97 relations: Aeronautical chart, Air traffic control, Altimeter, Amsterdam Airport Schiphol, Amsterdam Ordnance Datum, Atmospheric pressure, Atmospheric sciences, Automatic terminal information service, Before Present, Calibration, Cartography, Chandler wobble, Chart datum, Climate change, CNES, Contour line, Density, Eclipse cycle, El Niño, El Niño–Southern Oscillation, Evaporation, Extreme points of Earth, Federal Aviation Administration, Flight level, Geodesy, Geodetic datum, Geography, Geoid, Geologic time scale, Geopotential height, Glacier, Global Positioning System, Global warming, Gravity, Groundwater, Height above average terrain, Height above ground level, Ice age, Ice sheet, International Standard Atmosphere, Isostasy, Jason-1, Kronstadt, Last glacial period, List of places on land with elevations below sea level, Mantle (geology), Mean, Meltwater pulse 1A, Metonic cycle, Metres above sea level, ..., Metres above the Adriatic, NASA, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, Navigation, Newlyn, Normal height, Normalhöhennull, Normalnull, North American Vertical Datum of 1988, North West Shelf Operational Oceanographic System, Ocean current, Ocean surface topography, Ocean Surface Topography Mission, Oceanic basin, Ordnance datum, Orthometric height, Paleoclimatology, Planetary science, Post-glacial rebound, Precipitation, Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory, QNH, Raised beach, Reference ellipsoid, Roman Glazman, Russia, Russian Empire, Salinity, Sea, Sea level rise, Seiche, Standard sea level, Storm surge, Subsidence, Surveying, Tectonics, Thermal expansion, Tide, Tide gauge, TOPEX/Poseidon, Topographic map, Topography, True polar wander, Tsunami, Victoria Dock, Liverpool, Wind wave, World Geodetic System. Expand index (47 more) » « Shrink index
An aeronautical chart is a map designed to assist in navigation of aircraft, much as nautical charts do for watercraft, or a roadmap for drivers.
Air traffic control (ATC) is a service provided by ground-based air traffic controllers who direct aircraft on the ground and through controlled airspace, and can provide advisory services to aircraft in non-controlled airspace.
An altimeter or an altitude meter is an instrument used to measure the altitude of an object above a fixed level.
Amsterdam Airport Schiphol, known informally as Schiphol (Luchthaven Schiphol), is the main international airport of the Netherlands.
Amsterdam Ordnance Datum or Normaal Amsterdams Peil (NAP) is a vertical datum in use in large parts of Western Europe.
Atmospheric pressure, sometimes also called barometric pressure, is the pressure within the atmosphere of Earth (or that of another planet).
Atmospheric science is the study of the Earth's atmosphere, its processes, the effects other systems have on the atmosphere, and the effects of the atmosphere on these other systems.
Automatic terminal information service, or ATIS, is a continuous broadcast of recorded aeronautical information in busier terminal areas, i.e. airports and their immediate surroundings.
Before Present (BP) years is a time scale used mainly in geology and other scientific disciplines to specify when events occurred in the past.
Calibration in measurement technology and metrology is the comparison of measurement values delivered by a device under test with those of a calibration standard of known accuracy.
Cartography (from Greek χάρτης chartēs, "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν graphein, "write") is the study and practice of making maps.
The Chandler wobble or variation of latitude is a small deviation in the Earth's axis of rotation relative to the solid earth, which was discovered by American astronomer Seth Carlo Chandler in 1891.
A chart datum is the level of water that charted depths displayed on a nautical chart are measured from.
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).
The Centre national d'études spatiales (CNES) (English: National Centre for Space Studies) is the French government space agency (administratively, a "public administration with industrial and commercial purpose").
A contour line (also isocline, isopleth, isarithm, or equipotential curve) of a function of two variables is a curve along which the function has a constant value, so that the curve joins points of equal value.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
Eclipses may occur repeatedly, separated by certain intervals of time: these intervals are called eclipse cycles.
El Niño is the warm phase of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (commonly called ENSO) and is associated with a band of warm ocean water that develops in the central and east-central equatorial Pacific (between approximately the International Date Line and 120°W), including off the Pacific coast of South America.
El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is an irregularly periodic variation in winds and sea surface temperatures over the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean, affecting climate of much of the tropics and subtropics.
Evaporation is a type of vaporization that occurs on the surface of a liquid as it changes into the gaseous phase before reaching its boiling point.
This is a list of extreme points of Earth, the geographical locations that are farther north or south than, higher or lower in elevation than, or farthest inland or out to sea from, any other locations on the landmasses, continents or countries.
The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) of the United States is a national authority with powers to regulate all aspects of civil aviation.
In aviation and aviation meteorology, a flight level (FL) is defined as a vertical altitude at standard pressure, nominally expressed in hundreds of feet.
Geodesy, also known as geodetics, is the earth science of accurately measuring and understanding three of Earth's fundamental properties: its geometric shape, orientation in space, and gravitational field.
A geodetic datum or geodetic system is a coordinate system, and a set of reference points, used to locate places on the Earth (or similar objects).
Geography (from Greek γεωγραφία, geographia, literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth.
The geoid is the shape that the surface of the oceans would take under the influence of Earth's gravity and rotation alone, in the absence of other influences such as winds and tides.
The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that relates geological strata (stratigraphy) to time.
Geopotential height is a vertical coordinate referenced to Earth's mean sea level, an adjustment to geometric height (elevation above mean sea level) using the variation of gravity with latitude and elevation.
A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.
The Global Positioning System (GPS), originally Navstar GPS, is a satellite-based radionavigation system owned by the United States government and operated by the United States Air Force.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.
Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.
Height above average terrain (HAAT) (or less popularly, EHAAT, Effective Height Above Average Terrain) is a measure of how high an antenna site is above the surrounding landscape.
In aviation, atmospheric sciences and broadcasting, a height above ground level (AGL) is a height measured with respect to the underlying ground surface.
An ice age is a period of long-term reduction in the temperature of Earth's surface and atmosphere, resulting in the presence or expansion of continental and polar ice sheets and alpine glaciers.
An ice sheet is a mass of glacier ice that covers surrounding terrain and is greater than, this is also known as continental glacier.
The International Standard Atmosphere (ISA) is an atmospheric model of how the pressure, temperature, density, and viscosity of the Earth's atmosphere change over a wide range of altitudes or elevations.
Isostasy (Greek ''ísos'' "equal", ''stásis'' "standstill") is the state of gravitational equilibrium between Earth's crust and mantle such that the crust "floats" at an elevation that depends on its thickness and density.
Jason-1 is a satellite oceanography mission to monitor global ocean circulation, study the ties between the ocean and the atmosphere, improve global climate forecasts and predictions, and monitor events such as El Niño and ocean eddies.
Kronstadt (Кроншта́дт), also spelled Kronshtadt, Cronstadt or Kronštádt (Krone for "crown" and Stadt for "city"; Kroonlinn), is a municipal town in Kronshtadtsky District of the federal city of Saint Petersburg, Russia, located on Kotlin Island, west of Saint Petersburg proper near the head of the Gulf of Finland.
The last glacial period occurred from the end of the Eemian interglacial to the end of the Younger Dryas, encompassing the period years ago.
This is a list of places below mean sea level that are on land.
The mantle is a layer inside a terrestrial planet and some other rocky planetary bodies.
In mathematics, mean has several different definitions depending on the context.
Meltwater pulse 1A (MWP1a) is the name used by Quaternary geologists, paleoclimatologists, and oceanographers for a period of rapid post-glacial sea level rise during which global sea level rose between and in about 400–500 years, giving mean rates of roughly /yr.
For astronomy and calendar studies, the Metonic cycle or Enneadecaeteris (from ἐννεακαιδεκαετηρίς, "nineteen years") is a period of very close to 19 years that is nearly a common multiple of the solar year and the synodic (lunar) month.
Metres above mean sea level (MAMSL) or simply metres above sea level (MASL or m a.s.l.) is a standard metric measurement in metres of the elevation or altitude of a location in reference to a historic mean sea level.
Metres above the Adriatic (Metri sopra l'Adriatico, Meter über Adria, Metara iznad Jadrana) is the mean sea level datum used in Austria, in the former Yugoslavian states of Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia-Hercegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, and Macedonia, in the Kosovo territory, as well as in Albania to measure elevation, referring to the average water level of the Adriatic Sea at the Sartorio mole in the Port of Trieste.
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) is an independent agency of the executive branch of the United States federal government responsible for the civilian space program, as well as aeronautics and aerospace research.
The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (also known as "NASEM" or "the National Academies") is the collective scientific national academy of the United States.
Navigation is a field of study that focuses on the process of monitoring and controlling the movement of a craft or vehicle from one place to another.
Newlyn (Lulyn: Lu 'fleet', Lynn/Lydn 'pool') is a seaside town and fishing port in south-west Cornwall, UK.
Normal heights are heights above sea level, one of several types of height which are all computed slightly differently.
Normalhöhennull ("standard elevation zero") or NHN is a standard reference level, the equivalent of sea level, used in Germany to measure height.
Normalnull ("standard zero") or Normal-Null (short N. N. or NN) is an outdated official vertical datum used in Germany.
The North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88) is the vertical control datum of orthometric height established for vertical control surveying in the United States of America based upon the General Adjustment of the North American Datum of 1988.
The North West Shelf Operational Oceanographic System (NOOS) monitors physical, sedimentological and ecological variables for the North Sea area.
An ocean current is a seasonal directed movement of sea water generated by forces acting upon this mean flow, such as wind, the Coriolis effect, breaking waves, cabbing, temperature and salinity differences, while tides are caused by the gravitational pull of the Sun and Moon.
The ocean surface has highs and lows, similar to the hills and valleys of Earth's land surface depicted on a topographic map.
The Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM) on the Jason-2 satellite is an international Earth observation satellite mission that continues the sea surface height measurements begun in 1992 by the joint NASA/CNES TOPEX/Poseidon mission and followed by the NASA/CNES Jason-1 mission launched in 2001.
In hydrology, an oceanic basin may be anywhere on Earth that is covered by seawater but geologically ocean basins are large geologic basins that are below sea level.
In the British Isles, an ordnance datum or OD is a vertical datum used by an ordnance survey as the basis for deriving altitudes on maps.
The orthometric height of a point is the distance H along a plumb line from the point to a reference height.
Paleoclimatology (in British spelling, palaeoclimatology) is the study of changes in climate taken on the scale of the entire history of Earth.
Planetary science or, more rarely, planetology, is the scientific study of planets (including Earth), moons, and planetary systems (in particular those of the Solar System) and the processes that form them.
Post-glacial rebound (also called isostatic rebound or crustal rebound) is the rise of land masses after the lifting of the huge weight of ice sheets during the last glacial period, which had caused isostatic depression.
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.
The former Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory (POL) is based in Brownlow Street, Liverpool, England.
QNH is a Q code indicating the atmospheric pressure adjusted to mean sea level.
A raised beach, coastal terrace,Pinter, N (2010): 'Coastal Terraces, Sealevel, and Active Tectonics' (educational exercise), from or perched coastline is a relatively flat, horizontal or gently inclined surface of marine origin,Pirazzoli, PA (2005a): 'Marine Terraces', in Schwartz, ML (ed) Encyclopedia of Coastal Science. Springer, Dordrecht, pp.
In geodesy, a reference ellipsoid is a mathematically defined surface that approximates the geoid, the truer figure of the Earth, or other planetary body.
Roman Evsey Glazman (June 26, 1948 – April 24, 2006) was a Russian American physicist and oceanographer.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The Russian Empire (Российская Империя) or Russia was an empire that existed across Eurasia and North America from 1721, following the end of the Great Northern War, until the Republic was proclaimed by the Provisional Government that took power after the February Revolution of 1917.
Salinity is the saltiness or amount of salt dissolved in a body of water (see also soil salinity).
A sea is a large body of salt water that is surrounded in whole or in part by land.
A sea level rise is an increase in global mean sea level as a result of an increase in the volume of water in the world’s oceans.
A seiche is a standing wave in an enclosed or partially enclosed body of water.
Standard sea level (SSL) (also known as sea level standard (SLS)) defines a set of conditions for physical calculations.
A storm surge, storm flood or storm tide is a coastal flood or tsunami-like phenomenon of rising water commonly associated with low pressure weather systems (such as tropical cyclones and strong extratropical cyclones), the severity of which is affected by the shallowness and orientation of the water body relative to storm path, as well as the timing of tides.
Subsidence is the motion of a surface (usually, the earth's surface) as it shifts downward relative to a datum such as sea level.
Surveying or land surveying is the technique, profession, and science of determining the terrestrial or three-dimensional positions of points and the distances and angles between them.
Tectonics is the process that controls the structure and properties of the Earth's crust and its evolution through time.
Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in shape, area, and volume in response to a change in temperature.
Tides are the rise and fall of sea levels caused by the combined effects of the gravitational forces exerted by the Moon and the Sun and the rotation of Earth.
A tide gauge (also known as mareograph or marigraph, as well as sea-level recorder) is a device for measuring the change in sea level relative to a vertical datum.
TOPEX/Poseidon was a joint satellite mission between NASA, the U.S. space agency; and CNES, the French space agency, to map ocean surface topography.
In modern mapping, a topographic map is a type of map characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief, usually using contour lines, but historically using a variety of methods.
Topography is the study of the shape and features of the surface of the Earth and other observable astronomical objects including planets, moons, and asteroids.
True polar wander is a solid-body rotation of a planet or moon with respect to its spin axis, causing the geographic locations of the north and south poles to change, or "wander".
A tsunami (from 津波, "harbour wave"; English pronunciation) or tidal wave, also known as a seismic sea wave, is a series of waves in a water body caused by the displacement of a large volume of water, generally in an ocean or a large lake.
Victoria Dock was a dock on the River Mersey, England, and part of the Port of Liverpool.
In fluid dynamics, wind waves, or wind-generated waves, are surface waves that occur on the free surface of bodies of water (like oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, canals, puddles or ponds).
The World Geodetic System (WGS) is a standard for use in cartography, geodesy, and satellite navigation including GPS.
Eustacy, Eustasis, Eustasy, Eustatic, Eustatic change, Eustatic movement, Eustatic movements, Eustatic sea level rise, Glacio-eustatic, Höhe über dem Meeresspiegel, Höhennormal, Marine ingression, Mean Sea Level, Mean level of the sea, Mean sea level, Mean sea-level, Median sea level, Sea Level, Sea levels, Sea-level, Sea-level datum, Sea-levels, Sealevel.