303 relations: A Treatise of Human Nature, Adam Ferguson, Adam Menelaws, Adam Smith, Adam style, Age of Enlightenment, Alan Deardorff, Alexander Carlyle, Alexander Dalrymple, Alexander Fraser Tytler, Lord Woodhouselee, Alexander Gerard, Alexander Gordon (antiquary), Alexander Gordon (general), Alexander Hamilton (Scottish physician), Alexander Mackenzie (explorer), Alexander Monro (primus), Alexander Monro (secundus), Allan Ramsay (artist), Allan Ramsay (poet), American Enlightenment, Ancient universities of Scotland, Andrew Bell (engraver), Andrew Fletcher (patriot), Andrew Millar, Anglicisation, Anthony Ashley-Cooper, 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury, Archibald Alison (author), Archibald Constable, Archibald Pitcairne, Architecture of the United States, Arthur L. Herman, Atlantic World, Bank of Scotland, Basic Books, Belles-lettres, Benjamin Franklin, Bible, Birlinn (publisher), Burns stanza, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Carolina Nairne, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, Charles Cameron (architect), Charles Darwin, Charles Lyell (botanist), Charles Macintosh, Church of Scotland, Circulating capital, Classical antiquity, ..., Classics, Colin Macfarquhar, Colin Maclaurin, Consequentialism, Daniel Rutherford, David Allan (painter), David Daiches, David Dale, David Dalrymple, Lord Hailes, David Erskine, 11th Earl of Buchan, David Hume, David Mallet (writer), Denis Diderot, Division of labour, Dugald Stewart, Economic development, Economic growth, Economic policy, Edinburgh University Press, Education Act 1496, Education Act 1633, Education Act 1646, Empiricism, Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopédie, English literature, Epic poetry, Erasmus Darwin, Essays, Moral, Political, and Literary, Evolution, Fixed capital, Folk music, Fossil, Founding Fathers of the United States, Francis Home, Francis Hutcheson (philosopher), Francis Jeffrey, Lord Jeffrey, Francis Masson, Franco Modigliani, Gains from trade, Gavin Hamilton (artist), Geologist, George Campbell (minister), George Drummond, George III of the United Kingdom, George Stigler, George Thomson (musician), George Turnbull (theologian), Gilbert Stuart, Globalization, HarperCollins, Henry Bell (engineer), Henry Brougham, 1st Baron Brougham and Vaux, Henry Dundas, 1st Viscount Melville, Henry Erskine (lawyer), Henry Farquharson, Henry Home, Lord Kames, Henry Mackenzie, Henry Raeburn, How the Scots Invented the Modern World, Hugh Blair, Humanism, Iliad, Immanuel Kant, Industrial organization, Jacob More, Jacobitism, Jacques-Louis David, James Adam (architect), James Anderson (lawyer), James Anderson of Hermiston, James Beattie (poet), James Boswell, James Bruce, James Buchan, James Burnett, Lord Monboddo, James Clerk Maxwell, James Craig (architect), James Douglas, 14th Earl of Morton, James Elphinston, James Ferguson (Scottish astronomer), James Gillray, James Hogg, James Hutton, James Keir, James M. Buchanan, James Mackintosh, James Macpherson, James Mill, James Oswald (composer), James Stirling (mathematician), James Tassie, James Thomson (poet, born 1700), James Tobin, James Watt, James Wilson, Jan Tinbergen, Jane Porter, Jean le Rond d'Alembert, Jean-Jacques Rousseau, Jeremy Bentham, Johann Gottfried Herder, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, John Adam (architect), John Alexander (painter), John Amyatt, John Arbuthnot, John Armstrong (poet), John Bell (traveller), John Broadwood, John Cleland, John Clerk of Eldin, John Clerk, Lord Eldin, John Galt (novelist), John Gregory (moralist), John Grieve (physician), John Home, John Hope (botanist), John Hunter (surgeon), John Jamieson, John Kay (caricaturist), John Law (economist), John Leslie (physicist), John Loudon McAdam, John Millar (philosopher), John Murray (1778–1843), John Murray (publisher), John Pinkerton, John Playfair, John Rennie the Elder, John Robison (physicist), John Ross (Royal Navy officer), John Stuart Mill, John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute, John Walker (natural historian), John Witherspoon, Jonathan Israel, Joseph Black, Kensington Books, Latent heat, Lawrence Klein, Life of Samuel Johnson, Linguistics, List of books for the "Famous Scots Series", Literary adaptation, London, Magnus Magnusson, Makar, Mary Somerville, Matthew Guthrie, Maurice Allais, McGraw-Hill Education, Middle class, Modernity, Montesquieu, Mungo Park (explorer), Nation, National poet, Natural history, Natural selection, New Statesman, Ossian, Patrick Brydone, Paul Samuelson, Perseus Books Group, Physiocracy, Poetry, Political Economy Club, Rationalism, Restoration (Scotland), Richard Stone, Robert Adam, Robert Brown (botanist, born 1773), Robert Burns, Robert Fergusson, Robert McLellan, Robert Sibbald, Robert Strange (engraver), Robert Tannahill, Roman Republic, Routledge, Royal Bank of Scotland, Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh, Salon (gathering), School Establishment Act 1616, Science of man, Scotland under the Commonwealth, Scottish common sense realism, Scottish diaspora, Semyon Desnitsky, Sir James Hall, 4th Baronet, Sir John Clerk, 2nd Baronet, Sir John Sinclair, 1st Baronet, Skepticism, Symphony, Tariff, The Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides, The New Yorker, The Poker Club, The Select Society, The Wealth of Nations, Theodore Schultz, Theory, Theory of the firm, Thomas Blackwell (scholar), Thomas Brown (philosopher), Thomas Campbell (poet), Thomas Carlyle, Thomas Erskine, 6th Earl of Kellie, Thomas Gordon (philosopher), Thomas Gordon (writer), Thomas Muir of Huntershill, Thomas Pennant, Thomas Reid, Thomas Ruddiman, Thomas Telford, Tobacco Lords, Tobias Smollett, United Kingdom, United States, University of Aberdeen, University of Edinburgh, University of Glasgow, University of St Andrews, Utilitarianism, Voltaire, Walter Goodall, Walter Scott, Wars of the Three Kingdoms, Wassily Leontief, William Adam (architect), William Blackwood, William Chambers (architect), William Cullen, William Hamilton (diplomat), William Hunter (anatomist), William McGibbon, William Mossman, William Murdoch, William Murray, 1st Earl of Mansfield, William Ogilvie of Pittensear, William Richardson (classicist), William Robertson (historian), William Roxburgh, William Shakespeare, William Skirving, William Smellie (encyclopedist), William Symington, William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, William Tytler, Workforce productivity, Yekaterina Vorontsova-Dashkova, Zachary Macaulay. 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A Treatise of Human Nature (1738–40) is a book by Scottish philosopher David Hume, considered by many to be Hume's most important work and one of the most influential works in the history of philosophy.
Adam Ferguson, FRSE (Scottish Gaelic: Adhamh MacFhearghais), also known as Ferguson of Raith (1 JulyGregorian Calendar/20 JuneJulian Calendar 1723 – 22 February 1816), was a Scottish philosopher and historian of the Scottish Enlightenment.
Adam Menelaws, also spelled Menelas (born between 1748 and 1756, presumably in Edinburgh – died 31 August 1831 in Saint Petersburg, Адам Адамович Менелас) was an architect and landscape designer of Scottish origin, active in the Russian Empire from 1784 to 1831.
Adam Smith (16 June 1723 NS (5 June 1723 OS) – 17 July 1790) was a Scottish economist, philosopher and author as well as a moral philosopher, a pioneer of political economy and a key figure during the Scottish Enlightenment era.
The Adam style (or Adamesque and "Style of the Brothers Adam") is an 18th-century neoclassical style of interior design and architecture, as practised by three Scottish brothers, of whom Robert Adam (1728–1792) and James Adam (1732–1794) were the most widely known.
The Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Enlightenment or the Age of Reason; in lit in Aufklärung, "Enlightenment", in L’Illuminismo, “Enlightenment” and in Spanish: La Ilustración, "Enlightenment") was an intellectual and philosophical movement that dominated the world of ideas in Europe during the 18th century, "The Century of Philosophy".
Alan V. Deardorff (born 1944) is the John W. Sweetland Professor of International Economics and a Professor of Economics and Public Policy at the University of Michigan Gerald R. Ford School of Public Policy, Ann Arbor.
Very Reverend Alexander Carlyle DD FRSE (26 January 172228 August 1805) was a Scottish church leader, and autobiographer.
Alexander Dalrymple FRS (24 July 1737 – 19 June 1808) was a Scottish geographer and the first Hydrographer of the British Admiralty.
Alexander Fraser Tytler, Lord Woodhouselee FRSE (15 October 1747 – 5 January 1813) was a Scottish advocate, judge, writer and historian who served as Professor of Universal History, and Greek and Roman Antiquities at the University of Edinburgh.
Very Rev Alexander Gerard FRSE DD (1728 –1795) was a Scottish minister, academic and philosophical writer.
Alexander Gordon (1755) was a Scottish antiquary and singer.
Alexander Gordon of Auchintoul (–July 1752) was a Scottish general who fought in the Russian army under Peter the Great in 1696–1711, and for the Jacobites in the Jacobite rising of 1715.
Alexander Hamilton FRSE FRCSE FRCPE (1739–1802) was a Scottish physician.
Sir Alexander Mackenzie (or MacKenzie, Alasdair MacCoinnich; 1764 – 12 March 1820) was a Scottish explorer known for accomplishing the first east to west crossing of North America north of Mexico, which preceded the more famous Lewis and Clark Expedition by 12 years.
Alexander Monro (19 September 169710 July 1767) was the founder of Edinburgh Medical School.
Alexander Monro of Craiglockhart and Cockburn (22 May 1733 – 2 October 1817) was a Scottish anatomist, physician and medical educator.
Allan Ramsay (13 October 171310 August 1784) was a prominent Scottish portrait-painter.
Allan Ramsay (15 October 16867 January 1758) was a Scottish poet (or makar), playwright, publisher, librarian, and impresario of early Enlightenment Edinburgh.
The American Enlightenment was a period of intellectual ferment in the thirteen American colonies in the 17th to 18th century, which led to the American Revolution, and the creation of the American Republic.
The ancient universities of Scotland are medieval and renaissance universities which continue to exist in the present day.
Andrew Bell (1726–1809) was a Scottish engraver and printer, who co-founded Encyclopædia Britannica with Colin Macfarquhar.
Andrew Fletcher of Saltoun (1655 – September 1716) was a Scottish writer and politician, remembered as an advocate for the non-incorporation of Scotland, and an opponent of the 1707 Act of Union between Scotland and England.
Andrew Millar (17058 June 1768) was a Scottish publisher in the eighteenth century.
Anglicisation (or anglicization, see English spelling differences), occasionally anglification, anglifying, englishing, refers to modifications made to foreign words, names and phrases to make them easier to spell, pronounce, or understand in English.
Anthony Ashley Cooper, 3rd Earl of Shaftesbury Bt (26 February 1671 – 16 February 1713) was an English politician, philosopher and writer.
Archibald Alison FRS FRSE (13 November 175717 May 1839) was a Scottish episcopalian priest and essayist.
Archibald David Constable (24 February 1774 – 21 July 1827) was a Scottish publisher, bookseller and stationer.
Archibald Pitcairne or Pitcairn (25 December 165220 October 1713) was a Scottish physician.
The architecture of the United States demonstrates a broad variety of architectural styles and built forms over the country's history of over four centuries of independence and former Spanish and British rule.
Arthur L. Herman (born 1956) is an American popular historian, currently serving as a senior fellow at Hudson Institute.
The Atlantic World is the history of the interactions among the peoples and empires bordering the Atlantic Ocean rim from the beginning of the Age of Discovery to the early 21st century.
The Bank of Scotland plc (Bank o Scotland, Banca na h-Alba) is a commercial and clearing bank based in Edinburgh, Scotland.
Basic Books is a book publisher founded in 1952 and located in New York, now an imprint of Hachette Books.
Belles-lettres or belles lettres is a category of writing, originally meaning beautiful or fine writing.
Benjamin Franklin (April 17, 1790) was an American polymath and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
Birlinn Limited is an independent publishing house based in Edinburgh, Scotland.
The Burns stanza is a verse form named after the Scottish poet Robert Burns, who used it in some fifty poems.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
Cambridge is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, and part of the Boston metropolitan area.
Carolina Oliphant, Lady Nairne (16 August 1766 – 26 October 1845) – also known as Carolina Baroness Nairn in the peerage of Scotland and Baroness Keith in that of the United Kingdom – was a Scottish songwriter.
Chapel Hill is a town in Orange and Durham counties in the U.S. state of North Carolina.
Charles Cameron (1745 – 19 March 1812) was a Scottish architect who made an illustrious career at the court of Catherine II of Russia.
Charles Robert Darwin, (12 February 1809 – 19 April 1882) was an English naturalist, geologist and biologist, best known for his contributions to the science of evolution.
Charles Lyell (1767–1849) was a Scottish botanist, known also as a translator of Dante.
Charles Macintosh FRS (29 December 1766 – 25 July 1843) was a Scottish chemist and the inventor of waterproof fabric.
The Church of Scotland (The Scots Kirk, Eaglais na h-Alba), known informally by its Scots language name, the Kirk, is the national church of Scotland.
Circulating capital includes intermediate goods and operating expenses, i.e., short-lived items that are used in production and used up in the process of creating other goods or services.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
Classics or classical studies is the study of classical antiquity.
Colin Macfarquhar (1745? – 2 April 1793) was a Scottish bookseller and printer who is best known as being, with Andrew Bell, the founder of the Encyclopædia Britannica, first published in 1768.
Colin Maclaurin (Cailean MacLabhruinn; 1 February 1698 – 14 June 1746) was a Scottish mathematician who made important contributions to geometry and algebra.
Consequentialism is the class of normative ethical theories holding that the consequences of one's conduct are the ultimate basis for any judgment about the rightness or wrongness of that conduct.
Daniel Rutherford (3 November 1749 – 15 December 1819) was a Scottish physician, chemist and botanist who is most famous for the isolation of nitrogen in 1772.
David Allan (13 February 1744 – 6 August 1796) was a Scottish painter and illustrator, best known for historical subjects and genre works.
David Daiches CBE (2 September 1912 – 15 July 2005) was a Scottish literary historian and literary critic, scholar and writer.
David Dale (1739–1806) was a leading Scottish industrialist, merchant and philanthropist during the Scottish Enlightenment period at the end of the 18th century.
Sir David Dalrymple, 3rd Baronet, Lord Hailes (28 October 172629 November 1792) was a Scottish advocate, judge and historian, born in Edinburgh.
David Steuart Erskine, 11th Earl of Buchan (12 June 1742 – 19 April 1829), styled Lord Cardross between 1747 and 1767, was a Scottish antiquarian and patron of the arts and sciences.
David Hume (born David Home; 7 May 1711 NS (26 April 1711 OS) – 25 August 1776) was a Scottish philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist, who is best known today for his highly influential system of philosophical empiricism, skepticism, and naturalism.
David Mallet (or Malloch) (c.1705–1765) was a Scottish dramatist.
Denis Diderot (5 October 171331 July 1784) was a French philosopher, art critic, and writer, best known for serving as co-founder, chief editor, and contributor to the Encyclopédie along with Jean le Rond d'Alembert.
The division of labour is the separation of tasks in any system so that participants may specialize.
Dugald Stewart (22 November 175311 June 1828) was a Scottish philosopher and mathematician.
economic development wikipedia Economic development is the process by which a nation improves the economic, political, and social well-being of its people.
Economic growth is the increase in the inflation-adjusted market value of the goods and services produced by an economy over time.
The economic policy of governments covers the systems for setting levels of taxation, government budgets, the money supply and interest rates as well as the labour market, national ownership, and many other areas of government interventions into the economy.
Edinburgh University Press is a scholarly publisher of academic books and journals, based in Edinburgh, Scotland.
The Education Act 1496 was an act of the Parliament of Scotland (1496 c. 87) that required landowners to send their eldest sons to school to study Latin, arts and law.
The Education Act 1633 was an Act of the Parliament of Scotland (1633 c. 5) that ordered a locally funded, Church-supervised school to be established in every parish in Scotland, and included the means to realise that order.
The Education Act 1646 was an Act of the Parliament of Scotland (1646 c.46) that ordered locally funded, Church-supervised schools to be established in every parish in Scotland.
In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.
The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.
Encyclopédie, ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers (English: Encyclopedia, or a Systematic Dictionary of the Sciences, Arts, and Crafts), better known as Encyclopédie, was a general encyclopedia published in France between 1751 and 1772, with later supplements, revised editions, and translations.
This article is focused on English-language literature rather than the literature of England, so that it includes writers from Scotland, Wales, and the whole of Ireland, as well as literature in English from countries of the former British Empire, including the United States.
An epic poem, epic, epos, or epopee is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily involving a time beyond living memory in which occurred the extraordinary doings of the extraordinary men and women who, in dealings with the gods or other superhuman forces, gave shape to the moral universe that their descendants, the poet and his audience, must understand to understand themselves as a people or nation.
Erasmus Darwin (12 December 173118 April 1802) was an English physician.
Essays, Moral, Political, and Literary (1758) is a two-volume compilation of essays by David Hume.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Fixed capital is a concept in economics and accounting, first theoretically analyzed in some depth by the economist David Ricardo.
Folk music includes both traditional music and the genre that evolved from it during the 20th century folk revival.
A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.
The Founding Fathers of the United States led the American Revolution against the Kingdom of Great Britain.
prof Francis Home FRSE FRCPE (17 November 1719 in Eccles, Berwickshire – 15 February 1813) was a Scottish physician, and the first Professor of Materia Medica at the University of Edinburgh, known to make the first attempt to vaccinate against measles, in 1758.
Francis Hutcheson (8 August 1694 – 8 August 1746) was an Irish philosopher born in Ulster to a family of Scottish Presbyterians who became known as one of the founding fathers of the Scottish Enlightenment.
Francis Jeffrey, Lord Jeffrey (23 October 1773 – 26 January 1850) was a Scottish judge and literary critic.
Francis Masson (August 1741 – 23 December 1805) was a Scottish botanist and gardener, and Kew Gardens’ first plant hunter.
Franco Modigliani (June 18, 1918 – September 25, 2003) was an Italian-American economist and the recipient of the 1985 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics.
In economics, gains from trade are the net benefits to economic agents from being allowed an increase in voluntary trading with each other.
Gavin Hamilton (1723, Lanarkshire – 4 January 1798, Rome) was a Scots neoclassical history painter, who is more widely remembered for his hunts for antiquities in the neighbourhood of Rome.
A geologist is a scientist who studies the solid and liquid matter that constitutes the Earth as well as the processes that shape it.
Rev Prof George Campbell DD FRSE (25 December 1719 – 6 April 1796) was a figure of the Scottish Enlightenment, known as a philosopher, minister, and professor of divinity.
George Drummond (1688–1766) was accountant-general of excise in Scotland and a local politician, elected Lord Provost of Edinburgh a number of times between 1725 and 1764.
George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820.
George Joseph Stigler (January 17, 1911 – December 1, 1991) was an American economist, the 1982 laureate in Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences and a key leader of the Chicago School of Economics.
George Thomson (1757–1851), born at Limekilns, Fife, Scotland, was a noted collector of the music of Scotland, a music publisher, and a friend of Robert Burns.
George Turnbull (11 July 1698 – 31 Jan 1748) was a Scottish philosopher, theologian, teacher, writer on education and an early but little-known figure in the Scottish Enlightenment.
Gilbert Charles Stuart (born Stewart; December 3, 1755 – July 9, 1828) was an American painter from Rhode Island who is widely considered one of America's foremost portraitists.
Globalization or globalisation is the process of interaction and integration between people, companies, and governments worldwide.
HarperCollins Publishers L.L.C. is one of the world's largest publishing companies and is one of the Big Five English-language publishing companies, alongside Hachette, Macmillan, Penguin Random House, and Simon & Schuster.
Henry Bell (7 April 1767 – 14 March 1830) was a Scottish engineer known for introducing the first successful passenger steamboat service in Europe.
Henry Peter Brougham, 1st Baron Brougham and Vaux, (19 September 1778 – 7 May 1868) was a British statesman who became Lord Chancellor of Great Britain.
Henry Dundas, 1st Viscount Melville, PC, FRSE (28 April 1742, Edinburgh, Scotland – 28 May 1811, Edinburgh) was a Scottish advocate and Tory politician.
The Honourable Henry "Harry" Erskine (1 November 1746 – 8 October 1817) was a Scottish Whig politician and lawyer.
Henry Farquharson (1675 – 19 December 1739) was a teacher who pioneered the study of mathematics in Russia.
Henry Home, Lord Kames (169627 December 1782) was a Scottish advocate, judge, philosopher, writer and agricultural improver.
Henry Mackenzie FRSE (26 July 1745 – 14 January 1831) was a Scottish lawyer, novelist and writer.
Sir Henry Raeburn (4 March 1756 – 8 July 1823) was a British portrait painter and Scotland's first significant portrait painter since the Union to remain based in Scotland.
How the Scots Invented the Modern World: The True Story of How Western Europe's Poorest Nation Created Our World & Everything in It (or The Scottish Enlightenment: The Scots invention of the Modern World) is a non-fiction book written by American historian Arthur Herman.
Hugh Blair FRSE (7 April 1718 – 27 December 1800) was a Scottish minister of religion, author and rhetorician, considered one of the first great theorists of written discourse.
Humanism is a philosophical and ethical stance that emphasizes the value and agency of human beings, individually and collectively, and generally prefers critical thinking and evidence (rationalism and empiricism) over acceptance of dogma or superstition.
The Iliad (Ἰλιάς, in Classical Attic; sometimes referred to as the Song of Ilion or Song of Ilium) is an ancient Greek epic poem in dactylic hexameter, traditionally attributed to Homer.
Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher who is a central figure in modern philosophy.
In economics, industrial organization or industrial economy is a field that builds on the theory of the firm by examining the structure of (and, therefore, the boundaries between) firms and markets.
Jacob More (1740–1793) was a Scottish landscape painter.
Jacobitism (Seumasachas, Seacaibíteachas, Séamusachas) was a political movement in Great Britain and Ireland that aimed to restore the Roman Catholic Stuart King James II of England and Ireland (as James VII in Scotland) and his heirs to the thrones of England, Scotland, France and Ireland.
Jacques-Louis David (30 August 1748 – 29 December 1825) was a French painter in the Neoclassical style, considered to be the preeminent painter of the era.
James Adam (21 July 1732 – 20 October 1794) was a Scottish architect and furniture designer, but was often overshadowed by his older brother and business partner, Robert Adam.
James Anderson (5 August 1662 – 3 April 1728), Scottish antiquary and historian, was born at Edinburgh.
James Anderson FRSE FSA(Scot) (1739 – 15 October 1808) was a Scottish agriculturist, journalist and economist.
James Beattie FRSE (25 October 1735 – 18 August 1803) was a Scottish poet, moralist and philosopher.
James Boswell, 9th Laird of Auchinleck (29 October 1740 – 19 May 1795), was a Scottish biographer and diarist, born in Edinburgh.
James Bruce of Kinnaird (14 December 1730 – 27 April 1794) was a Scottish traveller and travel writer who spent more than a dozen years in North Africa and Ethiopia, where he traced the origins of the Blue Nile.
The Honourable James Buchan (born 11 June 1954) is a Scottish novelist and historian.
James Burnett, Lord Monboddo (baptised 25 October 1714; died 26 May 1799), was a Scottish judge, scholar of linguistic evolution, philosopher and deist.
James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish scientist in the field of mathematical physics.
James Craig (31 October 1739 – 23 June 1795) was a Scottish architect who worked mostly in lowlands of the country and especially his native city of Edinburgh.
James Douglas, 14th Earl of Morton, KT, PRS (1702 – 12 October 1768) was a Scottish astronomer and representative peer who was President of the Philosophical Society of Edinburgh from its foundation in 1737 until his death.
James Elphinston (December 6, 1721 – October 8, 1809) was a well noted 18th-century Scottish educator, orthographer, phonologist and linguistics expert.
James Ferguson (25 April 1710 – 17 November 1776) was a Scottish astronomer.
James Gillray (13 August 1756 or 1757 – 1 June 1815) was a British caricaturist and printmaker famous for his etched political and social satires, mainly published between 1792 and 1810.
James Hogg (1770 – 21 November 1835) was a Scottish poet, novelist and essayist who wrote in both Scots and English.
James Hutton (3 June 1726 – 26 March 1797) was a Scottish geologist, physician, chemical manufacturer, naturalist, and experimental agriculturalist.
James Keir FRS (20 September 1735 – 11 October 1820) was a Scottish chemist, geologist, industrialist, and inventor, and an important member of the Lunar Society of Birmingham.
James McGill Buchanan Jr. (October 3, 1919 – January 9, 2013) was an American economist known for his work on public choice theory (included in his most famous work, co-authored with Gordon Tullock, The Calculus of Consent, 1962), for which he received the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences in 1986.
Sir James Mackintosh FRS FRSE (24 October 1765 – 30 May 1832) was a Scottish jurist, Whig politician and historian.
James Macpherson (Gaelic: Seumas MacMhuirich or Seumas Mac a' Phearsain; 27 October 1736 – 17 February 1796) was a Scottish writer, poet, literary collector and politician, known as the "translator" of the Ossian cycle of epic poems.
James Mill (born James Milne, 6 April 1773 – 23 June 1836) was a Scottish historian, economist, political theorist, and philosopher.
James Oswald (1710–1769) was a Scottish composer, arranger, cellist, and music publisher, who was appointed as Chamber Composer for King George III but also wrote and published many Scottish folk tunes.
James Stirling (May 1692, Garden, Stirlingshire – 5 December 1770, Edinburgh) was a Scottish mathematician.
James Tassie (1735–1799) was a Scottish gem engraver and modeller.
James Thomson (c. 11 September 1700 – 27 August 1748) was a British poet and playwright, known for his poems The Seasons and The Castle of Indolence, and for the lyrics of "Rule, Britannia!".
James Tobin (March 5, 1918 – March 11, 2002) was an American economist who served on the Council of Economic Advisers and the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System, and taught at Harvard and Yale Universities.
James Watt (30 January 1736 (19 January 1736 OS) – 25 August 1819) was a Scottish inventor, mechanical engineer, and chemist who improved on Thomas Newcomen's 1712 Newcomen steam engine with his Watt steam engine in 1781, which was fundamental to the changes brought by the Industrial Revolution in both his native Great Britain and the rest of the world.
James Wilson (September 14, 1742 – August 21, 1798) was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States and a signatory of the United States Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution.
Jan Tinbergen (April 12, 1903June 9, 1994) was an important Dutch economist.
Jane Porter (17 January 1776 – 24 May 1850) was a historical novelist, dramatist and literary figure.
Jean-Baptiste le Rond d'Alembert (16 November 1717 – 29 October 1783) was a French mathematician, mechanician, physicist, philosopher, and music theorist.
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Genevan philosopher, writer and composer.
Jeremy Bentham (15 February 1748 – 6 June 1832) was an English philosopher, jurist, and social reformer regarded as the founder of modern utilitarianism.
Johann Gottfried (after 1802, von) Herder (25 August 174418 December 1803) was a German philosopher, theologian, poet, and literary critic.
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (28 August 1749 – 22 March 1832) was a German writer and statesman.
John Adam (5 March 1721 – 25 June 1792) was a Scottish architect.
John Alexander (1686 - c.1766) was a Scottish painter and engraver of the 18th century.
John Amyatt FRSE was an English chemist.
John Arbuthnot (baptised 29 April 1667 – 27 February 1735), often known simply as Dr Arbuthnot, was a Scottish physician, satirist and polymath in London.
John Bell (1691–1780) was a Scottish doctor and traveller.
John Broadwood (6 October 1732 – 17 July 1812) was the Scottish founder of the piano manufacturer Broadwood and Sons.
John Cleland (baptised 24 September 1709 – 23 January 1789) was an English novelist best known as the author of Fanny Hill: or, the Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure.
John Clerk of Eldin FRSE FSAScot (10 December 1728 – 10 May 1812) was a Scottish merchant, naval author, artist, geologist and landowner.
John Clerk, Lord Eldin FRSE FSA (1757– 30 May1832) was a Scottish judge based in Edinburgh.
John Galt (2 May 1779 – 11 April 1839) was a Scottish novelist, entrepreneur, and political and social commentator.
John Gregory (3 June 1724 – 9 February 1773), a.k.a. John Gregorie, was an eighteenth-century Scottish physician, medical writer and moralist.
Dr John Grieve FRS FRSE FSA FRSA (1753-1805) was a Scottish physician who rose to be physician to the Russian royal family.
Rev John Home FRSE (13 September 1722 – 4 September 1808) was a Scottish minister, soldier and author.
Professor John Hope (10 May 1725 – 10 November 1786) was a Scottish physician and botanist.
John Hunter (13 February 1728 – 16 October 1793) was a Scottish surgeon, one of the most distinguished scientists and surgeons of his day.
Rev Dr John Jamieson DD FRSE FSAs FRSL (5 March 1759 – 12 July 1838) was a Scottish minister of religion, lexicographer, philologist and antiquary.
John Kay (1742 – 21 February 1826) was a Scottish caricaturist and engraver.
John Law (baptised 21 April 1671 – 21 March 1729) was a Scottish economist who believed that money was only a means of exchange that did not constitute wealth in itself and that national wealth depended on trade.
Sir John Leslie, FRSE KH (10 April 1766 – 3 November 1832) was a Scottish mathematician and physicist best remembered for his research into heat.
John Loudon McAdam (23 September 1756 – 26 November 1836) was a Scottish engineer and road-builder.
John Millar of Glasgow (22 June 1735 – 30 May 1801) was a Scottish philosopher, historian and Regius Professor of Civil Law at the University of Glasgow from 1761 to 1800.
John Murray (27 November 1778 – 27 June 1843) was a Scottish publisher and member of the John Murray publishing house.
John Murray is a British publisher, known for the authors it has published in its history, including Jane Austen, Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, Lord Byron, Charles Lyell, Johann Wolfgang von Goethe, Herman Melville, Edward Whymper, and Charles Darwin.
John Pinkerton (17 February 1758 – 10 March 1826) was a Scottish antiquarian, cartographer, author, numismatist, historian, and early advocate of Germanic racial supremacy theory.
Rev Prof John Playfair FRSE, FRS (10 March 1748 – 20 July 1819) was a Church of Scotland minister, remembered as a scientist and mathematician, and a professor of natural philosophy at the University of Edinburgh.
John Rennie FRSE FRS (7 June 1761 – 4 October 1821) was a Scottish civil engineer who designed many bridges, canals, and docks.
John Robison FRSE LLD (4 February 1739 – 30 January 1805) was a Scottish physicist and mathematician.
Admiral Sir John Ross CB, RN (24 June 1777 – 30 August 1856) was a British naval officer and Arctic explorer.
John Stuart Mill, also known as J.S. Mill, (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873) was a British philosopher, political economist, and civil servant.
John Stuart, 3rd Earl of Bute, (25 May 1713 – 10 March 1792) was a Scottish nobleman who served as Prime Minister of Great Britain (1762–1763) under George III.
Very Rev Prof John Walker DD MD FRSE (1731–1803) was a Scottish minister and natural historian.
John Witherspoon (February 5, 1722 – November 15, 1794) was a Scottish-American Presbyterian minister and a Founding Father of the United States.
Jonathan Irvine Israel (born 26 January 1946) is a British writer and academic specialising in Dutch history, the Age of Enlightenment and European Jews.
Joseph Black FRSE FRCPE FPSG (16 April 1728 – 6 December 1799) was a Scottish physician and chemist, known for his discoveries of magnesium, latent heat, specific heat, and carbon dioxide.
Kensington Publishing Corp. is a New York-based publishing house founded in 1974 by Walter Zacharius (1923–2011)Grimes, William.
Latent heat is thermal energy released or absorbed, by a body or a thermodynamic system, during a constant-temperature process — usually a first-order phase transition.
Lawrence Robert Klein (September 14, 1920 – October 20, 2013) was an American economist.
The Life of Samuel Johnson, LL.D. (1791) is a biography of Dr. Samuel Johnson written by James Boswell.
Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.
This is a list of books published as the "Famous Scots Series" by the Edinburgh publishers, Oliphant, Anderson and Ferrier, from 1896 to 1905.
Literary adaptation is the adapting of a literary source (e.g. a novel, short story, poem) to another genre or medium, such as a film, stage play, or video game.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Magnus Magnusson, KBE (12 October 19297 January 2007) was an Icelandic journalist, translator, writer and television presenter.
A makar is a term from Scottish literature for a poet or bard, often thought of as a royal court poet.
Mary Somerville (née Fairfax, formerly Greig; 26 December 1780 – 29 November 1872), was a Scottish science writer and polymath.
Dr Matthew Guthrie FRS FRS FRSE FSA FRSA (1743–1807) was a Scottish physician, mineralogist and traveller who rose to be councillor to the Russian royal family.
Maurice Félix Charles Allais (31 May 19119 October 2010) was a French physicist and economist, the 1988 winner of the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences "for his pioneering contributions to the theory of markets and efficient utilization of resources", for Maurice Allais contribution, along with John Hicks (Value and Capital, 1939) and Paul Samuelson (The Foundations of Economic Analysis, 1947), to neoclassical synthesis.
McGraw-Hill Education (MHE) is a learning science company and one of the "big three" educational publishers that provides customized educational content, software, and services for pre-K through postgraduate education.
The middle class is a class of people in the middle of a social hierarchy.
Modernity, a topic in the humanities and social sciences, is both a historical period (the modern era), as well as the ensemble of particular socio-cultural norms, attitudes and practices that arose in the wake of Renaissance, in the "Age of Reason" of 17th-century thought and the 18th-century "Enlightenment".
Charles-Louis de Secondat, Baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu (18 January 1689 – 10 February 1755), generally referred to as simply Montesquieu, was a French judge, man of letters, and political philosopher.
Mungo Park (11 September 1771 – 1806) was a Scottish explorer of West Africa.
A nation is a stable community of people, formed on the basis of a common language, territory, economic life, ethnicity or psychological make-up manifested in a common culture.
A national poet or national bard is a poet held by tradition and popular acclaim to represent the identity, beliefs and principles of a particular national culture.
Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms including animals, fungi and plants in their environment; leaning more towards observational than experimental methods of study.
Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.
The New Statesman is a British political and cultural magazine published in London.
Ossian (Irish Gaelic/Scottish Gaelic: Oisean) is the narrator and purported author of a cycle of epic poems published by the Scottish poet James Macpherson from 1760.
Patrick Brydone, FRSE, FRS, FSA (Scot), FSA (5 January 1736 – 19 June 1818) was a Scottish traveller and author who served as Comptroller of the Stamp Office.
Paul Anthony Samuelson (15 May 1915 – 13 December 2009) was an American economist and the first American to win the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences.
Perseus Books Group was an American publishing company founded in 1996 by investor Frank Pearl.
Physiocracy (from the Greek for "government of nature") is an economic theory developed by a group of 18th century Enlightenment French economists who believed that the wealth of nations was derived solely from the value of "land agriculture" or "land development" and that agricultural products should be highly priced.
Poetry (the term derives from a variant of the Greek term, poiesis, "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning.
The Political Economy Club was founded by James Mill and a circle of friends in 1821 in London, for the purpose of coming to an agreement on the fundamental principles of political economy.
In philosophy, rationalism is the epistemological view that "regards reason as the chief source and test of knowledge" or "any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification".
The Restoration was the return of the monarchy to Scotland in 1660 after the period of the Commonwealth, and the subsequent three decades of Scottish history until the Revolution and Convention of Estates of 1689.
Sir John Richard Nicholas Stone (30 August 1913 – 6 December 1991) was an eminent British economist, educated at Westminster School, Cambridge University (Caius and King's), who in 1984 received the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences for developing an accounting model that could be used to track economic activities on a national and, later, an international scale.
Robert Adam (3 July 1728 – 3 March 1792) was a Scottish neoclassical architect, interior designer and furniture designer.
Robert Brown FRSE FRS FLS MWS (21 December 1773 – 10 June 1858) was a Scottish botanist and palaeobotanist who made important contributions to botany largely through his pioneering use of the microscope.
Robert Burns (25 January 175921 July 1796), also known as Rabbie Burns, the Bard of Ayrshire, Ploughman Poet and various other names and epithets, was a Scottish poet and lyricist.
Robert Fergusson (5 September 1750 – 16 October 1774) was a Scottish poet.
Robert McLellan OBE (1907–1985) was a Scottish dramatist, poet and writer of the Linmill Stories, working principally in the Scots language.
Sir Robert Sibbald (15 April 1641 – August 1722) was a Scottish physician and antiquary.
Sir Robert Strange (1721–1792) was a Scottish engraver.
Robert Tannahill (June 3, 1774 – May 17, 1810) was a Scottish poet of labouring class origin.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
Routledge is a British multinational publisher.
The Royal Bank of Scotland (Banca Rìoghail na h-Alba, Ryal Bank o Scotland, Banc Brenhinol yr Alban), commonly abbreviated as RBS, is one of the retail banking subsidiaries of The Royal Bank of Scotland Group plc, together with NatWest and Ulster Bank.
The Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh (RCPE) is a Medical Royal College in Scotland.
A salon is a gathering of people under the roof of an inspiring host.
The School Establishment Act 1616 was an Act of the Scottish Privy Council dated 10 December 1616.
The science of man (or the science of human nature) is a topic in David Hume's 18th century experimental philosophy A Treatise of Human Nature (1739).
Scotland under the Commonwealth is the history of the Kingdom of Scotland between the declaration that the kingdom was part of the Commonwealth of England in February 1652, and the Restoration of the monarchy with Scotland regaining its position as an independent kingdom, in June 1660.
Scottish Common Sense Realism, also known as the Scottish School of Common Sense, is a school of philosophy that originated in the ideas of Scottish philosophers Thomas Reid, Adam Ferguson, James Beattie, and Dugald Stewart during the 18th century Scottish Enlightenment.
Semyon Efimovich Desnitsky (Семён Ефимович Десницкий; c. 1740 in Nezhin, Russian Empire – June 26, 1789 in Moscow, Russian Empire) was a Russian legal scholar.
Sir James Hall of Dunglass, 4th Baronet FRS FRSE (17 January 1761 – 23 June 1832) was a Scottish geologist and geophysicist.
Sir John Clerk of Penicuik, 2nd Baronet (1676–1755) was a Scottish politician, lawyer, judge and composer.
The Rt Hon Sir John Sinclair of Ulbster, 1st Baronet MP FRS FRSE FLS LLD (10 May 1754 – 21 December 1835) was a Scottish politician, a writer on both finance and agriculture, and the first person to use the word statistics in the English language, in his vast, pioneering work, Statistical Account of Scotland, in 21 volumes.
Skepticism (American English) or scepticism (British English, Australian English) is generally any questioning attitude or doubt towards one or more items of putative knowledge or belief.
A symphony is an extended musical composition in Western classical music, most often written by composers for orchestra.
A tariff is a tax on imports or exports between sovereign states.
The Journal of a Tour to the Hebrides with Samuel Johnson, LL.D. is a travel journal by Scotsman James Boswell first published in 1785.
The New Yorker is an American magazine of reportage, commentary, criticism, essays, fiction, satire, cartoons, and poetry.
The Poker Club was one of several clubs at the heart of the Scottish Enlightenment where many associated with that movement met and exchanged views in a convivial atmosphere.
The Select Society, established as The St. Giles Society but soon renamed, was an intellectual society in 18th century Edinburgh.
An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, generally referred to by its shortened title The Wealth of Nations, is the magnum opus of the Scottish economist and moral philosopher Adam Smith.
Theodore William "Ted" Schultz (30 April 1902 – 26 February 1998) was an American economist, Nobel Laureate, and chairman of the Chicago School of Economics.
A theory is a contemplative and rational type of abstract or generalizing thinking, or the results of such thinking.
The theory of the firm consists of a number of economic theories that explain and predict the nature of the firm, company, or corporation, including its existence, behaviour, structure, and relationship to the market.
Thomas Blackwell the younger (4 August 1701 – 6 March 1757) was a classical scholar, historian and "one of the major figures in the Scottish Enlightenment.".
Thomas Brown (9 January 1778 – 2 April 1820) was a Scottish philosopher and poet.
Thomas Campbell (27 July 1777 – 15 June 1844) was a Scottish poet chiefly remembered for his sentimental poetry dealing especially with human affairs.
Thomas Carlyle (4 December 17955 February 1881) was a Scottish philosopher, satirical writer, essayist, translator, historian, mathematician, and teacher.
Thomas Alexander Erskine, 6th Earl of Kellie (1 September 1732 – 9 October 1781), styled Viscount Fentoun and Lord Pittenweem until 1756, was a Scottish musician and composer whose considerable talent brought him international fame and his rakish habits notoriety, but nowadays is little known.
Prof Thomas Gordon FRSE (1714-1797) was a philosopher, mathematician and antiquarian.
Thomas Gordon (c. 1691–1750) was a Scottish writer and Commonwealthman.
Thomas Muir (24 August 1765 – 26 January 1799), often known as Thomas Muir the Younger of Huntershill, was a Scottish political reformer.
Thomas Pennant (14 June OS 1726 – 16 December 1798) was a Welsh naturalist, traveller, writer and antiquarian.
Thomas Reid DD FRSE (26 April 1710 – 7 October 1796) was a religiously-trained British philosopher, a contemporary of David Hume as well as "Hume's earliest and fiercest critic".
Thomas Ruddiman (October 1674 – 19 January 1757) was a Scottish classical scholar.
Thomas Telford FRS, FRSE (9 August 1757 – 2 September 1834) was a Scottish civil engineer, architect and stonemason, and a noted road, bridge and canal builder.
The Tobacco Lords (or "Virginia Dons") were Glasgow merchants who in the 18th century made enormous fortunes by trading in tobacco from Great Britain's American Colonies.
Tobias George Smollett (19 March 1721 – 17 September 1771) was a Scottish poet and author.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The University of Aberdeen is a public research university in Aberdeen, Scotland.
The University of Edinburgh (abbreviated as Edin. in post-nominals), founded in 1582, is the sixth oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's ancient universities.
The University of Glasgow (Oilthigh Ghlaschu; Universitas Glasguensis; abbreviated as Glas. in post-nominals) is the fourth-oldest university in the English-speaking world and one of Scotland's four ancient universities.
The University of St Andrews (informally known as St Andrews University or simply St Andrews; abbreviated as St And, from the Latin Sancti Andreae, in post-nominals) is a British public research university in St Andrews, Fife, Scotland.
Utilitarianism is an ethical theory that states that the best action is the one that maximizes utility.
François-Marie Arouet (21 November 1694 – 30 May 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on Christianity as a whole, especially the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of speech and separation of church and state.
Walter Goodall (1706? – 1766) was a Scottish historical writer, born in Banffshire, and educated at King's College, University of Aberdeen.
Sir Walter Scott, 1st Baronet (15 August 1771 – 21 September 1832) was a Scottish historical novelist, playwright, poet and historian.
The Wars of the Three Kingdoms, sometimes known as the British Civil Wars, formed an intertwined series of conflicts that took place in the kingdoms of England, Ireland and Scotland between 1639 and 1651.
Wassily Wassilyevich Leontief (Василий Васильевич Леонтьев; August 5, 1905 – February 5, 1999), was a Russian-American economist known for his research on input-output analysis and how changes in one economic sector may affect other sectors.
William Adam (1689 – 24 June 1748) was a Scottish architect, mason, and entrepreneur.
William Blackwood (20 November 1776 – 16 September 1834) was a Scottish publisher who founded the firm of William Blackwood and Sons.
Sir William Chambers (23 February 1723 – 10 March 1796) was a Scottish-Swedish architect, based in London.
William Cullen FRS FRSE FRCPE FPSG (15 April 1710 – 5 February 1790) was a Scottish physician, chemist and agriculturalist, and one of the most important professors at the Edinburgh Medical School, during its heyday as the leading centre of medical education in the English-speaking world.
Sir William Hamilton (13 December 1730 – 6 April 1803) was a British diplomat, antiquarian, archaeologist and vulcanologist.
William Hunter (23 May 1718 – 30 March 1783) was a Scottish anatomist and physician.
William McGibbon (April 1690, in Glasgow, Scotland – 3 October 1756) was a Scottish composer and violinist.
William Mossman (18 August 1793 – 23 June 1851) was a Scottish sculptor operational in the early 19th century, and father to three sculptor sons.
William Murdoch (sometimes spelled Murdock) (21 August 1754 – 15 November 1839) was a Scottish engineer and inventor.
William Murray, 1st Earl of Mansfield, PC, SL (2 March 1705 – 20 March 1793) was a British barrister, politician and judge noted for his reform of English law.
William Ogilvie of Pittensear FRSE FSA(Scot) (1736-1819), known as the Rebel Professor, was a Scottish classicist, numismatist and author of an influential historic land reform treatise.
Prof William Richardson FRSE (1 October 1743 – 3 November 1814) was a Scottish classicist and literary scholar.
Rev William Robertson FRSE FSA Scot DD (19 September 1721 – 11 June 1793) was a Scottish historian, minister in the Church of Scotland, and Principal of the University of Edinburgh.
Dr William Roxburgh FRSE FRCPE FLS (3 or 29 June 1751 – 18 February 1815) was a Scottish surgeon and botanist who worked extensively in India, describing species and working on economic botany.
William Shakespeare (26 April 1564 (baptised)—23 April 1616) was an English poet, playwright and actor, widely regarded as both the greatest writer in the English language, and the world's pre-eminent dramatist.
William Skirving (c. 1745–1796) was one of the five Scottish Martyrs for Liberty.
William Smellie (1740–1795) was a Scottish master printer, naturalist, antiquary, editor and encyclopedist.
William Symington (1764–1831) was a Scottish engineer and inventor, and the builder of the first practical steamboat, the Charlotte Dundas.
William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, (26 June 1824 – 17 December 1907) was a Scots-Irish mathematical physicist and engineer who was born in Belfast in 1824.
William Tytler (1711–1792) was a Scottish lawyer, known as a historical writer.
Workforce productivity is the amount of goods and services that a worker produces in a given amount of time.
Princess Yekaterina Romanovna Vorontsova-Dashkova (Екатери́на Рома́новна Воронцо́ва-Да́шкова; 28 March 1743 – 15 January 1810) was the closest female friend of Empress Catherine the Great and a major figure of the Russian Enlightenment.
Zachary Macaulay (2 May 1768 – 13 May 1838) was a Scottish statistician, one of the founders of London University and of the Society for the Suppression of Vice, an antislavery activist, and governor of Sierra Leone, the British colony for freed slaves.