197 relations: Acartia clausi, Aegean Sea, Aleksei Shein, Anchovy, Anoxic waters, Arabat Spit, Arctic Ocean, Associated Press, Astrakhan, Azov, Bastard sturgeon, Bay, Bay barnacle, Bay of Arabat, Beluga whale, Benthos, Berdiansk, Beysug River, Bivalvia, Black Sea, Black Sea salmon, Bluefish, Bosporan Kingdom, Bosporus, Brachionus plicatilis, Bream, Bulk carrier, Caspian Sea, Ceratophyllum, Charales, Chicago Tribune, Chushka Spit, Cladocera, Classical antiquity, Client state, Clockwise, Coelenterata, Colonies in antiquity, Columbia University, Common bottlenose dolphin, Copepod, Corkwing wrasse, Cossacks, Crimea, Crimean Bridge (Crimea), Crustacean, Cumans, Current (fluid), Cyanobacteria, Cyperaceae, ..., Diatom, Discharge (hydrology), Dolgaya Spit, Don River (Russia), Donetsk, Donetsk Oblast, Eastern Europe, Eelpout, Eponym, Esox, Estuary, Euglena, Eurasian Steppe, European bullhead, Euryhaline, Exonym and endonym, Fast ice, Fish farming, Flood myth, Folk etymology, Gaius Valerius Flaccus, Garfish, Gastropoda, Geographica, Great cormorant, Great Soviet Encyclopedia, Green algae, Grey seal, Harbour porpoise, Henichesk, Herodotus, Huns, Icebreaker, International Hydrographic Organization, International Union for Conservation of Nature, Iron ore, IUCN Red List, Kalmius, Kerch, Kerch Strait, Kingdom of Pontus, Kipchak language, Krasnodar Krai, Kuban River, Lagoon, Liman (landform), List of seas, Mackerel, Maeotian Swamp, Maeotians, Marine life, Mariupol, Marten, Mediterranean monk seal, Mediterranean mussel, Mediterranean Sea, Merlangius, Meroplankton, Miletus, Minke whale, Mius River, Mollusca, Molochna River, Molochnyi Liman, Mud volcano, Muskrat, National Geographic Society, Natural History (Pliny), Nature reserve, Nelumbo, Neolithic, Nymphaeaceae, Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Turkish language, Ovid, Pelican, Periplus of Pseudo-Scylax, Peter the Great, Pinniped, Plankton, Pliny the Elder, Pollution, Polybius, Polychaete, Port Kavkaz, Potamogeton, Precipitation, Primorsko-Akhtarsk, Protist, Pruth River Campaign, Prymorsk, Rhithropanopeus harrisii, Roman Empire, Rotifer, Russian language, Russo-Turkish War (1686–1700), Russo-Turkish War (1735–1739), Rutilus lacustris, Salinity, Sand, Sander (genus), Sandpiper, Sea, Sea of Marmara, Seashell, Seawater, Seiche, Short-beaked common dolphin, Siberia, Siberian High, Sill (geology), Silt, Slavery in antiquity, Soft-shell clam, Sparganium, Spit (landform), Spurdog, Stadion (unit), Standing wave, Stanitsa, Strabo, Sturgeon, Sudak, Syvash, Taganrog, Taganrog Bay, Taman Bay, Taman Peninsula, Temryuk Bay, Teredo navalis, The Histories (Polybius), Treaty of Niš (1739), Treaty of the Pruth, Turbot, Typha, Ukraine, United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Veined rapa whelk, Volga River, Volga–Don Canal, Volgograd, Weasel, World Wide Fund for Nature, Yellow-green algae, Yeya River, Yeysk, Zooplankton. Expand index (147 more) » « Shrink index
Acartia clausi is a species of marine copepod belonging to the family Acartiidae.
The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.
Aleksei Semyonovich Shein (Алексей Семенович Шеин in Russian) (1662 – February 12, 1700), Russian commander and statesman, the first Russian Generalissimo (1696), boyar, great-grandson of Mikhail Shein.
An anchovy is a small, common forage fish of the family Engraulidae.
Anoxic waters are areas of sea water, fresh water, or groundwater that are depleted of dissolved oxygen and are a more severe condition of hypoxia.
The Arabat Spit (Арабатська коса, Араба́тская коса́) or Arabat Arrow is a spit (narrow strip of land) which separates a large, shallow and very salty system of lagoons named Syvash from the Sea of Azov.
The Arctic Ocean is the smallest and shallowest of the world's five major oceans.
The Associated Press (AP) is a U.S.-based not-for-profit news agency headquartered in New York City.
Astrakhan (p) is a city in southern Russia and the administrative center of Astrakhan Oblast.
Azov (Азов), formerly known as Azoff, is a town in Rostov Oblast, Russia, situated on the Don River just from the Sea of Azov, which derives its name from the town.
The bastard sturgeon, fringebarbel sturgeon, ship sturgeon, spiny sturgeon, or thorn sturgeon (Acipenser nudiventris) is a species of fish in the Acipenseridae family.
A bay is a recessed, coastal body of water that directly connects to a larger main body of water, such as an ocean, a lake, or another bay.
Amphibalanus improvisus, the bay barnacle, is a species of acorn barnacle in the family Balanidae.
The Bay of Arabat, (Арабатська затока, Арабатский залив, Arabat körfezi), is in the southwestern Azov Sea in eastern Europe.
The beluga whale or white whale (Delphinapterus leucas) is an Arctic and sub-Arctic cetacean.
Benthos is the community of organisms that live on, in, or near the seabed, also known as the benthic zone.
Berdyansk, or Berdiansk, (Бердя́нськ, Бердя́нск) is a port city in the Zaporizhia Oblast (province) of south-east Ukraine.
Beysug (Бейсу́г) is a river in Krasnodar Krai of Russia.
Bivalvia, in previous centuries referred to as the Lamellibranchiata and Pelecypoda, is a class of marine and freshwater molluscs that have laterally compressed bodies enclosed by a shell consisting of two hinged parts.
The Black Sea is a body of water and marginal sea of the Atlantic Ocean between Eastern Europe, the Caucasus, and Western Asia.
The Black Sea salmon (Salmo labrax) is a fairly small species of salmon, at about long on average and rarely reaching over.
The bluefish (Pomatomus saltatrix) is the only extant species of the family Pomatomidae.
The Bosporan Kingdom, also known as the Kingdom of the Cimmerian Bosporus (Basileion tou Kimmerikou Bosporou), was an ancient state located in eastern Crimea and the Taman Peninsula on the shores of the Cimmerian Bosporus, the present-day Strait of Kerch (it was not named after the more famous Bosphorus beside Istanbul at the other end of the Black Sea).
The Bosporus or Bosphorus;The spelling Bosporus is listed first or exclusively in all major British and American dictionaries (e.g.,,, Merriam-Webster,, and Random House) as well as the Encyclopædia Britannica and the.
Brachionus plicatilis is a euryhaline (tolerate a wide range of salinity) rotifer in the Family Brachionidae, and is possibly the only commercially important rotifer, being raised in the aquaculture industry as food for fish larvae.
Bream is a general term for a species of freshwater and marine fish belonging to a variety of genera including Abramis (e.g., A. brama, the common bream), Acanthopagrus, Argyrops, Blicca, Brama, Chilotilapia, Etelis, Lepomis, Gymnocranius, Lethrinus, Nemipterus, Pharyngochromis, Rhabdosargus, or Scolopsis.
A bulk carrier, bulk freighter, or colloquially, bulker is a merchant ship specially designed to transport unpackaged bulk cargo, such as grains, coal, ore, and cement in its cargo holds.
The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.
Ceratophyllum is a cosmopolitan genus of flowering plants including four accepted species in 2016, commonly found in ponds, marshes, and quiet streams in tropical and in temperate regions.
Charales is an order of freshwater green algae in the division Charophyta, class Charophyceae, commonly known as stoneworts.
The Chicago Tribune is a daily newspaper based in Chicago, Illinois, United States, owned by Tronc, Inc., formerly Tribune Publishing.
Chushka (Russian: Чушка) is a long narrow peninsula, or sandy spit, in the northern part of the Strait of Kerch which extends from Cape Achilleion to the south-west in the direction of the Black Sea for almost 18 km.
The Cladocera are an order of small crustaceans commonly called water fleas.
Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history between the 8th century BC and the 5th or 6th century AD centered on the Mediterranean Sea, comprising the interlocking civilizations of ancient Greece and ancient Rome, collectively known as the Greco-Roman world.
A client state is a state that is economically, politically, or militarily subordinate to another more powerful state in international affairs.
Two-dimensional rotation can occur in two possible directions.
Coelenterata is an obsolete term encompassing the animal phyla Cnidaria (coral animals, true jellies, sea anemones, sea pens, and their allies) and Ctenophora (comb jellies).
Colonies in antiquity were city-states founded from a mother-city (its "metropolis"), not from a territory-at-large.
Columbia University (Columbia; officially Columbia University in the City of New York), established in 1754, is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City.
The common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus), or Atlantic bottlenose dolphin, is the most well-known species from the family Delphinidae.
Copepods (meaning "oar-feet") are a group of small crustaceans found in the sea and nearly every freshwater habitat.
The corkwing wrasse, Symphodus melops, is a species of wrasse native to the eastern Atlantic Ocean from Norway to Morocco and out to the Azores, as well as being found in the Mediterranean Sea and the Adriatic Sea.
Cossacks (козаки́, translit, kozaky, казакi, kozacy, Czecho-Slovak: kozáci, kozákok Pronunciations.
Crimea (Крым, Крим, Krym; Krym; translit;; translit) is a peninsula on the northern coast of the Black Sea in Eastern Europe that is almost completely surrounded by both the Black Sea and the smaller Sea of Azov to the northeast.
The Crimean Bridge (p), or colloquially the Kerch Strait Bridge, is a pair of parallel bridges constructed by the Russian Federation, to span the Strait of Kerch between the Taman Peninsula of Krasnodar Krai (Russia) and the Kerch Peninsula of Crimea (Russian-annexed, internationally recognised as part of Ukraine).
Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.
The Cumans (Polovtsi) were a Turkic nomadic people comprising the western branch of the Cuman–Kipchak confederation.
A current in a fluid is the magnitude and direction of flow within that fluid.
Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen.
The Cyperaceae are a family of monocotyledonous graminoid flowering plants known as sedges, which superficially resemble grasses and rushes.
Diatoms (diá-tom-os "cut in half", from diá, "through" or "apart"; and the root of tém-n-ō, "I cut".) are a major group of microorganisms found in the oceans, waterways and soils of the world.
In hydrology, discharge is the volumetric flow rate of water that is transported through a given cross-sectional area.
The Dolgaya Spit (Коса Долгая) is a sandy spit in the Sea of Azov.
The Don (p) is one of the major rivers of Russia and the 5th longest river in Europe.
Donetsk (Донецьк; Доне́цк; former names: Aleksandrovka, Hughesovka, Yuzovka, Stalino (see also: cities' alternative names)) is an industrial city in Ukraine on the Kalmius River.
Donetsk Oblast (Доне́цька о́бласть, Donets'ka oblast', also referred to as Donechchyna, Донеччина Donechchyna, Доне́цкая о́бласть, Donetskaya oblast) is an oblast (province) of eastern Ukraine.
Eastern Europe is the eastern part of the European continent.
The eelpouts are the ray-finned fish family Zoarcidae.
An eponym is a person, place, or thing after whom or after which something is named, or believed to be named.
Esox is a genus of freshwater fish, the only living genus in the family Esocidae—the esocids which were endemic to North America and Eurasia during the Paleogene through present.
An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea.
Euglena is a genus of single-celled flagellate eukaryotes.
The Eurasian Steppe, also called the Great Steppe or the steppes, is the vast steppe ecoregion of Eurasia in the temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome.
The European bullhead (Cottus gobio) is a freshwater fish that is widely distributed in Europe, mainly in rivers.
Euryhaline organisms are able to adapt to a wide range of salinities.
An exonym or xenonym is an external name for a geographical place, or a group of people, an individual person, or a language or dialect.
Fast ice (also called land-fast ice, landfast ice, and shore-fast ice) is sea ice that is "fastened" to the coastline, to the sea floor along shoals or to grounded icebergs.
Fish farming or pisciculture involves raising fish commercially in tanks or enclosures such as fish ponds, usually for food.
A flood myth or deluge myth is a narrative in which a great flood, usually sent by a deity or deities, destroys civilization, often in an act of divine retribution.
Folk etymology or reanalysis – sometimes called pseudo-etymology, popular etymology, or analogical reformation – is a change in a word or phrase resulting from the replacement of an unfamiliar form by a more familiar one.
Gaius Valerius Flaccus (died) was a 1st century Roman poet who flourished during the "Silver Age" under the Flavian dynasty, and wrote a Latin Argonautica that owes a great deal to Apollonius of Rhodes' more famous epic.
The garfish (Belone belone), or sea needle, is a pelagic, oceanodromous needlefish found in brackish and marine waters of the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean, Caribbean, Black, and Baltic Seas.
The gastropods, more commonly known as snails and slugs, belong to a large taxonomic class of invertebrates within the phylum Mollusca, called Gastropoda.
The Geographica (Ancient Greek: Γεωγραφικά Geōgraphiká), or Geography, is an encyclopedia of geographical knowledge, consisting of 17 'books', written in Greek by Strabo, an educated citizen of the Roman Empire of Greek descent.
The great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo), known as the great black cormorant across the Northern Hemisphere, the black cormorant in Australia, the large cormorant in India and the black shag further south in New Zealand, is a widespread member of the cormorant family of seabirds.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (GSE; Большая советская энциклопедия, БСЭ, Bolshaya sovetskaya entsiklopediya) is one of the largest Russian-language encyclopedias, published by the Soviet state from 1926 to 1990, and again since 2002 by Russia (under the name Bolshaya Rossiyskaya entsiklopediya or Great Russian Encyclopedia).
The green algae (singular: green alga) are a large, informal grouping of algae consisting of the Chlorophyta and Charophyta/Streptophyta, which are now placed in separate divisions, as well as the more basal Mesostigmatophyceae, Chlorokybophyceae and Spirotaenia.
The grey seal (Halichoerus grypus, meaning "hooked-nosed sea pig") is found on both shores of the North Atlantic Ocean.
The harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) is one of six species of porpoise.
Henichesk (Гені́чеськ, translit. Heniches’k) is a port city along the Sea of Azov in Kherson Oblast (province) of southern Ukraine.
Herodotus (Ἡρόδοτος, Hêródotos) was a Greek historian who was born in Halicarnassus in the Persian Empire (modern-day Bodrum, Turkey) and lived in the fifth century BC (484– 425 BC), a contemporary of Thucydides, Socrates, and Euripides.
The Huns were a nomadic people who lived in Central Asia, the Caucasus, and Eastern Europe, between the 4th and 6th century AD.
An icebreaker is a special-purpose ship or boat designed to move and navigate through ice-covered waters, and provide safe waterways for other boats and ships.
The International Hydrographic Organization (IHO) is the inter-governmental organisation representing hydrography.
The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.
Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted.
The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List or Red Data List), founded in 1964, has evolved to become the world's most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of biological species.
The Kalmius (Кальмиус) is one of two rivers flowing through the Ukrainian city of Mariupol.
Kerch (Керчь, Керч, Old East Slavic: Кърчевъ, Ancient Greek: Παντικάπαιον Pantikapaion, Keriç, Kerç) is a city of regional significance on the Kerch Peninsula in the east of the Crimea.
The Kerch Strait (Керченский пролив, Керченська протока, Keriç boğazı) is a strait connecting the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov, separating the Kerch Peninsula of Crimea in the west from the Taman Peninsula of Russia's Krasnodar Krai in the east.
The Kingdom of Pontus or Pontic Empire was a state founded by the Persian Mithridatic dynasty,http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/pontus which may have been directly related to Darius the Great and the Achaemenid dynasty.
The Kipchak language (also spelled Qypchaq) is an extinct Turkic language of the Kipchak group.
Krasnodar Krai (p) is a federal subject of Russia (a krai), located in the North Caucasus region in Southern Russia and administratively a part of the Southern Federal District.
The Kuban River (p; Circassian: Псыжъ or Псыжь,; Къвбина, Q̇vbina; Karachay–Balkar: Къобан, Qoban; Nogai: Кобан, Qoban) is a river in the Northwest Caucasus region of European Russia.
A lagoon is a shallow body of water separated from a larger body of water by barrier islands or reefs.
Liman defined in Bulgarian, Ukrainian, Russian (Лиман) and Romanian (liman) the enlarged estuaries formed as lagoons at the widening mouth of one or several rivers, where flow is blocked by a bar of sediments, as the Dniester Liman or the Razelm liman; a liman can be maritime (the bar being created by the current of a sea) or fluvial (the bar being created by the flow of a bigger river at the confluence).
This is a list of seas - large divisions of the World Ocean, including areas of water variously, gulfs, bights, bays, and straits.
Mackerel is a common name applied to a number of different species of pelagic fish, mostly, but not exclusively, from the family Scombridae.
The Maeotian Swamp (ἡ Μαιῶτις λίμνη, ē Maiōtis límnē; Palus Maeotis) was a name applied in antiquity variously to the swamps at the mouth of the Tanais River in Scythia (the modern Don in southern Russia) and to the entire Sea of Azov which it forms there.
The Maeotians (Μαιῶται, Maiōtai; Mæotæ) were an ancient people dwelling along the Sea of Azov, which was known in antiquity as the "Maeotian marshes" or "Lake Maeotis".
Marine life, or sea life or ocean life, is the plants, animals and other organisms that live in the salt water of the sea or ocean, or the brackish water of coastal estuaries.
Mariupol (Маріу́поль, also Mariiupil; Мариу́поль; Marioupoli) is a city of regional significance in south eastern Ukraine, situated on the north coast of the Sea of Azov at the mouth of the Kalmius river, in the Pryazovia region.
The martens constitute the genus Martes within the subfamily Mustelinae, in the family Mustelidae.
The Mediterranean monk seal (Monachus monachus) is a monk seal belonging to the family Phocidae.
The Mediterranean mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) is a species of bivalve, a marine mollusc in the family Mytilidae.
The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant.
Merlangius merlangus, commonly known as whiting or merling, is an important food fish in the eastern North Atlantic Ocean and the northern Mediterranean, western Baltic, and Black Sea.
Meroplankton is a term used to describe a wide variety of planktonic organisms, which spend a portion of their lives in the benthic region of the ocean.
Miletus (Milētos; Hittite transcription Millawanda or Milawata (exonyms); Miletus; Milet) was an ancient Greek city on the western coast of Anatolia, near the mouth of the Maeander River in ancient Caria.
The minke whale, or lesser rorqual, is a type of baleen whale.
Mius is a river in Eastern Europe that flows through Ukraine and Russia.
Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.
Molochna River (Моло́чная Molochnaya), is a river in the Zaporizhia Oblast of south Ukraine.
Molochnyi Estuary, or Molochnyi Liman (Молочний лиман), is an estuary of the Molochna River, located on the north-western coast of the Sea of Azov.
A mud volcano or mud dome is a landform created by the eruption of mud or slurries, water and gases.
The muskrat (Ondatra zibethicus), the only species in genus Ondatra and tribe Ondatrini, is a medium-sized semiaquatic rodent native to North America and is an introduced species in parts of Europe, Asia, and South America.
The National Geographic Society (NGS), headquartered in Washington, D.C., United States, is one of the largest non-profit scientific and educational institutions in the world.
The Natural History (Naturalis Historia) is a book about the whole of the natural world in Latin by Pliny the Elder, a Roman author and naval commander who died in 79 AD.
A nature reserve (also called a natural reserve, bioreserve, (natural/nature) preserve, or (national/nature) conserve) is a protected area of importance for wildlife, flora, fauna or features of geological or other special interest, which is reserved and managed for conservation and to provide special opportunities for study or research.
Nelumbo is a genus of aquatic plants with large, showy flowers.
The Neolithic was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of Western Asia, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC.
Nymphaeaceae is a family of flowering plants, commonly called water lilies.
The Ottoman Empire (دولت عليه عثمانیه,, literally The Exalted Ottoman State; Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire"The Ottoman Empire-also known in Europe as the Turkish Empire" or simply Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries.
Ottoman Turkish (Osmanlı Türkçesi), or the Ottoman language (Ottoman Turkish:, lisân-ı Osmânî, also known as, Türkçe or, Türkî, "Turkish"; Osmanlıca), is the variety of the Turkish language that was used in the Ottoman Empire.
Publius Ovidius Naso (20 March 43 BC – 17/18 AD), known as Ovid in the English-speaking world, was a Roman poet who lived during the reign of Augustus.
Pelicans are a genus of large water birds that make up the family Pelecanidae.
The Periplus of Pseudo-Scylax is an ancient Greek periplus (περίπλους períplous, 'circumnavigation') describing the sea route around the Mediterranean and Black Sea.
Peter the Great (ˈpʲɵtr vʲɪˈlʲikʲɪj), Peter I (ˈpʲɵtr ˈpʲɛrvɨj) or Peter Alexeyevich (p; –)Dates indicated by the letters "O.S." are in the Julian calendar with the start of year adjusted to 1 January.
Pinnipeds, commonly known as seals, are a widely distributed and diverse clade of carnivorous, fin-footed, semiaquatic marine mammals.
Plankton (singular plankter) are the diverse collection of organisms that live in large bodies of water and are unable to swim against a current.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
Pollution is the introduction of contaminants into the natural environment that cause adverse change.
Polybius (Πολύβιος, Polýbios; – BC) was a Greek historian of the Hellenistic period noted for his work which covered the period of 264–146 BC in detail.
The Polychaeta, also known as the bristle worms or polychaetes, are a paraphyletic class of annelid worms, generally marine.
Port Kavkaz (Порт Кавказ) is a small harbour on the Kerch Strait in Krasnodar Krai, Russia.
Potamogeton is a genus of aquatic, mostly freshwater, plants of the family Potamogetonaceae.
In meteorology, precipitation is any product of the condensation of atmospheric water vapor that falls under gravity.
Primorsko-Akhtarsk (Примо́рско-Ахта́рск) is a port town and the administrative center of Primorsko-Akhtarsky District of Krasnodar Krai, Russia, located on the coast of the Sea of Azov, northwest of Krasnodar, the administrative center of the krai.
A protist is any eukaryotic organism that has cells with nuclei and is not an animal, plant or fungus.
The Russo-Ottoman War of 1710–11, also known as the Pruth River Campaign after the main event of the war, erupted as a consequence of the defeat of Sweden by the Russian Empire in the Battle of Poltava and the escape of the wounded Charles XII of Sweden and his large retinue to the Ottoman-held fortress of Bender.
Prymorsk (Приморськ; Приморск) is a city in Zaporizhia Oblast, Ukraine.
Rhithropanopeus harrisii (common names include the Zuiderzee crab, dwarf crab, estuarine mud crab, Harris mud crab, white-fingered mud crab, and white-tipped mud crab), is a small omnivorous crab native to Atlantic coasts of the Americas, from New Brunswick to Veracruz.
The Roman Empire (Imperium Rōmānum,; Koine and Medieval Greek: Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, tr.) was the post-Roman Republic period of the ancient Roman civilization, characterized by government headed by emperors and large territorial holdings around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe, Africa and Asia.
The rotifers (Rotifera, commonly called wheel animals) make up a phylum of microscopic and near-microscopic pseudocoelomate animals.
Russian (rússkiy yazýk) is an East Slavic language, which is official in Russia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan, as well as being widely spoken throughout Eastern Europe, the Baltic states, the Caucasus and Central Asia.
The Russo–Turkish War of 1686–1700 was part of the joint European effort to confront the Ottoman Empire.
The Russo-Turkish War of 1735–1739 between Russia and the Ottoman Empire was caused by the Ottoman Empire's war with Persia and continuing raids by the Crimean Tatars.
Rutilus lacustris is a species of roach, a genus in the family Cyprinidae.
Salinity is the saltiness or amount of salt dissolved in a body of water (see also soil salinity).
Sand is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles.
Sander (formerly known as Stizostedion) is a genus of fish in the Percidae (perch) family.
Sandpipers are a large family, Scolopacidae, of waders or shorebirds.
A sea is a large body of salt water that is surrounded in whole or in part by land.
The Sea of Marmara (Marmara Denizi), also known as the Sea of Marmora or the Marmara Sea, and in the context of classical antiquity as the Propontis is the inland sea, entirely within the borders of Turkey, that connects the Black Sea to the Aegean Sea, thus separating Turkey's Asian and European parts.
A seashell or sea shell, also known simply as a shell, is a hard, protective outer layer created by an animal that lives in the sea.
Seawater, or salt water, is water from a sea or ocean.
A seiche is a standing wave in an enclosed or partially enclosed body of water.
The short-beaked common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) is a species of common dolphin.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
The Siberian High (also Siberian Anticyclone) is a massive collection of cold dry air that accumulates in the northeastern part of Eurasia from September until April.
In geology, a sill is a tabular sheet intrusion that has intruded between older layers of sedimentary rock, beds of volcanic lava or tuff, or along the direction of foliation in metamorphic rock.
Silt is granular material of a size between sand and clay, whose mineral origin is quartz and feldspar.
Slavery in the ancient world, from the earliest known recorded evidence in Sumer to the pre-medieval Antiquity Mediterranean cultures, comprised a mixture of debt-slavery, slavery as a punishment for crime, and the enslavement of prisoners of war.
Soft-shell clams (American English) or sand gaper (British English/Europe), scientific name Mya arenaria, popularly called "steamers", "softshells", "longnecks", "piss clams", "Ipswich clams", or "Essex clams" are a species of edible saltwater clam, a marine bivalve mollusk in the family Myidae.
Sparganium (bur-reed) is a genus of flowering plants, described as a genus by Linnaeus in 1753.
A spit or sandspit is a deposition bar or beach landform off coasts or lake shores.
Squalus is a genus of dogfish sharks in the family Squalidae.
The stadion (στάδιον; stadium), formerly also anglicized as stade, was an ancient Greek unit of length, based on the length of a typical sports stadium of the time.
In physics, a standing wave – also known as a stationary wave – is a wave which oscillates in time but whose peak amplitude profile does not move in space.
Stanitsa (p; станиця, stanytsia) is a village inside a Cossack host (viysko) (казачье войско, kazachye voysko, sometimes translated as "Cossack Army").
Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
Sturgeon is the common name for the 27 species of fish belonging to the family Acipenseridae.
Sudak (Судак; Судак; Sudaq; Σουγδαία; sometimes spelled Sudac or Sudagh) is a town, multiple former Eastern Orthodox bishopric and double Latin Catholic titular see.
The Syvash or Sivash (Russian and Ukrainian: Сива́ш;, Cyrillic: Сываш, "dirt"), also known as the or (Gniloye More;, Hnile More;, Cyrillic: Чюрюк Денъиз), consists of a large system of shallow lagoons on the west coast of the Sea of Azov.
Taganrog (p) is a port city in Rostov Oblast, Russia, located on the north shore of the Taganrog Bay in the Sea of Azov, several kilometers west of the mouth of the Don River.
Taganrog Bay or Tahanrih Bay (Таганрозька затока) is the northeastern arm of the Sea of Azov.
The Taman Bay (Russian: Таманский залив) is a shallow bay or gulf on the east coast of the Strait of Kerch shaped by the Tuzla and Chushka spits.
The Taman Peninsula (Тама́нский полуо́стров, Tamanskiy poluostrov) is a peninsula in the present-day Krasnodar Krai of Russia, which borders the Sea of Azov to the North, the Strait of Kerch to the West and the Black Sea to the South.
The Temryuk Bay (Темрюкский залив, Temrjukskij zaliv) is a gulf or bay of the Sea of Azov located on the northern coast of the Taman Peninsula, Krasnodar Krai, Russia.
Teredo navalis, the naval shipworm, is a species of saltwater clam, a marine bivalve mollusc in the family Teredinidae, the shipworms.
Polybius’ Histories (Ἱστορίαι Historíai) were originally written in 40 volumes, only the first five of which are extant in their entirety.
The Treaty of Niš was a peace treaty signed on 3 October 1739 in Niš (East Serbia), by the Ottoman Empire and Russian Empire, to end the Russo-Turkish War of 1735-1739.
The Treaty of the Pruth was signed on the banks of the river Pruth between the Ottoman Empire and the Tsardom of Russia on 21 July 1711, ending the Russo-Turkish War of 1710–1711.
The turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) is a species of flatfish in the family Scophthalmidae.
Typha is a genus of about 30 species of monocotyledonous flowering plants in the family Typhaceae.
Ukraine (Ukrayina), sometimes called the Ukraine, is a sovereign state in Eastern Europe, bordered by Russia to the east and northeast; Belarus to the northwest; Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia to the west; Romania and Moldova to the southwest; and the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south and southeast, respectively.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland was established by the Acts of Union 1800, which merged the kingdoms of Great Britain and Ireland.
Rapana venosa, common name the veined rapa whelk or Asian rapa whelk, is a species of large predatory sea snail, a marine gastropod mollusc or whelk, in the family Muricidae, the rock shells.
The Volga (p) is the longest river in Europe.
Lenin Volga–Don Shipping Canal (Волго-Донской судоходный канал имени В. И. Ленина, Volga-Donskoy soudokhodniy kanal imeni V. I. Lenina, abbreviated ВДСК, VDSK) is a canal which connects the Volga River and the Don River at their closest points.
Volgograd (p), formerly Tsaritsyn, 1589–1925, and Stalingrad, 1925–1961, is an important industrial city and the administrative centre of Volgograd Oblast, Russia, on the western bank of the Volga River.
A weasel is a mammal of the genus Mustela of the family Mustelidae.
The World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) is an international non-governmental organization founded in 1961, working in the field of the wilderness preservation, and the reduction of human impact on the environment.
Yellow-green algae or the Xanthophyceae (xanthophytes) are an important group of heterokont algae.
Yeya is a river in Krasnodar Krai, Russia.
Yeysk (Ейск) is a port and a resort town in Krasnodar Krai, Russia, situated on the shore of the Taganrog Gulf of the Sea of Azov.
Zooplankton are heterotrophic (sometimes detritivorous) plankton.
Azaq denizi, Azaq deñizi, Azov Sea, Azov sea, Azovs'ke more, Azovskoye more, Lake Maeotis, Lake of Maeotis, Maeotian Lake, Maeotian Sea, Maeotis, Maeotis' lake, Sea of Azof, Sea of Azoff, Sea of azov, The Sea of Azov, Азо́вское мо́ре, Азо́вське мо́ре, Ἡ Μαιῶτις λίμνη.