1049 relations: A Sea Symphony, A-mei, Abbasid Caliphate, Abiogenesis, Aboriginal Australians, Acid, Admiralty court, Admiralty law, Age of Discovery, Age of Sail, Air cargo, Albatross, Alexander Neckam, Alexandria, Alfonsine tables, Algaculture, Algae, Algal bloom, Alkalinity, All Red Line, Amalfian Laws, American entry into World War I, American Revolution, Amsterdam, Anaerobic organism, Anammox, Anchovy, Ancient Greece, Ancient Hawaii, Ancient history, Ancient maritime history, Andaman Sea, Anoxic event, Antarctic Convergence, Antarctica, Anthony de la Roché, Anticyclone, Apostles, Aqua-Lung, Aquaculture, Aqueous solution, Arabian Desert, Aral Sea, Archaeological Survey of India, Archipelago, Arctic Ocean, Aristotle, Arsenic, Arsinoe (Gulf of Suez), Arthur C. Clarke, ..., Article (grammar), Artificial seawater, Asia, Astrolabe, Atacama Desert, Athenaeus, Atlantic Ocean, Atmosphere, Atmosphere of Earth, Atmospheric diving suit, Attrition (erosion), Augustus, Austronesian peoples, Autarky, Bab-el-Mandeb, Bakumatsu, Ballast, Ballistic missile submarine, Baltic Sea, Barbary pirates, Barents Sea, Barnacle, Bartolomeu Dias, Basalt, Baseline (sea), Bathymetry, Bathyscaphe Trieste, Bathysphere, Battle of Actium, Battle of Jutland, Battle of Salamis, Battle of the Atlantic, Battle of Trafalgar, Battle of Tsushima, Battleship, Bay, Bay of Fundy, BBC, Beach, Bearing (navigation), Belmont, California, Benthic zone, Benthos, Beringia, Bible, Bicarbonate, Bioaccumulation, Biodegradation, Biodiversity, Birdwatching, Bismarck Archipelago, Black Ball Line (trans-Atlantic packet), Blue Riband, Body of water, Borate, Borneo, Break bulk cargo, Breaking wave, Breakwater (structure), Brittany, Brixham trawler, Bromide, Bromine, Bulk cargo, Bulk carrier, Bureau of Meteorology, Burial at sea, Byzantine law, Cadmium, Caesium-137, Calcium, Calcium carbonate, Camanchaca, Cambridge, Massachusetts, Canal of the Pharaohs, Canary Islands, Canned fish, Cannon, Canoe, Cape (geography), Cape of Good Hope, Capillary wave, Caravel, Carbon cycle, Carbon dioxide, Carbonate, Carbonate compensation depth, Carbonic acid, Caribbean Sea, Carl Chun, Carl Jung, Carthage, Caspian Sea, Catch share, Caulking, Cádiz, Central Asia, Cetacea, Cetacean stranding, Chalcis, Challenger expedition, Charles Villiers Stanford, Chemical element, Chemical oceanography, Chemical synthesis, Chemotroph, Chili pepper, Chinese classics, Chinese economic reform, Chinese treasure ship, Chinese white shrimp, Chloride, Chola dynasty, Christian art, Christian symbolism, Christopher Columbus, Chukchi people, Cilician pirates, Circumnavigation, City-state, Civil law (legal system), Civilization, Claude Debussy, Climate model, Climatology, Clinker (boat building), Cloud, Coast, 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A Sea Symphony is a piece for orchestra and chorus by Ralph Vaughan Williams, written between 1903 and 1909.
Kulilay Amit (born 9 August 1972), better known by her stage name A-mei, is a Taiwanese Puyuma singer-songwriter.
The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Abiogenesis, or informally the origin of life,Compare: Also occasionally called biopoiesis.
Aboriginal Australians are legally defined as people who are members "of the Aboriginal race of Australia" (indigenous to mainland Australia or to the island of Tasmania).
An acid is a molecule or ion capable of donating a hydron (proton or hydrogen ion H+), or, alternatively, capable of forming a covalent bond with an electron pair (a Lewis acid).
Admiralty courts, also known as maritime courts, are courts exercising jurisdiction over all maritime contracts, torts, injuries, and offenses.
Admiralty law or maritime law is a body of law that governs nautical issues and private maritime disputes.
The Age of Discovery, or the Age of Exploration (approximately from the beginning of the 15th century until the end of the 18th century) is an informal and loosely defined term for the period in European history in which extensive overseas exploration emerged as a powerful factor in European culture and was the beginning of globalization.
The Age of Sail (usually dated as 1571–1862) was a period roughly corresponding to the early modern period in which international trade and naval warfare were dominated by sailing ships, lasting from the 16th to the mid-19th century.
Air cargo is any property carried or to be carried in an aircraft.
Albatrosses, of the biological family Diomedeidae, are large seabirds related to the procellariids, storm petrels and diving petrels in the order Procellariiformes (the tubenoses).
Alexander Neckam(8 September 115731 March 1217) was an English scholar, teacher, theologian and abbot of Cirencester Abbey from 1213 until his death.
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
The Alfonsine tables (Tablas alfonsíes, tabulae alphonsinae), sometimes spelled Alphonsine tables, provided data for computing the position of the Sun, Moon and planets relative to the fixed stars.
Algaculture is a form of aquaculture involving the farming of species of algae.
Algae (singular alga) is an informal term for a large, diverse group of photosynthetic organisms that are not necessarily closely related, and is thus polyphyletic.
An algal bloom is a rapid increase or accumulation in the population of algae in freshwater or marine water systems, and is recognized by the discoloration in the water from their pigments.
Alkalinity is the capacity of water to resist changes in pH that would make the water more acidic.
The All Red Line was an informal name for the system of electrical telegraphs that linked much of the British Empire.
The Amalfian Laws are a code of maritime laws compiled in the 12th century in Amalfi, a town in Italy.
The American entry into World War I came in April 1917, after more than two and a half years of efforts by President Woodrow Wilson to keep the United States out of the war.
The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783.
Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands.
An anaerobic organism or anaerobe is any organism that does not require oxygen for growth.
Anammox, an abbreviation for anaerobic ammonium oxidation, is a globally important microbial process of the nitrogen cycle that takes place in many natural environments.
An anchovy is a small, common forage fish of the family Engraulidae.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
Ancient Hawaii is the period of Hawaiian human history preceding the unification in 1810 of the Kingdom of Hawaiokinai by Kamehameha the Great.
Ancient history is the aggregate of past events, "History" from the beginning of recorded human history and extending as far as the Early Middle Ages or the post-classical history.
Maritime history dates back thousands of years.
The Andaman Sea is a marginal sea of the eastern Indian Ocean separated from the Bay of Bengal (to its west) by the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and touching Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, and the Malay Peninsula.
Oceanic anoxic events or anoxic events (anoxia conditions) refer to intervals in the Earth's past where portions of oceans become depleted in oxygen (O2) at depths over a large geographic area.
The Antarctic Convergence is a curve continuously encircling Antarctica, varying in latitude seasonally, where cold, northward-flowing Antarctic waters meet the relatively warmer waters of the subantarctic.
Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent.
Anthony de la Roché, born sometime in the 17th century, (spelled also Antoine de la Roché, Antonio de la Roché or Antonio de la Roca in some sources) was an English merchant born in London to a French Huguenot father and an English mother.
An anticyclone (that is, opposite to a cyclone) is a weather phenomenon defined by the United States National Weather Service's glossary as "a large-scale circulation of winds around a central region of high atmospheric pressure, clockwise in the Northern Hemisphere, counterclockwise in the Southern Hemisphere".
In Christian theology and ecclesiology, the apostles, particularly the Twelve Apostles (also known as the Twelve Disciples or simply the Twelve), were the primary disciples of Jesus, the central figure in Christianity.
Aqua-Lung was the first open-circuit, self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (or "SCUBA") to reach worldwide popularity and commercial success.
Aquaculture (less commonly spelled aquiculture), also known as aquafarming, is the farming of fish, crustaceans, molluscs, aquatic plants, algae, and other organisms.
An aqueous solution is a solution in which the solvent is water.
The Arabian Desert is a vast desert wilderness in Western Asia.
The Aral Sea was an endorheic lake (one with no outflow) lying between Kazakhstan (Aktobe and Kyzylorda Regions) in the north and Uzbekistan (Karakalpakstan autonomous region) in the south.
The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) is a Government of India (Ministry of Culture) organisation responsible for archaeological research and the conservation and preservation of cultural monuments in the country.
An archipelago, sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of islands, or sometimes a sea containing a small number of scattered islands.
The Arctic Ocean is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major oceans.
Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης Aristotélēs,; 384–322 BC) was an ancient Greek philosopher and scientist born in the city of Stagira, Chalkidiki, in the north of Classical Greece.
Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.
Arsinoe (Greek: Ἀρσινόη) or Arsinoites or Cleopatris or Cleopatra, was an ancient city at the northern extremity of the Heroopolite Gulf (Gulf of Suez), in the Red Sea.
Sir Arthur Charles Clarke (16 December 1917 – 19 March 2008) was a British science fiction writer, science writer and futurist, inventor, undersea explorer, and television series host.
An article (with the linguistic glossing abbreviation) is a word that is used with a noun (as a standalone word or a prefix or suffix) to specify grammatical definiteness of the noun, and in some languages extending to volume or numerical scope.
Artificial seawater (abbreviated ASW) is a mixture of dissolved mineral salts (and sometimes vitamins) that simulates seawater.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
An astrolabe (ἀστρολάβος astrolabos; ٱلأَسْطُرلاب al-Asturlāb; اَختِرِیاب Akhteriab) is an elaborate inclinometer, historically used by astronomers and navigators to measure the inclined position in the sky of a celestial body, day or night.
The Atacama Desert (Desierto de Atacama) is a plateau in South America (primarily in Chile), covering a 1000-km (600-mi) strip of land on the Pacific coast, west of the Andes mountains.
Athenaeus of Naucratis (Ἀθήναιος Nαυκρατίτης or Nαυκράτιος, Athēnaios Naukratitēs or Naukratios; Athenaeus Naucratita) was a Greek rhetorician and grammarian, flourishing about the end of the 2nd and beginning of the 3rd century AD.
The Atlantic Ocean is the second largest of the world's oceans with a total area of about.
An atmosphere is a layer or a set of layers of gases surrounding a planet or other material body, that is held in place by the gravity of that body.
The atmosphere of Earth is the layer of gases, commonly known as air, that surrounds the planet Earth and is retained by Earth's gravity.
An atmospheric diving suit (ADS) is a small one-person articulated anthropomorphic submersible which resembles a suit of armour, with elaborate pressure joints to allow articulation while maintaining an internal pressure of one atmosphere.
Attrition is a form of coastal or river erosion, when the bed load is eroded by itself and the bed.
Augustus (Augustus; 23 September 63 BC – 19 August 14 AD) was a Roman statesman and military leader who was the first Emperor of the Roman Empire, controlling Imperial Rome from 27 BC until his death in AD 14.
The Austronesian peoples are various groups in Southeast Asia, Oceania and East Africa that speak languages that are under the Austronesian language super-family.
Autarky is the quality of being self-sufficient.
The Bab-el-Mandeb (Arabic: باب المندب, "Gate of Tears") is a strait located between Yemen on the Arabian Peninsula, and Djibouti and Eritrea in the Horn of Africa.
refers to the final years of the Edo period when the Tokugawa shogunate ended.
Ballast is material that is used to provide stability to a vehicle or structure.
A ballistic missile submarine is a submarine capable of deploying submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs) with nuclear warheads.
The Baltic Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Scandinavia, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Russia, Poland, Germany and the North and Central European Plain.
The Barbary pirates, sometimes called Barbary corsairs or Ottoman corsairs, were Ottoman pirates and privateers who operated from North Africa, based primarily in the ports of Salé, Rabat, Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli.
The Barents Sea (Barentshavet; Баренцево море, Barentsevo More) is a marginal sea of the Arctic Ocean, located off the northern coasts of Norway and Russia divided between Norwegian and Russian territorial waters.
A barnacle is a type of arthropod constituting the infraclass Cirripedia in the subphylum Crustacea, and is hence related to crabs and lobsters.
Bartolomeu Dias (Anglicized: Bartholomew Diaz; c. 1450 – 29 May 1500), a nobleman of the Portuguese royal household, was a Portuguese explorer.
Basalt is a common extrusive igneous (volcanic) rock formed from the rapid cooling of basaltic lava exposed at or very near the surface of a planet or moon.
A baseline, as defined by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, is the line along the coast from which the seaward limits of a state's territorial sea and certain other maritime zones of jurisdiction are measured, such as a state's exclusive economic zone.
Bathymetry is the study of underwater depth of lake or ocean floors.
Trieste is a Swiss-designed, Italian-built deep-diving research bathyscaphe, which with its crew of two reached a record maximum depth of about, in the deepest known part of the Earth's oceans, the Challenger Deep, in the Mariana Trench near Guam in the Pacific.
The Bathysphere (Greek: βαθύς, bathus, "deep" and σφαῖρα, sphaira, "sphere") was a unique spherical deep-sea submersible which was unpowered and lowered into the ocean on a cable, and was used to conduct a series of dives off the coast of Bermuda from 1930 to 1934.
The Battle of Actium was the decisive confrontation of the Final War of the Roman Republic, a naval engagement between Octavian and the combined forces of Mark Antony and Cleopatra on 2 September 31 BC, on the Ionian Sea near the promontory of Actium, in the Roman province of Epirus Vetus in Greece.
The Battle of Jutland (Skagerrakschlacht, the Battle of Skagerrak) was a naval battle fought by the British Royal Navy's Grand Fleet under Admiral Sir John Jellicoe, against the Imperial German Navy's High Seas Fleet under Vice-Admiral Reinhard Scheer during the First World War.
The Battle of Salamis (Ναυμαχία τῆς Σαλαμῖνος, Naumachia tēs Salaminos) was a naval battle fought between an alliance of Greek city-states under Themistocles and the Persian Empire under King Xerxes in 480 BC which resulted in a decisive victory for the outnumbered Greeks.
The Battle of the Atlantic was the longest continuous military campaign in World War II, running from 1939 to the defeat of Germany in 1945.
The Battle of Trafalgar (21 October 1805) was a naval engagement fought by the British Royal Navy against the combined fleets of the French and Spanish Navies, during the War of the Third Coalition (August–December 1805) of the Napoleonic Wars (1796–1815).
The Battle of Tsushima (Цусимское сражение, Tsusimskoye srazheniye), also known as the Battle of Tsushima Strait and the Naval Battle of the Sea of Japan (Japanese: 日本海海戦, Nihonkai-Kaisen) in Japan, was a major naval battle fought between Russia and Japan during the Russo-Japanese War.
A battleship is a large armored warship with a main battery consisting of large caliber guns.
A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean, a lake, or another bay.
The Bay of Fundy (or Fundy Bay; Baie de Fundy) is a bay between the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, with a small portion touching the US state of Maine.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster.
A beach is a landform alongside a body of water which consists of loose particles.
In navigation bearing may refer, depending on the context, to any of: (A) the direction or course of motion itself; (B) the direction of a distant object relative to the current course (or the "change" in course that would be needed to get to that distant object); or (C), the angle away from North of a distant point as observed at the current point.
Belmont is a city in San Mateo County in the U.S. state of California.
The benthic zone is the ecological region at the lowest level of a body of water such as an ocean or a lake, including the sediment surface and some sub-surface layers.
Benthos is the community of organisms that live on, in, or near the seabed, also known as the benthic zone.
Beringia is defined today as the land and maritime area bounded on the west by the Lena River in Russia; on the east by the Mackenzie River in Canada; on the north by 72 degrees north latitude in the Chukchi Sea; and on the south by the tip of the Kamchatka Peninsula.
The Bible (from Koine Greek τὰ βιβλία, tà biblía, "the books") is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures that Jews and Christians consider to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans.
In inorganic chemistry, bicarbonate (IUPAC-recommended nomenclature: hydrogencarbonate) is an intermediate form in the deprotonation of carbonic acid.
Bioaccumulation is the accumulation of substances, such as pesticides, or other chemicals in an organism.
Biodegradation is the disintegration of materials by bacteria, fungi, or other biological means.
Biodiversity, a portmanteau of biological (life) and diversity, generally refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth.
Birdwatching, or birding, is a form of wildlife observation in which the observation of birds is a recreational activity or citizen science.
The Bismarck Archipelago is a group of islands off the northeastern coast of New Guinea in the western Pacific Ocean and is part of the Islands Region of Papua New Guinea.
The Black Ball Line was a passenger line founded by a group of New York Quaker merchants headed by Jeremiah Thompson, and included Isaac Wright & Son (William), Francis Thompson and Benjamin Marshall.
The Blue Riband is an unofficial accolade given to the passenger liner crossing the Atlantic Ocean in regular service with the record highest speed.
A body of water or waterbody (often spelled water body) is any significant accumulation of water, generally on a planet's surface.
Borates are the name for a large number of boron-containing oxyanions.
Borneo (Pulau Borneo) is the third largest island in the world and the largest in Asia.
In shipping, break bulk cargo or general cargo are goods that must be loaded individually, and not in intermodal containers nor in bulk as with oil or grain.
In fluid dynamics, a breaking wave is a wave whose amplitude reaches a critical level at which some process can suddenly start to occur that causes large amounts of wave energy to be transformed into turbulent kinetic energy.
Breakwaters are structures constructed on coasts as part of coastal management or to protect an anchorage from the effects of both weather and longshore drift.
Brittany (Bretagne; Breizh, pronounced or; Gallo: Bertaèyn, pronounced) is a cultural region in the northwest of France, covering the western part of what was known as Armorica during the period of Roman occupation.
A Brixham trawler is a type of wooden, deep-sea fishing trawler first built in Brixham in Devon, England, in the 19th century and known for its high speed.
A bromide is a chemical compound containing a bromide ion or ligand.
Bromine is a chemical element with symbol Br and atomic number 35.
Bulk cargo is commodity cargo that is transported unpackaged in large quantities.
A bulk carrier, bulk freighter, or colloquially, bulker is a merchant ship specially designed to transport unpackaged bulk cargo, such as grains, coal, ore, and cement in its cargo holds.
The Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) is an Executive Agency of the Australian Government responsible for providing weather services to Australia and surrounding areas.
Burial at sea is the disposal of human remains in the ocean, normally from a ship or boat.
Byzantine law was essentially a continuation of Roman law with increased Christian influence.
Cadmium is a chemical element with symbol Cd and atomic number 48.
Caesium-137 (Cs-137), cesium-137, or radiocaesium, is a radioactive isotope of caesium which is formed as one of the more common fission products by the nuclear fission of uranium-235 and other fissionable isotopes in nuclear reactors and nuclear weapons.
Calcium is a chemical element with symbol Ca and atomic number 20.
Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound with the formula CaCO3.
Camanchacas are cloud banks that form on the Chilean coast, by the Earth's driest desert, the Atacama Desert, and move inland.
Cambridge is a city in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, and part of the Boston metropolitan area.
The Canal of the Pharaohs, also called the Ancient Suez Canal or Necho's Canal, is the forerunner of the Suez Canal, constructed in ancient times.
The Canary Islands (Islas Canarias) is a Spanish archipelago and autonomous community of Spain located in the Atlantic Ocean, west of Morocco at the closest point.
Canned fish are fish which have been processed, sealed in an airtight container such as a sealed tin can, and subjected to heat.
A cannon (plural: cannon or cannons) is a type of gun classified as artillery that launches a projectile using propellant.
A canoe is a lightweight narrow vessel, typically pointed at both ends and open on top, propelled by one or more seated or kneeling paddlers facing the direction of travel using a single-bladed paddle.
In geography, a cape is a headland or a promontory of large size extending into a body of water, usually the sea.
The Cape of Good Hope (Kaap die Goeie Hoop, Kaap de Goede Hoop, Cabo da Boa Esperança) is a rocky headland on the Atlantic coast of the Cape Peninsula, South Africa.
A capillary wave is a wave traveling along the phase boundary of a fluid, whose dynamics and phase velocity are dominated by the effects of surface tension.
A caravel (Portuguese: caravela) is a small, highly maneuverable sailing ship developed in the 15th century by the Portuguese to explore along the West African coast and into the Atlantic Ocean.
The carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, pedosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt of carbonic acid (H2CO3), characterized by the presence of the carbonate ion, a polyatomic ion with the formula of.
Calcite compensation depth (CCD) is the depth in the oceans below which the rate of supply of calcite (calcium carbonate) lags behind the rate of solvation, such that no calcite is preserved.
Carbonic acid is a chemical compound with the chemical formula H2CO3 (equivalently OC(OH)2).
The Caribbean Sea (Mar Caribe; Mer des Caraïbes; Caraïbische Zee) is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean in the tropics of the Western Hemisphere.
Carl Chun (October 1, 1852 – April 11, 1914) was a German marine biologist.
Carl Gustav Jung (26 July 1875 – 6 June 1961) was a Swiss psychiatrist and psychoanalyst who founded analytical psychology.
Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the center or capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is now the Tunis Governorate in Tunisia.
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.
Catch share is a fishery management system that allocates a secure privilege to harvest a specific area or percentage of a fishery's total catch to individuals, communities, or associations.
Caulking is both the processes and material (also called sealant) to seal joints or seams in various structures and some types of piping.
Cádiz (see other pronunciations below) is a city and port in southwestern Spain.
Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.
Cetacea are a widely distributed and diverse clade of aquatic mammals that today consists of the whales, dolphins, and porpoises.
Cetacean stranding, commonly known as beaching, is a phenomenon in which whales and dolphins strand themselves on land, usually on a beach.
Chalcis (Ancient Greek & Katharevousa: Χαλκίς, Chalkís) or Chalkida (Modern Χαλκίδα) is the chief town of the island of Euboea in Greece, situated on the Euripus Strait at its narrowest point.
The Challenger expedition of 1872–76 was a scientific exercise that made many discoveries to lay the foundation of oceanography.
Sir Charles Villiers Stanford (30 September 1852 – 29 March 1924) was an Irish composer, music teacher, and conductor.
A chemical element is a species of atoms having the same number of protons in their atomic nuclei (that is, the same atomic number, or Z).
Chemical oceanography is the study of ocean chemistry: the behavior of the chemical elements within the Earth's oceans.
Chemical synthesis is a purposeful execution of chemical reactions to obtain a product, or several products.
Chemotrophs are organisms that obtain energy by the oxidation of electron donors in their environments.
The chili pepper (also chile pepper, chilli pepper, or simply chilli) from Nahuatl chīlli) is the fruit of plants from the genus Capsicum, members of the nightshade family, Solanaceae. They are widely used in many cuisines to add spiciness to dishes. The substances that give chili peppers their intensity when ingested or applied topically are capsaicin and related compounds known as capsaicinoids. Chili peppers originated in Mexico. After the Columbian Exchange, many cultivars of chili pepper spread across the world, used for both food and traditional medicine. Worldwide in 2014, 32.3 million tonnes of green chili peppers and 3.8 million tonnes of dried chili peppers were produced. China is the world's largest producer of green chillies, providing half of the global total.
Chinese classic texts or canonical texts refers to the Chinese texts which originated before the imperial unification by the Qin dynasty in 221 BC, particularly the "Four Books and Five Classics" of the Neo-Confucian tradition, themselves a customary abridgment of the "Thirteen Classics".
The Chinese economic reform refers to the program of economic reforms termed "Socialism with Chinese characteristics" in the People's Republic of China (PRC) that was started in December 1978 by reformists within the Communist Party of China, led by Deng Xiaoping.
A Chinese treasure ship was a type of large wooden ship in the fleet of admiral Zheng He, who led seven voyages during the early 15th-century Ming dynasty.
The Chinese white shrimp, oriental shrimp, or fleshy prawn (Fenneropenaeus chinensis) is a species of shrimp.
The chloride ion is the anion (negatively charged ion) Cl−.
The Chola dynasty was one of the longest-ruling dynasties in the history of southern India.
Christian art is sacred art which uses themes and imagery from Christianity.
Christian symbolism is the use of symbols, including archetypes, acts, artwork or events, by Christianity.
Christopher Columbus (before 31 October 145120 May 1506) was an Italian explorer, navigator, and colonizer.
The Chukchi, or Chukchee (Чукчи, sg. Чукча), are an indigenous people inhabiting the Chukchi Peninsula and the shores of the Chukchi Sea and the Bering Sea region of the Arctic Ocean within the Russian Federation.
Cilician pirates dominated the Mediterranean Sea from the 2nd century BC until their speedy suppression by Pompey in 67-66 BC.
Circumnavigation is navigation completely around an entire island, continent, or astronomical body (e.g. a planet or moon).
A city-state is a sovereign state, also described as a type of small independent country, that usually consists of a single city and its dependent territories.
Civil law, civilian law, or Roman law is a legal system originating in Europe, intellectualized within the framework of Roman law, the main feature of which is that its core principles are codified into a referable system which serves as the primary source of law.
A civilization or civilisation (see English spelling differences) is any complex society characterized by urban development, social stratification imposed by a cultural elite, symbolic systems of communication (for example, writing systems), and a perceived separation from and domination over the natural environment.
Achille-Claude Debussy (22 August 1862 – 25 March 1918) was a French composer.
Climate models use quantitative methods to simulate the interactions of the important drivers of climate, including atmosphere, oceans, land surface and ice.
Climatology (from Greek κλίμα, klima, "place, zone"; and -λογία, -logia) or climate science is the scientific study of climate, scientifically defined as weather conditions averaged over a period of time.
Clinker built (also known as lapstrake) is a method of boat building where the edges of hull planks overlap each other, called a "land" or "landing." In craft of any size shorter planks can be joined end to end into a longer strake or hull plank.
In meteorology, a cloud is an aerosol consisting of a visible mass of minute liquid droplets, frozen crystals, or other particles suspended in the atmosphere of a planetary body.
A coastline or a seashore is the area where land meets the sea or ocean, or a line that forms the boundary between the land and the ocean or a lake.
A coccolithophore (or coccolithophorid, from the adjective) is a unicellular, eukaryotic phytoplankton (alga).
Cod is the common name for the demersal fish genus Gadus, belonging to the family Gadidae.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
In 1992 the Canadian Federal Minister of Fisheries and Oceans, John Crosbie, declared a moratorium on the Northern Cod fishery, which for the preceding 500 years had largely shaped the lives and communities of Canada's eastern coast.
Collective unconscious (kollektives Unbewusstes), a term coined by Carl Jung, refers to structures of the unconscious mind which are shared among beings of the same species.
Colonies in antiquity were city-states founded from a mother-city (its "metropolis"), not from a territory-at-large.
Colonization (or colonisation) is a process by which a central system of power dominates the surrounding land and its components.
The Columbian Exchange was the widespread transfer of plants, animals, culture, human populations, technology, and ideas between the Americas and the Old World in the 15th and 16th centuries, related to European colonization and trade following Christopher Columbus's 1492 voyage.
Commercial fishing is the activity of catching fish and other seafood for commercial profit, mostly from wild fisheries.
In economics, a commodity is an economic good or service that has full or substantial fungibility: that is, the market treats instances of the good as equivalent or nearly so with no regard to who produced them.
Common law (also known as judicial precedent or judge-made law, or case law) is that body of law derived from judicial decisions of courts and similar tribunals.
A compass is an instrument used for navigation and orientation that shows direction relative to the geographic cardinal directions (or points).
Condensation is the change of the physical state of matter from gas phase into liquid phase, and is the reverse of vapourisation.
Container ships (sometimes spelled containerships) are cargo ships that carry all of their load in truck-size intermodal containers, in a technique called containerization.
Containerization is a system of intermodal freight transport using intermodal containers (also called shipping containers and ISO containers).
Continental crust is the layer of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks that forms the continents and the areas of shallow seabed close to their shores, known as continental shelves.
Continental drift is the movement of the Earth's continents relative to each other, thus appearing to "drift" across the ocean bed.
The continental shelf is an underwater landmass which extends from a continent, resulting in an area of relatively shallow water known as a shelf sea.
Convection is the heat transfer due to bulk movement of molecules within fluids such as gases and liquids, including molten rock (rheid).
Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu (from cuprum) and atomic number 29.
Corals are marine invertebrates in the class Anthozoa of phylum Cnidaria.
Coral reefs are diverse underwater ecosystems held together by calcium carbonate structures secreted by corals.
In physics, the Coriolis force is an inertial force that acts on objects that are in motion relative to a rotating reference frame.
Cornelis van Bijnkershoek (a.k.a. Cornelius van Bynkershoek) (29 May 1673, Middelburg – 16 April 1743, The Hague) was a Dutch jurist and legal theorist who contributed to the development of international law in works like De Dominio Maris Dissertatio (1702); Observationes Juris Romani (1710), of which a continuation in four books appeared in 1733; the treatise De foro legatorum (1721); and the Quaestiones Juris Publici (1737).
The Corpus Juris (or Iuris) Civilis ("Body of Civil Law") is the modern name for a collection of fundamental works in jurisprudence, issued from 529 to 534 by order of Justinian I, Eastern Roman Emperor.
A country is a region that is identified as a distinct national entity in political geography.
A cove is a small type of bay or coastal inlet.
A crest is the point on a wave with the maximum value of upward displacement within a cycle.
The Cretan War (205–200 BC) was fought by King Philip V of Macedon, the Aetolian League, many Cretan cities (of which Olous and Hierapytna were the most important) and Spartan pirates against the forces of Rhodes and later Attalus I of Pergamum, Byzantium, Cyzicus, Athens, and Knossos.
Crete (Κρήτη,; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the 88th largest island in the world and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, after Sicily, Sardinia, Cyprus, and Corsica.
Crinoids are marine animals that make up the class Crinoidea of the echinoderms (phylum Echinodermata).
A cruise ship or cruise liner is a passenger ship used for pleasure voyages, when the voyage itself, the ship's amenities, and sometimes the different destinations along the way (i.e., ports of call), are part of the experience.
Cruising by boat is a lifestyle that involves living for extended time on a vessel while traveling from place to place for pleasure.
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.
Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.
Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen.
In meteorology, a cyclone is a large scale air mass that rotates around a strong center of low atmospheric pressure.
Cyzicus (Κύζικος Kyzikos; آیدینجق, Aydıncıḳ) was an ancient town of Mysia in Anatolia in the current Balıkesir Province of Turkey.
Danvers is a town (and census-designated place) in Essex County, Massachusetts, United States, located on the Danvers River near the northeastern coast of Massachusetts.
The Dardanelles (Çanakkale Boğazı, translit), also known from Classical Antiquity as the Hellespont (Ἑλλήσποντος, Hellespontos, literally "Sea of Helle"), is a narrow, natural strait and internationally-significant waterway in northwestern Turkey that forms part of the continental boundary between Europe and Asia, and separates Asian Turkey from European Turkey.
Dava Sobel (born June 15, 1947) is an American writer of popular expositions of scientific topics.
Daylight, or the light of day, is the combination of all direct and indirect sunlight during the daytime.
The Dead Sea (יָם הַמֶּלַח lit. Sea of Salt; البحر الميت The first article al- is unnecessary and usually not used.) is a salt lake bordered by Jordan to the east and Israel and Palestine to the west.
Decompression sickness (DCS; also known as divers' disease, the bends, aerobullosis, or caisson disease) describes a condition arising from dissolved gases coming out of solution into bubbles inside the body on depressurisation.
Deep diving is underwater diving to a depth beyond the norm accepted by the associated community.
In physiology, dehydration is a deficit of total body water, with an accompanying disruption of metabolic processes.
The Deipnosophistae is an early 3rd-century AD Greek work (Δειπνοσοφισταί, Deipnosophistaí, lit. "The Dinner Sophists/Philosophers/Experts") by the Greco-Egyptian author Athenaeus of Naucratis.
Demersal fish live and feed on or near the bottom of seas or lakes (the demersal zone).
The demersal zone is the part of the sea or ocean (or deep lake) consisting of the part of the water column near to (and significantly affected by) the seabed and the benthos.
Desalination is a process that extracts mineral components from saline water.
Detritivores, also known as detrivores, detritophages, detritus feeders, or detritus eaters, are heterotrophs that obtain nutrients by consuming detritus (decomposing plant and animal parts as well as feces).
Devon, also known as Devonshire, which was formerly its common and official name, is a county of England, reaching from the Bristol Channel in the north to the English Channel in the south.
Diamond is a solid form of carbon with a diamond cubic crystal structure.
Diatoms (diá-tom-os "cut in half", from diá, "through" or "apart"; and the root of tém-n-ō, "I cut".) are a major group of microorganisms found in the oceans, waterways and soils of the world.
--> Diffraction refers to various phenomena that occur when a wave encounters an obstacle or a slit.
The Discovery Investigations were a series of scientific cruises and shore-based investigations into the biology of whales in the Southern Ocean.
Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are applied to the surface of non-living objects to destroy microorganisms that are living on the objects.
Dissolved organic carbon (DOC), sometimes known as dissolved organic material (DOM), is a broad classification for organic molecules of varied origin and composition within aquatic systems.
A diving mask (also half mask, dive mask or scuba mask) is an item of diving equipment that allows underwater divers, including, scuba divers, free-divers, and snorkelers to see clearly underwater.
A dock (from Dutch dok) is the area of water between or next to one or a group of human-made structures that are involved in the handling of boats or ships (usually on or near a shore) or such structures themselves.
Doggerland is the name of a land mass now beneath the southern North Sea that connected Great Britain to continental Europe.
Dolphins are a widely distributed and diverse group of aquatic mammals.
A dory is a small, shallow-draft boat, about long.
In fluid dynamics, drag (sometimes called air resistance, a type of friction, or fluid resistance, another type of friction or fluid friction) is a force acting opposite to the relative motion of any object moving with respect to a surrounding fluid.
The dreadnought was the predominant type of battleship in the early 20th century.
Dream interpretation is the process of assigning meaning to dreams.
Dredging is an excavation activity usually carried out underwater, in harbours, shallow seas or freshwater areas with the purpose of gathering up bottom sediments to deepen or widen the sea bottom / channel.
Drift ice is any sea ice other than fast ice, the latter being attached ("fastened") to the shoreline or other fixed objects (shoals, grounded icebergs, etc.).Leppäranta, M. 2011.
A drilling rig is a machine that creates holes in the earth subsurface.
Drinking water, also known as potable water, is water that is safe to drink or to use for food preparation.
A dugout canoe or simply dugout is a boat made from a hollowed tree trunk.
The United East India Company, sometimes known as the United East Indies Company (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie; or Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie in modern spelling; abbreviated to VOC), better known to the English-speaking world as the Dutch East India Company or sometimes as the Dutch East Indies Company, was a multinational corporation that was founded in 1602 from a government-backed consolidation of several rival Dutch trading companies.
Dutch Golden Age painting is the painting of the Dutch Golden Age, a period in Dutch history roughly spanning the 17th century, during and after the later part of the Eighty Years' War (1568–1648) for Dutch independence.
The Dutch Republic was a republic that existed from the formal creation of a confederacy in 1581 by several Dutch provinces (which earlier seceded from the Spanish rule) until the Batavian Revolution in 1795.
The following is a chronology of the dynasties in Chinese History.
The earliest migrations and expansions of archaic and modern humans across continents began 2 million years ago with the out of Africa migration of Homo erectus, followed by other archaic humans including H. heidelbergensis.
The early modern period of modern history follows the late Middle Ages of the post-classical era.
The early Muslim conquests (الفتوحات الإسلامية, al-Futūḥāt al-Islāmiyya) also referred to as the Arab conquests and early Islamic conquests began with the Islamic prophet Muhammad in the 7th century.
Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life.
An Earth analog (also referred to as an Earth twin or Earth-like planet, though this latter term may refer to any terrestrial planet) is a planet or moon with environmental conditions similar to those found on Earth.
Earth radius is the approximate distance from Earth's center to its surface, about.
Earth's rotation is the rotation of Planet Earth around its own axis.
An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the shaking of the surface of the Earth, resulting from the sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves.
Easter Island (Rapa Nui, Isla de Pascua) is a Chilean island in the southeastern Pacific Ocean, at the southeasternmost point of the Polynesian Triangle in Oceania.
Echinoderm is the common name given to any member of the phylum Echinodermata (from Ancient Greek, ἐχῖνος, echinos – "hedgehog" and δέρμα, derma – "skin") of marine animals.
Echo sounding is a type of sonar used to determine the depth of water by transmitting sound pulses into water.
An economic migrant is someone who emigrates from one region to another to seek an improvement in living standards because the living conditions or job opportunities in the migrant's own region are not sufficient.
Peru is classified as upper middle income by the World Bank and is the 39th largest in the world by total GDP.
Ecotourism is a form of tourism involving visiting fragile, pristine, and relatively undisturbed natural areas, intended as a low-impact and often small scale alternative to standard commercial mass tourism.
The or is the period between 1603 and 1868 in the history of Japan, when Japanese society was under the rule of the Tokugawa shogunate and the country's 300 regional daimyō.
Edward Bransfield (c. 1785 – 31 October 1852) was an Irish sailor who rose to become an officer in the British Royal Navy, serving as a master on several ships, after being impressed into service at the age of 18 in Ireland.
Sir Edward William Elgar, 1st Baronet (2 June 1857 – 23 February 1934) was an English composer, many of whose works have entered the British and international classical concert repertoire.
Professor Edward Forbes FRS, FGS (12 February 1815 – 18 November 1854) was a Manx naturalist.
The amount of heat energy received at any location on the globe is a direct effect of Sun angle on climate, as the angle at which sunlight strikes the Earth varies by location, time of day, and season due to the Earth's orbit around the Sun and the Earth's rotation around its tilted axis.
An egg is the organic vessel containing the zygote in which an animal embryo develops until it can survive on its own; at which point the animal hatches.
El Niño is the warm phase of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (commonly called ENSO) and is associated with a band of warm ocean water that develops in the central and east-central equatorial Pacific (between approximately the International Date Line and 120°W), including off the Pacific coast of South America.
Electricity generation is the process of generating electric power from sources of primary energy.
An empire is defined as "an aggregate of nations or people ruled over by an emperor or other powerful sovereign or government, usually a territory of greater extent than a kingdom, as the former British Empire, Spanish Empire, Portuguese Empire, French Empire, Persian Empire, Russian Empire, German Empire, Abbasid Empire, Umayyad Empire, Byzantine Empire, Ottoman Empire, or Roman Empire".
An endorheic basin (also endoreic basin or endorreic basin) (from the ἔνδον, éndon, "within" and ῥεῖν, rheîn, "to flow") is a limited drainage basin that normally retains water and allows no outflow to other external bodies of water, such as rivers or oceans, but converges instead into lakes or swamps, permanent or seasonal, that equilibrate through evaporation.
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
The English Channel (la Manche, "The Sleeve"; Ärmelkanal, "Sleeve Channel"; Mor Breizh, "Sea of Brittany"; Mor Bretannek, "Sea of Brittany"), also called simply the Channel, is the body of water that separates southern England from northern France and links the southern part of the North Sea to the Atlantic Ocean.
An epic poem, epic, epos, or epopee is a lengthy narrative poem, ordinarily involving a time beyond living memory in which occurred the extraordinary doings of the extraordinary men and women who, in dealings with the gods or other superhuman forces, gave shape to the moral universe that their descendants, the poet and his audience, must understand to understand themselves as a people or nation.
An equator of a rotating spheroid (such as a planet) is its zeroth circle of latitude (parallel).
Essaouira (الصويرة; ⵎⵓⴳⴰⴹⵓⵔ, Mugadur), formerly known as Mogador, is a city in the western Moroccan economic region of Marrakesh-Safi, on the Atlantic coast.
Euboea or Evia; Εύβοια, Evvoia,; Εὔβοια, Eúboia) is the second-largest Greek island in area and population, after Crete. The narrow Euripus Strait separates it from Boeotia in mainland Greece. In general outline it is a long and narrow island; it is about long, and varies in breadth from to. Its geographic orientation is from northwest to southeast, and it is traversed throughout its length by a mountain range, which forms part of the chain that bounds Thessaly on the east, and is continued south of Euboea in the lofty islands of Andros, Tinos and Mykonos. It forms most of the regional unit of Euboea, which also includes Skyros and a small area of the Greek mainland.
Eudoxus of Cyzicus (Εὔδοξος ὁ Κυζικηνός, Eúdoxos ho Kyzikēnós; fl. c. 130 BC) was a Greek navigator who explored the Arabian Sea for Ptolemy VIII, king of the Hellenistic Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt.
Eurasia is a combined continental landmass of Europe and Asia.
The Euripus Strait (Εύριπος) is a narrow channel of water separating the Greek island of Euboea in the Aegean Sea from Boeotia in mainland Greece.
Eutrophication (from Greek eutrophos, "well-nourished"), or hypertrophication, is when a body of water becomes overly enriched with minerals and nutrients that induce excessive growth of plants and algae.
Evaporation is a type of vaporization that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gaseous phase before reaching its boiling point.
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
The evolutionary history of life on Earth traces the processes by which both living organisms and fossil organisms evolved since life emerged on the planet, until the present.
The evolution of plants has resulted in a wide range of complexity, from the earliest algal mats, through multicellular marine and freshwater green algae, terrestrial bryophytes, lycopods and ferns, to the complex gymnosperms and angiosperms of today.
An exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is a sea zone prescribed by the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea over which a state has special rights regarding the exploration and use of marine resources, including energy production from water and wind.
An exoplanet or extrasolar planet is a planet outside our solar system.
Exploration is the act of searching for the purpose of discovery of information or resources.
An extremophile (from Latin extremus meaning "extreme" and Greek philiā (φιλία) meaning "love") is an organism that thrives in physically or geochemically extreme conditions that are detrimental to most life on Earth.
Fabian Gottlieb Thaddeus von Bellingshausen (–; Фаддей Фаддеевич Беллинсгаузен, Faddey Faddeyevich Bellinsgauzen), a Russian officer of Baltic German descent in the Imperial Russian Navy, cartographer and explorer, ultimately rose to the rank of Admiral.
A factory ship, also known as a fish processing vessel, is a large ocean-going vessel with extensive on-board facilities for processing and freezing caught fish or whales.
Fan Li from the Spring and Autumn period, was a prominent Chinese statesman, military strategist, diplomat, economist, philanthropist, Taoist, founder of Chuism (楚学), and the founding father of Chinese commercial business.
Farrer's scallop, also known as the Chinese scallop, scientific name Chlamys farreri, is a species of scallop, a marine bivalve mollusk in the family Pectinidae, the scallops.
Fast ice (also called land-fast ice, landfast ice, and shore-fast ice) is sea ice that is "fastened" to the coastline, to the sea floor along shoals or to grounded icebergs.
A fathom is a unit of length in the imperial and the U.S. customary systems equal to, used especially for measuring the depth of water.
In geology, a fault is a planar fracture or discontinuity in a volume of rock, across which there has been significant displacement as a result of rock-mass movement.
Fauna is all of the animal life of any particular region or time.
Ferdinand Magellan (or; Fernão de Magalhães,; Fernando de Magallanes,; c. 1480 – 27 April 1521) was a Portuguese explorer who organised the Spanish expedition to the East Indies from 1519 to 1522, resulting in the first circumnavigation of the Earth, completed by Juan Sebastián Elcano.
A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.
The fetch, also called the fetch length, is the length of water over which a given wind has blown.
Fiji (Viti; Fiji Hindi: फ़िजी), officially the Republic of Fiji (Matanitu Tugalala o Viti; Fiji Hindi: फ़िजी गणराज्य), is an island country in Oceania in the South Pacific Ocean about northeast of New Zealand's North Island.
Filter feeders are a sub-group of suspension feeding animals that feed by straining suspended matter and food particles from water, typically by passing the water over a specialized filtering structure.
The First French Empire (Empire Français) was the empire of Napoleon Bonaparte of France and the dominant power in much of continental Europe at the beginning of the 19th century.
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
Like humans and other animals, fish suffer from diseases and parasites.
Fish farming or pisciculture involves raising fish commercially in tanks or enclosures such as fish ponds, usually for food.
A fish hook or fishhook is a device for catching fish either by impaling them in the mouth or, more rarely, by snagging the body of the fish.
A fish pond, or fishpond, is a controlled pond, artificial lake, or reservoir that is stocked with fish and is used in aquaculture for fish farming, or is used for recreational fishing or for ornamental purposes.
A fish trap is a trap used for fishing.
A fisherman or fisher is someone who captures fish and other animals from a body of water, or gathers shellfish.
Generally, a fishery is an entity engaged in raising or harvesting fish which is determined by some authority to be a fishery.
A fishfinder or sounder (Australia) is an instrument used to locate fish underwater by detecting reflected pulses of sound energy, as in sonar.
Fishing is the activity of trying to catch fish.
The fishing industry includes any industry or activity concerned with taking, culturing, processing, preserving, storing, transporting, marketing or selling fish or fish products.
China, with one-fifth of the world's population, accounts for one-third of the world's reported fish production and two-thirds of the worlds reported aquaculture production.
A fishing line is a cord used or made for angling.
A fishing net is a net used for fishing.
A fishing trawler is a commercial fishing vessel designed to operate fishing trawls.
Geologically, a fjord or fiord is a long, narrow inlet with steep sides or cliffs, created by a glacier.
Flounders are a group of flatfish species.
The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species.
In physics and engineering, fluid dynamics is a subdiscipline of fluid mechanics that describes the flow of fluids - liquids and gases.
In fluid dynamics, within the framework of continuum mechanics, a fluid parcel is a very small amount of fluid, identifiable throughout its dynamic history while moving with the fluid flow.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'alimentation et l'agriculture, Organizzazione delle Nazioni Unite per l'Alimentazione e l'Agricoltura) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that leads international efforts to defeat hunger.
A food chain is a linear network of links in a food web starting from producer organisms (such as grass or trees which use radiation from the Sun to make their food) and ending at apex predator species (like grizzly bears or killer whales), detritivores (like earthworms or woodlice), or decomposer species (such as fungi or bacteria).
Foraminifera (Latin for "hole bearers"; informally called "forams") are members of a phylum or class of amoeboid protists characterized by streaming granular ectoplasm for catching food and other uses; and commonly an external shell (called a "test") of diverse forms and materials.
The Fortunate Isles or Isles of the Blessed (μακάρων νῆσοι, makárōn nêsoi) were semi-legendary islands in the Atlantic Ocean, variously treated as a simple geographical location and as a winterless earthly paradise inhabited by the heroes of Greek mythology.
Fouling communities are communities of organisms found on artificial surfaces like the sides of docks, marinas, harbors, and boats.
U.S. President Woodrow Wilson The Fourteen Points was a statement of principles for peace that was to be used for peace negotiations in order to end World War I. The principles were outlined in a January 8, 1918 speech on war aims and peace terms to the United States Congress by President Woodrow Wilson.
Fram ("Forward") is a ship that was used in expeditions of the Arctic and Antarctic regions by the Norwegian explorers Fridtjof Nansen, Otto Sverdrup, Oscar Wisting, and Roald Amundsen between 1893 and 1912.
France, officially the French Republic (République française), is a sovereign state whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe, as well as several overseas regions and territories.
Frazil ice is a collection of loose, randomly oriented needle-shaped ice crystals in water.
Sir Frederick Stratten Russell (3 November 1897 – 5 June 1984) was an English marine biologist.
In physics, a free surface is the surface of a fluid that is subject to zero parallel shear stress, such as the boundary between two homogeneous fluids, for example liquid water and the air in the Earth's atmosphere.
Freediving, free-diving, free diving, breath-hold diving, or skin diving is a form of underwater diving that relies on breath-holding until resurfacing rather than the use of breathing apparatus such as scuba gear.
Freedom of navigation (FON) is a principle of customary international law that ships flying the flag of any sovereign state shall not suffer interference from other states, apart from the exceptions provided for in international law.
Freedom of the seas (mare liberum, lit. "free sea") is a principle in the international law and sea.
The freedoms of the air are a set of commercial aviation rights granting a country's airlines the privilege to enter and land in another country's airspace, formulated as a result of disagreements over the extent of aviation liberalisation in the Convention on International Civil Aviation of 1944, known as the Chicago Convention.
A freight forwarder, forwarder, or forwarding agent, also known as a non-vessel operating common carrier (NVOCC), is a person or company that organizes shipments for individuals or corporations to get goods from the manufacturer or producer to a market, customer or final point of distribution.
Fresh water (or freshwater) is any naturally occurring water except seawater and brackish water.
Friction is the force resisting the relative motion of solid surfaces, fluid layers, and material elements sliding against each other.
Fridtjof Nansen (10 October 1861 – 13 May 1930) was a Norwegian explorer, scientist, diplomat, humanitarian, and Nobel Peace Prize laureate.
The is a disabled nuclear power plant located on a site in the towns of Ōkuma and Futaba in the Fukushima Prefecture, Japan.
The full moon is the lunar phase when the Moon appears fully illuminated from Earth's perspective.
Galveston is a coastal resort city on Galveston Island and Pelican Island in the U.S. state of Texas.
A general circulation model (GCM) is a type of climate model.
General relativity (GR, also known as the general theory of relativity or GTR) is the geometric theory of gravitation published by Albert Einstein in 1915 and the current description of gravitation in modern physics.
The Geographica (Ancient Greek: Γεωγραφικά Geōgraphiká), or Geography, is an encyclopedia of geographical knowledge, consisting of 17 'books', written in Greek by Strabo, an educated citizen of the Roman Empire of Greek descent.
The Geography (Γεωγραφικὴ Ὑφήγησις, Geōgraphikḕ Hyphḗgēsis, "Geographical Guidance"), also known by its Latin names as the Geographia and the Cosmographia, is a gazetteer, an atlas, and a treatise on cartography, compiling the geographical knowledge of the 2nd-century Roman Empire.
Geophysical fluid dynamics, in its broadest meaning, refers to the fluid dynamics of naturally occurring flows, such as lava flows, oceans, and planetary atmospheres, on Earth and other planets.
George III (George William Frederick; 4 June 1738 – 29 January 1820) was King of Great Britain and Ireland from 25 October 1760 until the union of the two countries on 1 January 1801, after which he was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland until his death in 1820.
Geothermal gradient is the rate of increasing temperature with respect to increasing depth in the Earth's interior.
Gerardus Mercator (5 March 1512 – 2 December 1594) was a 16th-century German-Flemish cartographer, geographer and cosmographer.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
Gillnetting is a common fishing method used by commercial and artisanal fishermen of all the oceans and in some freshwater and estuary areas.
Gjøa was the first vessel to transit the Northwest Passage.
A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.
The Global Positioning System (GPS), originally Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States Air Force.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
Gold is a chemical element with symbol Au (from aurum) and atomic number 79, making it one of the higher atomic number elements that occur naturally.
The Government of the Commonwealth of Australia (also referred to as the Australian Government, the Commonwealth Government, or the Federal Government) is the government of the Commonwealth of Australia, a federal parliamentary constitutional monarchy.
The gram (alternative spelling: gramme; SI unit symbol: g) (Latin gramma, from Greek γράμμα, grámma) is a metric system unit of mass.
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.
The Great Barrier Reef is the world's largest coral reef system composed of over 2,900 individual reefs and 900 islands stretching for over over an area of approximately.
Great Britain, also known as Britain, is a large island in the north Atlantic Ocean off the northwest coast of continental Europe.
The Great Oxygenation Event, the beginning of which is commonly known in scientific media as the Great Oxidation Event (GOE, also called the Oxygen Catastrophe, Oxygen Crisis, Oxygen Holocaust, Oxygen Revolution, or Great Oxidation) was the biologically induced appearance of dioxygen (O2) in Earth's atmosphere.
The Great Pacific garbage patch, also described as the Pacific trash vortex, is a gyre of marine debris particles in the central North Pacific Ocean discovered between 1985 and 1988.
The Great Salt Lake, located in the northern part of the U.S. state of Utah, is the largest salt water lake in the Western Hemisphere, and the eighth-largest terminal lake in the world.
The Greco-Persian Wars (also often called the Persian Wars) were a series of conflicts between the Achaemenid Empire of Persia and Greek city-states that started in 499 BC and lasted until 449 BC.
Greek mythology is the body of myths and teachings that belong to the ancient Greeks, concerning their gods and heroes, the nature of the world, and the origins and significance of their own cult and ritual practices.
Greenwich is an area of south east London, England, located east-southeast of Charing Cross.
Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.
A groyne is a rigid hydraulic structure built from an ocean shore (in coastal engineering) or from a bank (in rivers) that interrupts water flow and limits the movement of sediment.
The Gulf of Mexico (Golfo de México) is an ocean basin and a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean, largely surrounded by the North American continent.
The Gulf of Thailand, formerly the Gulf of Siam, is a shallow inlet in the western part of the South China and Eastern Archipelagic Seas, a marginal body of water in the western Pacific Ocean.
Henry Otley Beyer (July 13, 1883 – December 31, 1966) was an American anthropologist, who spent most of his adult life in the Philippines teaching Philippine indigenous culture.
The hadal zone (named after the realm of Hades, the underworld in Greek mythology), also known as the hadopelagic zone, is the deepest region of the ocean lying within oceanic trenches.
The Haijin or sea ban was a series of related isolationist Chinese policies restricting private maritime trading and coastal settlement during most of the Ming dynasty and some of the Qing.
(plural haiku) is a very short Japan poem with seventeen syllables and three verses.
A halophyte is a plant that grows in waters of high salinity, coming into contact with saline water through its roots or by salt spray, such as in saline semi-deserts, mangrove swamps, marshes and sloughs and seashores.
Hangzhou (Mandarin:; local dialect: /ɦɑŋ tseɪ/) formerly romanized as Hangchow, is the capital and most populous city of Zhejiang Province in East China.
Hanno the Navigator was a Carthaginian explorer of the sixth or fifth century BC, best known for his supposed naval exploration of the western coast of Africa.
The Hanseatic League (Middle Low German: Hanse, Düdesche Hanse, Hansa; Standard German: Deutsche Hanse; Latin: Hansa Teutonica) was a commercial and defensive confederation of merchant guilds and market towns in Northwestern and Central Europe.
A harpoon is a long spear-like instrument used in fishing, whaling, sealing, and other marine hunting to catch large fish or marine mammals such as whales.
Harry S. Truman (May 8, 1884 – December 26, 1972) was an American statesman who served as the 33rd President of the United States (1945–1953), taking office upon the death of Franklin D. Roosevelt.
A headland (or simply head) is a coastal landform, a point of land usually high and often with a sheer drop, that extends into a body of water.
Heavy metals are generally defined as metals with relatively high densities, atomic weights, or atomic numbers.
Hendrik Cornelisz Vroom (c.1562 – February 4, 1640 (buried)) was a Dutch Golden Age painter credited with being the founder of Dutch marine art or seascape painting.
Hendrick Dubbels or Hendrick Jacobsz.
Herman Melville (August 1, 1819 – September 28, 1891) was an American novelist, short story writer, and poet of the American Renaissance period.
Herman Wouk (born May 27, 1915) is an American author.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
Herring are forage fish, mostly belonging to the family Clupeidae.
Hindu refers to any person who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.
The Histories (Ἱστορίαι;; also known as The History) of Herodotus is considered the founding work of history in Western literature.
Cartography, or mapmaking, has been an integral part of the human history for thousands of years.
The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.
The history of Greenland is a history of life under extreme Arctic conditions: currently, an ice cap covers about 80 percent of the island, restricting human activity largely to the coasts.
The history of navigation is the history of seamanship, the art of directing vessels upon the open sea through the establishment of its position and course by means of traditional practice, geometry, astronomy, or special instruments.
The history of New Zealand dates back at least 700 years to when it was discovered and settled by Polynesians, who developed a distinct Māori culture centred on kinship links and land.
The history of rail transport began in 6th century BC in Ancient Greece.
This article discusses the history of whaling from prehistoric times up to the commencement of the International Whaling Commission (IWC) moratorium on commercial whaling in 1986.
The Hittites were an Ancient Anatolian people who played an important role in establishing an empire centered on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around 1600 BC.
was a Japanese artist, ukiyo-e painter and printmaker of the Edo period.
View of the hold of a container ship A ship's hold or cargo hold is a space for carrying cargo.
Homer (Ὅμηρος, Hómēros) is the name ascribed by the ancient Greeks to the legendary author of the Iliad and the Odyssey, two epic poems that are the central works of ancient Greek literature.
Homo floresiensis ("Flores Man"; nicknamed "hobbit") is an extinct species in the genus Homo.
Hong Kong International Airport is the main airport in Hong Kong.
Hot pursuit (also known as fresh or immediate pursuit) refers to the urgent and direct pursuit of a criminal suspect by law enforcement officers, or by belligerents under international rules of engagement for military forces.
A hoy was a small sloop-rigged coasting ship or a heavy barge used for freight, usually with a burthen of about 60 tons (bm).
Hugo Grotius (10 April 1583 – 28 August 1645), also known as Huig de Groot or Hugo de Groot, was a Dutch jurist.
Humans (taxonomically Homo sapiens) are the only extant members of the subtribe Hominina.
A humanitarian crisis (or "humanitarian disaster") is defined as a singular event or a series of events that are threatening in terms of health, safety or well being of a community or large group of people.
A hundred-year wave is a statistically projected water wave, the height of which, on average, is met or exceeded once in a hundred years for a given location.
Hurricane Katrina was an extremely destructive and deadly Category 5 hurricane that caused catastrophic damage along the Gulf coast from central Florida to Texas, much of it due to the storm surge and levee failure.
Hydrocarbon exploration (or oil and gas exploration) is the search by petroleum geologists and geophysicists for hydrocarbon deposits beneath the Earth's surface, such as oil and natural gas.
A hydrogen ion is created when a hydrogen atom loses or gains an electron.
Hydrogen sulfide is the chemical compound with the chemical formula H2S.
Hydrology is the scientific study of the movement, distribution, and quality of water on Earth and other planets, including the water cycle, water resources and environmental watershed sustainability.
The Hydrophiinae, commonly known as sea snakes or coral reef snakes, are a subfamily of venomous elapid snakes that inhabit marine environments for most or all of their lives.
A hydrothermal vent is a fissure in a planet's surface from which geothermally heated water issues.
A hypersaline lake is a landlocked body of water that contains significant concentrations of sodium chloride or other salts, with saline levels surpassing that of ocean water (3.5%, i.e.). Specific microbial and crustacean species thrive in these high salinity environments that are inhospitable to most lifeforms.
Hypoxia refers to low oxygen conditions.
Ice crystals are solid ice exhibiting atomic ordering on various length scales and include hexagonal columns, hexagonal plates, dendritic crystals, and diamond dust.
The ichthys or ichthus, from the Greek ikhthýs (ἰχθύς 1st cent. AD Koine Greek, "fish") is a symbol consisting of two intersecting arcs, the ends of the right side extending beyond the meeting point so as to resemble the profile of a fish.
The Iliad (Ἰλιάς, in Classical Attic; sometimes referred to as the Song of Ilion or Song of Ilium) is an ancient Greek epic poem in dactylic hexameter, traditionally attributed to Homer.
An impact event is a collision between astronomical objects causing measurable effects.
An inclinometer or clinometer is an instrument used for measuring angles of slope (or tilt), elevation, or depression of an object with respect to gravity.
The Indian Ocean is the third largest of the world's oceanic divisions, covering (approximately 20% of the water on the Earth's surface).
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
The Indus Valley Civilisation (IVC), or Harappan Civilisation, was a Bronze Age civilisation (5500–1300 BCE; mature period 2600–1900 BCE) mainly in the northwestern regions of South Asia, extending from what today is northeast Afghanistan to Pakistan and northwest India.
Industrialisation or industrialization is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial society, involving the extensive re-organisation of an economy for the purpose of manufacturing.
Inertia is the resistance of any physical object to any change in its position and state of motion.
Infrastructure is the fundamental facilities and systems serving a country, city, or other area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy to function.
Insular dwarfism, a form of phyletic dwarfism, is the process and condition of large animals evolving or having a reduced body size when their population's range is limited to a small environment, primarily islands.
Integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) provides the byproducts, including waste, from one aquatic species as inputs (fertilizers, food) for another.
Intensive farming involves various types of agriculture with higher levels of input and output per cubic unit of agricultural land area.
Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combining of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project).
According to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, a nation's internal waters include waters on the landward side of the baseline of a nation's territorial waters, except in archipelagic states.
An international airport is an airport that offers customs and immigration facilities for passengers travelling between countries.
The International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling is an international environmental agreement signed in 1946 in order to "provide for the proper conservation of whale stocks and thus make possible the orderly development of the whaling industry".
The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) is the inter-governmental organisation representing hydrography.
International law is the set of rules generally regarded and accepted as binding in relations between states and between nations.
The International Maritime Organization (IMO), known as the Inter-Governmental Maritime Consultative Organization (IMCO) until 1982, is a specialised agency of the United Nations responsible for regulating shipping.
The terms international waters or trans-boundary waters apply where any of the following types of bodies of water (or their drainage basins) transcend international boundaries: oceans, large marine ecosystems, enclosed or semi-enclosed regional seas and estuaries, rivers, lakes, groundwater systems (aquifers), and wetlands.
The intertidal zone, also known as the foreshore and seashore and sometimes referred to as the littoral zone, is the area that is above water at low tide and under water at high tide (in other words, the area between tide marks).
The Inuit (ᐃᓄᐃᑦ, "the people") are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada and Alaska.
The Inuvialuit (ɪnˈuviˌaluət) (sing. Inuvialuk; the real people) or Western Canadian Inuit are Inuit people who live in the western Canadian Arctic region.
An invasive species is a species that is not native to a specific location (an introduced species), and that has a tendency to spread to a degree believed to cause damage to the environment, human economy or human health.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to plants at needed intervals.
Isidore of Charax (Ἰσίδωρος ὁ Χαρακηνός, Isídōros o Haracēnós; Isidorus Characenus) was a Greco-Roman geographer of the 1st century and 1st century about whom nothing is known but his name and that he wrote at least one work.
IslamThere are ten pronunciations of Islam in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the s is or, and whether the a is pronounced, or (when the stress is on the first syllable) (Merriam Webster).
is an enormous, shark-like sea monster said to live off the coast of Matsuura and other places in Western Japan.
The history of the Italian peninsula during the medieval period can be roughly defined as the time between the collapse of the Western Roman Empire and the Italian Renaissance.
The term Jacob's staff, also known as cross-staff, a ballastella, a fore-staff, or a balestilha, is used to refer to several things.
Jacques-Yves Cousteau (11 June 1910 – 25 June 1997) was a French naval officer, explorer, conservationist, filmmaker, innovator, scientist, photographer, author and researcher who studied the sea and all forms of life in water.
Captain James Cook (7 November 1728Old style date: 27 October14 February 1779) was a British explorer, navigator, cartographer, and captain in the Royal Navy.
Jan Porcellis (1580/84 Ghent – 29 January 1632 Zoeterwoude) was a Dutch marine artist in the seventeenth century.
The Japan–Korea Treaty of 1876, also known as the Japan-Korea Treaty of Amity in Japanese or Treaty of Ganghwa Island in Korean, was made between representatives of the Empire of Japan and the Korean Kingdom of Joseon in 1876.
Japanese mythology embraces Shinto and Buddhist traditions as well as agriculturally-based folk religion.
Jesus, also referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader.
John Dunlap (1747 – November 27, 1812) was the printer of the first copies of the United States Declaration of Independence and one of the most successful American printers of his era.
John Harrison (– 24 March 1776) was a self-educated English carpenter and clockmaker who invented a marine chronometer, a long-sought-after device for solving the problem of calculating longitude while at sea.
Joseph Conrad (born Józef Teodor Konrad Korzeniowski; Berdychiv, Ukraine, 3 December 1857 – 3 August 1924, Bishopsbourne, Kent, England) was a Polish author who wrote in English after settling in England.
Juan Sebastián Elcano (sometimes misspelled del Cano; c.14864 August 1526) was a Spanish explorer of Basque origin who completed the first circumnavigation of the Earth.
Jurisdiction (from the Latin ius, iuris meaning "law" and dicere meaning "to speak") is the practical authority granted to a legal body to administer justice within a defined field of responsibility, e.g., Michigan tax law.
A jury trial, or trial by jury, is a lawful proceeding in which a jury makes a decision or findings of fact.
The were two winds or storms that are said to have saved Japan from two Mongol fleets under Kublai Khan.
Kelps are large brown algae seaweeds that make up the order Laminariales.
Kelp forests are underwater areas with a high density of kelp.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
Kievan Rus' (Рѹ́сь, Рѹ́сьскаѧ землѧ, Rus(s)ia, Ruscia, Ruzzia, Rut(h)enia) was a loose federationJohn Channon & Robert Hudson, Penguin Historical Atlas of Russia (Penguin, 1995), p.16.
The Kingdom of England (French: Royaume d'Angleterre; Danish: Kongeriget England; German: Königreich England) was a sovereign state on the island of Great Britain from the 10th century—when it emerged from various Anglo-Saxon kingdoms—until 1707, when it united with Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The Kingdom of Great Britain, officially called simply Great Britain,Parliament of the Kingdom of England.
Kiteboarding is an action sport combining aspects of wakeboarding, snowboarding, windsurfing, surfing, paragliding, skateboarding and sailing into one extreme sport.
Komodo (Indonesian Pulau Komodo) is one of the 17,508 islands that compose the Republic of Indonesia.
The Korea Strait is a sea passage between South Korea and Japan, connecting the East China Sea, the Yellow Sea (West sea) and the East Sea (Sea of Japan) in the northwest Pacific Ocean.
The kraken is a legendary cephalopod-like sea monster of giant size that is said to dwell off the coasts of Norway and Greenland.
Kunyu Wanguo Quantu (Carta Geografica Completa di tutti i Regni del Mondo, "Complete Geographical Map of all the Kingdoms of the World"), printed in China at the request of the Wanli Emperor during 1602 by the Italian Catholic missionary Matteo Ricci and Chinese collaborators, Mandarin Zhong Wentao and the technical translator, Li Zhizao, is the earliest known Chinese world map with the style of European maps.
La mer, trois esquisses symphoniques pour orchestre (French for The sea, three symphonic sketches for orchestra), or simply La mer (i.e. The Sea), L. 109, is an orchestral composition by the French composer Claude Debussy.
A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, that is surrounded by land, apart from any river or other outlet that serves to feed or drain the lake.
Land, sometimes referred to as dry land, is the solid surface of Earth that is not permanently covered by water.
A land bridge, in biogeography, is an isthmus or wider land connection between otherwise separate areas, over which animals and plants are able to cross and colonise new lands.
The reclamation of land from the ocean has long been used in mountainous Hong Kong to expand the limited supply of usable land with a total of around 60 square kilometres of land created by 1996.
A landlocked state or landlocked country is a sovereign state entirely enclosed by land, or whose only coastlines lie on closed seas.
The term landslide or, less frequently, landslip, refers to several forms of mass wasting that include a wide range of ground movements, such as rockfalls, deep-seated slope failures, mudflows and debris flows.
The Lapita culture was a prehistoric Pacific Ocean people who flourished in the Pacific Islands from about 1600 BCE to about 500 BCE.
A larva (plural: larvae) is a distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults.
Laser airborne depth sounder (LADS) is an aircraft-based hydrographic surveying system used by the Australian Hydrographic Service (AHS).
In the Earth's climate history the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) was the last time period during the last glacial period when ice sheets were at their greatest extension.
The last glacial period occurred from the end of the Eemian interglacial to the end of the Younger Dryas, encompassing the period years ago.
The Late Bronze Age collapse involved a dark-age transition period in the Near East, Asia Minor, Aegean region, North Africa, Caucasus, Balkans and the Eastern Mediterranean from the Late Bronze Age to the Early Iron Age, a transition which historians believe was violent, sudden, and culturally disruptive.
The Late Middle Ages or Late Medieval Period was the period of European history lasting from 1250 to 1500 AD.
In geography, latitude is a geographic coordinate that specifies the north–south position of a point on the Earth's surface.
Law is a system of rules that are created and enforced through social or governmental institutions to regulate behavior.
Law of the Sea is a body of international law that concerns the principles and rules by which public entities, especially states, interact in maritime matters, including navigational rights, sea mineral rights, and coastal waters jurisdiction.
Lead is a chemical element with symbol Pb (from the Latin plumbum) and atomic number 82.
Les Eyzies-de-Tayac-Sireuil (Las Aisiás de Taiac e Siruèlh) is a commune in the Dordogne department in Nouvelle-Aquitaine in southwestern France.
Leviathan is a sea monster referenced in the Hebrew Bible in the Book of Job, Psalms, the Book of Isaiah, and the Book of Amos.
The Lighthouse of Alexandria, sometimes called the Pharos of Alexandria (Ancient Greek: ὁ Φάρος τῆς Ἀλεξανδρείας, contemporary Koine), was a lighthouse built by the Ptolemaic Kingdom, during the reign Ptolemy II Philadelphus (280–247 BC) which has been estimated to be in overall height.
The Cambridge Companions to Music form a book series published by Cambridge University Press.
This is a list of dates associated with the prehistoric peopling of the world (first known presence of Homo sapiens).
A gulf in geography is a large bay that is an arm of an ocean or sea.
This is a list of ocean circulation models, as used in physical oceanography.
This is a list of rivers by their average discharge, that is their water flow.
This is a list of seas - large divisions of the World Ocean, including areas of water variously, gulfs, bights, bays, and straits.
The following is a list of surface water sports; these are sports which are performed atop a body of water.
A water deity is a deity in mythology associated with water or various bodies of water.
Literature, most generically, is any body of written works.
A lithosphere (λίθος for "rocky", and σφαίρα for "sphere") is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial-type planet, or natural satellite, that is defined by its rigid mechanical properties.
The litre (SI spelling) or liter (American spelling) (symbols L or l, sometimes abbreviated ltr) is an SI accepted metric system unit of volume equal to 1 cubic decimetre (dm3), 1,000 cubic centimetres (cm3) or 1/1,000 cubic metre. A cubic decimetre (or litre) occupies a volume of 10 cm×10 cm×10 cm (see figure) and is thus equal to one-thousandth of a cubic metre. The original French metric system used the litre as a base unit. The word litre is derived from an older French unit, the litron, whose name came from Greek — where it was a unit of weight, not volume — via Latin, and which equalled approximately 0.831 litres. The litre was also used in several subsequent versions of the metric system and is accepted for use with the SI,, p. 124. ("Days" and "hours" are examples of other non-SI units that SI accepts.) although not an SI unit — the SI unit of volume is the cubic metre (m3). The spelling used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures is "litre", a spelling which is shared by almost all English-speaking countries. The spelling "liter" is predominantly used in American English. One litre of liquid water has a mass of almost exactly one kilogram, because the kilogram was originally defined in 1795 as the mass of one cubic decimetre of water at the temperature of melting ice. Subsequent redefinitions of the metre and kilogram mean that this relationship is no longer exact.
Lobsters comprise a family (Nephropidae, sometimes also Homaridae) of large marine crustaceans.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
The Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter 1972, commonly called the "London Convention" or "LC '72" and also abbreviated as Marine Dumping, is an agreement to control pollution of the sea by dumping and to encourage regional agreements supplementary to the Convention.
Longitude: The True Story of a Lone Genius Who Solved the Greatest Scientific Problem of His Time is a best-selling book by Dava Sobel about John Harrison, an 18th-century clockmaker who created the first clock (chronometer) sufficiently accurate to be used to determine longitude at sea—an important development in navigation.
The longitude rewards were the system of inducement prizes offered by the British government as a simple and practical method for the precise determination of a ship's longitude at sea.
Longline fishing is a commercial fishing technique.
Longshore drift is a geological process that consists of the transportation of sediments (clay, silt, sand and shingle) along a coast parallel to the shoreline, which is dependent on oblique incoming wind direction.
Lopes Gonçalves or Lopo Gonçalves was a Portuguese explorer of the African coast.
Lothal is one of the southernmost cities of the ancient Indus valley civilization, located in the Bhāl region of the modern state of Gujarāt and first inhabited 3700 BCE.
A low-pressure area, low, or depression, is a region on the topographic map where the atmospheric pressure is lower than that of surrounding locations.
Ludolf Bakhuizen at the Netherlands Institute for Art History (28 December 1630 – 17 November 1708) was a German-born Dutch painter, draughtsman, calligrapher and printmaker.
The Lunheng, also known by numerous English translations, is a wide-ranging Chinese classic text by Wang Chong (27- CE).
Magma (from Ancient Greek μάγμα (mágma) meaning "thick unguent") is a mixture of molten or semi-molten rock, volatiles and solids that is found beneath the surface of the Earth, and is expected to exist on other terrestrial planets and some natural satellites.
Magnesium is a chemical element with symbol Mg and atomic number 12.
Maine is a U.S. state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.
Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.
Malaysia is a federal constitutional monarchy in Southeast Asia.
Malindi (known as Melinde in antiquity) is a town on Malindi Bay at the mouth of the Galana River, lying on the Indian Ocean coast of Kenya.
Manganese is a chemical element with symbol Mn and atomic number 25.
Polymetallic nodules, also called manganese nodules, are rock concretions on the sea bottom formed of concentric layers of iron and manganese hydroxides around a core.
A mangrove is a shrub or small tree that grows in coastal saline or brackish water.
The mantle is a layer inside a terrestrial planet and some other rocky planetary bodies.
Mare clausum (legal Latin meaning "closed sea") is a term used in international law to mention a sea, ocean or other navigable body of water under the jurisdiction of a state that is closed or not accessible to other states.
Mare Liberum (or The Freedom of the Seas) is a book in Latin on international law written by the Dutch jurist and philosopher Hugo Grotius, first published in 1609.
The Mariana Islands (also the Marianas) are a crescent-shaped archipelago comprising the summits of fifteen mostly dormant volcanic mountains in the western North Pacific Ocean, between the 12th and 21st parallels north and along the 145th meridian east.
The Mariana Trench or Marianas Trench is the deepest part of the world's oceans.
Mariculture is a specialized branch of aquaculture involving the cultivation of marine organisms for food and other products in the open ocean, an enclosed section of the ocean, or in tanks, ponds or raceways which are filled with seawater.
Marine art or maritime art is any form of figurative art (that is, painting, drawing, printmaking and sculpture) that portrays or draws its main inspiration from the sea.
Marine bacteriophages or marine phages are viruses that live as obligate parasitic agents in marine bacteria such as cyanobacteria.
Marine biology is the scientific study of marine life, organisms in the sea.
A marine chronometer is a timepiece that is precise and accurate enough to be used as a portable time standard; it can therefore be used to determine longitude by means of celestial navigation.
Marine current power is a form of marine energy obtained from harnessing of the kinetic energy of marine currents, such as the Gulf stream.
Marine fungi are species of fungi that live in marine or estuarine environments.
Marine geology or geological oceanography is the study of the history and structure of the ocean floor.
Marine invertebrates are the invertebrates that live in marine habitats.
Marine mammals are aquatic mammals that rely on the ocean and other marine ecosystems for their existence.
Marine shrimp farming is an aquaculture business for the cultivation of marine shrimp or prawns for human consumption.
In the deep ocean, marine snow is a continuous shower of mostly organic detritus falling from the upper layers of the water column.
Maritime history is the study of human interaction with and activity at sea.
The maritime republics (repubbliche marinare) of the Mediterranean Basin were thalassocratic city-states which flourished in Italy and Dalmatia during the Middle Ages.
Maritime Southeast Asia is the maritime region of Southeast Asia as opposed to mainland Southeast Asia and comprises what is now Malaysia, Brunei, Philippines, Singapore, Indonesia, and Timor Leste.
The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, 1973 as modified by the Protocol of 1978 (MARPOL 73/78, MARPOL is short for marine pollution and 73/78 short for the years 1973 and 1978) is one of the most important international marine environmental conventions.
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.
Marseille (Provençal: Marselha), is the second-largest city of France and the largest city of the Provence historical region.
The planet Mars has two permanent polar ice caps.
, born 松尾 金作, then, was the most famous poet of the Edo period in Japan.
Matteo Ricci, S.J. (Mattheus Riccius Maceratensis; 6 October 1552 – 11 May 1610), was an Italian Jesuit priest and one of the founding figures of the Jesuit China missions.
A meadow is a field habitat vegetated by grass and other non-woody plants (grassland).
The average of the levels of each pair of successive low waters during that period of about 24 hours in each semi-lunation (approximately every 14 days), when the range of the tide is greatest (Spring Range).
A mechanical wave is a wave that is an oscillation of matter, and therefore transfers energy through a medium.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
The, also known as the Meiji Ishin, Renovation, Revolution, Reform, or Renewal, was an event that restored practical imperial rule to the Empire of Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji.
The melting point (or, rarely, liquefaction point) of a substance is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid at atmospheric pressure.
Mercury is a chemical element with symbol Hg and atomic number 80.
A metal ion in aqueous solution (aqua ion) is a cation, dissolved in water, of chemical formula z+.
Methane clathrate (CH4·5.75H2O) or (4CH4·23H2O), also called methane hydrate, hydromethane, methane ice, fire ice, natural gas hydrate, or gas hydrate, is a solid clathrate compound (more specifically, a clathrate hydrate) in which a large amount of methane is trapped within a crystal structure of water, forming a solid similar to ice.
In offshore and coastal engineering, metocean refers to the syllabic abbreviation of meteorology and (physical) oceanography.
Michael Sars (30 August 1805 – 22 October 1869) was a Norwegian theologian and biologist.
Microalgae or microphytes are microscopic algae, typically found in freshwater and marine systems, living in both the water column and sediment.
A microbial mat is a multi-layered sheet of microorganisms, mainly bacteria and archaea.
Microfauna (Ancient Greek mikros "small" + New Latin fauna "animal") refers to microscopic organisms that exhibit animal-like qualities.
Microplastics are small pieces of plastic that pollute the environment.
A mid-ocean ridge (MOR) is an underwater mountain system formed by plate tectonics.
In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages (or Medieval Period) lasted from the 5th to the 15th century.
Middle English (ME) is collectively the varieties of the English language spoken after the Norman Conquest (1066) until the late 15th century; scholarly opinion varies but the Oxford English Dictionary specifies the period of 1150 to 1500.
The Miller–Urey experiment (or Miller experiment) was a chemical experiment that simulated the conditions thought at the time to be present on the early Earth, and tested the chemical origin of life under those conditions.
Mindanao is the second largest island in the Philippines.
The Mindoro Strait (Kipot ng Mindoro) is one of the straits connecting the South China Sea with the Sulu Sea in the Philippines.
The Ming dynasty was the ruling dynasty of China – then known as the – for 276 years (1368–1644) following the collapse of the Mongol-led Yuan dynasty.
The Ming treasure voyages were the seven maritime expeditions by Ming China's treasure fleet between 1405 and 1433.
The Minoan civilization was an Aegean Bronze Age civilization on the island of Crete and other Aegean Islands which flourished from about 2600 to 1600 BC, before a late period of decline, finally ending around 1100.
There have been several models of early human migration to the Philippines.
The Moken (also Mawken or Morgan;; translit) are an Austronesian people of the Mergui Archipelago, a group of approximately 800 islands claimed by both Burma and Thailand.
A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.
Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.
Monaco, officially the Principality of Monaco (Principauté de Monaco), is a sovereign city-state, country and microstate on the French Riviera in Western Europe.
A monarch is a sovereign head of state in a monarchy.
The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Mongolyn Ezent Güren; Mongolian Cyrillic: Монголын эзэнт гүрэн;; also Орда ("Horde") in Russian chronicles) existed during the 13th and 14th centuries and was the largest contiguous land empire in history.
The, which took place in 1274 and 1281, were major military efforts undertaken by Kublai Khan to conquer the Japanese archipelago after the submission of Goryeo (Korea) to vassaldom.
The monsoon of South Asia is among several geographically distributed global monsoons.
Monte Carlo (Monte-Carlo, or colloquially Monte-Carl; Monégasque: Monte-Carlu) officially refers to an administrative area of the Principality of Monaco, specifically the ward of Monte Carlo/Spélugues, where the Monte Carlo Casino is located.
Monterey is a city located in Monterey County in the U.S. state of California, on the southern edge of Monterey Bay on California's Central Coast.
The Moon is an astronomical body that orbits planet Earth and is Earth's only permanent natural satellite.
A mother ship, mothership or mother-ship is a large vehicle that leads, serves, or carries other smaller vehicles.
A motorboat, speedboat, or powerboat is a boat which is powered by an engine.
Mount Cameroon is an active volcano in Cameroon near the Gulf of Guinea.
The mullets or grey mullets are a family (Mugilidae) of ray-finned fish found worldwide in coastal temperate and tropical waters, and some species in fresh water.
A Muslim (مُسلِم) is someone who follows or practices Islam, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion.
Namibia, officially the Republic of Namibia (German:; Republiek van Namibië), is a country in southern Africa whose western border is the Atlantic Ocean.
IneriBEROGU Brsiovbduo bbLUFIOtdB NIotjbio Nansen's Fram expedition was an 1893–1896 attempt by the Norwegian explorer Fridtjof Nansen to reach the geographical North Pole by harnessing the natural east–west current of the Arctic Ocean.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
Nathaniel Brown Palmer (8 August 179921 June 1877) was an American seal hunter, explorer, sailing captain, and ship designer.
National Geographic (formerly the National Geographic Magazine and branded also as NAT GEO or) is the official magazine of the National Geographic Society.
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA; pronounced, like "Noah") is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, and the atmosphere.
The National Science Foundation (NSF) is a United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering.
The National Tsunami Warning Center (NTWC) is one of two tsunami warning centers that are operated by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in the United States.
Natural gas is a naturally occurring hydrocarbon gas mixture consisting primarily of methane, but commonly including varying amounts of other higher alkanes, and sometimes a small percentage of carbon dioxide, nitrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or helium.
A nautical mile is a unit of measurement defined as exactly.
Nautical time refers to the systems used by ships on high seas to express their local time.
Naval warfare is combat in and on the sea, the ocean, or any other battlespace involving major body of water such as a large lake or wide river.
Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another.
The Nazca Plate, named after the Nazca region of southern Peru, is an oceanic tectonic plate in the eastern Pacific Ocean basin off the west coast of South America.
Near Oceania or Near Melanesia is the part of Oceania settled 35,000 years ago, comprising western Island Melanesia: the Bismarck Archipelago and the Solomon Islands archipelago.
Necho II (sometimes Nekau, Neku, Nechoh, or Nikuu; Greek: Νεχώς Β' or Νεχώ Β') of Egypt was a king of the 26th Dynasty (610–595 BC).
Nekton or necton refers to the aggregate of actively swimming aquatic organisms in a body of water.
The neritic zone is the relatively shallow part of the ocean above the drop-off of the continental shelf, approximately in depth.
New England is a geographical region comprising six states of the northeastern United States: Maine, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island and Connecticut.
New Guinea (Nugini or, more commonly known, Papua, historically, Irian) is a large island off the continent of Australia.
In historical contexts, New Imperialism characterizes a period of colonial expansion by European powers, the United States, and Japan during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
In astronomy, the new moon is the first lunar phase, when the Moon and Sun have the same ecliptic longitude.
New Orleans (. Merriam-Webster.; La Nouvelle-Orléans) is a major United States port and the largest city and metropolitan area in the state of Louisiana.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
Nickel is a chemical element with symbol Ni and atomic number 28.
Nikolai Andreyevich Rimsky-Korsakov (a; Russia was using old style dates in the 19th century, and information sources used in the article sometimes report dates as old style rather than new style. Dates in the article are taken verbatim from the source and are in the same style as the source from which they come.) was a Russian composer, and a member of the group of composers known as The Five.
The Nile Delta (دلتا النيل or simply الدلتا) is the delta formed in Northern Egypt (Lower Egypt) where the Nile River spreads out and drains into the Mediterranean Sea.
Nitrification is the biological oxidation of ammonia or ammonium to nitrite followed by the oxidation of the nitrite to nitrate.
The nitrogen cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which nitrogen is converted into multiple chemical forms as it circulates among the atmosphere, terrestrial, and marine ecosystems.
Nitrogen fixation is a process by which nitrogen in the Earth's atmosphere is converted into ammonia (NH3) or other molecules available to living organisms.
Narcosis while diving (also known as nitrogen narcosis, inert gas narcosis, raptures of the deep, Martini effect) is a reversible alteration in consciousness that occurs while diving at depth.
A nomad (νομάς, nomas, plural tribe) is a member of a community of people who live in different locations, moving from one place to another in search of grasslands for their animals.
The Norse exploration of North America began in the late 10th century AD when Norsemen explored and settled areas of the North Atlantic including the northeastern fringes of North America.
Norse mythology is the body of myths of the North Germanic people stemming from Norse paganism and continuing after the Christianization of Scandinavia and into the Scandinavian folklore of the modern period.
The North Atlantic garbage patch is an area of man-made marine debris found floating within the North Atlantic Gyre, originally documented in 1972.
The North Atlantic Gyre, located in the Atlantic Ocean, is one of the five major oceanic gyres.
The North Magnetic Pole is the wandering point on the surface of Earth's Northern Hemisphere at which the planet's magnetic field points vertically downwards (in other words, if a magnetic compass needle is allowed to rotate about a horizontal axis, it will point straight down).
The North Pole, also known as the Geographic North Pole or Terrestrial North Pole, is (subject to the caveats explained below) defined as the point in the Northern Hemisphere where the Earth's axis of rotation meets its surface.
The North Sea (Mare Germanicum) is a marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean located between Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium, and France.
The Northeast Passage (abbreviated as NEP) is, from the European and northern Atlantic point of view, the shipping route to the Pacific Ocean, along the Arctic Ocean coasts of Norway and Russia.
Northern Europe is the general term for the geographical region in Europe that is approximately north of the southern coast of the Baltic Sea.
The Northern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is north of the Equator.
The Northwest Passage (abbreviated as NWP) is, from the European and northern Atlantic point of view, the sea route to the Pacific Ocean through the Arctic Ocean, along the northern coast of North America via waterways through the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.
The Novgorod Republic (p; Новгородскаѧ землѧ / Novgorodskaję zemlę) was a medieval East Slavic state from the 12th to 15th centuries, stretching from the Baltic Sea to the northern Ural Mountains, including the city of Novgorod and the Lake Ladoga regions of modern Russia.
Nuclear power is the use of nuclear reactions that release nuclear energy to generate heat, which most frequently is then used in steam turbines to produce electricity in a nuclear power plant.
An ocean (the sea of classical antiquity) is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere.
In oceanography, a gyre is any large system of circulating ocean currents, particularly those involved with large wind movements.
An ocean liner is a passenger ship primarily used as a form of transportation across seas or oceans.
Ocean Sea (Oceano mare) is a 1993 novel by the Italian writer Alessandro Baricco.
Ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) uses the temperature difference between cooler deep and warmer shallow or surface seawaters to run a heat engine and produce useful work, usually in the form of electricity.
Oceanic crust is the uppermost layer of the oceanic portion of a tectonic plate.
Oceanic trenches are topographic depressions of the sea floor, relatively narrow in width, but very long.
Oceanography (compound of the Greek words ὠκεανός meaning "ocean" and γράφω meaning "write"), also known as oceanology, is the study of the physical and biological aspects of the ocean.
Odysseus (Ὀδυσσεύς, Ὀδυσεύς, Ὀdysseús), also known by the Latin variant Ulysses (Ulixēs), is a legendary Greek king of Ithaca and the hero of Homer's epic poem the Odyssey.
The Odyssey (Ὀδύσσεια Odýsseia, in Classical Attic) is one of two major ancient Greek epic poems attributed to Homer.
Offshore construction is the installation of structures and facilities in a marine environment, usually for the production and transmission of electricity, oil, gas and other resources.
Offshore drilling is a mechanical process where a wellbore is drilled below the seabed.
Offshore oil and gas in the Gulf of Mexico is a major source of oil and natural gas in the United States.
Offshore powerboat racing is a type of racing by ocean-going powerboats, typically point-to-point racing.
Offshore wind power or offshore wind energy is the use of wind farms constructed in bodies of water, usually in the ocean on the continental shelf, to harvest wind energy to generate electricity.
An oil platform, offshore platform, or offshore drilling rig is a large structure with facilities for well drilling to explore, extract, store, process petroleum and natural gas which lies in rock formations beneath the seabed.
Old English (Ænglisc, Anglisc, Englisc), or Anglo-Saxon, is the earliest historical form of the English language, spoken in England and southern and eastern Scotland in the early Middle Ages.
Opium Wars is a collective term for the mid-1800s conflicts between Western powers and China including the First Opium War (1839–1842) and the Second Opium War (1856–1860).
Oppian (Ὀππιανός, Oppianós; Oppianus), also known as Oppian of Anazarbus, of Corycus, or of Cilicia, was a 2nd-century Greco-Roman poet during the reign of the emperors Marcus Aurelius and Commodus.
The Ordinamenta et consuetudo maris (“Ordinances and Custom of the Sea”) was a convention governing maritime trade promulgated at Trani in 1063: "the oldest surviving maritime law code of the Latin West".
The origin of water on Earth, or the reason that there is clearly more liquid water on Earth than on the other rocky planets of the Solar System, is not completely understood.
The Orinoco River is one of the longest rivers in South America at.
The Ortoiroid people were the second wave of human settlers of the Caribbean who began their migration into the Antilles around 2000 BCE They were preceded by the Casimiroid peoples (~4190-2165 BCE).
Osmotic power, salinity gradient power or blue energy is the energy available from the difference in the salt concentration between seawater and river water.
The ounce (abbreviated oz; apothecary symbol: ℥) is a unit of mass, weight, or volume used in most British derived customary systems of measurement.
Outer space, or just space, is the expanse that exists beyond the Earth and between celestial bodies.
Overfishing is the removal of a species of fish from a body of water at a rate that the species cannot replenish in time, resulting in those species either becoming depleted or very underpopulated in that given area.
The Oxford English Dictionary (OED) is the main historical dictionary of the English language, published by the Oxford University Press.
Oxygen saturation (symbol SO2) is a relative measure of the concentration of oxygen that is dissolved or carried in a given medium as a proportion of the maximal concentration that can be dissolved in that medium.
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.
The Paleolithic or Palaeolithic is a period in human prehistory distinguished by the original development of stone tools that covers c. 95% of human technological prehistory.
A pallet, sometimes inaccurately called a skid (a skid has no bottom deck boards), is a flat transport structure that supports goods in a stable fashion while being lifted by a forklift, pallet jack, front loader, work saver, or other jacking device, or a crane.
The Panama Canal (Canal de Panamá) is an artificial waterway in Panama that connects the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific Ocean.
Papua New Guinea (PNG;,; Papua Niugini; Hiri Motu: Papua Niu Gini), officially the Independent State of Papua New Guinea, is an Oceanian country that occupies the eastern half of the island of New Guinea and its offshore islands in Melanesia, a region of the southwestern Pacific Ocean north of Australia.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of and a population of 2,206,488.
Parthia (𐎱𐎼𐎰𐎺 Parθava; 𐭐𐭓𐭕𐭅 Parθaw; 𐭯𐭫𐭮𐭥𐭡𐭥 Pahlaw) is a historical region located in north-eastern Iran.
In science and engineering, the parts-per notation is a set of pseudo-units to describe small values of miscellaneous dimensionless quantities, e.g. mole fraction or mass fraction.
A passenger line is a business that primarily transports passengers aboard ships.
Pearl hunting is the act of recovering pearls from wild mollusks, usually oysters or mussels, in the sea or fresh water.
The pelagic zone consists of the water column of the open ocean, and can be further divided into regions by depth.
People smuggling (also called human smuggling), under US law, is "the facilitation, transportation, attempted transportation or illegal entry of a person or persons across an international border, in violation of one or more countries' laws, either clandestinely or through deception, such as the use of fraudulent documents".
A per milleCambridge Dictionary Online.
A periplus is a manuscript document that lists the ports and coastal landmarks, in order and with approximate intervening distances, that the captain of a vessel could expect to find along a shore.
The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
The Peruvian anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) is a species of fish of the anchovy family, Engraulidae, from the Southeast Pacific Ocean.
Pesticides are substances that are meant to control pests, including weeds.
Petrels are tube-nosed seabirds in the bird order Procellariiformes.
Petroleum is a naturally occurring, yellow-to-black liquid found in geological formations beneath the Earth's surface.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.
Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to convert light energy into chemical energy that can later be released to fuel the organisms' activities (energy transformation).
In biology, a phylum (plural: phyla) is a level of classification or taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class.
Physical geography (also known as geosystems or physiography) is one of the two major sub-fields of geography.
Physical oceanography is the study of physical conditions and physical processes within the ocean, especially the motions and physical properties of ocean waters.
Physics (from knowledge of nature, from φύσις phýsis "nature") is the natural science that studies matterAt the start of The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Richard Feynman offers the atomic hypothesis as the single most prolific scientific concept: "If, in some cataclysm, all scientific knowledge were to be destroyed one sentence what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another..." and its motion and behavior through space and time and that studies the related entities of energy and force."Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular succession of events." Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, and its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves."Physics is one of the most fundamental of the sciences. Scientists of all disciplines use the ideas of physics, including chemists who study the structure of molecules, paleontologists who try to reconstruct how dinosaurs walked, and climatologists who study how human activities affect the atmosphere and oceans. Physics is also the foundation of all engineering and technology. No engineer could design a flat-screen TV, an interplanetary spacecraft, or even a better mousetrap without first understanding the basic laws of physics. (...) You will come to see physics as a towering achievement of the human intellect in its quest to understand our world and ourselves."Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns that relate these phenomena.""Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy, perhaps the oldest. Over the last two millennia, physics, chemistry, biology, and certain branches of mathematics were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century, these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, and the boundaries of physics are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics often explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics often enable advances in new technologies. For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have dramatically transformed modern-day society, such as television, computers, domestic appliances, and nuclear weapons; advances in thermodynamics led to the development of industrialization; and advances in mechanics inspired the development of calculus.
Phytoplankton are the autotrophic (self-feeding) components of the plankton community and a key part of oceans, seas and freshwater basin ecosystems.
A pilgrimage is a journey or search of moral or spiritual significance.
The Pillars of Hercules (Latin: Columnae Herculis, Greek: Ἡράκλειαι Στῆλαι, Arabic: أعمدة هرقل / Aʿmidat Hiraql, Spanish: Columnas de Hércules) was the phrase that was applied in Antiquity to the promontories that flank the entrance to the Strait of Gibraltar.
Pinctada is a genus of saltwater oysters, marine bivalve mollusks in the family Pteriidae, the pearl oysters.
Pinnipeds, commonly known as seals, are a widely distributed and diverse clade of carnivorous, fin-footed, semiaquatic marine mammals.
Piracy is an act of robbery or criminal violence by ship or boat-borne attackers upon another ship or a coastal area, typically with the goal of stealing cargo and other valuable items or properties.
Piracy in the 21st century has taken place in a number of waters around the world, including the Gulf of Guinea, Strait of Malacca, Indian Ocean, and Falcon Lake.
A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.
The planetary core consists of the innermost layer(s) of a planet; which may be composed of solid and liquid layers.
Plankton (singular plankter) are the diverse collection of organisms that live in large bodies of water and are unable to swim against a current.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
A plastic bag, polybag, or pouch is a type of container made of thin, flexible, plastic film, nonwoven fabric, or plastic textile.
Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.
Poetry (the term derives from a variant of the Greek term, poiesis, "making") is a form of literature that uses aesthetic and rhythmic qualities of language—such as phonaesthetics, sound symbolism, and metre—to evoke meanings in addition to, or in place of, the prosaic ostensible meaning.
The Polychaeta, also known as the bristle worms or polychaetes, are a paraphyletic class of annelid worms, generally marine.
A polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) is an organic chlorine compound with the formula C12H10−xClx.
Traditional Polynesian navigation was used for thousands of years to make long voyages across thousands of miles of the open Pacific Ocean.
The Polynesians are a subset of Austronesians native to the islands of Polynesia that speak the Polynesian languages, a branch of the Oceanic subfamily of the Austronesian language family.
A pontoon bridge (or ponton bridge), also known as a floating bridge, uses floats or shallow-draft boats to support a continuous deck for pedestrian and vehicle travel.
A fishery is an area with an associated fish or aquatic population which is harvested for its commercial or recreational value.
In biology or human geography, population growth is the increase in the number of individuals in a population.
Porpoises are a group of fully aquatic marine mammals that are sometimes referred to as mereswine, all of which are classified under the family Phocoenidae, parvorder Odontoceti (toothed whales).
Portuguese discoveries (Portuguese: Descobrimentos portugueses) are the numerous territories and maritime routes discovered by the Portuguese as a result of their intensive maritime exploration during the 15th and 16th centuries.
The Portuguese Empire (Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (Ultramar Português) or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (Império Colonial Português), was one of the largest and longest-lived empires in world history and the first colonial empire of the Renaissance.
Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19.
The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum.
A power kite or traction kite is a large kite designed to provide significant pull to the user.
A power station, also referred to as a power plant or powerhouse and sometimes generating station or generating plant, is an industrial facility for the generation of electric power.
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.
The Prehistoric Period is the oldest part of Cypriot history.
Human prehistory is the period between the use of the first stone tools 3.3 million years ago by hominins and the invention of writing systems.
The President of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America.
Prevailing winds are winds that blow predominantly from a single general direction over a particular point on the Earth's surface.
Primary producers take energy from other organisms and turn it into energy that is used.
Global oceanic and terrestrial photoautotroph abundance, from September 1997 to August 2000. As an estimate of autotroph biomass, it is only a rough indicator of primary-production potential, and not an actual estimate of it. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and ORBIMAGE. In ecology, primary production is the synthesis of organic compounds from atmospheric or aqueous carbon dioxide.
A prime meridian is a meridian (a line of longitude) in a geographic coordinate system at which longitude is defined to be 0°.
A prime meridian, based at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich, in London, England, was established by Sir George Airy in 1851.
A promontory is a raised mass of land that projects into a lowland or a body of water (in which case it is a peninsula).
Protozoa (also protozoan, plural protozoans) is an informal term for single-celled eukaryotes, either free-living or parasitic, which feed on organic matter such as other microorganisms or organic tissues and debris.
Psychiatry is the medical specialty devoted to the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of mental disorders.
Pteropoda (common name pteropods, from the Greek meaning "wing-foot") are specialized free-swimming pelagic sea snails and sea slugs, marine opisthobranch gastropods.
Claudius Ptolemy (Κλαύδιος Πτολεμαῖος, Klaúdios Ptolemaîos; Claudius Ptolemaeus) was a Greco-Roman mathematician, astronomer, geographer, astrologer, and poet of a single epigram in the Greek Anthology.
Pylos ((Πύλος), historically also known under its Italian name Navarino, is a town and a former municipality in Messenia, Peloponnese, Greece. Since the 2011 local government reform it is part of the municipality Pylos-Nestoras, of which it is the seat and a municipal unit. Greece Ministry of Interior It was the capital of the former Pylia Province. It is the main harbour on the Bay of Navarino. Nearby villages include Gialova, Pyla, Elaiofyto, Schinolakka, and Palaionero. The town of Pylos has 2,767 inhabitants, the municipal unit of Pylos 5,287 (2011). The municipal unit has an area of 143.911 km2. Pylos has a long history, having been inhabited since Neolithic times. It was a significant kingdom in Mycenaean Greece, with remains of the so-called "Palace of Nestor" excavated nearby, named after Nestor, the king of Pylos in Homer's Iliad. In Classical times, the site was uninhabited, but became the site of the Battle of Pylos in 425 BC, during the Peloponnesian War. Pylos is scarcely mentioned thereafter until the 13th century, when it became part of the Frankish Principality of Achaea. Increasingly known by its French name of Port-de-Jonc or its Italian name Navarino, in the 1280s the Franks built the Old Navarino castle on the site. Pylos came under the control of the Republic of Venice from 1417 until 1500, when it was conquered by the Ottoman Empire. The Ottomans used Pylos and its bay as a naval base, and built the New Navarino fortress there. The area remained under Ottoman control, with the exception of a brief period of renewed Venetian rule in 1685–1715 and a Russian occupation in 1770–71, until the outbreak of the Greek War of Independence in 1821. Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt recovered it for the Ottomans in 1825, but the defeat of the Turco-Egyptian fleet in the 1827 Battle of Navarino forced Ibrahim to withdraw from the Peloponnese and confirmed Greek independence.
Pytheas of Massalia (Ancient Greek: Πυθέας ὁ Μασσαλιώτης Pythéas ho Massaliōtēs; Latin: Pytheas Massiliensis; fl. 4th century BC), was a Greek geographer and explorer from the Greek colony of Massalia (modern-day Marseille).
Rachel Louise Carson (May 27, 1907 – April 14, 1964) was an American marine biologist, author, and conservationist whose book Silent Spring and other writings are credited with advancing the global environmental movement.
A raft is any flat structure for support or transportation over water.
Rail transport is a means of transferring of passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, also known as tracks.
Rain is liquid water in the form of droplets that have condensed from atmospheric water vapor and then becomes heavy enough to fall under gravity.
Ralph Vaughan Williams (12 October 1872– 26 August 1958) was an English composer.
The Rance Tidal Power Station is a tidal power station located on the estuary of the Rance River in Brittany, France.
Recreational fishermen usually fish either from a boat or from a shoreline or river bank.
Red is the color at the end of the visible spectrum of light, next to orange and opposite violet.
The Red Sea (also the Erythraean Sea) is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.
Red tide is a common name for a worldwide phenomenon known as an algal bloom (large concentrations of aquatic microorganisms—protozoans or unicellular algae) when it is caused by species of dinoflagellates and other organisms.
Reed boats and rafts, along with dugout canoes and other rafts, are among the oldest known types of boats.
Refraction is the change in direction of wave propagation due to a change in its transmission medium.
Refrigeration is a process of removing heat from a low-temperature reservoir and transferring it to a high-temperature reservoir.
A religious war or holy war (bellum sacrum) is a war primarily caused or justified by differences in religion.
Remote sensing is the acquisition of information about an object or phenomenon without making physical contact with the object and thus in contrast to on-site observation.
Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.
The Republic of Genoa (Repúbrica de Zêna,; Res Publica Ianuensis; Repubblica di Genova) was an independent state from 1005 to 1797 in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast, incorporating Corsica from 1347 to 1768, and numerous other territories throughout the Mediterranean.
The Republic of Venice (Repubblica di Venezia, later: Repubblica Veneta; Repùblica de Venèsia, later: Repùblica Vèneta), traditionally known as La Serenissima (Most Serene Republic of Venice) (Serenissima Repubblica di Venezia; Serenìsima Repùblica Vèneta), was a sovereign state and maritime republic in northeastern Italy, which existed for a millennium between the 8th century and the 18th century.
Reverse osmosis (RO) is a water purification technology that uses a semipermeable membrane to remove ions, molecules and larger particles from drinking water.
In navigation, a rhumb line, rhumb, or loxodrome is an arc crossing all meridians of longitude at the same angle, that is, a path with constant bearing as measured relative to true or magnetic north.
Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 181313 February 1883) was a German composer, theatre director, polemicist, and conductor who is chiefly known for his operas (or, as some of his later works were later known, "music dramas").
Ringwoodite is a high-pressure phase of Mg2SiO4 formed at high temperatures and pressures of the Earth's mantle between depth.
A rip current, often simply called a rip, or by the misnomer rip tide, is a specific kind of water current which can occur near beaches with breaking waves.
A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river.
A river delta is a landform that forms from deposition of sediment carried by a river as the flow leaves its mouth and enters slower-moving or stagnant water.
RMS Mauretania was an ocean liner designed by Leonard Peskett and built by Wigham Richardson & Swan Hunter for the British Cunard Line, and launched on the afternoon of 20 September 1906.
The Roaring Forties are strong westerly winds found in the Southern Hemisphere, generally between the latitudes of 40 and 50 degrees.
Robert Drews (born March 26, 1936) is an American historian who is Professor of Classical Studies Emeritus at Vanderbilt University.
A robot is a machine—especially one programmable by a computer— capable of carrying out a complex series of actions automatically.
Rogue waves (also known as freak waves, monster waves, episodic waves, killer waves, extreme waves, and abnormal waves) are large, unexpected and suddenly appearing surface waves that can be extremely dangerous, even to large ships such as ocean liners.
The Rolls of Oléron (Rôles d'Oléron, also known as the "Judgments of Oleron" and the "Rules of Oléron") were the first formal statement of "maritime" or "admiralty" laws in northwestern Europe.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
Roman law is the legal system of ancient Rome, including the legal developments spanning over a thousand years of jurisprudence, from the Twelve Tables (c. 449 BC), to the Corpus Juris Civilis (AD 529) ordered by Eastern Roman Emperor Justinian I. Roman law forms the basic framework for civil law, the most widely used legal system today, and the terms are sometimes used synonymously.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
The Royal Netherlands Navy (Koninklijke Marine, “Royal Navy”) is the navy of the Netherlands.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
The Sahara (الصحراء الكبرى,, 'the Great Desert') is the largest hot desert and the third largest desert in the world after Antarctica and the Arctic.
A sail is a tensile structure—made from fabric or other membrane materials—that uses wind power to propel sailing craft, including sailing ships, sailboats, windsurfers, ice boats, and even sail-powered land vehicles.
Sailing as a sport involves a variety of competitive sailing formats that are sanctioned through various sailing federations and yacht clubs.
Saint Paul (abbreviated St. Paul) is the capital and second-most populous city of the U.S. state of Minnesota.
Saint-Malo (Gallo: Saent-Malô) is a historic French port in Brittany on the Channel coast.
Salicornia europaea, known as common glasswort or just glasswort, is a halophytic annual dicot which grows in various zones of intertidal salt marshes.
Salinity is the saltiness or amount of salt dissolved in a body of water (see also soil salinity).
Salmon is the common name for several species of ray-finned fish in the family Salmonidae.
Salt, table salt or common salt is a mineral composed primarily of sodium chloride (NaCl), a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts; salt in its natural form as a crystalline mineral is known as rock salt or halite.
A salt lake or saline lake is a landlocked body of water that has a concentration of salts (typically sodium chloride) and other dissolved minerals significantly higher than most lakes (often defined as at least three grams of salt per litre).
A salt marsh or saltmarsh, also known as a coastal salt marsh or a tidal marsh, is a coastal ecosystem in the upper coastal intertidal zone between land and open saltwater or brackish water that is regularly flooded by the tides.
The Sama-Bajau refers to several Austronesian ethnic groups of Maritime Southeast Asia with their origins from the southern Philippines.
Samoa, officially the Independent State of Samoa (Malo Saʻoloto Tutoʻatasi o Sāmoa; Sāmoa) and, until 4 July 1997, known as Western Samoa, is a unitary parliamentary democracy with eleven administrative divisions.
Sand is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles.
Santa Catarina was a Portuguese merchant ship, a 1500-ton carrack, that was seized by the Dutch East India Company (also known as V.O.C) during February 1603 off Singapore.
The Sape Strait (Indonesian: Selat Sape) or Sapie Strait is a strait connecting the Flores Sea to the Sumba Strait.
The Sargasso Sea is a region of the North Atlantic Ocean bounded by four currents forming an ocean gyre.
Scheherazade, also commonly Sheherazade (ʂɨxʲɪrɐˈzadə), Op. 35, is a symphonic suite composed by Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov in 1888 and based on One Thousand and One Nights (also known as The Arabian Nights).
R. P. Feynman, The Feynman Lectures on Physics, Vol.1, Chaps.1,2,&3.
Scientific American (informally abbreviated SciAm) is an American popular science magazine.
The Scramble for Africa was the occupation, division, and colonization of African territory by European powers during the period of New Imperialism, between 1881 and 1914.
Scuba diving is a mode of underwater diving where the diver uses a self-contained underwater breathing apparatus (scuba) which is completely independent of surface supply, to breathe underwater.
A scuba set is any breathing apparatus that is carried entirely by an underwater diver and provides the diver with breathing gas at the ambient pressure.
In Greek mythology, Scylla (Σκύλλα,, Skylla) was a monster that lived on one side of a narrow channel of water, opposite her counterpart Charybdis.
SEA or Sea may refer to.
Sea anemones are a group of marine, predatory animals of the order Actiniaria.
Sea bathing is swimming in the sea or in sea water and a sea bath is a protective enclosure for sea bathing.
Sea cucumbers are echinoderms from the class Holothuroidea.
Sea ice arises as seawater freezes.
A sea lane, sea road or shipping lane is a regularly used route for vessels on oceans and large lakes.
A sea level rise is an increase in global mean sea level as a result of an increase in the volume of water in the world’s oceans.
The Sea of Galilee, also Kinneret or Kinnereth, Lake of Gennesaret, or Lake Tiberias (יָם כִּנֶּרֶת, Judeo-Aramaic: יַמּא דטבריא; גִּנֵּיסַר بحيرة طبريا), is a freshwater lake in Israel.
The sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a marine mammal native to the coasts of the northern and eastern North Pacific Ocean.
The Sea Peoples are a purported seafaring confederation that attacked ancient Egypt and other regions of the East Mediterranean prior to and during the Late Bronze Age collapse (1200–900 BC).
Sea Pictures, Op.
Sea salt is a less refined salt that is produced by the evaporation of seawater.
A sea shanty, chantey, or chanty is a type of work song that was once commonly sung to accompany labor on board large merchant sailing vessels.
In oceanography, a sea state is the general condition of the free surface on a large body of water—with respect to wind waves and swell—at a certain location and moment.
Sea turtles (superfamily Chelonioidea), sometimes called marine turtles, are reptiles of the order Testudines.
Sea urchins or urchins are typically spiny, globular animals, echinoderms in the class Echinoidea.
The seabed (also known as the seafloor, sea floor, or ocean floor) is the bottom of the ocean.
Seabirds (also known as marine birds) are birds that are adapted to life within the marine environment.
Seafloor massive sulfide deposits or SMS deposits, are modern equivalents of ancient volcanogenic massive sulfide ore deposits or VMS deposits.
Seafood is any form of sea life regarded as food by humans.
Seagrasses are flowering plants (angiosperms) belonging to four families (Posidoniaceae, Zosteraceae, Hydrocharitaceae and Cymodoceaceae), all in the order Alismatales (in the class of monocotyledons), which grow in marine, fully saline environments.
A seamount is a mountain rising from the ocean seafloor that does not reach to the water's surface (sea level), and thus is not an island, islet or cliff-rock.
Seas may refer to.
A seawall (or sea wall) is a form of coastal defence constructed where the sea, and associated coastal processes, impact directly upon the landforms of the coast.
Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean.
Seaweed or macroalgae refers to several species of macroscopic, multicellular, marine algae.
In nuclear strategy, a second-strike capability is a country's assured ability to respond to a nuclear attack with powerful nuclear retaliation against the attacker.
Sedimentary Geology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal about sediments in a geological context published by Elsevier.
Sedimentation is the tendency for particles in suspension to settle out of the fluid in which they are entrained and come to rest against a barrier.
Seine fishing (or seine-haul fishing) is a method of fishing that employs a fishing net called a seine, that hangs vertically in the water with its bottom edge held down by weights and its top edge buoyed by floats.
Seismic waves are waves of energy that travel through the Earth's layers, and are a result of earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, magma movement, large landslides and large man-made explosions that give out low-frequency acoustic energy.
Seismology (from Ancient Greek σεισμός (seismós) meaning "earthquake" and -λογία (-logía) meaning "study of") is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth or through other planet-like bodies.
Sellafield is a nuclear fuel reprocessing and nuclear decommissioning site, close to the village of Seascale on the coast of the Irish Sea in Cumbria, England.
Senegal (Sénégal), officially the Republic of Senegal, is a country in West Africa.
The age of settlement of Iceland (Icelandic: landnámsöld) is generally believed to have begun in the second half of the 9th century, when Norse settlers migrated across the North Atlantic.
The Seven Wonders of the World or the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World is a list of remarkable constructions of classical antiquity given by various authors in guidebooks or poems popular among ancient Hellenic tourists.
Severnaya Zemlya (Се́верная Земля́ (Northern Land)) is a archipelago in the Russian high Arctic.
Sewage (or domestic wastewater or municipal wastewater) is a type of wastewater that is produced from a community of people.
Sewage treatment is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater, primarily from household sewage.
A sextant is a doubly reflecting navigation instrument that measures the angular distance between two visible objects.
Sharks are a group of elasmobranch fish characterized by a cartilaginous skeleton, five to seven gill slits on the sides of the head, and pectoral fins that are not fused to the head.
Shellfish is a food source and fisheries term for exoskeleton-bearing aquatic invertebrates used as food, including various species of molluscs, crustaceans, and echinoderms.
A shingle beach (also referred to as rocky beach or pebble beach) is a beach which is armoured with pebbles or small- to medium-sized cobbles (as opposed to fine sand).
A ship is a large watercraft that travels the world's oceans and other sufficiently deep waterways, carrying passengers or goods, or in support of specialized missions, such as defense, research and fishing.
A shipyard (also called a dockyard) is a place where ships are built and repaired.
In oceanography, geomorphology, and earth sciences, a shoal is a natural submerged ridge, bank, or bar that consists of, or is covered by, sand or other unconsolidated material, and rises from the bed of a body of water to near the surface.
A shore or a shoreline is the fringe of land at the edge of a large body of water, such as an ocean, sea, or lake.
The short ton is a unit of weight equal to.
Shrimp farming is an aquaculture business that exists in either a marine or freshwater environment, producing shrimp or prawns (crustaceans of the groups Caridea or Dendrobranchiata) for human consumption.
Sibutu Passage is a deep channel some 18 miles (29 km) wide that separates Borneo from the Sulu Archipelago.
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag (from the Latin argentum, derived from the Proto-Indo-European ''h₂erǵ'': "shiny" or "white") and atomic number 47.
The skeleton is the body part that forms the supporting structure of an organism.
Smallpox was an infectious disease caused by one of two virus variants, Variola major and Variola minor.
Snorkeling (British and Commonwealth English spelling: snorkelling) is the practice of swimming on or through a body of water while equipped with a diving mask, a shaped breathing tube called a snorkel, and usually swimfins.
Snow refers to forms of ice crystals that precipitate from the atmosphere (usually from clouds) and undergo changes on the Earth's surface.
Sodium is a chemical element with symbol Na (from Latin natrium) and atomic number 11.
Solar irradiance is the power per unit area received from the Sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation in the wavelength range of the measuring instrument.
Sonar (originally an acronym for SOund Navigation And Ranging) is a technique that uses sound propagation (usually underwater, as in submarine navigation) to navigate, communicate with or detect objects on or under the surface of the water, such as other vessels.
The Song dynasty (960–1279) was an era of Chinese history that began in 960 and continued until 1279.
Songs of the Sea is a cycle of five songs for baritone, male voice chorus, and orchestra, to poems by Henry Newbolt.
The South American Plate is a tectonic plate which includes the continent of South America and also a sizeable region of the Atlantic Ocean seabed extending eastward to the African Plate creating the Mid-Atlantic Ridge The easterly side is a divergent boundary with the African Plate forming the southern part of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.
The South China Sea is a marginal sea that is part of the Pacific Ocean, encompassing an area from the Karimata and Malacca Straits to the Strait of Taiwan of around.
The South Pole, also known as the Geographic South Pole or Terrestrial South Pole, is one of the two points where the Earth's axis of rotation intersects its surface.
Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is a subregion of Asia, consisting of the countries that are geographically south of China, east of India, west of New Guinea and north of Australia.
The Southern Hemisphere is the half of Earth that is south of the Equator.
The Southern Ocean, also known as the Antarctic Ocean or the Austral Ocean, comprises the southernmost waters of the World Ocean, generally taken to be south of 60° S latitude and encircling Antarctica.
A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area.
The Spanish Armada (Grande y Felicísima Armada, literally "Great and Most Fortunate Navy") was a Spanish fleet of 130 ships that sailed from A Coruña in late May 1588, under the command of the Duke of Medina Sidonia, with the purpose of escorting an army from Flanders to invade England.
The overseas expansion under the Crown of Castile was initiated under the royal authority and first accomplished by the Spanish conquistadors.
The Spanish Empire (Imperio Español; Imperium Hispanicum), historically known as the Hispanic Monarchy (Monarquía Hispánica) and as the Catholic Monarchy (Monarquía Católica) was one of the largest empires in history.
Spearfishing is an ancient method of fishing that has been used throughout the world for millennia.
A spit or sandspit is a deposition bar or beach landform off coasts or lake shores.
A spoil tip (also called a spoil bank, boney pile, gob pile, bing, batch, boney dump or pit heap) is a pile built of accumulated spoil – the overburden or other waste rock removed during coal and ore mining.
Sponges, the members of the phylum Porifera (meaning "pore bearer"), are a basal Metazoa clade as sister of the Diploblasts.
Squid are cephalopods of the two orders Myopsida and Oegopsida, which were formerly regarded as two suborders of the order Teuthida, however recent research shows Teuthida to be paraphyletic.
Srivijaya (also written Sri Vijaya, Indonesian/Malay: Sriwijaya, Javanese: ꦯꦿꦶꦮꦶꦗꦪ, Sundanese:, ศรีวิชัย, Sanskrit: श्रीविजय, Śrīvijaya, Khmer: ស្រីវិជ័យ "Srey Vichey", known by the Chinese as Shih-li-fo-shih and San-fo-ch'i t) was a dominant thalassocratic Malay city-state based on the island of Sumatra, Indonesia, which influenced much of Southeast Asia.
The SS United States is a retired luxury passenger liner built in 1950–51 for United States Lines at a cost of US$79.4 million ($ in). The ship is the largest ocean liner constructed entirely in the United States and the fastest ocean liner to cross the Atlantic in either direction, retaining the Blue Riband for the highest average speed since her maiden voyage in 1952.
A stamp act is any legislation that requires a tax to be paid on the transfer of certain documents.
A steam engine is a heat engine that performs mechanical work using steam as its working fluid.
A storm surge, storm flood or storm tide is a coastal flood or tsunami-like phenomenon of rising water commonly associated with low pressure weather systems (such as tropical cyclones and strong extratropical cyclones), the severity of which is affected by the shallowness and orientation of the water body relative to storm path, as well as the timing of tides.
Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
The Strait of Malacca (Selat Melaka, Selat Malaka; Jawi: سلت ملاک) or Straits of Malacca is a narrow, stretch of water between the Malay Peninsula (Peninsular Malaysia) and the Indonesian island of Sumatra.
Water stratification is when water masses with different properties - salinity (halocline), oxygenation (chemocline), density (pycnocline), temperature (thermocline) - form layers that act as barriers to water mixing which could lead to anoxia or euxinia.
Strontium is the chemical element with symbol Sr and atomic number 38.
The interior structure of the Earth is layered in spherical shells: an outer silicate solid crust, a highly viscous asthenosphere and mantle, a liquid outer core that is much less viscous than the mantle, and a solid inner core.
Subduction is a geological process that takes place at convergent boundaries of tectonic plates where one plate moves under another and is forced or sinks due to gravity into the mantle.
A submarine (or simply sub) is a watercraft capable of independent operation underwater.
A submarine communications cable is a cable laid on the sea bed between land-based stations to carry telecommunication signals across stretches of ocean and sea.
In biology, a substrate is the surface on which an organism (such as a plant, fungus, or animal) lives.
thumb The Suez Canal (قناة السويس) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea through the Isthmus of Suez.
Sulawesi, formerly known as Celebes, is an island in Indonesia.
The sulfate or sulphate (see spelling differences) ion is a polyatomic anion with the empirical formula.
The Sulu Archipelago (Tausug: Sūg, Kepulauan Sulu, Kapuluan ng Sulu) is a chain of islands in the Pacific Ocean, in the southwestern Philippines.
SumerThe name is from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian en-ĝir15, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land".
The Sun is the star at the center of the Solar System.
The Sunda Islands are a group of islands in the Malay archipelago.
Sundaland (also called the Sundaic region) is a biogeographical region of Southeastern Asia corresponding to a larger landmass that was exposed throughout the last 2.6 million years during periods when sea levels were lower.
In physics, superheating (sometimes referred to as boiling retardation, or boiling delay) is the phenomenon in which a liquid is heated to a temperature higher than its boiling point, without boiling.
Suppiluliuma II, the son of Tudhaliya IV, was the last known king of the New Kingdom of the Hittite Empire, ruling –1178 BC (short chronology), contemporary with Tukulti-Ninurta I of Assyria.
Surface tension is the elastic tendency of a fluid surface which makes it acquire the least surface area possible.
In physics, a surface wave is a mechanical wave that propagates along the interface between differing media.
A surfboard is an elongated platform used in surfing.
Surfing is a surface water sport in which the wave rider, referred to as a surfer, rides on the forward or deep face of a moving wave, which is usually carrying the surfer towards the shore.
Sustainable energy is energy that is consumed at insignificant rates compared to its supply and with manageable collateral effects, especially environmental effects.
Svalbard (prior to 1925 known by its Dutch name Spitsbergen, still the name of its largest island) is a Norwegian archipelago in the Arctic Ocean.
Swash, or forewash in geography, is a turbulent layer of water that washes up on the beach after an incoming wave has broken.
A swell, in the context of an ocean, sea or lake, is a series of mechanical waves that propagate along the interface between water and air and so they are often referred to as surface gravity waves.
Swimfins, swim fins, fins or flippers are finlike accessories worn on the feet, legs or hands and made from rubber, plastic or combinations of these materials, to aid movement through the water in water sports activities such as swimming, bodyboarding, bodysurfing, kneeboarding, riverboarding, underwater hockey, underwater rugby and various other types of underwater diving.
Swimming is the self-propulsion of a person through fresh or salt water, usually for recreation, sport, exercise, or survival.
Symbiosis (from Greek συμβίωσις "living together", from σύν "together" and βίωσις "living") is any type of a close and long-term biological interaction between two different biological organisms, be it mutualistic, commensalistic, or parasitic.
The Tamil people, also known as Tamilar, Tamilans, or simply Tamils, are a Dravidian ethnic group who speak Tamil as their mother tongue and trace their ancestry to the Indian state of Tamil Nadu, the Indian Union territory of Puducherry, or the Northern, Eastern Province and Puttalam District of Sri Lanka.
Tanais (Τάναϊς Tánaïs; Танаис) was an ancient Greek city in the Don river delta, called the Maeotian marshes in classical antiquity.
The Tang dynasty or the Tang Empire was an imperial dynasty of China preceded by the Sui dynasty and followed by the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period.
In biology, a taxon (plural taxa; back-formation from taxonomy) is a group of one or more populations of an organism or organisms seen by taxonomists to form a unit.
Temperature is a physical quantity expressing hot and cold.
Territorial waters or a territorial sea, as defined by the 2013 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, is a belt of coastal waters extending at most from the baseline (usually the mean low-water mark) of a coastal state.
Texas A&M University (Texas A&M or A&M) is a coeducational public research university in College Station, Texas, United States.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
A thalassocracy (from Classical Greek θάλασσα (thalassa), meaning "sea", and κρατεῖν (kratein), meaning "power", giving Koine Greek θαλασσοκρατία (thalassokratia), "sea power") is a state with primarily maritime realms, an empire at sea (such as the Phoenician network of merchant cities) or a seaborne empire.
The Thames Barrier prevents the floodplain of most of Greater London from being flooded by exceptionally high tides and storm surges moving up from the North Sea.
The Blue Marble is an image of planet Earth made on December 7, 1972, by the crew of the Apollo 17 spacecraft at a distance of about from the surface.
The Complaynt of Scotland is a Scottish book printed in 1549 as propaganda during the war of the Rough Wooing against the Kingdom of England, and is an important work of the Scots language.
The Flying Dutchman (German), WWV 63, is a German-language opera, with libretto and music by Richard Wagner.
The Sea may refer to.
The Sea Around Us is a prize-winning and best-selling book by the American marine biologist Rachel Carson, first published as a whole by Oxford University Press in 1951.
Themistocles (Θεμιστοκλῆς Themistoklẽs; "Glory of the Law"; c. 524–459 BC) was an Athenian politician and general.
Thermohaline circulation (THC) is a part of the large-scale ocean circulation that is driven by global density gradients created by surface heat and freshwater fluxes.
Thomas Cook & Son, originally simply Thomas Cook, was a company founded by Thomas Cook, a cabinet-maker, in 1841 to carry temperance supporters by railway between the cities of Leicester, Nottingham, Derby and Birmingham.
The three-mile limit refers to a traditional and now largely obsolete conception of the international law of the seas which defined a country's territorial waters, for the purposes of trade regulation and exclusivity, as extending as far as the reach of cannons fired from land.
A tidal bore, often simply given as bore in context, is a tidal phenomenon in which the leading edge of the incoming tide forms a wave (or waves) of water that travels up a river or narrow bay against the direction of the river or bay's current.
The tidal force is an apparent force that stretches a body towards the center of mass of another body due to a gradient (difference in strength) in gravitational field from the other body; it is responsible for the diverse phenomena, including tides, tidal locking, breaking apart of celestial bodies and formation of ring systems within Roche limit, and in extreme cases, spaghettification of objects.
Tidal power or tidal energy is a form of hydropower that converts the energy obtained from tides into useful forms of power, mainly electricity.
The tidal range is the vertical difference between the high tide and the succeeding low tide.
A tidal stream generator, often referred to as a tidal energy converter (TEC), is a machine that extracts energy from moving masses of water, in particular tides, although the term is often used in reference to machines designed to extract energy from run of river or tidal estuarine sites.
Tides are the rise and fall of sea levels caused by the combined effects of the gravitational forces exerted by the Moon and the Sun and the rotation of Earth.
Tide pools or rock pools are shallow pools of seawater that form on the rocky intertidal shore.
A time zone is a region of the globe that observes a uniform standard time for legal, commercial, and social purposes.
Timor is an island at the southern end of Maritime Southeast Asia, north of the Timor Sea.
Tonga (Tongan: Puleʻanga Fakatuʻi ʻo Tonga), officially the Kingdom of Tonga, is a Polynesian sovereign state and archipelago comprising 169 islands, of which 36 are inhabited.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
Topography is the study of the shape and features of the surface of the Earth and other observable astronomical objects including planets, moons, and asteroids.
Torres Strait Islanders are the indigenous people of the Torres Strait Islands, part of Queensland, Australia.
The total inorganic carbon (CT, or TIC) or dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) is the sum of inorganic carbon species in a solution.
Tourism is travel for pleasure or business; also the theory and practice of touring, the business of attracting, accommodating, and entertaining tourists, and the business of operating tours.
Traditionally, many different kinds of boats have been used as fishing boats to catch fish in the sea, or on a lake or river.
The tragedy of the commons is a term used in social science to describe a situation in a shared-resource system where individual users acting independently according to their own self-interest behave contrary to the common good of all users by depleting or spoiling that resource through their collective action.
The Transatlantic crossings are passages of passengers and cargo across the Atlantic Ocean between the Americas and Europe or Africa.
The transition zone is part of the Earth’s mantle, and is located between the lower mantle and the upper mantle, between a depth of 410 and 660 km (250 to 400 mi).
Trawling is a method of fishing that involves pulling a fishing net through the water behind one or more boats.
The Treaty of Tordesillas (Tratado de Tordesilhas, Tratado de Tordesillas), signed at Tordesillas on June 7, 1494, and authenticated at Setúbal, Portugal, divided the newly discovered lands outside Europe between the Portuguese Empire and the Crown of Castile, along a meridian 370 leagues west of the Cape Verde islands, off the west coast of Africa.
A trident is a three-pronged spear.
A troopship (also troop ship or troop transport or trooper) is a ship used to carry soldiers, either in peacetime or wartime.
A tropical cyclone is a rapidly rotating storm system characterized by a low-pressure center, a closed low-level atmospheric circulation, strong winds, and a spiral arrangement of thunderstorms that produce heavy rain.
The tropics are a region of the Earth surrounding the Equator.
A tsunami warning system (TWS) is used to detect tsunamis in advance and issue warnings to prevent loss of life and damage.
A tuna is a saltwater fish that belongs to the tribe Thunnini, a sub-grouping of the mackerel family (Scombridae).
Turbidity is the cloudiness or haziness of a fluid caused by large numbers of individual particles that are generally invisible to the naked eye, similar to smoke in air.
Several types of volcanic eruptions—during which lava, tephra (ash, lapilli, volcanic bombs and volcanic blocks), and assorted gases are expelled from a volcanic vent or fissure—have been distinguished by volcanologists.
A typhoon is a mature tropical cyclone that develops between 180° and 100°E in the Northern Hemisphere.
U-boat is an anglicised version of the German word U-Boot, a shortening of Unterseeboot, literally "undersea boat".
The Ubaid period (c. 6500 to 3800 BC) is a prehistoric period of Mesopotamia.
Ukiyo-e is a genre of Japanese art which flourished from the 17th through 19th centuries.
The unconscious mind (or the unconscious) consists of the processes in the mind which occur automatically and are not available to introspection, and include thought processes, memories, interests, and motivations.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization tasked to promote international cooperation and to create and maintain international order.
The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), also called the Law of the Sea Convention or the Law of the Sea treaty, is the international agreement that resulted from the third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS III), which took place between 1973 and 1982.
Established on 13 February 1946, the United Nations Office of Legal Affairs provides a unified central legal service for the Secretariat and the principal and other organs of the United Nations and contributes to the progressive development and codification of international public and trade law.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
Admiralty law in the United States is a matter of federal law.
The United States was among the nations that participated in the third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea, which took place from 1973 through 1982 and resulted in the international treaty known as the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS).
The United States Army (USA) is the land warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.
The United States Declaration of Independence is the statement adopted by the Second Continental Congress meeting at the Pennsylvania State House (now known as Independence Hall) in Philadelphia on July 4, 1776.
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
Universal jurisdiction allows states or international organizations to claim criminal jurisdiction over an accused person regardless of where the alleged crime was committed, and regardless of the accused's nationality, country of residence, or any other relation with the prosecuting entity.
Urine is a liquid by-product of metabolism in humans and in many animals.
Vacuum distillation is a method of distillation performed under reduced pressure.
Vasco da Gama, 1st Count of Vidigueira (c. 1460s – 24 December 1524), was a Portuguese explorer and the first European to reach India by sea.
The Vega (SS ''Vega'') Expedition of 1878–1880, under the leadership of Adolf Erik Nordenskiöld, was the first Arctic expedition to navigate through the Northeast Passage, the sea route between Europe and Asia through the Arctic Ocean, and the first voyage to circumnavigate Eurasia.
Venezuela, officially denominated Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (República Bolivariana de Venezuela),Previously, the official name was Estado de Venezuela (1830–1856), República de Venezuela (1856–1864), Estados Unidos de Venezuela (1864–1953), and again República de Venezuela (1953–1999).
Vertebrates comprise all species of animals within the subphylum Vertebrata (chordates with backbones).
The Viking Age (793–1066 AD) is a period in European history, especially Northern European and Scandinavian history, following the Germanic Iron Age.
Viking ships were marine vessels of unique structure, built by the Vikings during the Viking Age.
Vikings (Old English: wicing—"pirate", Danish and vikinger; Swedish and vikingar; víkingar, from Old Norse) were Norse seafarers, mainly speaking the Old Norse language, who raided and traded from their Northern European homelands across wide areas of northern, central, eastern and western Europe, during the late 8th to late 11th centuries.
The viscosity of a fluid is the measure of its resistance to gradual deformation by shear stress or tensile stress.
Volcanism is the phenomenon of eruption of molten rock (magma) onto the surface of the Earth or a solid-surface planet or moon, where lava, pyroclastics and volcanic gases erupt through a break in the surface called a vent.
A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.
In 1492, a Spanish-based transatlantic maritime expedition led by Christopher Columbus encountered the Americas, a continent which was largely unknown in Europe and outside the Old World political and economic system.
The Wallace Line or Wallace's Line is a faunal boundary line drawn in 1859 by the British naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace and named by Thomas Henry Huxley, that separates the ecozones of Asia and Wallacea, a transitional zone between Asia and Australia.
Washington, D.C., formally the District of Columbia and commonly referred to as Washington or D.C., is the capital of the United States of America.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
The water cycle, also known as the hydrological cycle or the hydrologic cycle, describes the continuous movement of water on, above and below the surface of the Earth.
Water is distributed across earth.
Water skiing (also waterskiing or water-skiing) is a surface water sport in which an individual is pulled behind a boat or a cable ski installation over a body of water, skimming the surface on two skis or one ski.
In fluid dynamics, the wave height of a surface wave is the difference between the elevations of a crest and a neighbouring trough.
In physics, interference is a phenomenon in which two waves superpose to form a resultant wave of greater, lower, or the same amplitude.
Wave power is the capture of energy of wind waves to do useful work – for example, electricity generation, water desalination, or pumping water.
In fluid dynamics, wave shoaling is the effect by which surface waves entering shallower water change in wave height.
In physics, the wavelength is the spatial period of a periodic wave—the distance over which the wave's shape repeats.
When waves travel into areas of shallow water, they begin to be affected by the ocean bottom.
Weather forecasting is the application of science and technology to predict the conditions of the atmosphere for a given location and time.
Weathering is the breaking down of rocks, soil, and minerals as well as wood and artificial materials through contact with the Earth's atmosphere, water, and biological organisms.
Whales are a widely distributed and diverse group of fully aquatic placental marine mammals.
Whale watching is the practice of observing whales and dolphins (cetaceans) in their natural habitat.
Whaling is the hunting of whales for scientific research and their usable products like meat, oil and blubber.
The White Sea (Белое море, Béloye móre; Karelian and Vienanmeri, lit. Dvina Sea; Сэрако ямʼ, Serako yam) is a southern inlet of the Barents Sea located on the northwest coast of Russia.
A fishery is an area with an associated fish or aquatic population which is harvested for its commercial value.
Willem Barentsz (anglicized as William Barents or Barentz) (c. 1550 – 20 June 1597) was a Dutch navigator, cartographer, and Arctic explorer.
Willem van de Velde the Elder (c. 1611 – 13 December 1693) was a Dutch Golden Age seascape painter.
Willem van de Velde the Younger (bapt. 18 December 1633; died 6 April 1707) was a Dutch marine painter.
William Buchan (1729 – 25 February 1805) was a Scottish physician and author.
Wind is the flow of gases on a large scale.
Wind speed, or wind flow velocity, is a fundamental atmospheric quantity.
A wind turbine is a device that converts the wind's kinetic energy into electrical energy.
In fluid dynamics, wind waves, or wind-generated waves, are surface waves that occur on the free surface of bodies of water (like oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, canals, puddles or ponds).
Windsurfing is a surface water sport that combines elements of surfing and sailing.
Winslow Homer (February 24, 1836 – September 29, 1910) was an American landscape painter and printmaker, best known for his marine subjects.
Wokou (Japanese: Wakō; Korean: 왜구 Waegu), which literally translates to "Japanese pirates" or "dwarf pirates", were pirates who raided the coastlines of China, Japan and Korea.
Thomas Woodrow Wilson (December 28, 1856 – February 3, 1924) was an American statesman and academic who served as the 28th President of the United States from 1913 to 1921.
The global commercial production for human use of fish and other aquatic organisms occurs in two ways: they are either captured wild by commercial fishing or they are cultivated and harvested using aquacultural and farming techniques.
The World Ocean or Global Ocean (colloquially the sea or the ocean) is the interconnected system of Earth's oceanic waters, and comprises the bulk of the hydrosphere, covering (70.8%) of Earth's surface, with a total volume of.
A world war, is a large-scale war involving many of the countries of the world or many of the most powerful and populous ones.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yachting refers to the use of recreational boats and ships called yachts for sporting purposes.
The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan (Yehe Yuan Ulus), was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan.
The Yupik are a group of indigenous or aboriginal peoples of western, southwestern, and southcentral Alaska and the Russian Far East.
Zamorin of Calicut (Samoothiri; Portuguese: Samorim, Dutch: Samorijn, Chinese: ShamitihsiMa Huan's Ying-yai Sheng-lan: 'The Overall Survey of the Ocean's Shores'. Translated and Edited by J. V. G. Mills. Cambridge University Press for the Hakluyt Society (1970).) is the title of the Hindu monarch of the Kingdom of Calicut (Kozhikode) on Malabar Coast, India.
Zheng He (1371–1433 or 1435) was a Chinese mariner, explorer, diplomat, fleet admiral, and court eunuch during China's early Ming dynasty.
Zhu Yu was a Chinese author and historian of the Song Dynasty (960–1279 AD).
Zinc is a chemical element with symbol Zn and atomic number 30.
Zooplankton are heterotrophic (sometimes detritivorous) plankton.
The Great Galveston Hurricane, known regionally as the Great Storm of 1900, was the deadliest natural disaster in United States history.