In software engineering and computer science, abstraction is.
ActionScript is an object-oriented programming language originally developed by Macromedia Inc. (later acquired by Adobe Systems).
Adobe Acrobat is a family of application software and Web services developed by Adobe Systems to view, create, manipulate, print and manage files in Portable Document Format (PDF).
Adobe ColdFusion is a commercial rapid web application development platform created by J. J. Allaire in 1995.
Adobe Flash is a deprecated multimedia software platform used for production of animations, rich Internet applications, desktop applications, mobile applications, mobile games and embedded web browser video players.
Adobe Systems Incorporated, commonly known as Adobe, is an American multinational computer software company.
AngelScript is a game-oriented interpreted compiled scripting language.
AppleScript is a scripting language created by Apple Inc. that facilitates automated control over scriptable Mac applications.
In computer programming, an application programming interface (API) is a set of subroutine definitions, protocols, and tools for building software.
An application software (app or application for short) is a computer software designed to perform a group of coordinated functions, tasks, or activities for the benefit of the user.
Architecture description languages (ADLs) are used in several disciplines: system engineering, software engineering, and enterprise modelling and engineering.
An authoring system is a program that has pre-programmed elements for the development of interactive multimedia software titles.
Autodesk Maya, commonly shortened to Maya, is a 3D computer graphics application that runs on Windows, macOS and Linux, originally developed by Alias Systems Corporation (formerly Alias|Wavefront) and currently owned and developed by Autodesk, Inc. It is used to create interactive 3D applications, including video games, animated film, TV series, or visual effects.
Automation is the technology by which a process or procedure is performed without human assistance.
AWK is a programming language designed for text processing and typically used as a data extraction and reporting tool.
Bash is a Unix shell and command language written by Brian Fox for the GNU Project as a free software replacement for the Bourne shell.
In computing, batch processing refers to a computer working through a queue or batch of separate jobs (programs) without manual intervention (non-interactive).
Blender is a professional, free and open-source 3D computer graphics software toolset used for creating animated films, visual effects, art, 3D printed models, interactive 3D applications and video games.
The Bourne shell (sh) is a shell, or command-line interpreter, for computer operating systems.
Build automation is the process of automating the creation of a software build and the associated processes including: compiling computer source code into binary code, packaging binary code, and running automated tests.
Bytecode, also termed portable code or p-code, is a form of instruction set designed for efficient execution by a software interpreter.
The C shell (csh or the improved version, tcsh) is a Unix shell created by Bill Joy while he was a graduate student at University of California, Berkeley in the late 1970s.
Calvin Northrup Mooers (October 24, 1919 – December 1, 1994), was an American computer scientist known for his work in information retrieval and for the programming language TRAC.
Ch is a proprietary cross-platform C and C++ interpreter and scripting language environment, originally designed by Harry H. Cheng as a scripting language for beginners to learn mathematics, computing, numerical analysis (numeric methods), and programming in C/C++.
CMS EXEC, or EXEC, is an interpreted, command procedure control, computer scripting language used by the CMS EXEC Processor supplied with the IBM Virtual Machine/Conversational Monitor System (VM/CMS) operating system.
A command-line interface or command language interpreter (CLI), also known as command-line user interface, console user interface and character user interface (CUI), is a means of interacting with a computer program where the user (or client) issues commands to the program in the form of successive lines of text (command lines).
COMMAND.COM is the default command-line interpreter for DOS, Windows 95, Windows 98 and Windows ME.
An application launcher is a computer program that helps a user to locate and start other computer programs.
The Compatible Time-Sharing System (CTSS), was one of the first time-sharing operating systems; it was developed at the MIT Computation Center.
A compiled language is a programming language whose implementations are typically compilers (translators that generate machine code from source code), and not interpreters (step-by-step executors of source code, where no pre-runtime translation takes place).
A compiler is computer software that transforms computer code written in one programming language (the source language) into another programming language (the target language).
Component-based software engineering (CBSE), also called as component-based development (CBD), is a branch of software engineering that emphasizes the separation of concerns with respect to the wide-ranging functionality available throughout a given software system.
In computing, configuration files (or config files) are files used to configure the parameters and initial settings for some computer programs.
CP/CMS (Control Program/Cambridge Monitor System) is a discontinued time-sharing operating system of the late 60s and early 70s, known for its excellent performance and advanced features.
A cross compiler is a compiler capable of creating executable code for a platform other than the one on which the compiler is running.
A database is an organized collection of data, stored and accessed electronically.
DIGITAL Command Language (DCL) is the standard command language adopted by most of the operating systems (OSs) that were sold by the former Digital Equipment Corporation (which was acquired by Compaq, which was in turn acquired by Hewlett-Packard).
A domain-specific language (DSL) is a computer language specialized to a particular application domain.
Dynamic programming language, in computer science, is a class of high-level programming languages which, at runtime, execute many common programming behaviors that static programming languages perform during compilation.
The ECL programming language and system were an extensible high-level programming language and development environment developed at Harvard University in the 1970s.
ECMAScript (or ES) is a trademarked scripting-language specification standardized by Ecma International in ECMA-262 and ISO/IEC 16262.
Emacs is a family of text editors that are characterized by their extensibility.
Emacs Lisp is a dialect of the Lisp programming language used as a scripting language by Emacs (a text editor family most commonly associated with GNU Emacs and XEmacs).
Embeddable Common Lisp (ECL) is a programming language, an implementation of Common Lisp, which is a small Lisp system that can be embedded in extant applications written in the language C. It can create stand-alone Executable and Linkable Format (ELF) executable files from Common Lisp code, and runs on most platforms that support a C compiler.
An embedded system is a computer system with a dedicated function within a larger mechanical or electrical system, often with real-time computing constraints.
End-user development (EUD) or end-user programming (EUP) refers to activities and tools that allow end-users – people who are not professional software developers – to program computers.
In computer programming, an entry point is where control is transferred from the operating system to a computer program, at which place the processor enters a program or a code fragment and execution begins.
Erlang is a general-purpose, concurrent, functional programming language, as well as a garbage-collected runtime system.
EXEC 2 is an interpreted, command procedure control, computer scripting language used by the EXEC 2 Processor supplied with the IBM Virtual Machine/System Product (VM/SP) operating system.
Execution in computer and software engineering is the process by which a computer or a virtual machine performs the instructions of a computer program.
A game engine is a software development environment designed for people to build video games.
In computer software, a general-purpose programming language is a programming language designed to be used for writing software in the widest variety of application domains (a general-purpose language).
In computer programming, glue code is source code that serves solely to "adapt" different parts of code that would otherwise be incompatible.
In computer science, a high-level programming language is a programming language with strong abstraction from the details of the computer.
In computer science, imperative programming is a programming paradigm that uses statements that change a program's state.
In computer science, information hiding is the principle of segregation of the design decisions in a computer program that are most likely to change, thus protecting other parts of the program from extensive modification if the design decision is changed.
An interpreted language is a type of programming language for which most of its implementations execute instructions directly and freely, without previously compiling a program into machine-language instructions.
An interpreter directive is a computer language construct, that on some systems is better described as an aspect of the system's executable file format, that is used to control which interpreter parses and interprets the instructions in a computer program.
Java is a general-purpose computer-programming language that is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible.
In computing job control refers to the control of multiple tasks or jobs on a computer system, ensuring that they each have access to adequate resources to perform correctly, that competition for limited resources does not cause a deadlock where two or more jobs are unable to complete, resolving such situations where they do occur, and terminating jobs that, for any reason, are not performing as expected.
Job Control Language (JCL) is a name for scripting languages used on IBM mainframe operating systems to instruct the system on how to run a batch job or start a subsystem.
JScript is Microsoft's dialect of the ECMAScript standard that is used in Microsoft's Internet Explorer.
Julia is a high-level dynamic programming language designed to address the needs of high-performance numerical analysis and computational science, without the typical need of separate compilation to be fast, while also being effective for general-purpose programming, web use or as a specification language.
KornShell (ksh) is a Unix shell which was developed by David Korn at Bell Labs in the early 1980s and announced at USENIX on July 14, 1983.
Larry Wall (born September 27, 1954) is a computer programmer and author.
Lisp (historically, LISP) is a family of computer programming languages with a long history and a distinctive, fully parenthesized prefix notation.
This is a list of notable programming languages, grouped by type.
LotusScript is an object oriented programming language used by Lotus Notes (since version 4.0) and other IBM Lotus Software products.
Louis Pouzin (born 1931 in Chantenay-Saint-Imbert, Nièvre, France) invented the datagram and designed an early packet communications network, CYCLADES.
Lua (from meaning moon) is a lightweight, multi-paradigm programming language designed primarily for embedded use in applications.
m4 is a general-purpose macro processor included in all UNIX-like operating systems, and is a component of the POSIX standard.
Machine code is a computer program written in machine language instructions that can be executed directly by a computer's central processing unit (CPU).
A macro (short for "macroinstruction", from Greek μακρός 'long') in computer science is a rule or pattern that specifies how a certain input sequence (often a sequence of characters) should be mapped to a replacement output sequence (also often a sequence of characters) according to a defined procedure.
Mainframe computers (colloquially referred to as "big iron") are computers used primarily by large organizations for critical applications; bulk data processing, such as census, industry and consumer statistics, enterprise resource planning; and transaction processing.
Memory management is a form of resource management applied to computer memory.
Microsoft Office is a family of client software, server software, and services developed by Microsoft.
Modern Pascal is a closed source, cross-platform, interpreter, compiler and runtime environment for command line, server-side and networking applications.
Mozilla (stylized as moz://a) is a free software community founded in 1998 by members of Netscape.
Multics (Multiplexed Information and Computing Service) is an influential early time-sharing operating system, based around the concept of a single-level memory.
A non-player character (NPC) in a game is any character that is not controlled by a player.
In computing, object model has two related but distinct meanings.
An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware and software resources and provides common services for computer programs.
In computing, the Oracle Call Interface (OCI) consists of a set of C-language software APIs which provide an interface to the Oracle database.
Ousterhout's dichotomy is computer scientist John Ousterhout's categorization that high-level programming languages tend to fall into two groups, each with distinct properties and uses: system programming languages and scripting languages – compare programming in the large and programming in the small.
PC games, also known as computer games or personal computer games, are video games played on a personal computer rather than a dedicated video game console or arcade machine.
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
Perl is a family of two high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming languages, Perl 5 and Perl 6.
PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor (or simply PHP) is a server-side scripting language designed for Web development, but also used as a general-purpose programming language.
In digital imaging, a pixel, pel, dots, or picture element is a physical point in a raster image, or the smallest addressable element in an all points addressable display device; so it is the smallest controllable element of a picture represented on the screen.
PowerShell is a task automation and configuration management framework from Microsoft, consisting of a command-line shell and associated scripting language.
In software engineering, programming in the large and programming in the small describe two different approaches to writing software.
A programming language is a formal language that specifies a set of instructions that can be used to produce various kinds of output.
Pure, successor to the equational language Q, is a dynamically typed, functional programming language based on term rewriting.
Python is an interpreted high-level programming language for general-purpose programming.
QuakeC is an interpreted language developed in 1996 by John Carmack of id Software to program parts of the video game Quake.
Rapid-application development (RAD) is both a general term, used to refer to adaptive software development approaches, as well as the name for James Martin's approach to rapid development.
A Read–Eval–Print Loop (REPL), also known as an interactive toplevel or language shell, is a simple, interactive computer programming environment that takes single user inputs (i.e. single expressions), evaluates them, and returns the result to the user; a program written in a REPL environment is executed piecewise.
Rebol (historically REBOL) is a cross-platform data exchange language and a multi-paradigm dynamic programming language designed by Carl Sassenrath for network communications and distributed computing.
Red is a computer programming language.
Rexx (Restructured Extended Executor) is an interpreted programming language developed at IBM by Mike Cowlishaw.
Ruby is a dynamic, interpreted, reflective, object-oriented, general-purpose programming language.
A runtime system, also called run-time system, primarily implements portions of an execution model.
Scheme is a programming language that supports multiple paradigms, including functional programming and imperative programming, and is one of the two main dialects of Lisp.
Second Life is an online virtual world, developed and owned by the San Francisco-based firm Linden Lab and launched on June 23, 2003.
sed (stream editor) is a Unix utility that parses and transforms text, using a simple, compact programming language.
In programming language theory, semantics is the field concerned with the rigorous mathematical study of the meaning of programming languages.
In computing, a shebang is the character sequence consisting of the characters number sign and exclamation mark at the beginning of a script.
In computing, a shell is a user interface for access to an operating system's services.
A shell script is a computer program designed to be run by the Unix shell, a command-line interpreter.
Squirrel is a high level imperative, object-oriented programming language, designed to be a lightweight scripting language that fits in the size, memory bandwidth, and real-time requirements of applications like video games and hardware such as Electric Imp.
Stuart E. Madnick (born 1944) is an American computer scientist, and professor of information technology at the MIT Sloan School of Management and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology school of engineering.
In computer science, the syntax of a computer language is the set of rules that defines the combinations of symbols that are considered to be a correctly structured document or fragment in that language.
System programming (or systems programming) is the activity of programming computer system software.
Tcl (pronounced "tickle" or tee cee ell) is a high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming language.
A template processor (also known as a template engine or template parser) is software designed to combine templates with a data model to produce result documents.
Texas Instruments Inc. (TI) is an American technology company that designs and manufactures semiconductors and various integrated circuits, which it sells to electronics designers and manufacturers globally.
The Battle for Wesnoth is a turn-based strategy video game with a fantasy setting, designed by David White and first released in June 2003.
The TI-92 series of graphing calculators are a line of calculators produced by Texas Instruments.
In computing, time-sharing is the sharing of a computing resource among many users by means of multiprogramming and multi-tasking at the same time.
TRAC (for Text Reckoning And Compiling) Language is a programming language developed between 1959-1964 by Calvin Mooers and implemented on a PDP-10 in 1964 by L. Peter Deutsch.
Trainz is a series of 3D train simulator video games, starting in 2001, developed by Auran; since 2007 N3V Games took over development.
Unix (trademarked as UNIX) is a family of multitasking, multiuser computer operating systems that derive from the original AT&T Unix, development starting in the 1970s at the Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie, and others.
A Unix shell is a command-line interpreter or shell that provides a traditional Unix-like command line user interface.
A Unix-like (sometimes referred to as UN*X or *nix) operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, while not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification.
VBScript ("Microsoft Visual Basic Scripting Edition") is an Active Scripting language developed by Microsoft that is modeled on Visual Basic.
A very high-level programming language (VHLL) is a programming language with a very high level of abstraction, used primarily as a professional programmer productivity tool.
A virtual world is a computer-based simulated environment which may be populated by many users who can create a personal avatar, and simultaneously and independently explore the virtual world, participate in its activities and communicate with others.
Visual Basic is a third-generation event-driven programming language and integrated development environment (IDE) from Microsoft for its Component Object Model (COM) programming model first released in 1991 and declared legacy during 2008.
Visual Basic for Applications (VBA) is an implementation of Microsoft's event-driven programming language Visual Basic 6, which was discontinued in 2008, and its associated integrated development environment (IDE).
A web browser (commonly referred to as a browser) is a software application for accessing information on the World Wide Web.
Web development is a broad term for the work involved in developing a web site for the Internet (World Wide Web) or an intranet (a private network).
A web page (also written as webpage) is a document that is suitable for the World Wide Web and web browsers.
Web server refers to server software, or hardware dedicated to running said software, that can serve contents to the World Wide Web.
The Microsoft Windows Script Host (WSH) (formerly named Windows Scripting Host) is an automation technology for Microsoft Windows operating systems that provides scripting abilities comparable to batch files, but with a wider range of supported features.
WinWrap Basic (WWB) by Polar Engineering, Inc.
WordBASIC was a subset of Microsoft QuickBASIC customized for word-processing.
Work Flow Language, or WFL ("wiffle") is the process control language for the Burroughs large systems, including the Unisys ClearPath/MCP series, and their operating system Master Control Program.
XSLT (Extensible Stylesheet Language Transformations) is a language for transforming XML documents into other XML documents, or other formats such as HTML for web pages, plain text or XSL Formatting Objects, which may subsequently be converted to other formats, such as PDF, PostScript and PNG.
XUL, which stands for XML User Interface Language, is a user interface markup language developed by Mozilla.
Yahoo Widgets was a free application platform for Mac OS X and Microsoft Windows, specifically Windows XP, Vista and Win 7.
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