265 relations: Aberdeen, Aberdeenshire, Acts of Union 1707, Adam Menelaws, Adelaide, Alba, Alexander Chalmers (mayor of Warsaw), Alexander I of Scotland, American Community Survey, Americans, Angles, Anglican Communion, Anglicisation, Anglo-Métis, Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, Anglo-Saxons, Archaism, Argentina, Asian-Scots, Association football, Australian Bureau of Statistics, Australian gold rushes, Baptists, Basileus, Battle of Carham, Battle of Pavia, Bede, Black Scottish people, Book of Armagh, Brazil, Brian Boru, British Chinese, British Empire, British nationality law, British people, Bruce, Caithness, Caledonia, Calvinism, Canada 2011 Census, Canadian Gaelic, Cape Breton Regional Municipality, Carol Ann Duffy, Catherine the Great, Catholic Church, Celtic Britons, Celtic languages, Celts, Census in Australia, Census in Canada, ..., Census in the United Kingdom, Charles Baird (engineer), Charles Cameron (architect), Charles Edward Stuart, Charles X Gustav of Sweden, Chile, Christian, Christianity, Church of Scotland, Clan Broun, Clydesdale, Countries of the United Kingdom, Culture of Canada, Culture of Scotland, Curling, David I of Scotland, Davidian Revolution, Dáibhí Ó Cróinín, Dál Riata, Deindustrialization, Doric dialect (Scotland), Dumfriesshire, Dundee, Dunedin, Early Middle Ages, Early Scots, Eastern Ontario, Edgar the Peaceful, Edgar, King of Scotland, Edinburgh, England national football team, England v Scotland representative football matches (1870–72), English language, English language in England, Ethnic group, European Bureau for Lesser-Used Languages, European Union, Feudalism, Firth of Forth, Flag of Scotland, Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act 2005, Gaelic road signs in Scotland, Gaels, Galloway, Generation, Geneva Bible, Germanic languages, Germanic peoples, Glasgow, Glengarry County, Ontario, Golf, Grand Duchy of Moscow, Gurro, Hamilton (name), Hebrides, Highland Clearances, Highland games, Highland Potato Famine, History of Scotland, House of Balliol, Hunter Region, Illawarra, Industrial Revolution, Ireland, Irish-Scots, Italian Scots, Jackie Kay, James Francis Edward Stuart, James VI and I, James Watt, John Barbour (poet), John III Sobieski, John Kenneth Galbraith, King, Kingdom of Alba, Kingdom of Northumbria, Kingdom of Scotland, Kraków, Kyle, Ayrshire, Lallans, Languages of Scotland, Latin, List of Scots, Lothian, Low Countries, Lowland Clearances, Luigi Poletti (architect), Makar, Mallaig, Maria Clementina Sobieska, Marischal College, Maud, Countess of Huntingdon, Māori people, Melville (name), Methodism, Mexico, Middle English, Mikhail Lermontov, Murray (surname), Naracoorte, South Australia, Nation, New England (New South Wales), New South Wales, New Zealand, New Zealand census, Norman conquest of England, Normans, Norn language, Norsemen, North America, Northern Ireland, Northern Isles, Nova Scotia, Old English, Old Irish, Oliver Cromwell, Orthography, Patrick Gordon, Paul Dukes (historian), Paul Menesius, Pākehā, Pejorative, Penola, South Australia, Peter the Great, Pictish language, Picts, Plantation of Ulster, Poet Laureate of the United Kingdom, Poland, Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Pope Paul V, Prehistoric Scotland, Presbyterianism, Printing press, Protestant Ascendancy, Protestantism, Ramsay MacDonald, Redleg, Rhins of Galloway, River Tweed, Robert Burns, Rome, Rotterdam, Saint Andrew's Day, Samuel Greig, Sant'Andrea degli Scozzesi, Scotch (adjective), Scotch-Irish Americans, Scoti, Scotland, Scotland in the High Middle Ages, Scotland national football team, Scots International Church, Scots language, Scots law, Scots-Quebecer, Scottish Americans, Scottish Argentine, Scottish Australians, Scottish Borders, Scottish Brazilians, Scottish Canadians, Scottish Chilean, Scottish English, Scottish Episcopal Church, Scottish Gaelic, Scottish Gaelic name, Scottish Government, Scottish Highlands, Scottish Jamaicans, Scottish Lowlands, Scottish national identity, Scottish New Zealanders, Scottish Parliament, Scottish Reformation, Scottish Russians, Scottish surnames, Sean Connery, Selkirkshire, Shetland Scots, Sir James Wylie, 1st Baronet, Society of Jesus, South Island, Southwestern Ontario, St Giles' Cathedral, Stefan Wolff, Stephen Báthory, Stewart (name), STV News, Sunday Herald, Surname, Tartan Day, The Brus, The Gaelic College, The Independent, The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews, The Wall Street Journal, Ulster, Ulster Scots dialects, Ulster Scots people, Union of the Crowns, United Kingdom census, 2001, United Kingdom census, 2011, United States Census, United States Census Bureau, Veere, Vistula, Walter Scott, Wars of Scottish Independence, Warsaw, Waverley Novels, Western Victoria, William Heste, World Curling Federation, 2013 New Zealand census. Expand index (215 more) » « Shrink index
Aberdeen (Aiberdeen,; Obar Dheathain; Aberdonia) is Scotland's third most populous city, one of Scotland's 32 local government council areas and the United Kingdom's 37th most populous built-up area, with an official population estimate of 196,670 for the city of Aberdeen and for the local authority area.
Aberdeenshire (Siorrachd Obar Dheathain) is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland.
The Acts of Union were two Acts of Parliament: the Union with Scotland Act 1706 passed by the Parliament of England, and the Union with England Act passed in 1707 by the Parliament of Scotland.
Adam Menelaws, also spelled Menelas (born between 1748 and 1756, presumably in Edinburgh – died 31 August 1831 in Saint Petersburg, Адам Адамович Менелас) was an architect and landscape designer of Scottish origin, active in the Russian Empire from 1784 to 1831.
Adelaide is the capital city of the state of South Australia, and the fifth-most populous city of Australia.
Alba is the Scottish Gaelic name for Scotland.
Alexander Chalmers (Aleksander Czamer) (1645-1703) was a Scottish resident of the Polish city of Warsaw in the 17th Century.
Alexander I (medieval Gaelic: Alaxandair mac Maíl Coluim; modern Gaelic: Alasdair mac Mhaol Chaluim; c. 1078 – 23 April 1124), posthumously nicknamed The Fierce, was the King of Scotland from 1107 to his death.
The American Community Survey (ACS) is an ongoing survey by the U.S. Census Bureau.
Americans are citizens of the United States of America.
The Angles (Angli) were one of the main Germanic peoples who settled in Great Britain in the post-Roman period.
The Anglican Communion is the third largest Christian communion with 85 million members, founded in 1867 in London, England.
Anglicisation (or anglicization, see English spelling differences), occasionally anglification, anglifying, englishing, refers to modifications made to foreign words, names and phrases to make them easier to spell, pronounce, or understand in English.
A 19th century community of the Métis people of Canada, the Anglo-Métis, although an oxymoron are more commonly known as Countryborn, were children of fur traders; they typically had Scots (Orcadian, mainland Scottish), or English fathers and Aboriginal mothers.
The Anglo-Saxon Chronicle is a collection of annals in Old English chronicling the history of the Anglo-Saxons.
The Anglo-Saxons were a people who inhabited Great Britain from the 5th century.
In language, an archaism (from the ἀρχαϊκός, archaïkós, 'old-fashioned, antiquated', ultimately ἀρχαῖος, archaîos, 'from the beginning, ancient') is the use of a form of speech or writing that is no longer current or that is current only within a few special contexts.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
Asian Scottish (or Asian-Scots or Scottish Asian) is a term defined within the 2011 Scottish census as including people of Pakistani, Indian, Bangladeshi, Chinese or other Asian ancestry resident in Scotland.
Association football, more commonly known as football or soccer, is a team sport played between two teams of eleven players with a spherical ball.
The Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) is the independent statistical agency of the Government of Australia.
During the Australian gold rushes, significant numbers of workers (both from other areas within Australia and from overseas) relocated to areas in which gold had been discovered.
Baptists are Christians distinguished by baptizing professing believers only (believer's baptism, as opposed to infant baptism), and doing so by complete immersion (as opposed to affusion or sprinkling).
Basileus (βασιλεύς) is a Greek term and title that has signified various types of monarchs in history.
The Battle of Carham (c. 1018) (also referred to as the Battle of Coldstream) was fought between the Kingdom of Scotland and the Northumbrians at Carham on Tweed.
The Battle of Pavia, fought on the morning of 24 February 1525, was the decisive engagement of the Italian War of 1521–26.
Bede (italic; 672/3 – 26 May 735), also known as Saint Bede, Venerable Bede, and Bede the Venerable (Bēda Venerābilis), was an English Benedictine monk at the monastery of St.
Black Scottish people (also referred to as the Afro-Scots, Black Scottish, and Black Scots) represent a small proportion (less than 1 per cent according to the 2011 census) of the country's overall population, although the Black population of Scotland has a long history.
The Book of Armagh or Codex Ardmachanus (ar or 61), also known as the Canon of Patrick and the Liber Ar(d)machanus, is a 9th-century Irish illuminated manuscript written mainly in Latin.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
Brian Boru (Brian Bóruma mac Cennétig; Brian Bóruma; modern Brian Bóramha; c. 94123 April 1014) was an Irish king who ended the domination of the High Kingship of Ireland by the Uí Néill.
British Chinese (also known as Chinese British, Chinese Britons) are people of Chineseparticularly Han Chineseancestry who reside in the United Kingdom, constituting the second or third largest group of overseas Chinese in Europe apart from the Chinese diaspora in France and the overseas Chinese community in Russia.
The British Empire comprised the dominions, colonies, protectorates, mandates and other territories ruled or administered by the United Kingdom and its predecessor states.
British nationality law is the law of the United Kingdom which concerns citizenship and other categories of British nationality.
The British people, or the Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the British Overseas Territories, and the Crown dependencies.
The English language name Bruce arrived in Scotland with the Normans, from the place name Brix, Manche in Normandy, France, meaning "the willowlands".
Caithness (Gallaibh, Caitnes; Katanes) is a historic county, registration county and lieutenancy area of Scotland.
Caledonia is the Latin name given by the Romans to the land in today's Scotland, north of their province of Britannia, beyond the frontier of their empire.
Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice of John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.
The Canada 2011 Census is a detailed enumeration of the Canadian population on May 10, 2011.
Canadian Gaelic or Cape Breton Gaelic (Gàidhlig Chanada, A' Ghàidhlig Chanadach or Gàidhlig Cheap Bhreatainn), known in English as often simply Gaelic, refers to the dialects of Scottish Gaelic spoken by people in Atlantic Canada who have their origins in the Highlands and Islands of Scotland.
Cape Breton Regional Municipality, often referred to as simply CBRM, is the Canadian province of Nova Scotia's second largest municipality and the economic heart of Cape Breton Island.
Dame Carol Ann Duffy HonFBA HonFRSE (born 23 December 1955) is a Scottish poet and playwright.
Catherine II (Russian: Екатерина Алексеевна Yekaterina Alekseyevna; –), also known as Catherine the Great (Екатери́на Вели́кая, Yekaterina Velikaya), born Princess Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst, was Empress of Russia from 1762 until 1796, the country's longest-ruling female leader.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
The Britons, also known as Celtic Britons or Ancient Britons, were Celtic people who inhabited Great Britain from the British Iron Age into the Middle Ages, at which point their culture and language diverged into the modern Welsh, Cornish and Bretons (among others).
The Celtic languages are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic, or "Common Celtic"; a branch of the greater Indo-European language family.
The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
The census in Australia, or officially, the Census of Population and Housing, is a descriptive count of population of Australia on one night, and of their dwellings, generally held quinquennially.
A national census in Canada is conducted every five years by Statistics Canada.
Coincident full censuses have taken place in the different jurisdictions of the United Kingdom every ten years since 1801, with the exceptions of 1941 (during the Second World War) and Ireland in 1921.
Charles Baird (20 December 1766 – 10 December 1843) was a Scottish engineer who played an important part in the industrial and business life of 19th-century St. Petersburg.
Charles Cameron (1745 – 19 March 1812) was a Scottish architect who made an illustrious career at the court of Catherine II of Russia.
Charles Edward Louis John Casimir Sylvester Severino Maria Stuart (31 December 1720 – 31 January 1788) was the elder son of James Francis Edward Stuart, grandson of James II and VII and after 1766 the Stuart claimant to the throne of Great Britain.
Charles X Gustav, also Carl Gustav (Karl X Gustav; 8 November 1622 – 13 February 1660), was King of Sweden from 1654 until his death.
Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a South American country occupying a long, narrow strip of land between the Andes to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west.
A Christian is a person who follows or adheres to Christianity, an Abrahamic, monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus Christ.
ChristianityFrom Ancient Greek Χριστός Khristós (Latinized as Christus), translating Hebrew מָשִׁיחַ, Māšîăḥ, meaning "the anointed one", with the Latin suffixes -ian and -itas.
The Church of Scotland (The Scots Kirk, Eaglais na h-Alba), known informally by its Scots language name, the Kirk, is the national church of Scotland.
Clan Broun also known as Clan Brown is a Scottish clan.
Clydesdale (pronounced; Dail Chluaidh in Scottish Gaelic, pronounced) is an archaic name for Lanarkshire, a county in Scotland.
The United Kingdom (UK) comprises four countries: England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales.
The culture of Canada embodies the artistic, culinary, literary, humour, musical, political and social elements that are representative of Canada and Canadians.
The culture of Scotland refers to the patterns of human activity and symbolism associated with Scotland and the Scottish people.
Curling is a sport in which players slide stones on a sheet of ice towards a target area which is segmented into four concentric circles.
David I or Dauíd mac Maíl Choluim (Modern: Daibhidh I mac Chaluim; – 24 May 1153) was a 12th-century ruler who was Prince of the Cumbrians from 1113 to 1124 and later King of the Scots from 1124 to 1153.
The Davidian Revolution is a term given by many scholars to the changes which took place in the Kingdom of Scotland during the reign of David I (1124–1153).
Dáibhí Iarla Ó Cróinín (born 29 August 1954) is an Irish historian, and professor of history at the National University of Ireland, Galway (N.U.I. Galway).
Dál Riata or Dál Riada (also Dalriada) was a Gaelic overkingdom that included parts of western Scotland and northeastern Ireland, on each side of the North Channel.
Deindustrialization or deindustrialisation is a process of social and economic change caused by the removal or reduction of industrial capacity or activity in a country or region, especially heavy industry or manufacturing industry.
Doric, the popular name for Mid Northern Scots or Northeast Scots, refers to the Scots language as spoken in the northeast of Scotland.
Dumfriesshire or the County of Dumfries (Siorrachd Dhùn Phris in Gaelic) is a historic county, registration county and lieutenancy area of Scotland.
Dundee (Dùn Dè) is Scotland's fourth-largest city and the 51st-most-populous built-up area in the United Kingdom.
Dunedin (Ōtepoti) is the second-largest city in the South Island of New Zealand, and the principal city of the Otago region.
The Early Middle Ages or Early Medieval Period, typically regarded as lasting from the 5th or 6th century to the 10th century CE, marked the start of the Middle Ages of European history.
Early Scots was the emerging literary language of the Northern Middle English speaking parts of Scotland in the period before 1450.
Eastern Ontario (census population 1,603,625 in 2006) is a secondary region of Southern Ontario in the Canadian province of Ontario which lies in a wedge-shaped area between the Ottawa River and St. Lawrence River.
Edgar (Ēadgār; 8 July 975), known as the Peaceful or the Peaceable, was King of England from 959 until his death.
Edgar or Étgar mac Maíl Choluim (Modern Gaelic: Eagar mac Mhaoil Chaluim), nicknamed Probus, "the Valiant" (c. 1074 – 8 January 1107), was King of Scotland from 1097 to 1107.
Edinburgh (Dùn Èideann; Edinburgh) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas.
The England national football team represents England in international football and is controlled by The Football Association, the governing body for football in England.
Between 1870 and 1872, the Football Association (FA) organised five representative association football matches between teams representing England and Scotland, all held in London.
English is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca.
The English language spoken and written in England encompasses a diverse range of accents and dialects.
An ethnic group, or an ethnicity, is a category of people who identify with each other based on similarities such as common ancestry, language, history, society, culture or nation.
The European Bureau for Lesser-Used Languages (EBLUL) was a non-governmental organisation that was set up to promote linguistic diversity and languages.
The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of EUnum member states that are located primarily in Europe.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
The Firth of Forth (Linne Foirthe) is the estuary (firth) of several Scottish rivers including the River Forth.
The Flag of Scotland (bratach na h-Alba; Banner o Scotland) is also known as St Andrew's Cross or the Saltire.
The Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act 2005 (Achd na Gàidhlig (Alba) 2005) is an Act of the Scottish Parliament passed in 2005, and is the first piece of legislation to give formal recognition to the Scottish Gaelic language.
In the Gaelic-speaking parts of Scotland, the use of the Gaelic language on road signs instead of, or more often alongside, English is now common, but has been a controversial issue.
The Gaels (Na Gaeil, Na Gàidheil, Ny Gaeil) are an ethnolinguistic group native to northwestern Europe.
Galloway (Gallovidia) is a region in southwestern Scotland comprising the historic counties of Wigtownshire and Kirkcudbrightshire.
A generation is "all of the people born and living at about the same time, regarded collectively." It can also be described as, "the average period, generally considered to be about thirty years, during which children are born and grow up, become adults, and begin to have children of their own." In kinship terminology, it is a structural term designating the parent-child relationship.
The Geneva Bible is one of the most historically significant translations of the Bible into English, preceding the King James Version by 51 years.
The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European language family spoken natively by a population of about 515 million people mainly in Europe, North America, Oceania, and Southern Africa.
The Germanic peoples (also called Teutonic, Suebian, or Gothic in older literature) are an Indo-European ethno-linguistic group of Northern European origin.
Glasgow (Glesga; Glaschu) is the largest city in Scotland, and third most populous in the United Kingdom.
Glengarry County, an area covering, is a county in the Canadian province of Ontario.
Golf is a club-and-ball sport in which players use various clubs to hit balls into a series of holes on a course in as few strokes as possible.
The Grand Duchy or Grand Principality of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское, Velikoye Knyazhestvo Moskovskoye), also known in English simply as Muscovy from the Moscovia, was a late medieval Russian principality centered on Moscow and the predecessor state of the early modern Tsardom of Russia.
Gurro is a comune (municipality) in the Province of Verbano-Cusio-Ossola in the Italian region Piedmont, located about northeast of Turin and about northeast of Verbania.
The name Hamilton most probably originated in the village of Hamilton, Leicestershire, England, but bearers of that name became established in the 13th century in Lanarkshire, Scotland.
The Hebrides (Innse Gall,; Suðreyjar) compose a widespread and diverse archipelago off the west coast of mainland Scotland.
The Highland Clearances (Fuadaichean nan Gàidheal, the "eviction of the Gaels") were the evictions of a significant number of tenants in the Scottish Highlands mostly during the 18th and 19th centuries.
Highland games are events held in spring and summer in Scotland and other countries as a way of celebrating Scottish and Celtic culture, especially that of the Scottish Highlands.
The Highland Potato Famine (Gaiseadh a' bhuntàta) was a period of 19th century Highland and Scottish history (1846 to roughly 1856) over which the agricultural communities of the Hebrides and the western Gàidhealtachd (Scottish Highlands) saw their potato crop (upon which they had become over-reliant) repeatedly devastated by potato blight.
The is known to have begun by the end of the last glacial period (in the paleolithic), roughly 10,000 years ago.
The House of Balliol (de Bailleul) was a noble family originating from the village of Bailleul in Picardy.
The Hunter Region, also commonly known as the Hunter Valley, is a region of New South Wales, Australia, extending from approximately to north of Sydney.
Illawarra is a region in the Australian state of New South Wales.
The Industrial Revolution was the transition to new manufacturing processes in the period from about 1760 to sometime between 1820 and 1840.
Ireland (Éire; Ulster-Scots: Airlann) is an island in the North Atlantic.
Irish-Scots are people in Scotland who are of immediate or traceably distinct Irish ancestry.
Italian Scots or Scots-Italians are people of Italian descent living in Scotland.
Jackie Kay MBE FRSE (born 9 November 1961) is a Scottish poet and novelist.
James Francis Edward, Prince of Wales (10 June 1688 – 1 January 1766), nicknamed the Old Pretender, was the son of King James II and VII of England, Scotland and Ireland, and his second wife, Mary of Modena.
James VI and I (James Charles Stuart; 19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567 and King of England and Ireland as James I from the union of the Scottish and English crowns on 24 March 1603 until his death in 1625.
James Watt (30 January 1736 (19 January 1736 OS) – 25 August 1819) was a Scottish inventor, mechanical engineer, and chemist who improved on Thomas Newcomen's 1712 Newcomen steam engine with his Watt steam engine in 1781, which was fundamental to the changes brought by the Industrial Revolution in both his native Great Britain and the rest of the world.
John Barbour (c.1320 – 13 March 1395) was a Scottish poet and the first major named literary figure to write in Scots.
John III Sobieski (Jan III Sobieski; Jonas III Sobieskis; Ioannes III Sobiscius; 17 August 1629 – 17 June 1696), was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania from 1674 until his death, and one of the most notable monarchs of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth.
John Kenneth Galbraith (October 15, 1908 - April 29, 2006), also known as Ken Galbraith, was a Canadian-born economist, public official, and diplomat, and a leading proponent of 20th-century American liberalism.
King, or King Regnant is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts.
The Kingdom of Alba refers to the Kingdom of Scotland between the deaths of Donald II (Domnall mac Causantin) in 900 and of Alexander III in 1286, which then led indirectly to the Scottish Wars of Independence.
The Kingdom of Northumbria (Norþanhymbra rīce) was a medieval Anglian kingdom in what is now northern England and south-east Scotland.
The Kingdom of Scotland (Rìoghachd na h-Alba; Kinrick o Scotland) was a sovereign state in northwest Europe traditionally said to have been founded in 843.
Kraków, also spelled Cracow or Krakow, is the second largest and one of the oldest cities in Poland.
Kyle (or Coila poetically; Cuil) is a former comital district of Scotland which stretched across parts of modern-day East Ayrshire and South Ayrshire.
Lallans (a variant of the Modern Scots word lawlands meaning the lowlands of Scotland), is a term that was traditionally used to refer to the Scots language as a whole.
The languages of Scotland are the languages spoken or once spoken in Scotland.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
List of Scots is an incomplete list of notable people from Scotland.
Lothian (Lowden; Lodainn) is a region of the Scottish Lowlands, lying between the southern shore of the Firth of Forth and the Lammermuir Hills.
The Low Countries or, in the geographic sense of the term, the Netherlands (de Lage Landen or de Nederlanden, les Pays Bas) is a coastal region in northwestern Europe, consisting especially of the Netherlands and Belgium, and the low-lying delta of the Rhine, Meuse, Scheldt, and Ems rivers where much of the land is at or below sea level.
The Lowland Clearances were one of the results of the Scottish Agricultural Revolution, which changed the traditional system of agriculture which had existed in Lowland Scotland in the seventeenth century.
Luigi Poletti (28 October 1792 – 2 August 1869) was an Italian architect, active in a neoclassical style.
A makar is a term from Scottish literature for a poet or bard, often thought of as a royal court poet.
Mallaig; (Malaig) is a port in Lochaber, on the west coast of the Highlands of Scotland.
Maria Clementina Sobieska (Maria Klementyna Sobieska; 18 July 1702 – 18 January 1735) was a Titular Queen consort of England by marriage to James Francis Edward Stuart, a Jacobite claimant to the British throne.
Marischal College is a large granite building on Broad Street in the centre of Aberdeen in north-east Scotland, and since 2011 has acted as the headquarters of Aberdeen City Council.
Maud or Matilda (1074 – 1130/31) was the queen consort of King David I of Scotland.
The Māori are the indigenous Polynesian people of New Zealand.
Melville is a surname and a given name.
Methodism or the Methodist movement is a group of historically related denominations of Protestant Christianity which derive their inspiration from the life and teachings of John Wesley, an Anglican minister in England.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.
Mikhail Yuryevich Lermontov (p; –) was a Russian Romantic writer, poet and painter, sometimes called "the poet of the Caucasus", the most important Russian poet after Alexander Pushkin's death in 1837 and the greatest figure in Russian Romanticism.
Murray is both a Scottish and an Irish surname with two distinct respective etymologies.
Naracoorte is a town in the Limestone Coast region of South Australia, approximately 336 kilometres south-east of Adelaide and 100 kilometres north of Mount Gambier on the Riddoch Highway (A66).
A nation is a stable community of people, formed on the basis of a common language, territory, economic life, ethnicity or psychological make-up manifested in a common culture.
New England or New England North West is the name given to a generally undefined region in the north of the state of New South Wales, Australia about 60 kilometres (37 miles) inland, that includes the Northern Tablelands (or New England Tablelands) and the North West Slopes regions.
New South Wales (abbreviated as NSW) is a state on the east coast of:Australia.
New Zealand (Aotearoa) is a sovereign island country in the southwestern Pacific Ocean.
The New Zealand Census of Population and Dwellings (Te Tatauranga o ngā Tāngata Huri Noa i Aotearoa me ō rātou Whare Noho) is a national population and housing census conducted by government department Statistics New Zealand every five years.
The Norman conquest of England (in Britain, often called the Norman Conquest or the Conquest) was the 11th-century invasion and occupation of England by an army of Norman, Breton, Flemish and French soldiers led by Duke William II of Normandy, later styled William the Conqueror.
The Normans (Norman: Normaunds; Normands; Normanni) were the people who, in the 10th and 11th centuries, gave their name to Normandy, a region in France.
Norn is an extinct North Germanic language that was spoken in the Northern Isles (Orkney and Shetland) off the north coast of mainland Scotland and in Caithness in the far north of the Scottish mainland.
Norsemen are a group of Germanic people who inhabited Scandinavia and spoke what is now called the Old Norse language between 800 AD and c. 1300 AD.
North America is a continent entirely within the Northern Hemisphere and almost all within the Western Hemisphere; it is also considered by some to be a northern subcontinent of the Americas.
Northern Ireland (Tuaisceart Éireann; Ulster-Scots: Norlin Airlann) is a part of the United Kingdom in the north-east of the island of Ireland, variously described as a country, province or region.
The Northern Isles (Northren Isles; Na h-Eileanan a Tuath; Norðreyjar) are a pair of archipelagos off the north coast of mainland Scotland, comprising Orkney and Shetland.
Nova Scotia (Latin for "New Scotland"; Nouvelle-Écosse; Scottish Gaelic: Alba Nuadh) is one of Canada's three maritime provinces, and one of the four provinces that form Atlantic Canada.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
Old Irish (Goídelc; Sean-Ghaeilge; Seann Ghàidhlig; Shenn Yernish; sometimes called Old Gaelic) is the name given to the oldest form of the Goidelic languages for which extensive written texts are extant.
Oliver Cromwell (25 April 15993 September 1658) was an English military and political leader.
An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language.
Patrick Leopold Gordon of Auchleuchries (31 March 1635 in Auchleuchries, Aberdeenshire, Scotland – 29 November 1699 in Moscow, Russia) was a general and rear admiral in Russia, of Scottish origin.
Paul Dukes (born 1934) is a retired historian at the University of Aberdeen who is known for his work relating to Russia and Europe.
Paul Menesius (1637–1694, Latinized from Menzies, Russian transliteration: Павел Гаврилович Менезиус or Менезий or Миннюст) was a Scottish soldier and diplomat, who spent most of his life in the service of the Russian Tsar Alexei.
Pākehā (or Pakeha) is a Māori-language term for New Zealanders of European descent.
A pejorative (also called a derogatory term, a slur, a term of abuse, or a term of disparagement) is a word or grammatical form expressing a negative connotation or a low opinion of someone or something, showing a lack of respect for someone or something.
Penola is a town in the Australian state of South Australia located about southeast of the state capital of Adelaide in the wine growing area known as the Coonawarra.
Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January.
Pictish is the extinct language, or dialect, spoken by the Picts, the people of eastern and northern Scotland from the late Iron Age to the Early Middle Ages.
The Picts were a tribal confederation of peoples who lived in what is today eastern and northern Scotland during the Late Iron Age and Early Medieval periods.
The Plantation of Ulster (Plandáil Uladh; Ulster-Scots: Plantin o Ulstèr) was the organised colonisation (plantation) of Ulstera province of Irelandby people from Great Britain during the reign of James VI and I. Most of the colonists came from Scotland and England, although there was a small number of Welsh settlers.
The British Poet Laureate is an honorary position appointed by the monarch of the United Kingdom on the advice of the Prime Minister.
Poland (Polska), officially the Republic of Poland (Rzeczpospolita Polska), is a country located in Central Europe.
The Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, after 1791 the Commonwealth of Poland, was a dualistic state, a bi-confederation of Poland and Lithuania ruled by a common monarch, who was both the King of Poland and the Grand Duke of Lithuania.
Pope Paul V (Paulus V; Paolo V) (17 September 1550 – 28 January 1621), born Camillo Borghese, was Pope from 16 May 1605 to his death in 1621.
Archaeology and geology continue to reveal the secrets of prehistoric Scotland, uncovering a complex past before the Romans brought Scotland into the scope of recorded history.
Presbyterianism is a part of the reformed tradition within Protestantism which traces its origins to Britain, particularly Scotland, and Ireland.
A printing press is a device for applying pressure to an inked surface resting upon a print medium (such as paper or cloth), thereby transferring the ink.
The Protestant Ascendancy, known simply as the Ascendancy, was the political, economic and social domination of Ireland between the 17th century and the early 20th century by a minority of landowners, Protestant clergy and members of the professions, all members of the Church of Ireland or the Church of England.
Protestantism is the second largest form of Christianity with collectively more than 900 million adherents worldwide or nearly 40% of all Christians.
James Ramsay MacDonald, (né James McDonald Ramsay; 12 October 18669 November 1937) was a British statesman who was the first Labour Party politician to become Prime Minister, leading minority Labour governments in 1924 and in 1929–31.
Redleg is a term used to refer to poor whites that live on Barbados, St. Vincent, Grenada and a few other Caribbean islands.
The Rhins of Galloway otherwise known as the Rhins of Wigtownshire (or as The Rhins, also spelt The Rhinns; Na Rannaibh) is a hammer-head peninsula in Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland.
The River Tweed, or Tweed Water (Abhainn Thuaidh, Watter o Tweid), is a river long that flows east across the Border region in Scotland and northern England.
Robert Burns (25 January 175921 July 1796), also known as Rabbie Burns, the Bard of Ayrshire, Ploughman Poet and various other names and epithets, was a Scottish poet and lyricist.
Rome (Roma; Roma) is the capital city of Italy and a special comune (named Comune di Roma Capitale).
Rotterdam is a city in the Netherlands, in South Holland within the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt river delta at the North Sea.
Saint Andrew's Day is the feast day of Saint Andrew.
Samuel Greig, or Samuil Karlovich Greig (Самуи́л Ка́рлович Грейг), as he was known in Russia (30 November 1735, Inverkeithing, Fife, Scotland – 15 October 1788, Tallinn, Estonia, Russian Empire) was a Scottish-born Russian admiral who distinguished himself in the Battle of Chesma (1770) and the Battle of Hogland (1788).
Sant' Andrea degli Scozzesi (English: St Andrew of the Scots) is a former church in Rome, near Piazza Barberini on Via delle Quattro Fontane.
Scotch is an adjective meaning "of Scotland".
Scotch-Irish (or Scots-Irish) Americans are American descendants of Presbyterian and other Ulster Protestant Dissenters from various parts of Ireland, but usually from the province of Ulster, who migrated during the 18th and 19th centuries.
Scoti or Scotti is a Latin name for the Gaels,Duffy, Seán.
Scotland (Alba) is a country that is part of the United Kingdom and covers the northern third of the island of Great Britain.
The High Middle Ages of Scotland encompass Scotland in the era between the death of Domnall II in 900 AD and the death of King Alexander III in 1286, which was an indirect cause of the Scottish Wars of Independence.
The Scotland national football team represents Scotland in international football and is controlled by the Scottish Football Association.
The Scots International Church is located in Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
Scots is the Germanic language variety spoken in Lowland Scotland and parts of Ulster (where the local dialect is known as Ulster Scots).
Scots law is the legal system of Scotland.
The Scot-Quebecers (French language: Écossais-Québécois), are Quebecers who are of Scottish descent.
Scottish Americans or Scots Americans (Scottish Gaelic: Ameireaganaich Albannach; Scots-American) are Americans whose ancestry originates wholly or partly in Scotland.
Scottish Argentines are Argentine citizens of Scottish descent or Scottish-born people who reside in Argentina.
Scottish Australians are residents of Australia who are fully or partially of Scottish descent.
The Scottish Borders (The Mairches, "The Marches"; Scottish Gaelic: Crìochan na h-Alba) is one of 32 council areas of Scotland.
Scottish Brazilians (Escoto-brasileiro) refers to Brazilians of full, partial, or predominantly Scottish ancestry, or Scottish-born people residing in Brazil.
Scottish Canadians are people of Scottish descent or heritage living in Canada.
Scottish Chileans are Chileans of Scottish descent who came from Scotland and in some cases, Scots-Irish people from Northern Ireland.
Scottish English refers to the varieties of English spoken in Scotland.
The seven dioceses of the Scottish Episcopal Church (Eaglais Easbaigeach na h-Alba) make up the ecclesiastical province of the Anglican Communion in Scotland.
Scottish Gaelic or Scots Gaelic, sometimes also referred to simply as Gaelic (Gàidhlig) or the Gaelic, is a Celtic language native to the Gaels of Scotland.
A formal Gaelic language name consists of a given name and a surname.
The Scottish Government (Riaghaltas na h-Alba; Scots Govrenment) is the executive of the devolved Scottish Parliament.
The Highlands (the Hielands; A’ Ghàidhealtachd, "the place of the Gaels") are a historic region of Scotland.
Scottish Jamaicans are Jamaican people of Scottish descent.
The Lowlands (the Lallans or the Lawlands; a' Ghalldachd, "the place of the foreigner") are a cultural and historic region of Scotland.
Scottish national identity is a term referring to the sense of national identity, as embodied in the shared and characteristic culture, languages and traditions, of the Scottish people.
Scottish New Zealanders are New Zealanders who are of Scottish ancestry or New Zealanders who originate from Scotland.
The Scottish Parliament (Pàrlamaid na h-Alba; Scots: The Scots Pairlament) is the devolved national, unicameral legislature of Scotland.
The Scottish Reformation was the process by which Scotland broke with the Papacy and developed a predominantly Calvinist national Kirk (church), which was strongly Presbyterian in outlook.
Scottish Russians are Russians with full (or partial) Scottish ancestry.
Scottish surnames are surnames currently found in Scotland, or surnames that have a historical connection with the country.
Sir Thomas Sean Connery (born 25 August 1930) is a retired Scottish actor and producer who has won an Academy Award, two BAFTA Awards (one of them being a BAFTA Academy Fellowship Award) and three Golden Globes (including the Cecil B. DeMille Award and a Henrietta Award).
Selkirkshire or the County of Selkirk (Siorrachd Shalcraig) is a historic county and registration county of Scotland.
Shetlandic, usually referred to as (auld or braid) Shetland by native speakers, and referred to as Modern Shetlandic Scots (MSS) by linguists, is spoken in Shetland, to the north of mainland Scotland and is, like Orcadian, a dialect of Insular Scots.
Sir James Wylie, 1st Baronet, in Russia Yakov Vasilyevich Wylie (Russian: Я́ков Васи́льевич Ви́ллие) (13 or 20 November 1768, Kincardine-on-Forth — 2 March 1854, Saint Petersburg), was a Scottish doctor, Russian Imperial Court surgeon in 1799–1854 and President of the Imperial Medical and Surgical Academy in 1808–1838.
The Society of Jesus (SJ – from Societas Iesu) is a scholarly religious congregation of the Catholic Church which originated in sixteenth-century Spain.
The South Island (Māori: Te Waipounamu) is the larger of the two major islands of New Zealand, the other being the smaller but more populous North Island.
Southwestern Ontario is a secondary region of Southern Ontario in the Canadian province of Ontario.
St Giles' Cathedral, also known as the High Kirk of Edinburgh, is the principal place of worship of the Church of Scotland in Edinburgh.
Stefan Wolff is a German political scientist.
Stephen Báthory (Báthory István; Stefan Batory; Steponas Batoras; 27 September 1533 – 12 December 1586) was Voivode of Transylvania (1571–76), Prince of Transylvania (1576–86), from 1576 Queen Anna Jagiellon's husband and jure uxoris King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania (1576-1586).
Stewart is a Scottish surname (also used as a masculine given name) possibly of pre-7th century Old English origin, derived from stigeweard, the genitive prefix stige meaning "hall", and the suffix weard meaning "guardian" or "warden".
STV News is a Scottish news service produced by STV.
The Sunday Herald is a Scottish Sunday newspaper, launched on 7 February 1999.
A surname, family name, or last name is the portion of a personal name that indicates a person's family (or tribe or community, depending on the culture).
Tartan Day is a North American celebration of Scottish heritage on April 6, the date on which the Declaration of Arbroath was signed in 1320.
The Brus, also known as The Bruce, is a long narrative poem, in Early Scots, of just under 14,000 octosyllabic lines composed by John Barbour which gives a historic and chivalric account of the actions of Robert the Bruce and the Black Douglas in the Scottish Wars of Independence during a period from the circumstances leading up the English invasion of 1296 through to Scotland's restored position in the years between the Truce of 1328 and the death of Thomas Randolph, Earl of Moray in 1332.
The Gaelic College (Colaisde na Gàidhlig), is a non-profit educational institution located in the community of St. Ann's, on Nova Scotia's Cape Breton Island, along the Cabot Trail.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
The Royal and Ancient Golf Club of St Andrews is the oldest and most prestigious golf club in the world.
The Wall Street Journal is a U.S. business-focused, English-language international daily newspaper based in New York City.
Ulster (Ulaidh or Cúige Uladh, Ulster Scots: Ulstèr or Ulster) is a province in the north of the island of Ireland.
Ulster Scots or Ulster-Scots (Ulstèr-Scotch), also known as Ullans, is the Scots language as spoken in parts of Ulster in Ireland.
The Ulster Scots (Ulster-Scots: Ulstèr-Scotch), also called Ulster-Scots people (Ulstèr-Scotch fowk) or, outside the British Isles, Scots-Irish (Scotch-Airisch), are an ethnic group in Ireland, found mostly in the Ulster region and to a lesser extent in the rest of Ireland.
The Union of the Crowns (Aonadh nan Crùintean; Union o the Crouns) was the accession of James VI of Scotland to the thrones of England and Ireland, and the consequential unification for some purposes (such as overseas diplomacy) of the three realms under a single monarch on 24 March 1603.
A nationwide census, known as Census 2001, was conducted in the United Kingdom on Sunday, 29 April 2001.
A census of the population of the United Kingdom is taken every ten years.
The United States Census is a decennial census mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution, which states: "Representatives and direct Taxes shall be apportioned among the several States...
The United States Census Bureau (USCB; officially the Bureau of the Census, as defined in Title) is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American people and economy.
Veere (Zeelandic: Ter Veere) is a municipality with a population of 22,000 and a town with a population of 1,500 in the southwestern Netherlands, in the region of Walcheren in the province of Zeeland.
The Vistula (Wisła, Weichsel,, ווייסל), Висла) is the longest and largest river in Poland, at in length. The drainage basin area of the Vistula is, of which lies within Poland (54% of its land area). The remainder is in Belarus, Ukraine and Slovakia. The Vistula rises at Barania Góra in the south of Poland, above sea level in the Silesian Beskids (western part of Carpathian Mountains), where it begins with the White Little Vistula (Biała Wisełka) and the Black Little Vistula (Czarna Wisełka). It then continues to flow over the vast Polish plains, passing several large Polish cities along its way, including Kraków, Sandomierz, Warsaw, Płock, Włocławek, Toruń, Bydgoszcz, Świecie, Grudziądz, Tczew and Gdańsk. It empties into the Vistula Lagoon (Zalew Wiślany) or directly into the Gdańsk Bay of the Baltic Sea with a delta and several branches (Leniwka, Przekop, Śmiała Wisła, Martwa Wisła, Nogat and Szkarpawa).
Sir Walter Scott, 1st Baronet (15 August 1771 – 21 September 1832) was a Scottish historical novelist, playwright, poet and historian.
The Wars of Scottish Independence were a series of military campaigns fought between the Kingdom of Scotland and the Kingdom of England in the late 13th and early 14th centuries.
Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.
The Waverley Novels are a long series of novels by Sir Walter Scott (1771–1832).
Western Victoria is a wine grape growing zone in the southwestern part of the state of Victoria in Australia.
William Hastie (Василий Иванович Гесте; c.1753 – June 4, 1832) was a Russian architect, civil engineer and town planner of Scottish descent.
The World Curling Federation (WCF) is the world governing body for curling accreditation, with offices in Perth, Scotland.
The 2013 New Zealand census was the thirty-third national census.
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