247 relations: A Greek–English Lexicon, Abalone, Acanthocephala, Adobe Flash, African clawless otter, Ainu people, Alaska, Alaska Purchase, Aleut, Aleutian Islands, Amchitka, Amulet, Anal gland, Ancient Greek, Angel Island (California), Animism, Anthropomorphism, Asian small-clawed otter, Autopsy, Baculum, Badger, Baja California Peninsula, Barkley Sound, Basal metabolic rate, Beaver, Benthic zone, Benthos, Bering Island, Big Sur, Bivalvia, Bixby Creek Bridge, Blubber, Buoyancy, Burrow, California, California Fur Rush, Cape Scott Provincial Park, Captivity (animal), Carl Linnaeus, Carnivore, Carrying capacity, Cascade effect (ecology), Cetacea, China, Cladogram, Clam, Coal Oil Point seep field, Commander Islands, Coral reef, Corte Madera Creek (Marin County, California), ..., Coyote, Crab, Crustacean, Cyanobacteria, Dentition, Depoe Bay, Oregon, Diurnality, DNA sequencing, Drift ice, Earless seal, East Anglia, Ecosystem, Embryonic diapause, Endangered species, Endangered Species Act of 1973, Enteroctopus, Estrous cycle, Estuary, Eurasian otter, Extinction, Exxon Valdez oil spill, Fast ice, First Nations, Fish, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Forage, Fort Ross, California, Fur, Gaviota State Park, Georg Wilhelm Steller, Gestation, Giant otter, Great white shark, Gull, Haida Gwaii, Haida people, Harbor seal, Hearing, Henry Liddell, History of the Soviet Union (1982–91), Hokkaido, Holotype, Hypothermia, Incisor, Indigenous peoples, Indigenous peoples of the Americas, Indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast, Influenza A virus subtype H1N1, Integrated Taxonomic Information System, International Union for Conservation of Nature, Itelmens, IUCN Red List, Ivan Kuskov, James Cook, John B. R. Cooper, John Fleming (naturalist), Journal of Archaeological Science, Juan Bautista Alvarado, Kamchatka Peninsula, Kelp, Kelp forest, Keystone species, Kidney, Killer whale, Koryaks, Kunstkamera, Kuril Islands, Kutune Shirka, Kyakhta, Kyuquot, Lactation, Latin, Limpet, Liver, Local extinction, Lontra, Louse, Lung, Lung volumes, Lutra, Mammal, Marine conservation, Marine mammal, Marine Mammal Protection Act, Marine otter, Marine protected area, Maritime fur trade, Mexico, Microcystin, Mink, Molar (tooth), Molecular phylogenetics, Mollusca, Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, Moulting, Mussel, Mustelidae, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Neontology, Nipple, North American river otter, North Pacific Fur Seal Convention of 1911, Norwich Castle, Nuu-chah-nulth, Oil spill, Olfaction, Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary, Olympic Peninsula, Oregon Coast, Osteosclerosis, Otter, Overfishing, Oxford University Press, Pacific Northwest, Pacific Ocean, PBS, PDF, Pigeon Point Lighthouse, Pinniped, Pismo clam, Pleistocene, Poaching, Polygyny, Potlatch, Prince William Sound, Protected areas of Canada, Protected areas of Russia, Protected areas of the United States, Public aquarium, Puget Sound, Rancho Punta de Quentin, Red Irish lord, Red sea urchin, Robert Scott (philologist), Rodent, Rostrum (anatomy), Russia, Russian-American Company, Sable, Saint Petersburg, San Bruno, California, San Francisco Bay, San Jose, California, San Juan Islands, San Mateo County, California, San Mateo, California, San Nicolas Island, Santa Barbara County, California, Sarcocystis, Sea lion, Sea mink, Sea otter (disambiguation), Sea urchin, Seabed, Seattle Aquarium, Seismology, Sexual coercion, Shellfish, Sirenia, Skeleton, Smooth-coated otter, Snail, Sociality, Somatosensory system, Spain, Speciation, Spotted-necked otter, Starfish, Subspecies, Substrate (marine biology), Systema Naturae, Terrestrial animal, Tetraodontidae, Threatened species, Tool use by sea otters, Tooth, Tourist attraction, Toxoplasma gondii, Tunitas Creek, United States Fish and Wildlife Service, United States Geological Survey, Urban runoff, Urchin barren, Urechis unicinctus, Vancouver Aquarium, Vancouver Island, Visual perception, Vitus Bering, Washington (state), Weasel, Whiskers, World Register of Marine Species, Year, YouTube, Yukar, Zoo, 10th edition of Systema Naturae. Expand index (197 more) » « Shrink index
A Greek–English Lexicon, often referred to as Liddell & Scott, Liddell–Scott–Jones, or LSJ, is a standard lexicographical work of the Ancient Greek language.
Abalone (or; via Spanish abulón, from Rumsen aulón) is a common name for any of a group of small to very large sea snails, marine gastropod molluscs in the family Haliotidae.
Acanthocephala (Greek ἄκανθος, akanthos, thorn + κεφαλή, kephale, head) is a phylum of parasitic worms known as acanthocephalans, thorny-headed worms, or spiny-headed worms, characterized by the presence of an eversible proboscis, armed with spines, which it uses to pierce and hold the gut wall of its host.
Adobe Flash is a deprecated multimedia software platform used for production of animations, rich Internet applications, desktop applications, mobile applications, mobile games and embedded web browser video players.
The African clawless otter (Aonyx capensis), also known as the Cape clawless otter or groot otter, is the second-largest freshwater species of otter.
The Ainu or the Aynu (Ainu アィヌ ''Aynu''; Japanese: アイヌ Ainu; Russian: Айны Ajny), in the historical Japanese texts the Ezo (蝦夷), are an indigenous people of Japan (Hokkaido, and formerly northeastern Honshu) and Russia (Sakhalin, the Kuril Islands, and formerly the Kamchatka Peninsula).
Alaska (Alax̂sxax̂) is a U.S. state located in the northwest extremity of North America.
The Alaska Purchase (r) was the United States' acquisition of Alaska from the Russian Empire on March 30, 1867, by a treaty ratified by the United States Senate, and signed by President Andrew Johnson.
The Aleuts (Алеу́ты Aleuty), who are usually known in the Aleut language by the endonyms Unangan (eastern dialect), Unangas (western dialect), Alaska Native Language Center.
The Aleutian Islands (Tanam Unangaa, literally "Land of the Aleuts", possibly from Chukchi aliat, "island") are a chain of 14 large volcanic islands and 55 smaller ones belonging to both the U.S. state of Alaska and the Russian federal subject of Kamchatka Krai.
Amchitka (Amchixtax̂) is a volcanic, tectonically unstable island in the Rat Islands group of the Aleutian Islands in southwest Alaska.
An amulet is an object that is typically worn on one's person, that some people believe has the magical or miraculous power to protect its holder, either to protect them in general or to protect them from some specific thing; it is often also used as an ornament though that may not be the intended purpose of it.
The anal glands or anal sacs are small glands found near the anus in many mammals, including dogs and cats.
The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.
Angel Island is an island in San Francisco Bay offering expansive 360° views of the San Francisco skyline, the Marin County Headlands and Mount Tamalpais.
Animism (from Latin anima, "breath, spirit, life") is the religious belief that objects, places and creatures all possess a distinct spiritual essence.
Anthropomorphism is the attribution of human traits, emotions, or intentions to non-human entities.
The Asian small-clawed otter (Aonyx cinerea, syn. Amblonyx cinereus), also known as the oriental small-clawed otter or simply small-clawed otter, is a semiaquatic mammal native to South and Southeast Asia.
An autopsy (post-mortem examination, obduction, necropsy, or autopsia cadaverum) is a highly specialized surgical procedure that consists of a thorough examination of a corpse by dissection to determine the cause and manner of death or to evaluate any disease or injury that may be present for research or educational purposes.
The baculum (also penis bone, penile bone, or os penis, or os priapi) is a bone found in the penis of many placental mammals.
Badgers are short-legged omnivores in the family Mustelidae, which also includes the otters, polecats, weasels, and wolverines.
The Baja California Peninsula (Lower California Peninsula, Península de Baja California) is a peninsula in Northwestern Mexico.
Barkley Sound, also known historically as Barclay Sound, is south of Ucluelet and north of Bamfield on the west coast of Vancouver Island and forms the entrance to the Alberni Inlet.
Basal metabolic rate (BMR) is the rate of energy expenditure per unit time by endothermic animals at rest.
The beaver (genus Castor) is a large, primarily nocturnal, semiaquatic rodent.
The benthic zone is the ecological region at the lowest level of a body of water such as an ocean or a lake, including the sediment surface and some sub-surface layers.
Benthos is the community of organisms that live on, in, or near the seabed, also known as the benthic zone.
Bering Island (о́стров Бе́ринга, ostrov Beringa) is located off the Kamchatka Peninsula in the Bering Sea.
Big Sur is a rugged section of California's Central Coast between Carmel Highlands and San Simeon, where the Santa Lucia Mountains rise abruptly from the Pacific Ocean, that is frequently praised for its dramatic views.
Bivalvia, in previous centuries referred to as the Lamellibranchiata and Pelecypoda, is a class of marine and freshwater molluscs that have laterally compressed bodies enclosed by a shell consisting of two hinged parts.
Bixby Creek Bridge, also known as Bixby Bridge, on the Big Sur coast of California, is one of the most photographed bridges in California due to its aesthetic design, "graceful architecture and magnificent setting".
Blubber is a thick layer of vascularized adipose tissue under the skin of all cetaceans, pinnipeds and sirenians.
In physics, buoyancy or upthrust, is an upward force exerted by a fluid that opposes the weight of an immersed object.
A burrow is a hole or tunnel excavated into the ground by an animal to create a space suitable for habitation, temporary refuge, or as a byproduct of locomotion.
California is a state in the Pacific Region of the United States.
Before the 1849 California Gold Rush, American, English and Russian fur hunters were drawn to Spanish (and then Mexican) California in a California Fur Rush, to exploit its enormous fur resources.
Cape Scott Provincial Park is a provincial park located at the cape of the same name, which is the northwestern tip of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada.
Animals that are held by humans and prevented from escaping are said to be in captivity.
Carl Linnaeus (23 May 1707 – 10 January 1778), also known after his ennoblement as Carl von LinnéBlunt (2004), p. 171.
A carnivore, meaning "meat eater" (Latin, caro, genitive carnis, meaning "meat" or "flesh" and vorare meaning "to devour"), is an organism that derives its energy and nutrient requirements from a diet consisting mainly or exclusively of animal tissue, whether through predation or scavenging.
The carrying capacity of a biological species in an environment is the maximum population size of the species that the environment can sustain indefinitely, given the food, habitat, water, and other necessities available in the environment.
An ecological cascade effect is a series of secondary extinctions that is triggered by the primary extinction of a key species in an ecosystem.
Cetacea are a widely distributed and diverse clade of aquatic mammals that today consists of the whales, dolphins, and porpoises.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
A cladogram (from Greek clados "branch" and gramma "character") is a diagram used in cladistics to show relations among organisms.
Clam is a common name for several kinds of bivalve molluscs.
The Coal Oil Point seep field (COP) in the Santa Barbara Channel offshore from Goleta, California, is a marine petroleum seep area of about three square kilometres, within the Offshore South Ellwood Oil Field and stretching from the coastline southward more than.
The Commander Islands or Komandorski Islands or Komandorskie Islands (Командо́рские острова́, Komandorskiye ostrova) are a group of treeless, sparsely populated islands in the Bering Sea located about east of the Kamchatka Peninsula in the Russian Far East.
Coral reefs are diverse underwater ecosystems held together by calcium carbonate structures secreted by corals.
Corte Madera Creek is a short stream which flows southeast for in Marin County, California.
The coyote (Canis latrans); from Nahuatl) is a canine native to North America. It is smaller than its close relative, the gray wolf, and slightly smaller than the closely related eastern wolf and red wolf. It fills much of the same ecological niche as the golden jackal does in Eurasia, though it is larger and more predatory, and is sometimes called the American jackal by zoologists. The coyote is listed as least concern by the International Union for Conservation of Nature due to its wide distribution and abundance throughout North America, southwards through Mexico, and into Central America. The species is versatile, able to adapt to and expand into environments modified by humans. It is enlarging its range, with coyotes moving into urban areas in the Eastern U.S., and was sighted in eastern Panama (across the Panama Canal from their home range) for the first time in 2013., 19 coyote subspecies are recognized. The average male weighs and the average female. Their fur color is predominantly light gray and red or fulvous interspersed with black and white, though it varies somewhat with geography. It is highly flexible in social organization, living either in a family unit or in loosely knit packs of unrelated individuals. It has a varied diet consisting primarily of animal meat, including deer, rabbits, hares, rodents, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, and invertebrates, though it may also eat fruits and vegetables on occasion. Its characteristic vocalization is a howl made by solitary individuals. Humans are the coyote's greatest threat, followed by cougars and gray wolves. In spite of this, coyotes sometimes mate with gray, eastern, or red wolves, producing "coywolf" hybrids. In the northeastern United States and eastern Canada, the eastern coyote (a larger subspecies, though still smaller than wolves) is the result of various historical and recent matings with various types of wolves. Genetic studies show that most North American wolves contain some level of coyote DNA. The coyote is a prominent character in Native American folklore, mainly in the Southwestern United States and Mexico, usually depicted as a trickster that alternately assumes the form of an actual coyote or a man. As with other trickster figures, the coyote uses deception and humor to rebel against social conventions. The animal was especially respected in Mesoamerican cosmology as a symbol of military might. After the European colonization of the Americas, it was reviled in Anglo-American culture as a cowardly and untrustworthy animal. Unlike wolves (gray, eastern, or red), which have undergone an improvement of their public image, attitudes towards the coyote remain largely negative.
Crabs are decapod crustaceans of the infraorder Brachyura, which typically have a very short projecting "tail" (abdomen) (translit.
Crustaceans (Crustacea) form a large, diverse arthropod taxon which includes such familiar animals as crabs, lobsters, crayfish, shrimp, krill, woodlice, and barnacles.
Cyanobacteria, also known as Cyanophyta, are a phylum of bacteria that obtain their energy through photosynthesis, and are the only photosynthetic prokaryotes able to produce oxygen.
Dentition pertains to the development of teeth and their arrangement in the mouth.
Depoe Bay is a city in Lincoln County, Oregon, United States, located on U.S. Route 101 next to the Pacific Ocean.
Diurnality is a form of plant or animal behavior characterized by activity during the day, with a period of sleeping, or other inactivity, at night.
DNA sequencing is the process of determining the precise order of nucleotides within a DNA molecule.
Drift ice is any sea ice other than fast ice, the latter being attached ("fastened") to the shoreline or other fixed objects (shoals, grounded icebergs, etc.).Leppäranta, M. 2011.
The earless seals, phocids or true seals are one of the three main groups of mammals within the seal lineage, Pinnipedia.
East Anglia is a geographical area in the East of England.
An ecosystem is a community made up of living organisms and nonliving components such as air, water, and mineral soil.
Delayed implantation or embryonic diapause is a reproductive strategy used by approximately 100 different mammals in seven or eight different orders.
An endangered species is a species which has been categorized as very likely to become extinct.
The Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA; 16 U.S.C. § 1531 et seq.) is one of the few dozens of US environmental laws passed in the 1970s, and serves as the enacting legislation to carry out the provisions outlined in The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES).
Enteroctopus is an octopus genus whose members are sometimes known as giant octopus.
The estrous cycle or oestrus cycle (derived from Latin oestrus 'frenzy', originally from Greek οἶστρος oîstros 'gadfly') is the recurring physiological changes that are induced by reproductive hormones in most mammalian therian females.
An estuary is a partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea.
The Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra), also known as the European otter, Eurasian river otter, common otter, and Old World otter, is a semiaquatic mammal native to Eurasia.
In biology, extinction is the termination of an organism or of a group of organisms (taxon), normally a species.
The Exxon Valdez oil spill occurred in Prince William Sound, Alaska, March 24, 1989, when Exxon Valdez, an oil tanker owned by Exxon Shipping Company, bound for Long Beach, California, struck Prince William Sound's Bligh Reef at 12:04 am local time and spilled of crude oil over the next few days.
Fast ice (also called land-fast ice, landfast ice, and shore-fast ice) is sea ice that is "fastened" to the coastline, to the sea floor along shoals or to grounded icebergs.
In Canada, the First Nations (Premières Nations) are the predominant indigenous peoples in Canada south of the Arctic Circle.
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
Fisheries and Oceans Canada, frequently referred to as Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO), is the department within the government of Canada that is responsible for developing and implementing policies and programs in support of Canada's economic, ecological and scientific interests in oceans and inland waters.
Forage is a plant material (mainly plant leaves and stems) eaten by grazing livestock.
Fort Ross (Форт-Росс), originally Fortress Ross (Крѣпость Россъ, tr. Krepostʹ Ross), is a former Russian establishment on the west coast of North America in what is now Sonoma County, California, in the United States.
Fur is the hair covering of non-human mammals, particularly those mammals with extensive body hair that is soft and thick.
Gaviota State Park is a state park of California, USA.
Several animals described by and named for Georg Steller, of whom no portrait is known to exist.
Gestation is the carrying of an embryo or fetus inside viviparous animals.
The giant otter or giant river otter (Pteronura brasiliensis) is a South American carnivorous mammal.
The great white shark (Carcharodon carcharias), commonly known as the great white or the white shark, is a species of large mackerel shark which can be found in the coastal surface waters of all the major oceans.
Gulls or seagulls are seabirds of the family Laridae in the suborder Lari.
Haida Gwaii (Haida kíl: X̱aaydag̱a Gwaay.yaay / X̱aayda gwaay, literally "Islands of the Haida people"), is an archipelago approximately 45-60 km (30-40 mi) off the northern Pacific coast of Canada.
Haida (X̱aayda, X̱aadas, X̱aad, X̱aat) are a nation and ethnic group native to, or otherwise associated with, Haida Gwaii (A Canadian archipelago) and the Haida language.
The harbor (or harbour) seal (Phoca vitulina), also known as the common seal, is a true seal found along temperate and Arctic marine coastlines of the Northern Hemisphere.
Hearing, or auditory perception, is the ability to perceive sounds by detecting vibrations, changes in the pressure of the surrounding medium through time, through an organ such as the ear.
Henry George Liddell (6 February 1811 – 18 January 1898) was dean (1855–91) of Christ Church, Oxford, Vice-Chancellor of Oxford University (1870–74), headmaster (1846–55) of Westminster School (where a house is now named after him), author of A History of Rome (1855), and co-author (with Robert Scott) of the monumental work A Greek–English Lexicon, known as "Liddell and Scott", which is still widely used by students of Greek.
The history of the Soviet Union from 1982 through 1991 spans the period from Leonid Brezhnev's death and funeral until the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
(), formerly known as Ezo, Yezo, Yeso, or Yesso, is the second largest island of Japan, and the largest and northernmost prefecture.
A holotype is a single physical example (or illustration) of an organism, known to have been used when the species (or lower-ranked taxon) was formally described.
Hypothermia is reduced body temperature that happens when a body dissipates more heat than it absorbs.
Incisors (from Latin incidere, "to cut") are the front teeth present in most mammals.
Indigenous peoples, also known as first peoples, aboriginal peoples or native peoples, are ethnic groups who are the pre-colonial original inhabitants of a given region, in contrast to groups that have settled, occupied or colonized the area more recently.
The indigenous peoples of the Americas are the pre-Columbian peoples of the Americas and their descendants. Although some indigenous peoples of the Americas were traditionally hunter-gatherers—and many, especially in the Amazon basin, still are—many groups practiced aquaculture and agriculture. The impact of their agricultural endowment to the world is a testament to their time and work in reshaping and cultivating the flora indigenous to the Americas. Although some societies depended heavily on agriculture, others practiced a mix of farming, hunting and gathering. In some regions the indigenous peoples created monumental architecture, large-scale organized cities, chiefdoms, states and empires. Many parts of the Americas are still populated by indigenous peoples; some countries have sizable populations, especially Belize, Bolivia, Canada, Chile, Ecuador, Greenland, Guatemala, Guyana, Mexico, Panama and Peru. At least a thousand different indigenous languages are spoken in the Americas. Some, such as the Quechuan languages, Aymara, Guaraní, Mayan languages and Nahuatl, count their speakers in millions. Many also maintain aspects of indigenous cultural practices to varying degrees, including religion, social organization and subsistence practices. Like most cultures, over time, cultures specific to many indigenous peoples have evolved to incorporate traditional aspects but also cater to modern needs. Some indigenous peoples still live in relative isolation from Western culture, and a few are still counted as uncontacted peoples.
The indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast are composed of many nations and tribal affiliations, each with distinctive cultural and political identities, but they share certain beliefs, traditions and practices, such as the centrality of salmon as a resource and spiritual symbol.
Influenza A (H1N1) virus is the subtype of influenza A virus that was the most common cause of human influenza (flu) in 2009, and is associated with the 1918 outbreak known as the Spanish Flu.
The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) is an American partnership of federal agencies designed to provide consistent and reliable information on the taxonomy of biological species.
The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN; officially International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources) is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.
The Itelmen, sometimes known as Kamchadal, are an ethnic group who are the original inhabitants living on the Kamchatka Peninsula in Russia.
The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List or Red Data List), founded in 1964, has evolved to become the world's most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of biological species.
Ivan Aleksandrovich Kuskov (1765–1823) was the senior assistant to Aleksandr Baranov, the Chief Administrator of the Russian-American Company (RAC).
Captain James Cook (7 November 1728Old style date: 27 October14 February 1779) was a British explorer, navigator, cartographer, and captain in the Royal Navy.
John Bautista Rogers Cooper (born John Rogers Cooper, September 11, 1791, Alderney, British Channel Islands – June 2, 1872, San Francisco, California).
Rev Prof John Fleming DD FRSE FRS FSA (10 January 1785 – 18 November 1857) was a Scottish minister, naturalist, zoologist and geologist.
The Journal of Archaeological Science is a peer-reviewed academic journal that covers "the development and application of scientific techniques and methodologies to all areas of archaeology".
Juan Bautista Valentín Alvarado y Vallejo (February 14, 1809 – July 13, 1882) was a Californio and Governor of Las Californias from 1837 to 1842.
The Kamchatka Peninsula (полуо́стров Камча́тка, Poluostrov Kamchatka) is a 1,250-kilometre-long (780 mi) peninsula in the Russian Far East, with an area of about 270,000 km2 (100,000 sq mi).
Kelps are large brown algae seaweeds that make up the order Laminariales.
Kelp forests are underwater areas with a high density of kelp.
A keystone species is a species that has a disproportionately large effect on its environment relative to its abundance.
The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs present in left and right sides of the body in vertebrates.
Koryaks (or Koriak) are an indigenous people of the Russian Far East, who live immediately north of the Kamchatka Peninsula in Kamchatka Krai and inhabit the coastlands of the Bering Sea.
The Kunstkamera (or Kunstkammer; Кунсткамера) is the first museum in Russia.
The Kuril Islands or Kurile Islands (or; p or r; Japanese: or), in Russia's Sakhalin Oblast region, form a volcanic archipelago that stretches approximately northeast from Hokkaido, Japan, to Kamchatka, Russia, separating the Sea of Okhotsk from the north Pacific Ocean.
The, known in Japanese as or simply, is a sacred yukar epic of the native Ainu people of Japan.
Kyakhta (Кя́хта,; Xyaagta) is a town and the administrative center of Kyakhtinsky District in the Republic of Buryatia, Russia, located on the Kyakhta River near the Mongolia–Russia border.
Kyuquot (pronounced "ky YOO kit") is an unincorporated settlement and First Nations Indian reserve community located on Kyuquot Sound on northwestern Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada.
Lactation describes the secretion of milk from the mammary glands and the period of time that a mother lactates to feed her young.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Limpets are aquatic snails with a shell that is broadly conical in shape and a strong, muscular foot.
The liver, an organ only found in vertebrates, detoxifies various metabolites, synthesizes proteins, and produces biochemicals necessary for digestion.
Local extinction or extirpation is the condition of a species (or other taxon) that ceases to exist in the chosen geographic area of study, though it still exists elsewhere.
Lontra is a genus of otters from the Americas.
Louse (plural: lice) is the common name for members of the order Phthiraptera, which contains nearly 5,000 species of wingless insect.
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
Lung volumes and lung capacities refer to the volume of air associated with different phases of the respiratory cycle.
Lutra is a genus of otters, one of seven in the subfamily Lutrinae.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
Marine conservation refers to the study of conserving physical and biological marine resources and ecosystem functions.
Marine mammals are aquatic mammals that rely on the ocean and other marine ecosystems for their existence.
The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) was the first act of the United States Congress to call specifically for an ecosystem approach to wildlife management.
The marine otter (Lontra felina) is a rare and poorly known South American mammal of the weasel family (Mustelidae).
Marine protected areas (MPA) are protected areas of seas, oceans, estuaries or large lakes.
The maritime fur trade was a ship-based fur trade system that focused on acquiring furs of sea otters and other animals from the indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast and natives of Alaska.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Microcystins — or cyanoginosins — are a class of toxins produced by certain freshwater cyanobacteria; primarily Microcystis aeruginosa but also other Microcystis, as well as members of the Planktothrix, Anabaena, Oscillatoria and Nostoc genera.
Mink are dark-colored, semiaquatic, carnivorous mammals of the genera Neovison and Mustela, and part of the family Mustelidae which also includes weasels, otters and ferrets.
The molars or molar teeth are large, flat teeth at the back of the mouth.
Molecular phylogenetics is the branch of phylogeny that analyzes genetic, hereditary molecular differences, predominately in DNA sequences, to gain information on an organism's evolutionary relationships.
Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.
The Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary (MBNMS) is a US Federally protected marine area offshore of California's central coast.
In biology, moulting (British English), or molting (American English), also known as sloughing, shedding, or in many invertebrates, ecdysis, is the manner in which an animal routinely casts off a part of its body (often, but not always, an outer layer or covering), either at specific times of the year, or at specific points in its life cycle.
Mussel is the common name used for members of several families of bivalve molluscs, from saltwater and freshwater habitats.
The Mustelidae (from Latin mustela, weasel) are a family of carnivorous mammals, including weasels, badgers, otters, martens, mink, and wolverines, among others.
The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA; pronounced, like "Noah") is an American scientific agency within the United States Department of Commerce that focuses on the conditions of the oceans, major waterways, and the atmosphere.
Neontology is a part of biology that, in contrast to paleontology, deals with living (or, more generally, recent) organisms.
The nipple is a raised region of tissue on the surface of the breast from which milk leaves the breast through the lactiferous ducts.
The North American river otter (Lontra canadensis), also known as the northern river otter or the common otter, is a semiaquatic mammal endemic to the North American continent found in and along its waterways and coasts.
The North Pacific Fur Seal Convention of 1911, formally known as the Convention between the United States and Other Powers Providing for the Preservation and Protection of Fur Seals, was an international treaty signed on July 7, 1911, designed to manage the commercial harvest of fur bearing mammals (such as Northern fur seals and sea otters) in the Pribilof Islands of the Bering Sea.
Norwich Castle is a medieval royal fortification in the city of Norwich, in the English county of Norfolk.
The Nuu-chah-nulth (Nuučaan̓uł), also formerly referred to as the Nootka, Nutka, Aht, Nuuchahnulth or Tahkaht, are one of the indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast in Canada.
An oil spill is the release of a liquid petroleum hydrocarbon into the environment, especially the marine ecosystem, due to human activity, and is a form of pollution.
Olfaction is a chemoreception that forms the sense of smell.
The Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary is one of 14 marine sanctuaries administered by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), an agency of the U.S. Department of Commerce.
The Olympic Peninsula is the large arm of land in western Washington that lies across Puget Sound from Seattle, and contains Olympic National Park.
The Oregon Coast is a region of the U.S. state of Oregon.
Osteosclerosis is a disorder that is characterized by abnormal hardening of bone and an elevation in bone density.
Otters are carnivorous mammals in the subfamily Lutrinae.
Overfishing is the removal of a species of fish from a body of water at a rate that the species cannot replenish in time, resulting in those species either becoming depleted or very underpopulated in that given area.
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world, and the second oldest after Cambridge University Press.
The Pacific Northwest (PNW), sometimes referred to as Cascadia, is a geographic region in western North America bounded by the Pacific Ocean to the west and (loosely) by the Cascade Mountain Range on the east.
The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions.
The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.
The Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format developed in the 1990s to present documents, including text formatting and images, in a manner independent of application software, hardware, and operating systems.
Pigeon Point Light Station or Pigeon Point Lighthouse is a lighthouse built in 1871 to guide ships on the Pacific coast of California.
Pinnipeds, commonly known as seals, are a widely distributed and diverse clade of carnivorous, fin-footed, semiaquatic marine mammals.
Tivela stultorum, also known as the Pismo clam, is a species of large, edible, saltwater clam, a marine bivalve mollusk in the family Veneridae, the Venus clams.
The Pleistocene (often colloquially referred to as the Ice Age) is the geological epoch which lasted from about 2,588,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the world's most recent period of repeated glaciations.
Poaching has been defined as the illegal hunting or capturing of wild animals, usually associated with land use rights.
Polygyny (from Neoclassical Greek πολυγυνία from πολύ- poly- "many", and γυνή gyne "woman" or "wife") is the most common and accepted form of polygamy, entailing the marriage of a man with several women.
A potlatch is a gift-giving feast practiced by indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast of Canada and the United States,Harkin, Michael E., 2001, Potlatch in Anthropology, International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences, Neil J. Smelser and Paul B. Baltes, eds., vol 17, pp.
Prince William Sound (Чугацкий залив Čugatski zaliv) is a sound of the Gulf of Alaska on the south coast of the U.S. state of Alaska.
Protected areas of Canada have been created to protect ecological integrity, as well as to provide areas for recreation and education.
Protected areas of Russia, (official Russian title: Особо охраняемые природные территории, literally "Specially Protected Natural Areas"), is governed by the corresponding 1995 law of the Russian Federation.
The protected areas of the United States are managed by an array of different federal, state, tribal and local level authorities and receive widely varying levels of protection.
A public aquarium (plural: public aquaria or public aquariums) is the aquatic counterpart of a zoo, which houses living aquatic animal and plant specimens for public viewing.
Puget Sound is a sound along the northwestern coast of the U.S. state of Washington, an inlet of the Pacific Ocean, and part of the Salish Sea.
Rancho Punta de Quentin was a Mexican land grant in present-day Marin County, California given in 1840 by Governor Juan B. Alvarado to John B.R. Cooper.
The red Irish lord (Hemilepidotus hemilepidotus) is a species of fish in the family Cottidae.
The red sea urchin (Mesocentrotus franciscanus) is a sea urchin found in the Pacific Ocean from Alaska to Baja California.
Robert Scott (26 January 1811 – 2 December 1887) was a British academic philologist and Church of England priest.
Rodents (from Latin rodere, "to gnaw") are mammals of the order Rodentia, which are characterized by a single pair of continuously growing incisors in each of the upper and lower jaws.
In anatomy, the term rostrum (from the Latin rostrum meaning beak) is used for a number of phylogenetically unrelated structures in different groups of animals.
Russia (rɐˈsʲijə), officially the Russian Federation (p), is a country in Eurasia. At, Russia is the largest country in the world by area, covering more than one-eighth of the Earth's inhabited land area, and the ninth most populous, with over 144 million people as of December 2017, excluding Crimea. About 77% of the population live in the western, European part of the country. Russia's capital Moscow is one of the largest cities in the world; other major cities include Saint Petersburg, Novosibirsk, Yekaterinburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Extending across the entirety of Northern Asia and much of Eastern Europe, Russia spans eleven time zones and incorporates a wide range of environments and landforms. From northwest to southeast, Russia shares land borders with Norway, Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland (both with Kaliningrad Oblast), Belarus, Ukraine, Georgia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, China, Mongolia and North Korea. It shares maritime borders with Japan by the Sea of Okhotsk and the U.S. state of Alaska across the Bering Strait. The East Slavs emerged as a recognizable group in Europe between the 3rd and 8th centuries AD. Founded and ruled by a Varangian warrior elite and their descendants, the medieval state of Rus arose in the 9th century. In 988 it adopted Orthodox Christianity from the Byzantine Empire, beginning the synthesis of Byzantine and Slavic cultures that defined Russian culture for the next millennium. Rus' ultimately disintegrated into a number of smaller states; most of the Rus' lands were overrun by the Mongol invasion and became tributaries of the nomadic Golden Horde in the 13th century. The Grand Duchy of Moscow gradually reunified the surrounding Russian principalities, achieved independence from the Golden Horde. By the 18th century, the nation had greatly expanded through conquest, annexation, and exploration to become the Russian Empire, which was the third largest empire in history, stretching from Poland on the west to Alaska on the east. Following the Russian Revolution, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic became the largest and leading constituent of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the world's first constitutionally socialist state. The Soviet Union played a decisive role in the Allied victory in World War II, and emerged as a recognized superpower and rival to the United States during the Cold War. The Soviet era saw some of the most significant technological achievements of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite and the launching of the first humans in space. By the end of 1990, the Soviet Union had the world's second largest economy, largest standing military in the world and the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Following the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, twelve independent republics emerged from the USSR: Russia, Ukraine, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and the Baltic states regained independence: Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania; the Russian SFSR reconstituted itself as the Russian Federation and is recognized as the continuing legal personality and a successor of the Soviet Union. It is governed as a federal semi-presidential republic. The Russian economy ranks as the twelfth largest by nominal GDP and sixth largest by purchasing power parity in 2015. Russia's extensive mineral and energy resources are the largest such reserves in the world, making it one of the leading producers of oil and natural gas globally. The country is one of the five recognized nuclear weapons states and possesses the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction. Russia is a great power as well as a regional power and has been characterised as a potential superpower. It is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council and an active global partner of ASEAN, as well as a member of the G20, the Shanghai Cooperation Organisation (SCO), the Council of Europe, the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC), the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE), and the World Trade Organization (WTO), as well as being the leading member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the Collective Security Treaty Organization (CSTO) and one of the five members of the Eurasian Economic Union (EEU), along with Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan.
The "Russian-American Company Under the Supreme Patronage of His Imperial Majesty" (Под высочайшим Его Императорского Величества покровительством Российская-Американская Компания Pod vysochayshim Yego Imperatorskogo Velichestva porkrovitelstvom Rossiyskaya-Amerikanskaya Kompaniya) was a state-sponsored chartered company formed largely on the basis of the United American Company.
The sable (Martes zibellina) is a marten species, a small carnivorous mammal inhabiting forest environments, primarily in Russia from the Ural Mountains throughout Siberia, northern Mongolia.
Saint Petersburg (p) is Russia's second-largest city after Moscow, with 5 million inhabitants in 2012, part of the Saint Petersburg agglomeration with a population of 6.2 million (2015).
San Bruno is a city in San Mateo County, California, United States, incorporated in 1914.
San Francisco Bay is a shallow estuary in the US state of California.
San Jose (Spanish for 'Saint Joseph'), officially the City of San José, is an economic, cultural, and political center of Silicon Valley and the largest city in Northern California.
The San Juan Islands are an archipelago in the northwest corner of the contiguous United States between the U.S. mainland and Vancouver Island, British Columbia, Canada.
San Mateo County (Spanish for "Saint Matthew") is a county located in the U.S. state of California.
San Mateo (Spanish for "Saint Matthew") is a city on the San Francisco Peninsula in Northern California's Bay Area, approximately south of San Francisco, and northwest of San Jose.
San Nicolas Island (Tongva: Haraasnga) is the most remote of California's Channel Islands, located 61 miles (98 km) from the nearest point on the mainland coast.
Santa Barbara County, California, officially the County of Santa Barbara, is a county located in the southern region of the U.S. state of California.
Sarcocystis is a genus of parasites, the majority of species infecting mammals, and some infecting reptiles and birds.
Sea lions are sea mammals characterized by external ear flaps, long foreflippers, the ability to walk on all fours, short, thick hair, and a big chest and belly.
The sea mink (Neovison macrodon) is a recently extinct species of mink that lived on the eastern coast of North America in the family Mustelidae, the largest family in the order Carnivora.
The sea otter (Enhydra lutris) is a marine mammal.
Sea urchins or urchins are typically spiny, globular animals, echinoderms in the class Echinoidea.
The seabed (also known as the seafloor, sea floor, or ocean floor) is the bottom of the ocean.
The Seattle Aquarium is a public aquarium opened in 1977 and located on Pier 59 on the Elliott Bay waterfront in Seattle, Washington, USA.
Seismology (from Ancient Greek σεισμός (seismós) meaning "earthquake" and -λογία (-logía) meaning "study of") is the scientific study of earthquakes and the propagation of elastic waves through the Earth or through other planet-like bodies.
Sexual coercion in animals is the use of violence, threats, harassment, and other tactics to help them forcefully copulate.
Shellfish is a food source and fisheries term for exoskeleton-bearing aquatic invertebrates used as food, including various species of molluscs, crustaceans, and echinoderms.
The Sirenia, commonly referred to as sea cows or sirenians, are an order of fully aquatic, herbivorous mammals that inhabit swamps, rivers, estuaries, marine wetlands, and coastal marine waters.
The skeleton is the body part that forms the supporting structure of an organism.
The smooth-coated otter (Lutrogale perspicillata) is a species of otter, the only extant representative of the genus Lutrogale.
Snail is a common name loosely applied to shelled gastropods.
Sociality is the degree to which individuals in an animal population tend to associate in social groups (Gregariousness) and form cooperative societies.
The somatosensory system is a part of the sensory nervous system.
Spain (España), officially the Kingdom of Spain (Reino de España), is a sovereign state mostly located on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Speciation is the evolutionary process by which populations evolve to become distinct species.
The spotted-necked otter (Hydrictis maculicollis), or speckle-throated otter, is an otter native to sub-Saharan Africa.
Starfish or sea stars are star-shaped echinoderms belonging to the class Asteroidea.
In biological classification, the term subspecies refers to a unity of populations of a species living in a subdivision of the species’s global range and varies from other populations of the same species by morphological characteristics.
Stream substrate (sediment) is the material that rests at the bottom of a stream.
(originally in Latin written with the ligature æ) is one of the major works of the Swedish botanist, zoologist and physician Carl Linnaeus (1707–1778) and introduced the Linnaean taxonomy.
Terrestrial animals are animals that live predominantly or entirely on land (e.g., cats, ants, spiders), as compared with aquatic animals, which live predominantly or entirely in the water (e.g., fish, lobsters, octopuses), or amphibians, which rely on a combination of aquatic and terrestrial habitats (e.g., frogs, or newts).
The Tetraodontidae are a family of primarily marine and estuarine fish of the order Tetraodontiformes.
Threatened species are any species (including animals, plants, fungi, etc.) which are vulnerable to endangerment in the near future.
The sea otter, Enhydra lutris, is a member of the Mustelidae that is fully aquatic.
A tooth (plural teeth) is a hard, calcified structure found in the jaws (or mouths) of many vertebrates and used to break down food.
A tourist attraction is a place of interest where tourists visit, typically for its inherent or exhibited natural or cultural value, historical significance, natural or built beauty, offering leisure and amusement.
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular, parasitic alveolate that causes the disease toxoplasmosis.
Tunitas Creek is a U.S. Geological Survey.
The United States Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS or FWS) is an agency of the federal government within the U.S. Department of the Interior dedicated to the management of fish, wildlife, and natural habitats.
The United States Geological Survey (USGS, formerly simply Geological Survey) is a scientific agency of the United States government.
Urban runoff is surface runoff of rainwater created by urbanization.
An urchin barren is an area of the subtidal where the population growth of sea urchins has gone unchecked, causing destructive grazing of kelp beds or kelp forests (specifically the giant brown bladder kelp, Macrocystis).
Urechis unicinctus is a species of the marine spoon worm.
The Vancouver Aquarium (officially the Vancouver Aquarium Marine Science Centre) is a public aquarium located in Stanley Park in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
Vancouver Island is in the northeastern Pacific Ocean, just off the coast of Canada.
Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment using light in the visible spectrum reflected by the objects in the environment.
Vitus Jonassen Bering (baptised 5 August 1681, died 19 December 1741),All dates are here given in the Julian calendar, which was in use throughout Russia at the time.
Washington, officially the State of Washington, is a state in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States.
A weasel is a mammal of the genus Mustela of the family Mustelidae.
Whiskers or vibrissae (singular: vibrissa) are a type of mammalian hair that are typically characterised, anatomically, by their large length, large and well-innervated hair follicle, and by having an identifiable representation in the somatosensory cortex of the brain.
The World Register of Marine Species (WoRMS) is a database that aims to provide an authoritative and comprehensive list of names of marine organisms.
A year is the orbital period of the Earth moving in its orbit around the Sun.
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California.
Yukar (ユカㇻ) are Ainu sagas that form a long rich tradition of oral literature.
A zoo (short for zoological garden or zoological park and also called an animal park or menagerie) is a facility in which all animals are housed within enclosures, displayed to the public, and in which they may also breed.
The 10th edition of Systema Naturae is a book written by Carl Linnaeus and published in two volumes in 1758 and 1759, which marks the starting point of zoological nomenclature.
Enhydra, Enhydra lutris, Enhydra lutris kenyoni, Evolution of sea otters, Northern sea otter, Sea Otter, Sea beaver, Sea otters, Sea-Otter, Sexual behavior of sea otters, Social behavior of sea otters, Southern sea otter.