notable exception of Berwickshire and Peeblesshire, which are, like Edinburgh, part of the SE Central Scots dialect area.

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Standard English

Standard English (SE) is the variety of English language that is used as the national norm in an English-speaking country, especially as the language for public and formal usage.

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Stop consonant

In phonetics, a stop, also known as a plosive or oral occlusive, is a consonant in which the vocal tract is blocked so that all airflow ceases.

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Subject–verb–object

In linguistic typology, subject–verb–object (SVO) is a sentence structure where the subject comes first, the verb second, and the object third.

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Sydney Goodsir Smith

Sydney Goodsir Smith (26 October 1915 – 15 January 1975) was a New Zealand-born Scottish poet, artist, dramatist and novelist.

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Tartuffe

Tartuffe, or The Impostor, or The Hypocrite (Tartuffe, ou l'Imposteur), first performed in 1664, is one of the most famous theatrical comedies by Molière.

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Text corpus

In linguistics, a corpus (plural corpora) or text corpus is a large and structured set of texts (nowadays usually electronically stored and processed).

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The Broons

The Broons is a comic strip in Scots published in the weekly Scottish newspaper The Sunday Post.

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The Complaynt of Scotland

The Complaynt of Scotland is a Scottish book printed in 1549 as propaganda during the war of the Rough Wooing against the Kingdom of England, and is an important work of the Scots language.

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The North/South Language Body

The North/South Language Body (An Foras Teanga Thuaidh/Theas; Ulster-Scots: Tha Noarth/Sooth Boord o Leid or The Language Curn) is an implementation body, provided for by the Belfast Agreement, that exists to implement policies agreed by Ministers in the North/South Ministerial Council (NSMC) in Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland with regard to the Irish and Ulster-Scots (or "Ullans") languages on a cross border all Island basis.

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The Sunday Post

The Sunday Post is a weekly newspaper published in Dundee, Scotland, by DC Thomson, and characterised by a mix of news, human interest stories and short features.

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The Wallace (poem)

The Actes and Deidis of the Illustre and Vallyeant Campioun Schir William Wallace, also known as The Wallace, is a long "romantic biographical" poem by the fifteenth-century Scottish makar of the name Blind Harry probably at some time in the decade before 1488.

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Thomas Sheridan (actor)

Thomas Sheridan (1719 – 14 August 1788) was an Irish stage actor, an educator, and a major proponent of the elocution movement.

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Trainspotting (novel)

Trainspotting is the first novel by Scottish writer Irvine Welsh, first published in 1993.

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Treaty of Union

The Treaty of Union is the name usually now given to the agreement which led to the creation of the new state of Great Britain, stating that England (which already included Wales) and Scotland were to be "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain",: Both Acts of Union and the Treaty state in Article I: That the Two Kingdoms of Scotland and England, shall upon 1 May next ensuing the date hereof, and forever after, be United into One Kingdom by the Name of GREAT BRITAIN.

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Trill consonant

In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the active articulator and passive articulator.

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Ulster

Ulster (Ulaidh or Cúige Uladh, Ulster Scots: Ulstèr or Ulster) is a province in the north of the island of Ireland.

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Ulster Scots dialects

Ulster Scots or Ulster-Scots (Ulstèr-Scotch), also known as Ullans, is the Scots language as spoken in parts of Ulster in Ireland.

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Ulster-Scots Agency

The Ulster-Scots Agency (Tha Boord o Ulstèr-Scotch) is a cross-border body for Ireland which seeks to "promote the study, conservation and development of Ulster-Scots as a living language, to encourage and develop the full range of its attendant culture, and to promote an understanding of the history of the Ulster-Scots.".

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Union of the Crowns

The Union of the Crowns (Aonadh nan Crùintean; Union o the Crouns) was the accession of James VI of Scotland to the thrones of England and Ireland, and the consequential unification for some purposes (such as overseas diplomacy) of the three realms under a single monarch on 24 March 1603.

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United Kingdom

The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.

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United Kingdom census, 2001

A nationwide census, known as Census 2001, was conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday, 29 April 2001.

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University of Aberdeen

The University of Aberdeen is a public research university in Aberdeen, Scotland.

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University of California

The University of California (UC) is a public university system in the US state of California.

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University of St Andrews

The University of St Andrews (informally known as St Andrews University or simply St Andrews; abbreviated as St And, from the Latin Sancti Andreae, in post-nominals) is a British public research university in St Andrews, Fife, Scotland.

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Variety (linguistics)

In sociolinguistics a variety, also called a lect, is a specific form of a language or language cluster.

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Velar consonant

Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate, the back part of the roof of the mouth (known also as the velum).

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Verb

A verb, from the Latin verbum meaning word, is a word (part of speech) that in syntax conveys an action (bring, read, walk, run, learn), an occurrence (happen, become), or a state of being (be, exist, stand).

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Vernacular

A vernacular, or vernacular language, is the language or variety of a language used in everyday life by the common people of a specific population.

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Victorian era

In the history of the United Kingdom, the Victorian era was the period of Queen Victoria's reign, from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901.

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Virgil

Publius Vergilius Maro (traditional dates October 15, 70 BC – September 21, 19 BC), usually called Virgil or Vergil in English, was an ancient Roman poet of the Augustan period.

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Vowel length

In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived duration of a vowel sound.

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Walter Scott

Sir Walter Scott, 1st Baronet (15 August 1771 – 21 September 1832) was a Scottish historical novelist, playwright, poet and historian.

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Wayne State University

Wayne State University (WSU) is a public research university located in Detroit, Michigan.

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West Germanic languages

The West Germanic languages constitute the largest of the three branches of the Germanic family of languages (the others being the North Germanic and the extinct East Germanic languages).

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William Dunbar

William Dunbar (born 1459 or 1460–died by 1530) was a Scottish makar poet active in the late fifteenth century and the early sixteenth century.

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William Flower (officer of arms)

William Flower (1497/98–1588) was an English Officer of Arms in the reigns of Henry VIII, Edward VI, Mary I and Elizabeth I. He rose to the rank of Norroy King of Arms, serving in that capacity from 1562 until his death in 1588.

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William Laidlaw

William Laidlaw (1780–1845) was a Scottish poet.

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William Lorimer (scholar)

William Laughton Lorimer (1885-1967) was a Scottish scholar.

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World War II

World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.

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Yogh

The letter yogh (ȝogh) (Ȝ ȝ; Middle English: ȝogh) was used in Middle English and Older Scots, representing y and various velar phonemes.

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Braid Scots, Broad Scots, ISO 639:sco, Lallans dialect, Lowland Scots Language, Lowland Scots language, Old Scots, Scots (language variety), Scots (language), Scots Language, Scots leid, Scots phonology, Scots tongue, Scots tung, Scots-speakers.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scots_language

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