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Second Amendment to the United States Constitution

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The Second Amendment (Amendment II) to the United States Constitution protects the right of the people to keep and bear arms and was adopted on December 15, 1791, as part of the first ten amendments contained in the Bill of Rights. [1]

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Sandford, Edward Coke, Electroshock weapon, En banc, English Civil War, English people, Enumerated powers (United States), ..., Equal Protection Clause, Facial challenge, Federal government of the United States, Federalist No. 29, Federalist No. 46, Firearm, Founding Fathers of the United States, Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, French Revolution, George Mason, George Washington, Glenn Reynolds, Glorious Revolution, Gun control, Gun Control Act of 1968, Gun culture in the United States, Gun politics in the United States, Hatter (Alice's Adventures in Wonderland), Hawkins' Treatise of Pleas of the Crown, Henry II of England, Henry Knox, Henry Lee III, Hessian (soldier), Illinois General Assembly, Incorporation of the Bill of Rights, Individual and group rights, Intermediate scrutiny, Involuntary commitment, Jack N. Rakove, James Clark McReynolds, James II of England, James Madison, James Monroe, John Adams, John Brown (abolitionist), John Paul Stevens, Joseph Story, JURIST, Jury trial, List of amendments to the United States Constitution, List of British units in the American Revolutionary War, List of firearm court cases in the United States, Lists of landmark court decisions, Local government in the United States, Lock (firearm), Loyalist (American Revolution), Lysander Spooner, Majority opinion, Mary II of England, Massachusetts, Massachusetts Compromise, Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court, McDonald v. City of Chicago, Mediation, Mercenary, Michael Arnheim, Militia Acts of 1792, Moore v. Madigan, Mount Vernon Conference, Musket, National Archives and Records Administration, National Firearms Act, Natural and legal rights, New Jersey, New York (state), Noah Webster, Nunn v. Georgia, Ochlocracy, Oppression, Originalism, Parliament of the United Kingdom, Pat Quinn (politician), Patrick Henry, Patriot (American Revolution), Paul Finkelman, PBS, Pennsylvania, Pennsylvania Constitution of 1776, People v. Aguilar, Per curiam decision, Philadelphia, Plantation, Political economy, Posse comitatus, Privileges or Immunities Clause, Psychiatric hospital, Reason (magazine), Reconstruction era, Remand (court procedure), Reuters, Right to keep and bear arms, Right to keep and bear arms in the United States, Robert Spitzer (political scientist), Robert Whitehill (Pennsylvania), Roger Sherman, Ruth Bader Ginsburg, SCOTUSblog, Scribe, Second Amendment Caucus, Select committee, Self-defense, Shays' Rebellion, Silveira v. Lockyer, Simeon Baldwin, Slate (magazine), Slave patrol, Slave rebellion, Southern United States, St. George Tucker, Standing army, State actor, State governments of the United States, States' rights, Stay of execution, Stephen Breyer, Strict constructionism, Strict scrutiny, Supreme Court of Georgia (U.S. state), Supreme Court of Illinois, Supreme Court of the United States, Tench Coxe, The New York Times, The Root (magazine), The Unconstitutionality of Slavery, The Volokh Conspiracy, The Washington Post, Theodore Sedgwick, Third Enforcement Act, Thom Hartmann, Thomas Jefferson, Thomas M. Cooley, Title II weapons, Townshend Acts, Tyrant, U.S. News & World Report, Uniform Firearms Act, United Press International, United States Bill of Rights, United States Congress, United States Constitution, United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit, United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit, United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit, United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit, United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit, United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit, United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit, United States courts of appeals, United States Declaration of Independence, United States district court, United States District Court for the Northern District of California, United States v. Cruikshank, United States v. Emerson, United States v. Miller, United States v. Verdugo-Urquidez, University of Massachusetts Press, Vacated judgment, Vigilante, Virginia, War of 1812, Warren E. Burger, Weapon, Whiskey Rebellion, William Blackstone, William III of England, William Lambert (writer), William Rawle, WNYC, Yeomanry, 2nd Amendment Day. Expand index (170 more) »

ABC-CLIO

ABC-CLIO, LLC is a publishing company for academic reference works and periodicals primarily on topics such as history and social sciences for educational and public library settings.

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Abolitionism in the United States

Abolitionism in the United States was the movement before and during the American Civil War to end slavery in the United States.

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African Americans

African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group of Americans with total or partial ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa.

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Alameda County, California

Alameda County is a county in the state of California in the United States.

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Alexander Hamilton

Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757July 12, 1804) was a statesman and one of the Founding Fathers of the United States.

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Alexander White (Virginia)

Alexander White (1738 – September 19, 1804) was a distinguished early American lawyer and politician in the present-day U.S. states of Virginia and West Virginia.

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American Revolution

The American Revolution was a colonial revolt that took place between 1765 and 1783.

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Andrew McClurg

Andrew J. McClurg is a professor of law holding the Herbert Herff Chair of Excellence in Law at the University of Memphis Cecil C. Humphreys School of Law, specializing in torts, products liability, privacy law, and firearms policy.

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Annapolis, Maryland

Annapolis is the capital of the U.S. state of Maryland, as well as the county seat of Anne Arundel County.

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Anti-Federalism

Anti-Federalism refers to a movement that opposed the creation of a stronger U.S. federal government and which later opposed the ratification of the 1787 Constitution.

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Antonin Scalia

Antonin Gregory Scalia (March 11, 1936 – February 13, 2016) was an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States from 1986 until his death in 2016.

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Articles of Confederation

The Articles of Confederation, formally the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, was an agreement among the 13 original states of the United States of America that served as its first constitution.

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Assize of Arms of 1181

The Assize of Arms of 1181 was a proclamation of King Henry II of England concerning the obligation of all freemen of England to possess and bear arms in the service of king and realm and to swear allegiance to the king, on pain of "vengeance, not merely on their lands or chattels, but on their limbs".

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Baton (law enforcement)

A baton or truncheon is a roughly cylindrical club made of wood, rubber, plastic or metal.

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Bill of Rights 1689

The Bill of Rights, also known as the English Bill of Rights, is an Act of the Parliament of England that deals with constitutional matters and sets out certain basic civil rights.

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Bloomberg News

Bloomberg News is an international news agency headquartered in New York, United States and a division of Bloomberg L.P. Content produced by Bloomberg News is disseminated through Bloomberg Terminals, Bloomberg Television, Bloomberg Radio, Bloomberg Businessweek, Bloomberg Markets, Bloomberg.com and Bloomberg's mobile platforms.

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Bret Stephens

Bret Louis Stephens (born November 21, 1973) is an American journalist, editor, and political commentator.

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British Army

The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom, a part of British Armed Forces.

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Business Insider

Business Insider is an American financial and business news website that also operates international editions in the UK, Australia, China, Germany, France, South Africa, India, Italy, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Netherlands, Nordics, Poland, Spanish and Singapore.

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Caetano v. Massachusetts

Caetano v. Massachusetts, 577 U.S. ___ (2016) was a case in which the Supreme Court of the United States unanimously vacated a Massachusetts conviction of a woman who carried a stun gun for self-defense.

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CBS News

CBS News is the news division of American television and radio service CBS.

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Chicago Tribune

The Chicago Tribune is a daily newspaper based in Chicago, Illinois, United States, owned by Tronc, Inc., formerly Tribune Publishing.

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Chief Justice of the United States

The Chief Justice of the United States is the chief judge of the Supreme Court of the United States and thus the head of the United States federal court system, which functions as the judicial branch of the nation's federal government.

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Circuit split

In United States federal courts, a circuit split occurs when two or more different circuit courts of appeals provide conflicting rulings on the same legal issue.

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Citizenship of the United States

Citizenship of the United States is a status that entails specific rights, duties and benefits.

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Clarence Thomas

Clarence Thomas (born June 23, 1948) is an American judge, lawyer, and government official who currently serves as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.

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Colfax massacre

The Colfax massacre, or Colfax riot as the events are termed on the 1950 state historic marker, occurred on Easter Sunday, April 13, 1873, in Colfax, Louisiana, the seat of Grant Parish, when approximately 150 black men were murdered by white Southerners.

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Commentaries on the Laws of England

The Commentaries on the Laws of England are an influential 18th-century treatise on the common law of England by Sir William Blackstone, originally published by the Clarendon Press at Oxford, 1765–1769.

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Concealed carry

Concealed carry (carrying a concealed weapon (CCW)), refers to the practice of carrying a handgun or other weapon in public in a concealed or hidden manner, either on one's person or in close proximity.

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Concealed carry in the United States

Concealed carry or carrying a concealed weapon (CCW), is the practice of carrying a weapon (such as a handgun) in public in a concealed manner, either on one's person or in close proximity.

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Congressional caucus

A congressional caucus is a group of members of the United States Congress that meets to pursue common legislative objectives.

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Connecticut General Assembly

The Connecticut General Assembly (CGA) is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Connecticut.

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Constitution of New Hampshire

The Constitution of the State of New Hampshire is the fundamental law of the State of New Hampshire, with which all statute laws must comply.

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Constitutional Accountability Center

Constitutional Accountability Center (CAC) is a non-profit think tank, public interest law firm, and action center founded in 2008 and located in Washington, D.C. CAC’s work in the courts, through the government, and with legal scholars is organized around the principle that the Constitution’s text and history are inherently progressive.

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Constitutional Convention (United States)

The Constitutional Convention (also known as the Philadelphia Convention, the Federal Convention, or the Grand Convention at Philadelphia) took place from May 25 to September 17, 1787, in the old Pennsylvania State House (later known as Independence Hall because of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence there eleven years before) in Philadelphia.

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Continental Army

The Continental Army was formed by the Second Continental Congress after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War by the colonies that became the United States of America.

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Continental Congress

The Continental Congress, also known as the Philadelphia Congress, was a convention of delegates called together from the Thirteen Colonies.

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David Souter

David Hackett Souter (born September 17, 1939) is a retired Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.

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Delaware

Delaware is one of the 50 states of the United States, in the Mid-Atlantic or Northeastern region.

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Dennis Baron

Dennis Baron (born May 9, 1944) is a professor of English and linguistics at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.

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Dictum

In general usage, a dictum (from Latin, "something that has been said"; plural dicta) is an authoritative or dogmatic statement.

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District of Columbia v. Heller

District of Columbia v. Heller, 554 U.S. 570 (2008), is a landmark case in which the Supreme Court of the United States held that the Second Amendment protects an individual's right to possess a firearm unconnected with service in a militia for traditionally lawful purposes, such as self-defense within the home, and that Washington, D.C.'s handgun ban and requirement that lawfully-owned rifles and shotguns be kept "unloaded and disassembled or bound by a trigger lock" violated this guarantee.

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Donald Trump

Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is the 45th and current President of the United States, in office since January 20, 2017.

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Dred Scott v. Sandford

Dred Scott v. Sandford,, also known as the Dred Scott case, was a landmark decision by the United States Supreme Court on US labor law and constitutional law.

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Edward Coke

Sir Edward Coke ("cook", formerly; 1 February 1552 – 3 September 1634) was an English barrister, judge, and politician who is considered to be the greatest jurist of the Elizabethan and Jacobean eras.

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Electroshock weapon

An electroshock weapon is an incapacitating weapon.

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En banc

In law, an en banc session (French for "in bench") is a session in which a case is heard before all the judges of a court (before the entire bench) rather than by a panel of judges selected from them.

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English Civil War

The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of armed conflicts and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers") over, principally, the manner of England's governance.

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English people

The English are a nation and an ethnic group native to England who speak the English language. The English identity is of early medieval origin, when they were known in Old English as the Angelcynn ("family of the Angles"). Their ethnonym is derived from the Angles, one of the Germanic peoples who migrated to Great Britain around the 5th century AD. England is one of the countries of the United Kingdom, and the majority of people living there are British citizens. Historically, the English population is descended from several peoples the earlier Celtic Britons (or Brythons) and the Germanic tribes that settled in Britain following the withdrawal of the Romans, including Angles, Saxons, Jutes and Frisians. Collectively known as the Anglo-Saxons, they founded what was to become England (from the Old English Englaland) along with the later Danes, Anglo-Normans and other groups. In the Acts of Union 1707, the Kingdom of England was succeeded by the Kingdom of Great Britain. Over the years, English customs and identity have become fairly closely aligned with British customs and identity in general. Today many English people have recent forebears from other parts of the United Kingdom, while some are also descended from more recent immigrants from other European countries and from the Commonwealth. The English people are the source of the English language, the Westminster system, the common law system and numerous major sports such as cricket, football, rugby union, rugby league and tennis. These and other English cultural characteristics have spread worldwide, in part as a result of the former British Empire.

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Enumerated powers (United States)

The Enumerated powers (also called Expressed powers, Explicit powers or Delegated powers) of the United States Congress are listed in Article I, Section 8 of the United States Constitution.

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Equal Protection Clause

The Equal Protection Clause is part of the Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.

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Facial challenge

In U.S. constitutional law, a facial challenge is a challenge to a statute in which the plaintiff alleges that the legislation is always unconstitutional, and therefore void.

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Federal government of the United States

The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government) is the national government of the United States, a constitutional republic in North America, composed of 50 states, one district, Washington, D.C. (the nation's capital), and several territories.

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Federalist No. 29

Federalist No.

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Federalist No. 46

Federalist No.

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Firearm

A firearm is a portable gun (a barreled ranged weapon) that inflicts damage on targets by launching one or more projectiles driven by rapidly expanding high-pressure gas produced by exothermic combustion (deflagration) of propellant within an ammunition cartridge.

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Founding Fathers of the United States

The Founding Fathers of the United States led the American Revolution against the Kingdom of Great Britain.

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Fourteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution

The Fourteenth Amendment (Amendment XIV) to the United States Constitution was adopted on July 9, 1868, as one of the Reconstruction Amendments.

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French Revolution

The French Revolution (Révolution française) was a period of far-reaching social and political upheaval in France and its colonies that lasted from 1789 until 1799.

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George Mason

George Mason (sometimes referred to as George Mason IV; October 7, 1792) was a Virginia planter, politician and delegate to the U.S. Constitutional Convention of 1787, one of three delegates, together with fellow Virginian Edmund Randolph and Elbridge Gerry of Massachusetts, who refused to sign the Constitution.

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George Washington

George Washington (February 22, 1732 –, 1799), known as the "Father of His Country," was an American soldier and statesman who served from 1789 to 1797 as the first President of the United States.

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Glenn Reynolds

Glenn Harlan Reynolds (born August 27, 1960) is Beauchamp Brogan Distinguished Professor of Law at the University of Tennessee College of Law, and is known for his weblog, Instapundit, an American political weblog.

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Glorious Revolution

The Glorious Revolution, also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III, Prince of Orange, who was James's nephew and son-in-law.

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Gun control

Gun control (or firearms regulation) is the set of laws or policies that regulate the manufacture, sale, transfer, possession, modification, or use of firearms by civilians.

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Gun Control Act of 1968

The Gun Control Act of 1968 (GCA or GCA68) is a U.S. federal law that regulates the firearms industry and firearms owners.

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Gun culture in the United States

The term gun culture in the United States encompasses the behaviors, attitudes, and beliefs about firearms and their usage by civilians.

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Gun politics in the United States

Gun politics is an area of American politics defined by two opposing groups advocating for tighter gun control on the one hand and gun rights on the other.

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Hatter (Alice's Adventures in Wonderland)

The Hatter is a fictional character in Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and its sequel Through the Looking-Glass.

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Hawkins' Treatise of Pleas of the Crown

A Treatise of Pleas of the Crown; or, a system of the principal matters relating to that subject, digested under proper heads is an influential treatise on the criminal law of England, written by William Hawkins, serjeant-at-law, and later edited by John Curwood, barrister.

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Henry II of England

Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189), also known as Henry Curtmantle (Court-manteau), Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, ruled as Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Count of Nantes, King of England and Lord of Ireland; at various times, he also partially controlled Wales, Scotland and Brittany.

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Henry Knox

Henry Knox (July 25, 1750 – October 25, 1806) was a military officer of the Continental Army and later the United States Army, who also served as the first United States Secretary of War from 1789 to 1794.

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Henry Lee III

Major-General Henry "Light-Horse Harry" Lee III (January 29, 1756March 25, 1818) was an early American Patriot and politician who served as the ninth Governor of Virginia and as the Virginia Representative to the United States Congress.

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Hessian (soldier)

Hessians were German soldiers who served as auxiliaries to the British Army during the American Revolutionary War.

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Illinois General Assembly

The Illinois General Assembly is the bicameral legislature of the U.S. state of Illinois and comprises the Illinois House of Representatives and the Illinois Senate.

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Incorporation of the Bill of Rights

Incorporation, in United States law, is the doctrine by which portions of the Bill of Rights have been made applicable to the states.

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Individual and group rights

Group rights, also known as collective rights, are rights held by a group qua group rather than by its members severally; in contrast, individual rights are rights held by individual people; even if they are group-differentiated, which most rights are, they remain individual rights if the right-holders are the individuals themselves.

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Intermediate scrutiny

Intermediate scrutiny, in U.S. constitutional law, is the second level of deciding issues using judicial review.

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Involuntary commitment

Involuntary commitment or civil commitment (also known informally as sectioning or being sectioned in some jurisdictions, such as the UK) is a legal process through which an individual who is deemed by a qualified agent to have symptoms of severe mental disorder is court-ordered into treatment in a psychiatric hospital (inpatient) or in the community (outpatient).

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Jack N. Rakove

Jack Norman Rakove (born June 4, 1947) is an American historian, author and professor at Stanford University.

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James Clark McReynolds

James Clark McReynolds (February 3, 1862 – August 24, 1946) was an American lawyer and judge who served as United States Attorney General under President Woodrow Wilson and as an Associate Justice of the United States Supreme Court.

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James II of England

James II and VII (14 October 1633O.S. – 16 September 1701An assertion found in many sources that James II died 6 September 1701 (17 September 1701 New Style) may result from a miscalculation done by an author of anonymous "An Exact Account of the Sickness and Death of the Late King James II, as also of the Proceedings at St. Germains thereupon, 1701, in a letter from an English gentleman in France to his friend in London" (Somers Tracts, ed. 1809–1815, XI, pp. 339–342). The account reads: "And on Friday the 17th instant, about three in the afternoon, the king died, the day he always fasted in memory of our blessed Saviour's passion, the day he ever desired to die on, and the ninth hour, according to the Jewish account, when our Saviour was crucified." As 17 September 1701 New Style falls on a Saturday and the author insists that James died on Friday, "the day he ever desired to die on", an inevitable conclusion is that the author miscalculated the date, which later made it to various reference works. See "English Historical Documents 1660–1714", ed. by Andrew Browning (London and New York: Routledge, 2001), 136–138.) was King of England and Ireland as James II and King of Scotland as James VII, from 6 February 1685 until he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688.

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James Madison

James Madison Jr. (March 16, 1751 – June 28, 1836) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the fourth President of the United States from 1809 to 1817.

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James Monroe

James Monroe (April 28, 1758 – July 4, 1831) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the fifth President of the United States from 1817 to 1825.

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John Adams

John Adams (October 30 [O.S. October 19] 1735 – July 4, 1826) was an American statesman and Founding Father who served as the first Vice President (1789–1797) and second President of the United States (1797–1801).

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John Brown (abolitionist)

John Brown (May 9, 1800 – December 2, 1859) was an American abolitionist who believed in and advocated armed insurrection as the only way to overthrow the institution of slavery in the United States.

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John Paul Stevens

John Paul Stevens (born April 20, 1920) is an American lawyer and jurist who served as an associate justice of the United States Supreme Court from 1975 until his retirement in 2010.

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Joseph Story

Joseph Story (September 18, 1779 – September 10, 1845) was an American lawyer and jurist who served on the Supreme Court of the United States from 1811 to 1845.

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JURIST

JURIST is an online legal news service hosted by the University of Pittsburgh School of Law, powered by a staff of more than 60 law students working in Pittsburgh and other US locations under the direction of founding Publisher & Editor-in-Chief Professor Bernard Hibbitts, Acting Executive Director Andrew Morgan, Research Director Jaclyn Belczyk, Technical Director Jeremiah Lee, Managing Editor Dave Rodkey and Chief of Staff Ram Eachambadi.

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Jury trial

A jury trial, or trial by jury, is a lawful proceeding in which a jury makes a decision or findings of fact.

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List of amendments to the United States Constitution

Thirty-three amendments to the United States Constitution have been proposed by the United States Congress and sent to the states for ratification since the Constitution was put into operation on March 4, 1789.

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List of British units in the American Revolutionary War

This is a list of British units which took part in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), fighting against the American rebels and their French, Spanish and Dutch allies in the thirteen North American colonies, including battles in Florida and the West Indies.

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List of firearm court cases in the United States

Firearm case law in the United States is based on decisions of the Supreme Court and other federal courts.

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Lists of landmark court decisions

Landmark court decisions, in present-day common law legal systems, establish precedents that determine a significant new legal principle or concept, or otherwise substantially affect the interpretation of existing law.

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Local government in the United States

Local government in the United States refers to governmental jurisdictions below the level of the state.

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Lock (firearm)

The lock of a firearm is the firing mechanism used to ignite the propellant.

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Loyalist (American Revolution)

Loyalists were American colonists who remained loyal to the British Crown during the American Revolutionary War, often called Tories, Royalists, or King's Men at the time.

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Lysander Spooner

Lysander Spooner (January 19, 1808 – May 14, 1887) was an American political philosopher, essayist, pamphlet writer, Unitarian, abolitionist, legal theorist, and entrepreneur of the nineteenth century.

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Majority opinion

In law, a majority opinion is a judicial opinion agreed to by more than half of the members of a court.

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Mary II of England

Mary II (30 April 1662 – 28 December 1694) was Queen of England, Scotland, and Ireland, co-reigning with her husband and first cousin, King William III and II, from 1689 until her death; popular histories usually refer to their joint reign as that of William and Mary.

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Massachusetts

Massachusetts, officially known as the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state in the New England region of the northeastern United States.

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Massachusetts Compromise

The Massachusetts Compromise was a solution reached in a controversy between Federalists and Anti-Federalists over ratification of the United States Constitution.

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Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court

The Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court (SJC) is the highest court in the Commonwealth of Massachusetts.

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McDonald v. City of Chicago

McDonald v. Chicago, 561 U.S. (2010), is a landmark decision of the Supreme Court of the United States that found that the right of an individual to "keep and bear arms" as protected under the Second Amendment is incorporated by the Due Process Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment against the states.

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Mediation

Mediation is a dynamic, structured, interactive process where a neutral third party assists disputing parties in resolving conflict through the use of specialized communication and negotiation techniques.

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Mercenary

A mercenary is an individual who is hired to take part in an armed conflict but is not part of a regular army or other governmental military force.

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Michael Arnheim

Michael Thomas Walter Arnheim (also known as "Doctor Mike"; born 24 March 1944) is a practising London Barrister, Sometime Fellow of St John's College, Cambridge, and author.

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Militia Acts of 1792

The Militia Acts of 1792 were a pair of statutes enacted by the second United States Congress in 1792.

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Moore v. Madigan

Moore v Madigan (USDC 11-CV-405-WDS, 11-CV-03134; 7th Cir. 12-1269, 12-1788) is the common name for a pair of cases decided in 2013 by the U.S. Court of Appeals, 7th Circuit, regarding the constitutionality of the State of Illinois' no-issue legislation and policy regarding the carry of concealed weapons.

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Mount Vernon Conference

The Mount Vernon Conference was a meeting of delegates from Virginia and Maryland held March 21–28, 1785, to discuss navigational rights in the states' common waterways.

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Musket

A musket is a muzzle-loaded, smoothbore long gun that appeared in early 16th century Europe, at first as a heavier variant of the arquebus, capable of penetrating heavy armor.

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National Archives and Records Administration

The National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) is an independent agency of the United States government charged with preserving and documenting government and historical records and with increasing public access to those documents, which comprise the National Archives.

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National Firearms Act

The National Firearms Act (NFA), 73rd Congress, Sess.

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Natural and legal rights

Natural and legal rights are two types of rights.

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New Jersey

New Jersey is a state in the Mid-Atlantic region of the Northeastern United States.

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New York (state)

New York is a state in the northeastern United States.

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Noah Webster

Noah Webster Jr. (October 16, 1758 – May 28, 1843) was an American lexicographer, textbook pioneer, English-language spelling reformer, political writer, editor, and prolific author.

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Nunn v. Georgia

Nunn v. State, 1 Ga.

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Ochlocracy

Ochlocracy (ὀχλοκρατία, okhlokratía; ochlocratia) or mob rule is the rule of government by mob or a mass of people, or, the intimidation of legitimate authorities.

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Oppression

Oppression can refer to an authoritarian regime controlling its citizens via state control of politics, the monetary system, media, and the military; denying people any meaningful human or civil rights; and terrorizing the populace through harsh, unjust punishment, and a hidden network of obsequious informants reporting to a vicious secret police force.

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Originalism

In the context of United States constitutional interpretation, originalism is a way to interpret the Constitution's meaning as stable from the time of enactment, which can be changed only by the steps set out in Article Five.

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Parliament of the United Kingdom

The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.

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Pat Quinn (politician)

Patrick Joseph Quinn Jr. (born December 16, 1948) is an American lawyer and politician who served as the 41st Governor of Illinois, from 2009 to 2015.

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Patrick Henry

Patrick Henry (May 29, 1736June 6, 1799) was an American attorney, planter, and orator well known for his declaration to the Second Virginia Convention (1775): "Give me liberty, or give me death!" A Founding Father, he served as the first and sixth post-colonial Governor of Virginia, from 1776 to 1779 and from 1784 to 1786.

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Patriot (American Revolution)

Patriots (also known as Revolutionaries, Continentals, Rebels, or American Whigs) were those colonists of the Thirteen Colonies who rejected British rule during the American Revolution and declared the United States of America as an independent nation in July 1776.

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Paul Finkelman

Paul Finkelman (born November 15, 1949, in Brooklyn, New York) is an American legal historian, and became the President of Gratz College, Melrose Park, PA in 2017.

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PBS

The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) is an American public broadcaster and television program distributor.

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Pennsylvania

Pennsylvania (Pennsylvania German: Pennsylvaani or Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States.

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Pennsylvania Constitution of 1776

The Pennsylvania Constitution of 1776 (ratified September 28, 1776) was the state's first constitution following the Declaration of Independence, and has been described as the most democratic in America, although it notably based rights in "men" not in "persons," as contemporaneous constitutions did in neighboring areas such as New Jersey, and as the 1689 English Bill of Rights and 1787 U.S. Constitution and 1791 U.S. Bill of Rights did.

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People v. Aguilar

People v. Aguilar, 2 N.E.3d 321 (Ill. 2013), was an Illinois Supreme Court case in which the Court held that the Aggravated Unlawful Use of a Weapon (AUUF) statute violated the right to keep and bear arms as guaranteed by the Second Amendment.

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Per curiam decision

In law, a per curiam decision (or opinion) is a ruling issued by an appellate court of multiple judges in which the decision rendered is made by the court (or at least, a majority of the court) acting collectively (and typically, though not necessarily, unanimously).

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Philadelphia

Philadelphia is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2017 census-estimated population of 1,580,863.

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Plantation

A plantation is a large-scale farm that specializes in cash crops.

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Political economy

Political economy is the study of production and trade and their relations with law, custom and government; and with the distribution of national income and wealth.

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Posse comitatus

Posse comitatus is the common-law or statute law authority of a county sheriff, or other law officer, to conscript any able-bodied man to assist him in keeping the peace or to pursue and arrest a felon, similar to the concept of the "hue and cry." Originally found in English common law, it is generally obsolete; however, it survives in the United States, where it is the law enforcement equivalent of summoning the militia for military purposes.

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Privileges or Immunities Clause

The Privileges or Immunities Clause is Amendment XIV, Section 1, Clause 2 of the United States Constitution.

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Psychiatric hospital

Psychiatric hospitals, also known as mental hospitals, mental health units, mental asylums or simply asylums, are hospitals or wards specializing in the treatment of serious mental disorders, such as clinical depression, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder.

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Reason (magazine)

Reason is an American libertarian monthly magazine published by the Reason Foundation.

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Reconstruction era

The Reconstruction era was the period from 1863 (the Presidential Proclamation of December 8, 1863) to 1877.

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Remand (court procedure)

The remand court procedure is used by higher courts to send cases back to lower courts for further action.

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Reuters

Reuters is an international news agency headquartered in London, United Kingdom.

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Right to keep and bear arms

The right to keep and bear arms (often referred to as the right to bear arms) is the people's right to possess weapons (arms) for their own defense, as described in the philosophical and political writings of Aristotle, Cicero, John Locke, Machiavelli, the English Whigs and others.

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Right to keep and bear arms in the United States

The right to keep and bear arms in the United States is a fundamental right protected by the Second Amendment to the United States Constitution, part of the Bill of Rights, and by the constitutions of most U.S. states.

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Robert Spitzer (political scientist)

Robert James Spitzer (born September 12, 1953) is an American political scientist, commentator, and author.

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Robert Whitehill (Pennsylvania)

Robert Whitehill (July 21, 1738 – April 8, 1813) was a member of the U.S. House of Representatives from Pennsylvania.

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Roger Sherman

Roger Sherman (April 19, 1721 – July 23, 1793) was an early American statesman and lawyer, as well as a Founding Father of the United States.

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Ruth Bader Ginsburg

Ruth Bader Ginsburg (born Joan Ruth Bader; March 15, 1933) is an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.

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SCOTUSblog

SCOTUSblog is a law blog written by lawyers, law professors, and law students about the Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes abbreviated "SCOTUS").

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Scribe

A scribe is a person who serves as a professional copyist, especially one who made copies of manuscripts before the invention of automatic printing.

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Second Amendment Caucus

The Second Amendment Caucus, also known as the House Second Amendment Caucus, is a congressional caucus consisting of conservative and libertarian Republican members of the United States House of Representatives who support Second Amendment rights.

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Select committee

A select committee is a committee made up of a small number of parliamentary members appointed to deal with particular areas or issues originating in the Westminster system of parliamentary democracy.

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Self-defense

Self-defence (self-defense in some varieties of English) is a countermeasure that involves defending the health and well-being of oneself from harm.

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Shays' Rebellion

Shays Rebellion (sometimes spelled "Shays's") was an armed uprising in Massachusetts (mostly in and around Springfield) during 1786 and 1787.

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Silveira v. Lockyer

Silveira v. Lockyer, 312 F.3d 1052 (9th Cir. 2002), is a decision by the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit ruling that the Second Amendment to the United States Constitution did not guarantee individuals the right to bear arms.

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Simeon Baldwin

Simeon Baldwin (December 14, 1761 – May 26, 1851) was son-in-law of Roger Sherman, father of Connecticut Governor Roger Sherman Baldwin and the grandfather of Connecticut Governor Simeon Eben Baldwin.

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Slate (magazine)

Slate is an online magazine that covers current affairs, politics, and culture in the United States from a liberal perspective.

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Slave patrol

Slave patrols called patrollers, patterrollers, pattyrollers or paddy rollers, by the slaves, were organized groups of white men who monitored and enforced discipline upon black slaves in the antebellum U.S. southern states.

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Slave rebellion

A slave rebellion is an armed uprising by slaves.

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Southern United States

The Southern United States, also known as the American South, Dixie, Dixieland, or simply the South, is a region of the United States of America.

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St. George Tucker

St.

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Standing army

A standing army, unlike a reserve army, is a permanent, often professional, army.

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State actor

In United States law, a state actor is a person who is acting on behalf of a governmental body, and is therefore subject to regulation under the United States Bill of Rights, including the First, Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments, which prohibit the federal and state governments from violating certain rights and freedoms.

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State governments of the United States

State governments of the United States are institutional units in the United States exercising some of the functions of government at a level below that of the federal government.

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States' rights

In American political discourse, states' rights are political powers held for the state governments rather than the federal government according to the United States Constitution, reflecting especially the enumerated powers of Congress and the Tenth Amendment.

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Stay of execution

A stay of execution is a court order to temporarily suspend the execution of a court judgment or other court order.

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Stephen Breyer

Stephen Gerald Breyer (born August 15, 1938) is an American lawyer, professor, and jurist who serves as an Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.

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Strict constructionism

In the United States, strict constructionism refers to a particular legal philosophy of judicial interpretation that limits or restricts judicial interpretation.

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Strict scrutiny

Strict scrutiny is the most stringent standard of judicial review used by United States courts.

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Supreme Court of Georgia (U.S. state)

The Supreme Court of Georgia is the highest judicial authority of the US state of Georgia.

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Supreme Court of Illinois

The Supreme Court of Illinois is the state supreme court, the highest court of the state of Illinois.

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Supreme Court of the United States

The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the acronym SCOTUS) is the highest federal court of the United States.

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Tench Coxe

Tench Coxe (May 22, 1755July 17, 1824) was an American political economist and a delegate for Pennsylvania to the Continental Congress in 1788–1789.

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The New York Times

The New York Times (sometimes abbreviated as The NYT or The Times) is an American newspaper based in New York City with worldwide influence and readership.

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The Root (magazine)

The Root is an online magazine launched on January 28, 2008, by Henry Louis Gates Jr. and Donald E. Graham, and was owned by Graham Holdings Company through its online subsidiary, The Slate Group.

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The Unconstitutionality of Slavery

The Unconstitutionality of Slavery (1845) was a pamphlet by American abolitionist Lysander Spooner advocating the view that the United States Constitution prohibited slavery.

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The Volokh Conspiracy

The Volokh Conspiracy is a blog, founded in 2002, covering legal and political issues from an ideological orientation it describes as "generally libertarian, conservative, centrist, or some mixture of these." Its name is a joking reference to Hillary Clinton's reference to a "vast right-wing conspiracy".

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The Washington Post

The Washington Post is a major American daily newspaper founded on December 6, 1877.

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Theodore Sedgwick

Theodore Sedgwick (May 9, 1746January 24, 1813) was an American attorney, politician and jurist, who served in elected state government and as a Delegate to the Continental Congress, a U.S. Representative, and a United States Senator from Massachusetts.

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Third Enforcement Act

The Enforcement Act of 1871, also known as the Civil Rights Act of 1871, Force Act of 1871, Ku Klux Klan Act, Third Enforcement Act, or Third Ku Klux Klan Act, is an Act of the United States Congress which empowered the President to suspend the writ of habeas corpus to combat the Ku Klux Klan (KKK) and other white supremacy organizations.

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Thom Hartmann

Thomas Carl Hartmann (born May 7, 1951) is an American radio host, author, former psychotherapist, businessman, and progressive political commentator.

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Thomas Jefferson

Thomas Jefferson (April 13, [O.S. April 2] 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American Founding Father who was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and later served as the third president of the United States from 1801 to 1809.

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Thomas M. Cooley

Thomas McIntyre Cooley (January 6, 1824 – September 12, 1898) was the 25th Justice and a Chief Justice of the Michigan Supreme Court, between 1864 and 1885.

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Title II weapons

Title II weapons, or NFA firearms, are designations of certain weapons under the United States National Firearms Act (NFA).

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Townshend Acts

The Townshend Acts were a series of British acts passed during 1767 and 1768 and relating to the British American colonies in North America.

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Tyrant

A tyrant (Greek τύραννος, tyrannos), in the modern English usage of the word, is an absolute ruler unrestrained by law or person, or one who has usurped legitimate sovereignty.

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U.S. News & World Report

U.S. News & World Report is an American media company that publishes news, opinion, consumer advice, rankings, and analysis.

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Uniform Firearms Act

The Uniform Firearms Act (UFA) is a set of statutes in the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania that defines the limits of Section 21 of the Pennsylvania Constitution, the right to bear arms, which predates the United States Constitution and reads: "The right of the citizens to bear arms in defense of themselves and the State shall not be questioned." The laws range in scope from use of force in self-defense situations, to specific categories citizens that are ineligible to purchase or possess firearms.

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United Press International

United Press International (UPI) is an international news agency whose newswires, photo, news film, and audio services provided news material to thousands of newspapers, magazines, radio and television stations for most of the 20th century.

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United States Bill of Rights

The Bill of Rights is the first ten amendments to the United States Constitution.

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United States Congress

The United States Congress is the bicameral legislature of the Federal government of the United States.

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United States Constitution

The United States Constitution is the supreme law of the United States.

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United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit

The United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit (in case citations, D.C. Cir.) known informally as the D.C. Circuit, is the federal appellate court for the U.S. District Court for the District of Columbia.

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United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit

The United States Court of Appeals for the Fifth Circuit (in case citations, 5th Cir.) is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following federal judicial districts.

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United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit

The United States Court of Appeals for the First Circuit (in case citations, 1st Cir.) is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts.

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United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit

The United States Court of Appeals for the Fourth Circuit (in case citations, 4th Cir.) is a federal court located in Richmond, Virginia, with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts.

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United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit

The United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit (in case citations, 9th Cir.) is a U.S. Federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the district courts in the following districts.

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United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit

The United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit (in case citations, 2d Cir.) is one of the thirteen United States Courts of Appeals.

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United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit

The United States Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit (in case citations, 7th Cir.) is a federal court with appellate jurisdiction over the courts in the following districts.

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United States courts of appeals

The United States courts of appeals or circuit courts are the intermediate appellate courts of the United States federal court system.

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United States Declaration of Independence

The United States Declaration of Independence is the statement adopted by the Second Continental Congress meeting at the Pennsylvania State House (now known as Independence Hall) in Philadelphia on July 4, 1776.

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United States district court

The United States district courts are the general trial courts of the United States federal court system.

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United States District Court for the Northern District of California

The United States District Court for the Northern District of California (in case citations, N.D. Cal.) is the federal United States district court whose jurisdiction comprises following counties of California: Alameda, Contra Costa, Del Norte, Humboldt, Lake, Marin, Mendocino, Monterey, Napa, San Benito, San Francisco, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, and Sonoma.

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United States v. Cruikshank

United States v. Cruikshank, was an important United States Supreme Court decision in United States constitutional law, one of the earliest to deal with the application of the Bill of Rights to state governments following the adoption of the Fourteenth Amendment.

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United States v. Emerson

United States v. Emerson, 270 F.3d 203 (5th Cir. 2001), cert.

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United States v. Miller

United States v. Miller,, was a Supreme Court case that involved a Second Amendment challenge to the National Firearms Act of 1934 (NFA).

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United States v. Verdugo-Urquidez

United States v. Verdugo-Urquidez,, was a United States Supreme Court decision that determined that Fourth Amendment protections do not apply to searches and seizures by United States agents of property owned by a nonresident alien in a foreign country.

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University of Massachusetts Press

The University of Massachusetts Press is a university press that is part of the University of Massachusetts Amherst.

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Vacated judgment

A vacated judgment makes a previous legal judgment legally void.

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Vigilante

A vigilante is a civilian or organization acting in a law enforcement capacity (or in the pursuit of self-perceived justice) without legal authority.

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Virginia

Virginia (officially the Commonwealth of Virginia) is a state in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States located between the Atlantic Coast and the Appalachian Mountains.

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War of 1812

The War of 1812 was a conflict fought between the United States, the United Kingdom, and their respective allies from June 1812 to February 1815.

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Warren E. Burger

Warren Earl Burger (September 17, 1907 – June 25, 1995) was the 15th Chief Justice of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1986.

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Weapon

A weapon, arm or armament is any device used with intent to inflict damage or harm.

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Whiskey Rebellion

The Whiskey Rebellion (also known as the Whiskey Insurrection) was a tax protest in the United States beginning in 1791 during the presidency of George Washington.

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William Blackstone

Sir William Blackstone (10 July 1723 – 14 February 1780) was an English jurist, judge and Tory politician of the eighteenth century.

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William III of England

William III (Willem; 4 November 1650 – 8 March 1702), also widely known as William of Orange, was sovereign Prince of Orange from birth, Stadtholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland and Overijssel in the Dutch Republic from 1672 and King of England, Ireland and Scotland from 1689 until his death in 1702.

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William Lambert (writer)

William Lambert was the Engrosser or Penman of the United States Bill of Rights whose hand-written copy of the Bill of Rights hangs in the US National Archives.

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William Rawle

William Rawle (April 28, 1759 – April 12, 1836) was an American lawyer in Philadelphia, who in 1791 was appointed as United States district attorney in Pennsylvania.

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WNYC

WNYC is the trademark, and a set of call letters shared by a pair of non-profit, noncommercial, public radio stations located in New York City and owned by New York Public Radio, a nonprofit organization that did business as WNYC RADIO until March 2013.

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Yeomanry

Yeomanry is a designation used by a number of units or sub-units of the British Army Reserve, descended from volunteer cavalry regiments.

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2nd Amendment Day

2nd Amendment Day is a public awareness day observed in the United States.

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References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Amendment_to_the_United_States_Constitution

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