151 relations: Amsterdam, Amsterdam Ordnance Datum, Amundsen Sea, Anny Cazenave, Antarctic ice sheet, Antarctic Peninsula, Antarctica, Aquaculture, Arctic Climate Impact Assessment, Ars Technica, Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, Australia, Barents–Kara Ice Sheet, Bedrock, Bramble Cay melomys, Bureau of Meteorology, Caesarea, Calibration, Carbon cycle, Celsius, Climate change adaptation, Climate inertia, CNES, Coast, Coastal development hazards, Coastal erosion, Coastal flood, Coastal sediment supply, Cold blob (North Atlantic), Coral reef, Crevasse, CSIRO, Deglaciation, Delaware, Discovery Channel, Drainage basin, Dune, Economic development, Economic growth, Ecosystem, Eemian, Effects of climate change on island nations, Effects of global warming, Effects of global warming on humans, Effects of global warming on oceans, El Niño, El Niño–Southern Oscillation, Environmental migrant, Eric Rignot, Eustatic sea level, ..., Flood control in the Netherlands, Florida, Fossil fuel, Geologic time scale, Glacier, Glacier mass balance, Glacier morphology, Global warming, Gravimetry, Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment, Great Barrier Reef, Greenland, Greenland ice sheet, Hydrosphere, Ice cap, Ice sheet, Ice Sheet Mass Balance Inter-comparison Exercise, Ice shelf, Ice stream, Ice-sheet model, Iceberg, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, IPCC Fifth Assessment Report, IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, IPCC Third Assessment Report, Islands First, Jakarta, Jakobshavn Glacier, James Hansen, Jason-3, Joseph J. Romm, Kangerlussuaq Glacier, Last Glacial Maximum, Laurentide Ice Sheet, Levee, London, Malé, Maldives, Marine ecosystem, Marine transgression, Maumoon Abdul Gayoom, Meltwater, Meltwater pulse 1A, Meltwater pulse 1B, Miami, Miami Beach, Florida, Mile, Mississippi River Delta, National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, National Center for Atmospheric Research, National Climate Assessment, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Nature (journal), Nature Geoscience, Netherlands, New Orleans, New York City, New York City Panel on Climate Change, Ocean heat content, Ocean Surface Topography Mission, Paleoclimatology, Patagonian Ice Sheet, Physics Today, Piscina, Polar ice cap, Population projection, Post-glacial rebound, Premelting, Primary production, Retreat of glaciers since 1850, Reviews of Geophysics, Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta, Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta, Satellite geodesy, Science (journal), Science News, Sea level, Six Degrees: Our Future on a Hotter Planet, Solomon Islands, Special Report on Emissions Scenarios, Standard sea level, Storm surge, Subsidence, Swiss Re, Systematic review, Tectonics, The Independent, The New York Times, Thermal expansion, Tide gauge, Tonne, TOPEX/Poseidon, Tuvalu, United States Environmental Protection Agency, University of Hawaii, University of New Hampshire, Venice, Walter Munk, Water quality, West Antarctic Ice Sheet, Younger Dryas. Expand index (101 more) » « Shrink index
Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Netherlands.
Amsterdam Ordnance Datum or Normaal Amsterdams Peil (NAP) is a vertical datum in use in large parts of Western Europe.
The Amundsen Sea, an arm of the Southern Ocean off Marie Byrd Land in western Antarctica, lies between Cape Flying Fish (the northwestern tip of Thurston Island) to the east and Cape Dart on Siple Island to the west.
Anny Cazenave is a French space geodesist and one of the pioneers in satellite altimetry.
The Antarctic ice sheet is one of the two polar ice caps of the Earth.
The Antarctic Peninsula is the northernmost part of the mainland of Antarctica, located at the base of the Southern Hemisphere.
Antarctica is Earth's southernmost continent.
Aquaculture (less commonly spelled aquiculture), also known as aquafarming, is the farming of fish, crustaceans, molluscs, aquatic plants, algae, and other organisms.
The Arctic Climate Impact Assessment (ACIA) is a study describing the ongoing climate change in the Arctic and its consequences: rising temperatures, loss of sea ice, unprecedented melting of the Greenland ice sheet, and many impacts on ecosystems, animals, and people.
Ars Technica (a Latin-derived term that the site translates as the "art of technology") is a website covering news and opinions in technology, science, politics, and society, created by Ken Fisher and Jon Stokes in 1998.
The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) is a system of currents in the Atlantic Ocean, characterized by a northward flow of warm, salty water in the upper layers of the Atlantic, including the Gulf Stream, and a southward flow of colder, deep waters that are part of the thermohaline circulation.
Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands.
The Barents–Kara Ice Sheet was an ice sheet which existed during the Weichselian Glaciation.
In geology, bedrock is the lithified rock that lies under a loose softer material called regolith at the surface of the Earth or other terrestrial planets.
The Bramble Cay melomys, or Bramble Cay mosaic-tailed rat (Melomys rubicola), is an extinct species of rodent in the family Muridae and subfamily Murinae.
The Bureau of Meteorology (BOM) is an Executive Agency of the Australian Government responsible for providing weather services to Australia and surrounding areas.
Caesarea (קֵיסָרְיָה, Kaysariya or Qesarya; قيسارية, Qaysaria; Καισάρεια) is a town in north-central Israel.
Calibration in measurement technology and metrology is the comparison of measurement values delivered by a device under test with those of a calibration standard of known accuracy.
The carbon cycle is the biogeochemical cycle by which carbon is exchanged among the biosphere, pedosphere, geosphere, hydrosphere, and atmosphere of the Earth.
The Celsius scale, previously known as the centigrade scale, is a temperature scale used by the International System of Units (SI).
Climate change adaptation is a response to global warming and climate change, that seeks to reduce the vulnerability of social and biological systems to relatively sudden change and thus offset the effects of global warming.
Climate inertia describes the widespread inherent characteristic of the climate, ecological, and socio-economic systems.
The Centre national d'études spatiales (CNES) (English: National Centre for Space Studies) is the French government space agency (administratively, a "public administration with industrial and commercial purpose").
A coastline or a seashore is the area where land meets the sea or ocean, or a line that forms the boundary between the land and the ocean or a lake.
A coastal development hazard is something that affects the natural environment by man-made products.
Coastal erosion is the wearing away of material from a coastal profile including the removal of beach, sand dunes, or sediment by wave action, tidal currents, wave currents, drainage or high winds (see also beach evolution).
Coastal flooding occurs when normally dry, low-lying land is flooded by seawater.
Coastal sediment supply is the transport of sediment to the beach environment by both fluvial and aeolian transport.
The cold blob in the North Atlantic describes a cold temperature anomaly of ocean surface waters, affecting the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC) which is part of the thermohaline circulation, possibly related to global warming-induced melting of the Greenland ice sheet.
Coral reefs are diverse underwater ecosystems held together by calcium carbonate structures secreted by corals.
A crevasse is a deep crack, or fracture, found in an ice sheet or glacier, as opposed to a crevice that forms in rock.
The Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) is an independent Australian federal government agency responsible for scientific research.
Deglaciation describes the transition from full glacial conditions during ice ages, to warm interglacials, characterized by global warming and sea level rise due to change in continental ice volume (IPCC AR5).
Delaware is one of the 50 states of the United States, in the Mid-Atlantic or Northeastern region.
Discovery Channel (known as The Discovery Channel from 1985 to 1995, and often referred to as simply Discovery) is an American pay television channel that is the flagship television property of Discovery Inc., a publicly traded company run by CEO David Zaslav.
A drainage basin is any area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet, such as into a river, bay, or other body of water.
In physical geography, a dune is a hill of loose sand built by aeolian processes (wind) or the flow of water.
economic development wikipedia Economic development is the process by which a nation improves the economic, political, and social well-being of its people.
Economic growth is the increase in the inflation-adjusted market value of the goods and services produced by an economy over time.
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
The Eemian (also called the last interglacial, Sangamonian, Ipswichian, Mikulin, Kaydaky, Valdivia or Riss-Würm) was the interglacial period which began about 130,000 years ago and ended about 115,000 years ago.
Climate change is producing drastic changes to Earth processes and changing Earth's environmental status quo.
The effects of global warming are the environmental and social changes caused (directly or indirectly) by human emissions of greenhouse gases.
Climate change has brought about possibly permanent alterations to Earth's geological, biological and ecological systems.
Effects of global warming on oceans provides information on the various effects that global warming has on oceans.
El Niño is the warm phase of the El Niño Southern Oscillation (commonly called ENSO) and is associated with a band of warm ocean water that develops in the central and east-central equatorial Pacific (between approximately the International Date Line and 120°W), including off the Pacific coast of South America.
El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is an irregularly periodic variation in winds and sea surface temperatures over the tropical eastern Pacific Ocean, affecting climate of much of the tropics and subtropics.
Climate refugees or environmental migrants are people who are forced to leave their home region due to sudden or long-term changes to their local environment.
Eric Rignot is Professor of Earth system science at the University of California, Irvine, and principal scientist for the Radar Science and Engineering Section at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
The eustatic sea level is the distance from the center of the earth to the sea surface.
'''Flood control''' is an important issue for the Netherlands, as about two thirds of its area is vulnerable to flooding, while the country is among the most densely populated on Earth.
Florida (Spanish for "land of flowers") is the southernmost contiguous state in the United States.
A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.
The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that relates geological strata (stratigraphy) to time.
A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.
Crucial to the survival of a glacier is its mass balance or surface mass balance (SMB), the difference between accumulation and ablation (sublimation and melting).
Glacier morphology, or the form a glacier takes, is influenced by temperature, precipitation, topography, and other factors.
Global warming, also referred to as climate change, is the observed century-scale rise in the average temperature of the Earth's climate system and its related effects.
Gravimetry is the measurement of the strength of a gravitational field.
The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) was a joint mission of NASA and the German Aerospace Center.
The Great Barrier Reef is the world's largest coral reef system composed of over 2,900 individual reefs and 900 islands stretching for over over an area of approximately.
Greenland (Kalaallit Nunaat,; Grønland) is an autonomous constituent country within the Kingdom of Denmark between the Arctic and Atlantic Oceans, east of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago.
The Greenland ice sheet (Grønlands indlandsis, Sermersuaq) is a vast body of ice covering, roughly 80% of the surface of Greenland.
The hydrosphere (from Greek ὕδωρ hydōr, "water" and σφαῖρα sphaira, "sphere") is the combined mass of water found on, under, and above the surface of a planet, minor planet or natural satellite.
An ice cap is a mass of ice that covers less than 50,000 km2 of land area (usually covering a highland area).
An ice sheet is a mass of glacier ice that covers surrounding terrain and is greater than, this is also known as continental glacier.
The Ice Sheet Mass Balance Inter-comparison Exercise (IMBIE) is an international scientific collaboration attempting to improve estimates of the amounts of ice contained in ice sheets around the world and of their contribution to sea level rise and to publish data and analyses concerning these subjects.
An ice shelf is a thick floating platform of ice that forms where a glacier or ice sheet flows down to a coastline and onto the ocean surface.
A fast-moving ice or ice stream is a region of an ice sheet that moves significantly faster than the surrounding ice.
In climate modelling, Ice-sheet models use numerical methods to simulate the evolution, dynamics and thermodynamics of ice sheets, such as the Greenland ice sheet, the Antarctic ice sheet or the large ice sheets on the northern hemisphere during the last glacial period.
An iceberg or ice mountain is a large piece of freshwater ice that has broken off a glacier or an ice shelf and is floating freely in open water.
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is a scientific and intergovernmental body under the auspices of the United Nations, set up at the request of member governments, dedicated to the task of providing the world with an objective, scientific view of climate change and its political and economic impacts.
The Fifth Assessment Report (AR5) of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) is the fifth in a series of such reports.
Climate Change 2007, the Fourth Assessment Report (AR4) of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), is the fourth in a series of reports intended to assess scientific, technical and socio-economic information concerning climate change, its potential effects, and options for adaptation and mitigation.
The IPCC Third Assessment Report (TAR), Climate Change 2001, is an assessment of available scientific and socio-economic information on climate change by the IPCC.
Islands First is a recently founded non-governmental organization working on behalf of the Small Island Developing States to confront the challenges of climate change, the depletion of ocean resources (including ocean acidification and biodiversity loss), and ocean level's rise.
Jakarta, officially the Special Capital Region of Jakarta (Daerah Khusus Ibu Kota Jakarta), is the capital and largest city of Indonesia.
Jakobshavn Glacier (Sermeq Kujalleq (in Greenlandic) and the Jakobshavn Isbræ (in Danish)), is a large outlet glacier in West Greenland.
James Edward Hansen (born 29 March 1941) is an American adjunct professor directing the Program on Climate Science, Awareness and Solutions of the Earth Institute at Columbia University.
Jason-3 is partnered with the European Organisation for the Exploration of Meteorological Satellites (EUMESTAT), and National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA) and is an international cooperative mission in which NOAA is partnering with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES, France's governmental space agency).
Joseph J. Romm (born June 27, 1960) is an American author, blogger, physicist and climate expert who advocates reducing greenhouse gas emissions and global warming and increasing energy security through energy efficiency, green energy technologies and green transportation technologies.
Kangerlussuaq Glacier (Kangerlussuaq, meaning 'large fjord'; old spelling Kangerdlugssuaq) is the largest glacier on the east coast of the Greenland ice sheet.
In the Earth's climate history the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) was the last time period during the last glacial period when ice sheets were at their greatest extension.
The Laurentide Ice Sheet was a massive sheet of ice that covered millions of square kilometers, including most of Canada and a large portion of the northern United States, multiple times during the Quaternary glacial epochs— from 2.588 ± 0.005 million years ago to the present.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
Malé (މާލެ) is the capital and most populous city in the Republic of Maldives.
The Maldives (or; ދިވެހިރާއްޖެ Dhivehi Raa'jey), officially the Republic of Maldives, is a South Asian sovereign state, located in the Indian Ocean, situated in the Arabian Sea.
Marine ecosystems are among the largest of Earth's aquatic ecosystems.
A marine transgression is a geologic event during which sea level rises relative to the land and the shoreline moves toward higher ground, resulting in flooding.
Maumoon Abdul Gayoom (މައުމޫން އަބްދުލް ގައްޔޫމް; born December 29, 1937), is a Maldivian Statesmen and an Islamic scholar who ruled the country as the President of Maldives from 1978 to 2008.
Meltwater is water released by the melting of snow or ice, including glacial ice, tabular icebergs and ice shelves over oceans.
Meltwater pulse 1A (MWP1a) is the name used by Quaternary geologists, paleoclimatologists, and oceanographers for a period of rapid post-glacial sea level rise during which global sea level rose between and in about 400–500 years, giving mean rates of roughly /yr.
Meltwater pulse 1B (MWP1b) is the name used by Quaternary geologists, paleoclimatologists, and oceanographers for a period of either rapid or just accelerated post-glacial sea level rise that occurred at the beginning of the Holocene and after the end of the Younger Dryas.
Miami is a major port city on the Atlantic coast of south Florida in the southeastern United States.
Miami Beach is a coastal resort city in Miami-Dade County, Florida, United States.
The mile is an English unit of length of linear measure equal to 5,280 feet, or 1,760 yards, and standardised as exactly 1,609.344 metres by international agreement in 1959.
The Mississippi River Delta region is a 3-million-acre (12,000 km2) area of land that stretches from Vermilion Bay on the west, to the Chandeleur Islands in the Gulf of Mexico on the southeastern coast of Louisiana.
The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine (also known as "NASEM" or "the National Academies") is the collective scientific national academy of the United States.
The US National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) is a US federally funded research and development center (FFRDC) managed by the nonprofit University Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR) and funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF).
The National Climate Assessment (NCA) is a United States government interagency ongoing effort on climate change science conducted under the auspices of the Global Change Research Act of 1990.
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA; pronounced, like "Noah") is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, and the atmosphere.
Nature is a British multidisciplinary scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869.
Nature Geoscience is a monthly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by the Nature Publishing Group.
The Netherlands (Nederland), often referred to as Holland, is a country located mostly in Western Europe with a population of seventeen million.
New Orleans (. Merriam-Webster.; La Nouvelle-Orléans) is a major United States port and the largest city and metropolitan area in the state of Louisiana.
The City of New York, often called New York City (NYC) or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States.
The New York City Panel on Climate Change (NPCC), was convened by Mayor Michael Bloomberg in August 2008 as part of PlaNYC.
Oceanic heat content (OHC) is the heat stored in the ocean.
The Ocean Surface Topography Mission (OSTM) on the Jason-2 satellite is an international Earth observation satellite mission that continues the sea surface height measurements begun in 1992 by the joint NASA/CNES TOPEX/Poseidon mission and followed by the NASA/CNES Jason-1 mission launched in 2001.
Paleoclimatology (in British spelling, palaeoclimatology) is the study of changes in climate taken on the scale of the entire history of Earth.
Map showing the extent of the Patagonian Ice Sheet in the Strait of Magellan area during the last glacial period. Selected modern settlements are shown with yellow dots. The sea-level was much lower than shown in this picture. The Patagonian Ice Sheet was a large elongated and narrow ice sheet centered in the southern Andes that existed during the Llanquihue glaciation.
Physics Today is the membership magazine of the American Institute of Physics that was established in 1948.
A piscina is a shallow basin placed near the altar of a church, or else in the vestry or sacristy, used for washing the communion vessels.
A polar ice cap or polar cap is a high-latitude region of a planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite that is covered in ice.
Population projection, in the field of demography, is an estimate of a future population.
Post-glacial rebound (also called isostatic rebound or crustal rebound) is the rise of land masses after the lifting of the huge weight of ice sheets during the last glacial period, which had caused isostatic depression.
Premelting (also surface melting) refers to a quasi-liquid film than can occur on the surface of a solid even below melting point (T_m).
Global oceanic and terrestrial photoautotroph abundance, from September 1997 to August 2000. As an estimate of autotroph biomass, it is only a rough indicator of primary-production potential, and not an actual estimate of it. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center and ORBIMAGE. In ecology, primary production is the synthesis of organic compounds from atmospheric or aqueous carbon dioxide.
The retreat of glaciers since 1850 affects the availability of fresh water for irrigation and domestic use, mountain recreation, animals and plants that depend on glacier-melt, and, in the longer term, the level of the oceans.
Reviews of Geophysics is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the American Geophysical Union.
The Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta or Helinium is a river delta in the Netherlands formed by the confluence of the Rhine, the Meuse and the Scheldt rivers.
The Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta, or California Delta, is an expansive inland river delta and estuary in Northern California.
Satellite geodesy is geodesy by means of artificial satellites — the measurement of the form and dimensions of Earth, the location of objects on its surface and the figure of the Earth's gravity field by means of artificial satellite techniques.
Science, also widely referred to as Science Magazine, is the peer-reviewed academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) and one of the world's top academic journals.
Science News is an American bi-weekly magazine devoted to short articles about new scientific and technical developments, typically gleaned from recent scientific and technical journals.
Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured.
Six Degrees: Our Future on a Hotter Planet (358 pages), is a 2007 (2008 in USA) non-fiction book by author Mark Lynas about global warming.
Solomon Islands is a sovereign country consisting of six major islands and over 900 smaller islands in Oceania lying to the east of Papua New Guinea and northwest of Vanuatu and covering a land area of.
The Special Report on Emissions Scenarios (SRES) is a report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) that was published in 2000.
Standard sea level (SSL) (also known as sea level standard (SLS)) defines a set of conditions for physical calculations.
A storm surge, storm flood or storm tide is a coastal flood or tsunami-like phenomenon of rising water commonly associated with low pressure weather systems (such as tropical cyclones and strong extratropical cyclones), the severity of which is affected by the shallowness and orientation of the water body relative to storm path, as well as the timing of tides.
Subsidence is the motion of a surface (usually, the earth's surface) as it shifts downward relative to a datum such as sea level.
Swiss Reinsurance Company Ltd,"." Swiss Re.
Systematic reviews are a type of literature review that uses systematic methods to collect secondary data, critically appraise research studies, and synthesize studies.
Tectonics is the process that controls the structure and properties of the Earth's crust and its evolution through time.
The Independent is a British online newspaper.
The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.
Thermal expansion is the tendency of matter to change in shape, area, and volume in response to a change in temperature.
A tide gauge (also known as mareograph or marigraph, as well as sea-level recorder) is a device for measuring the change in sea level relative to a vertical datum.
The tonne (Non-SI unit, symbol: t), commonly referred to as the metric ton in the United States, is a non-SI metric unit of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms;.
TOPEX/Poseidon was a joint satellite mission between NASA, the U.S. space agency; and CNES, the French space agency, to map ocean surface topography.
Tuvalu, formerly known as the Ellice Islands, is a Polynesian island nation located in the Pacific Ocean, about midway between Hawaii and Australia, lying east-northeast of the Santa Cruz Islands (belonging to the Solomons), southeast of Nauru, south of Kiribati, west of Tokelau, northwest of Samoa and Wallis and Futuna and north of Fiji.
The Environmental Protection Agency is an independent agency of the United States federal government for environmental protection.
The University of Hawaiʻi system (formally the University of Hawaiʻi and popularly known as UH) is a public, co-educational college and university system that confers associate, bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees through three university campuses, seven community college campuses, an employment training center, three university centers, four education centers and various other research facilities distributed across six islands throughout the State of Hawaii in the United States.
The University of New Hampshire (UNH) is a public research university in the University System of New Hampshire, in the United States.
Venice (Venezia,; Venesia) is a city in northeastern Italy and the capital of the Veneto region.
Walter Heinrich Munk (born October 19, 1917) is an American physical oceanographer.
Water quality refers to the chemical, physical, biological, and radiological characteristics of water.
The Western Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) is the segment of the continental ice sheet that covers West (or Lesser) Antarctica, the portion of Antarctica on the side of the Transantarctic Mountains which lies in the Western Hemisphere.
The Younger Dryas (c. 12,900 to c. 11,700 years BP) was a return to glacial conditions which temporarily reversed the gradual climatic warming after the Last Glacial Maximum started receding around 20,000 BP.
Current sea level rise, Current sea-level rise, Global sea level rise, Lower sea-levels, Measurement of sea levels, Ocean levels, Positive Eustasy, Post-glacial sea level rise, Rise in sea level, Rise in sea levels, Rising oceans, Rising sea level, Rising sea levels, Sea Level Rise, Sea level change, Sea level increase, Sea level measurement, Sea-level rise.