265 relations: Abebe Aregai, Aberra Kassa, Abiy Addi, Abolition of slavery timeline, Abyssinia Crisis, Achille Starace, Addis Ababa, Adigrat, Adwa, Alessandro Pavolini, Allies of World War II, Amba Aradam, Amha Selassie, Amhara people, Andrew Fountaine, Anglo-German Naval Agreement, Anschluss, Anti-aircraft warfare, Armistice of Cassibile, Armored car (military), Army of the Ethiopian Empire, Artillery, Asfawossen Kassa, Assab, Austria, Axis powers, Axum, Balcha Safo, Banaadir, Battle of Amba Aradam, Battle of Ganale Doria, Battle of Maychew, Battle of Shire, Battle of the Ogaden, Belgian Land Component, Benito Mussolini, Beyene Merid, Bibliography of Pope Pius XII, Bill Deedes, Bishop (Catholic Church), Black Lions, British Somaliland, Bruno Mussolini, Carl Gustaf von Rosen, Carlo Agostini, Castration, Censorship in Italy, Chemical warfare, Christmas Offensive, Colonial war, ..., COMALP, Commander-in-chief, Commonwealth of Nations, Counter-offensive, Covenant of the League of Nations, Cremona, Daily Mail, Debre Zebit, Declaration of war, Dessie, Desta Damtew, Dire Dawa, Djibouti, Dolo, Ethiopia, Dubats, Duce, Duke, East African Campaign (World War II), Easter Accords, Elena of Montenegro, Emilio De Bono, Emperor of Ethiopia, Empire of Japan, Eritrea, Eritrean Ascari, Ethiopia, Ethiopia–Japan relations, Ethiopian Air Force, Ethiopian aristocratic and court titles, Ethiopian calendar, Ethiopian Empire, Ethiopian POWs during the Second Italo-Ethiopian War, Ettore Bastico, Evelyn Waugh, Expanding bullet, Expo 67, Eye for an eye, Fay Gillis Wells, Feudalism, Fiat 3000, Fiche, First Battle of Tembien, First Italo-Ethiopian War, Ford Model A (1927–31), Franco-Italian Agreement of 1935, Free Belgian Forces, Free France, French Third Republic, Frontal assault, Galeazzo Ciano, Geneva Protocol, George Steer, Giacomo Appiotti, Gibraltar, Gideon Force, Gojeb River, Gojjam, Gore, Ethiopia, Governor-General, Gulf of Aden, H. James Burgwyn, Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907, Haile Selassie, Haile Selassie Gugsa, Hailu Tekle Haymanot, Hamid Idris Awate, Harar, Herbert Matthews, Hoare–Laval Pact, Hotchkiss M1922 machine gun, Hubert Julian, Illubabor Province, Imperator, Imru Haile Selassie, Indro Montanelli, International Committee of the Red Cross, International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, Interwar period, Irgalem, Italian conquest of British Somaliland, Italian East Africa, Italian Empire, Italian Eritrea, Italian Fascism, Italian guerrilla war in Ethiopia, Italian invasion of Albania, Italian Somaliland, Italians of Ethiopia, Italo Gariboldi, Italo-Ethiopian Treaty of 1928, Italy, Iyasu V, Jerusalem, Jijiga, John H. Spencer, John Robinson (aviator), Joseph Stalin, Karl Henry von Wiegand, Kassa Haile Darge, Kebur Zabagna, Kelafo, Khartoum, King-Emperor, Kingdom of Italy, Kingdom of Romania, L3/35, Lake Ashenge, Lake Tana, Le Temps, League (unit), League of Nations, Libya, Lieutenant general, Linton Wells, Lion of Judah, Lira, List of Leaders of the League of Nations, Luigi Frusci, M1895 Colt–Browning machine gun, Makonnen Endelkachew, Manchuria, Mandatory Palestine, Marcel Junod, Mareb River, Marshal of Italy, Mek'ele, Menen Asfaw, Military occupation, Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale, Miscegenation, Mukden Incident, Mulugeta Yeggazu, Nasibu Zeamanuel, National Fascist Party, Nazi Germany, Negele Borana, Newsreel, Nicolae Titulescu, Non abbiamo bisogno, Obelisk of Axum, Oerlikon 20 mm cannon, Offensive (military), Ogaden, Oliver Law, Olol Dinle, Open city, Oromo people, Pact of Steel, Palazzo Venezia, Paris Peace Treaties, 1947, Pedro del Valle, Pietro Badoglio, Ponza, Pope Pius XI, Potez 25, Prince Amedeo, Duke of Aosta, Quirinal Hill, Quirinal Palace, Rail transport in Ethiopia, Red Sea, Regent, Regia Aeronautica, Regia Marina, Republic of China (1912–49), Resistance movement, Roberto Farinacci, Rodolfo Graziani, Royal Italian Army, Schneider Electric, Scoop (novel), Second Battle of Tembien, Seyoum Mengesha, Shell (projectile), Shire, Ethiopia, Sidamo Province, Sidney Barton, Slavery in Ethiopia, Somalis, Spanish Civil War, Stresa Front, Sudan, Suez Canal, Sulfur mustard, Sylvia Pankhurst, Tekle Hawariat Tekle Mariyam, Telegraphy, Tewodros II, Tigray Province, Time (magazine), Timeline of the Second Italo-Ethiopian War, Tito Minniti, Treaty of Peace with Italy, 1947, Tripartite Pact, Truck, Udine, United States Marine Corps, Viceroy, Vickers, Victor Emmanuel III of Italy, Vittorio Mussolini, Webb Miller (journalist), Wehib Pasha, Welwel, Ethiopia, William Boot, Wolde Giyorgis Wolde Yohannes, Wollo Province, Wondosson Kassa, World's fair, Yekatit 12, Yemen, 1st Blackshirt Division (23 March), 3.7 cm Pak 36, 30th Infantry Division Sabauda, 3rd Army Corps (Italy), 3rd Blackshirt Division (21 April). Expand index (215 more) » « Shrink index
Ras Abebe Aregai (18 August 1903 – 17 December 1960) was an Ethiopian military commander who, during the Italian occupation, led a group of resistance fighters (collectively known as the Arbegnoch or "Patriots") that operated in Menz and Shewa.
Aberra Kassa (1905 – 21 December 1936) was an army commander and a member of the Royal family of the Ethiopian Empire.
Abiy Addi (also spelled Abi Addi; Tigrigna ዓብዪ ዓዲ "Big town") is a town and separate woreda in north central Ethiopia, and was capital of the former province of Tembien before that province was incorporated into Tigray.
The abolition of slavery occurred at different times in different countries, and sometimes occurred sequentially in more than one stage: for example, as abolition of the trade in slaves in a specific country, and then as abolition of slavery throughout empires.
The Abyssinia Crisis was a crisis during the interwar period originating from the Walwal incident.
Achille Starace (August 18, 1889 — April 29, 1945) was a prominent leader of Fascist Italy before and during World War II.
Addis Ababa (አዲስ አበባ,, “new flower”; Finfinne, "Natural Spring(s)"), sometimes spelled Addis Abeba (the spelling used by the official Ethiopian Mapping Authority), is the capital city of Ethiopia.
Adigrat (Ge'ez: ዓዲግራት) is a city and separate woreda in the Tigray Region (or kilil) of Ethiopia.
Adwa (ዓድዋ; also spelled Adowa, Aduwa) is a market town and separate woreda in northern Ethiopia.
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Alessandro Pavolini (27 September 1903 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician, journalist, and essayist, notable for his involvement in the Fascist government during World War II and also for his cruelty against the opponents of fascism.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that opposed the Axis powers together during the Second World War (1939–1945).
Amba Aradam is a mountain in northern Ethiopia.
Amha Selassie, GCMG, GCVO, GBE (27 July 1916 – 17 February 1997) was the last reigning monarch of Ethiopia.
The Amhara people (አማራ, Āmara; አምሐራ, ʾÄməḥära) are an ethnic group inhabiting the northern and central highlands of Ethiopia, particularly the Amhara Region.
Andrew Fountaine (7 December 1918 – 14 September 1997) was a veteran of the far right scene in British politics.
The Anglo-German Naval Agreement of June 18, 1935, was a naval agreement between Britain and Germany regulating the size of the Kriegsmarine in relation to the Royal Navy.
The Anschluss (or Connection) was the Nazi propaganda term for the invasion and forced incorporation of Austria by Nazi Germany in March 1938.
Anti-aircraft warfare or counter-air defence is defined by NATO as "all measures designed to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of hostile air action."AAP-6 They include ground-and air-based weapon systems, associated sensor systems, command and control arrangements and passive measures (e.g. barrage balloons).
The Armistice of Cassibile was an armistice signed on 3 September 1943 by Walter Bedell Smith and Giuseppe Castellano, and made public on 8 September, between the Kingdom of Italy and the Allies ("United Nations") of World War II.
A military armored (or armoured) car is a wheeled light armored vehicle, lighter than other armored fighting vehicles, primarily being armored and/or armed for self-defense of the occupants.
Armies of the Ethiopia have existed since earliest times.
Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.
Asfawossen Kassa (1913 – 21 December 1936) was an army commander and a member of the Royal family of the Ethiopian Empire.
Assab or Aseb (ዓሰብ,; عصب) is a port city in the Southern Red Sea Region of Eritrea.
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Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.5 million people in Central Europe.
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte, 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku, Potenze dell'Asse), also known as the Axis, were the nations that fought in the Second World War against the Allied forces.
Axum or Aksum (ኣኽሱም, አክሱም) is a city in the northern part of Ethiopia.
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Dejazmach Balcha Safo (ባልቻ ሳፎ; 1863 – 6 November 1936), popularly referred to by his "horse-name" Balcha Aba Nefso (ባልቻ አባ ነፍሶ), was an accomplished Ethiopian military commander, who served in both the First and Second Italo-Ethiopian Wars.
Banaadir (or, بنادر) is an administrative region (gobol) in southeastern Somalia.
The Battle of Amba Aradam (also known as the Battle of Enderta) was a battle fought on the northern front of what was known as the Second Italo-Abyssinian War.
The Battle of Ganale Doria (also known as the Battle of Genale Dorya or as the Battle of Genale Wenz) was a battle on the "southern front" fought during the Second Italo-Abyssinian War.
The Battle of Maychew (also known as the Battle of Mai Ceu) was the last major battle fought on the northern front during the Second Italo-Abyssinian War.
The Battle of Shire (Italian: Battaglia dello Mayatutors) was a battle fought on the northern front of what was known as the Second Italo-Abyssinian War.
The Battle of the Ogaden was fought in 1936 in the southern front of the Second Italo-Abyssinian War.
The Land Component (Landcomponent, Composante terre), formerly the Belgian Land Force, is the land-based branch of the Belgian Armed Forces.
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician, journalist, and leader of the National Fascist Party, ruling the country as Prime Minister from 1922 until his ousting in 1943.
Major-General Dejazmatch Beyene Merid, Beine Merid, (1897 - 24 February 1937) was an Ethiopian army commander, a patriot, and the son-in-law of Emperor Haile Selassie I.
This bibliography on Church policies 1939–1945 includes mainly Italian publications relative to Pope Pius XII and Vatican policies during World War II.
William Francis Deedes, Baron Deedes, KBE, MC, PC, DL (1 June 1913 – 17 August 2007) was a British Conservative Party politician, army officer and journalist; he is to date the only person in Britain to have been both a member of the Cabinet and the editor of a major daily newspaper, The Daily Telegraph.
In the Catholic Church, a bishop is an ordained minister who holds the fullness of the sacrament of holy orders and is responsible for teaching doctrine, governing Catholics in his jurisdiction, and sanctifying the world and representing the Church.
If you are looking for something else referred to as "Black Lions", see the disambiguation. The Black Lions was a resistance movement formed to fight against Italian occupation of the Ethiopian Empire.
British Somaliland (Dhulka Soomaalida ee Biritishka, الصومال البريطاني Al-Sumal Al-Britaniy) was a British protectorate in present-day Somaliland.
Bruno Mussolini (22 April 1918 – 7 August 1941) was the second son of Italian dictator Benito Mussolini and Mussolini's wife Rachele.
Count Carl Gustaf Ericsson von Rosen (August 19, 1909 – July 13, 1977) was a Swedish pioneer aviator, humanitarian, and mercenary pilot.
Carlo Agostini (22 April 1888 – 28 December 1952) was an Italian prelate of the Roman Catholic Church.
Castration (also known as gonadectomy) is any action, surgical, chemical, or otherwise, by which a biological male loses use of the testicles.
Italy has one of the lowest levels of press freedom in Europe.
Chemical warfare (CW) involves using the toxic properties of chemical substances as weapons.
The Christmas Offensive took place during the Second Italo-Ethiopian War.
Colonial war is a blanket term relating to the various conflicts that arose as the result of overseas territories being settled by foreign powers creating a colony.
The Comando Truppe Alpine (Alpine Troops Command) or COMALP commanded the Mountain Troops of the Italian Army, called Alpini and various support and training units.
A commander-in-chief is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces or significant elements of those forces.
The Commonwealth of Nations, commonly known as the Commonwealth (formerly the British Commonwealth), is an intergovernmental organization of 53 member states that were mostly territories of the former British Empire.
A counter-offensive is the term used by the military to describe large-scale, usually strategic offensive operations by forces that had successfully halted the enemy's offensive, while occupying defensive positions.
The Covenant of the League of Nations was the charter of the League of Nations.
Cremona is a city and comune in northern Italy, situated in Lombardy, on the left bank of the Po River in the middle of the Pianura Padana (Po valley).
The Daily Mail is a British daily middle-marketPeter Wilby, New Statesman, 19 December 2013 (online version: 2 January 2014) tabloid newspaper owned by the Daily Mail and General Trust.
Debre Zebit is a village in northern Ethiopia.
A declaration of war is a formal act by which one nation goes to war against another.
Dessie (ደሴ) (also spelled Dese or Dessye), is a city and a woreda in north-central Ethiopia.
''Ras'' Desta Damtew (Amharic: ደስታ ዳምጠው; ca. 1892 - 24 February 1937) was an Ethiopian noble, an army commander, and a son-in-law of Emperor Haile Selassie I.
Dire Dawa (ድሬ ዳዋ, Dirre Dhawaa, lit. "Place of Remedy", Dir Dhabe, meaning "Limit of the Dir") is one of two chartered cities (astedader akabibi) in Ethiopia (the other being the capital, Addis Ababa).
Djibouti (جيبوتي, Djibouti, Jabuuti, Gabuuti), officially the Republic of Djibouti, is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
Dolo is a town in southeastern Ethiopia, within 30 kilometers of the Ethiopia-Somalia border.
Dubats (English: White turbans) was the designation given to armed irregular bands employed by the Italian "Royal Corps of Colonial Troops" (Regio Corpo di Truppe Coloniali in Italian) in Italian Somaliland from 1924 to 1941.
Duce (leader) is an Italian title, derived from the Latin word dux, and cognate with duke.
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A duke (male) (British English: or American English) or duchess (female) can either be a monarch ruling over a duchy or a member of the nobility, historically of highest rank below the monarch.
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The East African Campaign was fought in the Horn of Africa during World War II by Allied forces, mainly British Empire forces, against Axis forces, primarily from Italy, between June 1940 and November 1941.
The Anglo-Italian Agreements of 1938, also called the Easter Pact or Easter Accords (in Italian Patto or Accordi di Pasqua), were a series of agreements concluded between the British and the Italian governments in Rome on 16 April 1938 in order to facilitate the cooperation of the Italian government in keeping the existing world order and to prevent its alliance with the Germany.
Princess Elena Petrović-Njegoš of Montenegro (8 January 1873 – 28 November 1952) nicknamed Jela was the daughter of King Nicholas I of Montenegro and his wife, Milena Vukotić.
Emilio De Bono (19 March 1866 – 11 January 1944) was an Italian General, fascist activist, Marshal, and member of the Fascist Grand Council (Gran Consiglio del Fascismo).
The Emperor of Ethiopia (ንጉሠ ነገሥት,, "King of Kings") was the hereditary ruler of the Ethiopian Empire, until the abolition of the monarchy in 1975.
The was the historical Japanese nation-state that existed from the Meiji Restoration on January 3, 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.
Eritrea (or; ኤርትራ; إرتريا), officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa.
The Eritrean Ascari were indigenous soldiers from Eritrea, who were enrolled as askaris in the Royal Corps of Colonial Troops (Regio Corpo di Truppe Coloniali) of the Italian Army during the period 1889-1941.
Ethiopia (ኢትዮጵያ), officially known as the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
Ethiopia–Japan relations are the international relations between Ethiopia and Japan.
The Ethiopian Air Force (ETAF); Amharic: የኢትዮጵያ አየር ሃይል, Ye Ithopya Ayer Hayl, is the air arm of the Ethiopian National Defense Forces and is tasked with protecting the air space, providing support to the ground forces as well as assisting during national emergencies.
Until the end of the Ethiopian monarchy in 1974, there were two categories of nobility in Ethiopia.
The Ethiopian calendar (የኢትዮጵያ ዘመን አቆጣጠር) is the principal calendar used in Ethiopia and also serves as the liturgical calendar for Christians in Eritrea and Ethiopia belonging to the Orthodox Tewahedo churches, Eastern Catholic Church and Coptic Orthodox Church.
The Ethiopian Empire (የኢትዮጵያ ንጉሠ ነገሥት መንግሥተ, Mängəstä Ityop'p'ya), also known as Abyssinia, spanned a geographical area covered by present-day Eritrea and the northern half of Ethiopia.
Ethiopian Prisoners of War.
Ettore Bastico (9 April 1876 – 2 December 1972) was an Italian military officer before and during World War II.
Arthur Evelyn St.
Expanding bullets are projectiles designed to expand on impact, increasing in diameter to limit penetration and/or produce a larger diameter wound for faster incapacitation.
The 1967 International and Universal Exposition or Expo 67, as it was commonly known, was a general exhibition, Category One World's Fair held in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, from April 27 to October 29, 1967.
An eye for an eye or the law of retaliation, is the principle that a person who has injured another person is penalized to a similar degree, or in softer interpretations, the victim receives the value of the injury in compensation.
Fay Gillis Wells (October 15, 1908 – December 2, 2002) was an American pioneer aviator, globe-trotting journalist and a broadcaster.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
The Fiat 3000 was the first tank to be produced in series in Italy.
Fiche (also spelled Fikke) is a town in central Ethiopia.
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The First Battle of Tembien was a battle fought on the northern front of what was known as the Second Italo-Abyssinian War.
The First Italo-Ethiopian War was fought between Italy and Ethiopia from 1895 to 1896.
The Ford Model A (also colloquially called the A-Model Ford or the A, and A-bone among rodders and customizers) was the second huge success for the Ford Motor Company, after its predecessor, the Model T. First produced on October 20, 1927, but not sold until December 2, it replaced the venerable Model T, which had been produced for 18 years.
The Franco-Italian Agreement of 7 January 1935 was signed in Rome by the French Foreign Minister Pierre Laval and Italian Prime Minister Benito Mussolini.
The Free Belgian forces (Forces belges libres, Vrije Belgische Strijdkrachten) were soldiers from Belgium and its colonies who fought as part of the Allied armies after the official Belgian surrender to Nazi Germany during World War II, between 1940 and 1944.
Free France and its Free French Forces (French: France Libre and Forces françaises libres) were the government-in-exile led by Charles de Gaulle during the Second World War and its military forces that continued to fight against the Axis powers as an Ally after the fall of France.
The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) governed France from 1870, when the Second French Empire collapsed, to 1940, when France's defeat by Nazi Germany led to the Vichy France government.
The military tactic of frontal assault is a direct, hostile movement of forces toward the front of an enemy force (as compared to the flanks or rear of the enemy).
Gian Galeazzo Ciano, 2nd Count of Cortellazzo and Buccari (18 March 1903 – 11 January 1944) was Foreign Minister of Fascist Italy from 1936 until 1943 and Benito Mussolini's son-in-law.
The Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare, usually called the Geneva Protocol, is a treaty prohibiting the use of chemical and biological weapons in international armed conflicts.
George Lowther Steer (1909 – 25 December 1944) was a South African-born British journalist, author and war correspondent who reported on wars preceding World War II, especially the Second Italo-Abyssinian War and the Spanish Civil War.
Giacomo Appiotti (1873 – 1948) was Lieutenant General of the Italian Army during the Second Italo-Abyssinian War.
Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located on the southern end of the Iberian Peninsula at the entrance of the Mediterranean.
The Gideon Force was a small British-led African special force which acted as a Corps d'Elite amongst the Sudan Defence Force and irregular Ethiopian forces fighting the Italian occupation forces in Ethiopia during the East African Campaign of World War II.
The Gojeb River is eastward-flowing tributary of the Omo River in Ethiopia.
Gojjam(Ge'ez ጎጃም gōjjām, originally ጐዛም gʷazzam, later ጐዣም gʷažžām, ጎዣም gōžžām) was a kingdom in the north-western part of Ethiopia, with its capital city at Debre Marqos.
Gore is a town in southwestern Ethiopia.
Governor-general or governor general, in modern usage, is the title of an office-holder appointed to represent the monarch of a sovereign state in the governing of an independent realm.
The Gulf of Aden (خليج عدن, Gacanka Cadmeed) is a gulf located in the Arabian Sea between Yemen, on the south coast of the Arabian Peninsula, and Somalia in the Horn of Africa.
The Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 are a series of international treaties and declarations negotiated at two international peace conferences at The Hague in the Netherlands.
Haile Selassie I (ቀዳማዊ ኃይለ ሥላሴ, qädamawi haylä səllasé), born Tafari Makonnen Woldemikael, was Ethiopia's regent from 1916 to 1930 and Emperor of Ethiopia from 1930 to 1974.
Haile Selassie Gugsa (1907 – 1985) was an army commander and a member of the Imperial family of the Ethiopian Empire.
Hailu Tekle Haymanot, KBE (1868–1950), also named Hailu II of Gojjam, was an army commander and a member of the nobility of the Ethiopian Empire.
Hamid Idris Awate (10 April 1910 – 28 May 1962) was an Eritrean independence leader.
Harar, formerly written Harrar and known to its inhabitants as Gey, is a walled city in eastern Ethiopia.
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Herbert Lionel Matthews (January 10, 1900 – July 30, 1977) was a reporter and editorialist for the New York Times who grew to notoriety after revealing that Fidel Castro was still alive and living in the Sierra Maestra mountains, though Fulgencio Batista had claimed publicly that he was killed during the 26th of July Movement's landing.
The Hoare–Laval Pact was a December 1935 proposal by British Foreign Secretary Samuel Hoare and French Prime Minister Pierre Laval for ending the Second Italo-Abyssinian War.
The Hotchkiss M1922 was a light machine gun manufactured by Hotchkiss.
Hubert Fauntleroy Julian (21 September 1897 – 19 February 1983) was a Trinidad-born aviation pioneer.
Illubabor was a province in the south-western part of Ethiopia, along the border with Sudan.
The Latin word imperator was originally a title roughly equivalent to commander under the Roman Republic.
Leul Ras Imru Haile Selassie, CBE (Amharic: ዕምሩ፡ኃይለ፡ሥላሴ; 23 November 1892 – 15 August 1980) was an Ethiopian noble, soldier, and diplomat.
Indro Montanelli Knight Grand Cross OMRI (22 April 1909 - 22 July 2001) was an Italian journalist and historian.
The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a humanitarian institution based in Geneva, Switzerland and a three-time Nobel Prize Laureate.
The International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement is an international humanitarian movement with approximately 97 million volunteers, members and staff worldwide which was founded to protect human life and health, to ensure respect for all human beings, and to prevent and alleviate human suffering.
In the context of the history of the twentieth century, the interwar period or interbellum (Latin: inter-, "between" + bellum, "war") was the period between the end of World War I and the beginning of World War II—the period beginning with the Armistice with Germany that concluded World War I in 1918 and the following Paris Peace Conference in 1919, and ending in 1939 with the invasion of Poland and the start of World War II.
Irgalem (ይርጋለም; also spelled Yrgalam, Yrgalem and Yrga Alem; alternate names include Abosto, Dalle) is a town in southern Ethiopia.
The Italian conquest of British Somaliland was a military campaign in the Horn of Africa, which took place in August 1940 between forces of Italy and those of several British Commonwealth countries.
Italian East Africa (Africa Orientale Italiana) was an Italian colony established in 1936.
The Italian Empire (Italian: Impero Italiano) comprised the colonies, protectorates, concessions, dependencies and trust territories of the Kingdom of Italy and, after 1946, the Italian Republic.
Italian Eritrea was a colony of the Kingdom of Italy in the territory of present-day Eritrea.
Italian Fascism (Fascismo Italiano), also known simply as Fascism (Fascismo), is the original fascist ideology, as developed in Italy.
The Italian guerrilla war in Ethiopia was as an armed struggle fought from the summer of 1941 to the autumn of 1943 by remnants of Italian troops in Ethiopia, in what had been the short-lived attempt to incorporate Ethiopia as part of Italian East Africa.
The Italian invasion of Albania (April 7 – April 12, 1939) was a brief military campaign by the Kingdom of Italy against the Albanian Kingdom.
Italian Somaliland (Somalia italiana, الصومال الإيطالي Al-Sumal Al-Italiy, Dhulka Talyaaniga ee Soomaaliya), also known as Italian Somalia, was a colony of the Kingdom of Italy in present-day northeastern, central and southern Somalia.
Italians of Ethiopia are the emigrants and colonists from Italy who moved to live in Ethiopia as far back as the 19th century, and their descendants.
Italo Gariboldi (20 April 1879 – 3 February 1970) was a senior officer in the Italian Royal Army (Regio Esercito) before and during World War II.
The Italo-Ethiopian Treaty of 1928, also known as the Italo–Ethiopian Treaty of Friendship and Arbitration, was a treaty signed between the Kingdom of Italy (''Regno d'Italia'') and the Ethiopian Empire (Abyssinia) on 2 August 1928.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe.
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Iyasu V (ኢያሱ፭ኛ, the Ethiopian version of Joshua), also known as Lij Iyasu (ልጅ ኢያሱ; 4 February 1895 – 25 November 1935), was the designated but uncrowned Emperor of Ethiopia (1913–16).
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس), located on a plateau in the Judean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea, is one of the oldest cities in the world.
Jijiga (Jigjiga) is a city in eastern Ethiopia and the capital of the Somali Region of the country.
John Charles Robinson (August 24, 1903 – April 8, 1954) was an American aviator and activist who was hailed as the "Brown Condor" for his service in serving in the Imperial Ethiopian Air Force against Fascist Italy.
Joseph Stalin (birth surname: Jughashvili; 18 December 1878 – 5 March 1953) was the leader of the Soviet Union from the mid-1920s until his death in 1953.
Karl Henry von Wiegand (born 1874 in Hesse in Germany; died 1961) was a German born American journalist and war correspondent.
Leul Ras Kassa Hailu KS, GCVO, GBE, (Amharic: ካሣ ኀይሉ ዳርጌ; 7 August 1881 – 16 November 1956) was a Shewan nobleman, the son of Haile Wolde Kiros of Lasta and Tisseme Darge, and grandson of Ras Darge Sahle Selassie the brother of Menelik II's father.
Kebur Zabagna or Zebenya (Amharic: ክቡር ዘበኛ /kəbur zãbãňňya/, lit. "Honorable Guard") was the Ethiopian Imperial Guard.
Kelafo (Qalaafe) is a town in eastern Ethiopia.
KhartoumThe name Khartoum comes from الخرطوم / /, literally "the hose".
A king-emperor, the female equivalent being queen-empress, is a sovereign ruler who is simultaneously a king of one territory and emperor of another.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state founded in 1861 when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy.
The Kingdom of Romania (Romanian: Regatul României) was a constitutional monarchy which existed between 13 March 1881 and 30 December 1947, specified by the first three Constitutions of Romania (1866, 1923, 1938).
The L3/35 or Carro Veloce CV-35 was an Italian tankette that saw combat before and during World War II.
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Lake Ashenge (also Lake Ashangi) is a lake in the northern Tigray Region of Ethiopia.
Lake Tana (also spelled T'ana, ጣና ሐይቅ,,; an older variant is Tsana, Ge'ez ጻና Ṣānā; sometimes called "Dembiya" after the region to the north of the lake) is the source of the Blue Nile and is the largest lake in Ethiopia.
Le Temps (literally "The Times") is a Swiss French-language daily newspaper published in the Berliner format in Geneva by Le Temps SA.
A league is a unit of length (or, in various regions, area).
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, "Société des Nations" abbreviated as SDN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
Libya (ليبيا) is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south, and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
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Lieutenant general, lieutenant-general and similar (abbrev Lt Gen, LTG and similar) is a military rank (NATO code OF-8) used in many countries.
Linton Wells (1893–1976) was an American foreign correspondent, world traveler and pioneer broadcaster.
The Lion of Judah is the symbol of the Jewish tribe of Judah.
Lira (plural lire) is the name of the currency of Turkey.
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The leaders of the League of Nations consisted of a Secretary General and a President of the Assembly selected from member states.
Luigi Frusci (16 January 1879 – 1949) was an officer in the Italian Royal Army (Regio Esercito) during the Italian conquest of Ethiopia and World War II.
The Colt–Browning M1895, nicknamed "potato digger" because of its unusual operating mechanism, is an air-cooled, belt-fed, gas-operated machine gun that fires from a closed bolt with a cyclic rate of 450 rounds per minute.
Ras Betwoded Makonnen Endelkachew (February 16, 1890 – February 27, 1963) was an Ethiopian aristocrat and Prime Minister under Emperor Haile Selassie.
Manchuria is a modern name given to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia.
Mandatory Palestine (فلسطين; פָּלֶשְׂתִּינָה (א"י), where "EY" indicates "Eretz Yisrael" (Land of Israel)) was a geopolitical entity under British administration, carved out of Ottoman Southern Syria after World War I. British civil administration in Palestine operated from 1920 until 1948.
Marcel Junod (May 14, 1904 – June 16, 1961) was a Swiss doctor and one of the most accomplished field delegates in the history of the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC).
The Mareb River (or Gash River), is a river flowing out of central Eritrea.
Marshal of Italy (Italian: Maresciallo d'Italia) was a rank in the Italian Royal Army (Regio Esercito).
Mekelle (መቐለ, መቐለ or መቀሌ), also transliterated as Makale or Meqele, is the capital city in the northern Tigray Region of Ethiopia.
Empress Menen Asfaw (Baptismal name Walatta Giyorgis) (25 Magabit 1883 Ethiopian Calendar, 3 April 1891 Gregorian Calendar – 15 February 1962) was the Empress consort of the Ethiopian Empire.
Military occupation is effective provisional control of a certain ruling power over a territory which is not under the formal sovereignty of that entity, without the volition of the actual sovereign.
The Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale (MVSN, "Voluntary Militia for National Security"), commonly called the Blackshirts (camicie nere, CCNN) or squadristi, was originally the paramilitary wing of the National Fascist Party and, after 1923, an all-volunteer militia of the Kingdom of Italy.
Miscegenation (from the Latin miscere "to mix" + genus "kind") is the mixing of different racial groups through marriage, cohabitation, sexual relations, or procreation.
The Mukden Incident, or Manchurian Incident, was a staged event engineered by rogue Japanese military personnel as a pretext for the Japanese invasion in 1931 of northeastern China, known as Manchuria.
Ras Mulugeta Yeggazu, (Amharic: ሙሉጌታ ይገዙ; killed 27 February 1936) was an Ethiopian government official.
Nasibu Zeamanuel, also Nasibu Zamanuael, (Amharic: ነሲቡ ዘአማኑኤል; 1893 – 16 October 1936) was an army commander of the Ethiopian Empire.
The National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF) was an Italian political party, created by Benito Mussolini as the political expression of fascism (previously represented by groups known as Fasci).
Nazi Germany or the Third Reich (Drittes Reich) are common English names for the period of history in Germany from 1933 to 1945, when it was a dictatorship under the control of Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Negele Borana (or Neghelle) is a town and separate woreda in southern Ethiopia.
A newsreel is a form of short documentary film prevalent in the first half of the twentieth century, regularly released in a public presentation place and containing filmed news stories and items of topical interest.
Nicolae Titulescu (March 4, 1882 – March 17, 1941) was a well-known Romanian diplomat, at various times government minister, finance and foreign minister, and for two terms President of the General Assembly of the League of Nations (1930–32).
Non abbiamo bisogno (Italian for "We do not need") is a Roman Catholic encyclical published on 29 June 1931 by Pope Pius XI.
The Obelisk of Axum (የአክሱም ሐውልት) is a 1,700-year-old, 24-metre-tall (79-foot) granite stele/obelisk, weighing 160 tonnes, in the city of Axum in Ethiopia.
and --> The Oerlikon 20 mm cannon is a series of autocannons, based on an original German 20 mm Becker design that appeared very early in World War I. It was widely produced by Oerlikon Contraves and others, with various models employed by both Allied and Axis forces during World War II, and many versions still in use today.
An offensive is a military operation that seeks through aggressive projection of armed force to occupy territory, gain an objective or achieve some larger strategic, operational or tactical goal.
Ogaden (pronounced and often spelled Ogadēn; Ogaadeen, ኦጋዴን) is the territory comprising the southeastern portion of the Somali Regional State in eastern Ethiopia.
Oliver Law (October 23, 1900 – July 9, 1937) was an African American communist and labor organizer, who fought for the Republic in the Spanish Civil War.
Sultan Olol Dinle (Suldaan Olol Diinle) (?-1960s) was a Somali sultan who ruled Kelafo as the head of the Ajuran clan.
In war, in the event of the imminent capture of a city, the government/military structure of the nation that controls the city will sometimes declare it an open city, thus announcing that they have abandoned all defensive efforts.
The Oromo people (Oromoo; ኦሮሞ; ’Oromo) are an ethnic group inhabiting Ethiopia, northern Kenya, and parts of Somalia.
The Pact of Steel (Stahlpakt, Patto d'Acciaio), known formally as the Pact of Friendship and Alliance between Germany and Italy, was a military and political alliance between the Kingdom of Italy and Germany.
The Palazzo di Venezia (formerly Palace of St. Mark) is a palazzo (palace) in central Rome, Italy, just north of the Capitoline Hill.
The Paris Peace Treaties were signed on 10 February 1947, as the outcome of the Paris Peace Conference, held from 29 July to 15 October 1946.
Lieutenant General Pedro Augusto del Valle (August 28, 1893 – April 28, 1978) was a United States Marine Corps officer who became the first Hispanic to reach the rank of Lieutenant General.
Pietro Badoglio, 1st Duke of Addis Abeba, 1st Marquess of Sabotino (28 September 1871 – 1 November 1956) was an Italian general during both World Wars and a Prime Minister of Italy, as well as the first viceroy of Italian East Africa.
Ponza (Italian: isola di Ponza) is the largest of the Italian Pontine Islands archipelago, located south of Cape Circeo in the Tyrrhenian Sea.
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Pope Pius XI, (Pio XI) born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti (31 May 1857 – 10 February 1939), reigned from 6 February 1922 to his death in 1939.
Potez 25 (also written as Potez XXV) was a French twin-seat, single-engine biplane designed during the 1920s.
Prince Amedeo of Savoy-Aosta (Amedeo Umberto Isabella Luigi Filippo Maria Giuseppe Giovanni di Savoia-Aosta; 21 October 1898 – 3 March 1942) was the third Duke of Aosta and a first cousin, once removed of the King of Italy, Victor Emmanuel III.
The Quirinal Hill (Collis Quirinalis) is one of the Seven Hills of Rome, at the north-east of the city center.
The Quirinal Palace (known in Italian as the Palazzo del Quirinale or simply Quirinale) is a historic building in Rome, Italy, one of the three current official residences of the President of the Italian Republic, together with Villa Rosbery in Naples and tenuta di Castelporziano.
Rail transport in Ethiopia currently consists only of trial service between Dire Dawa and Djibouti on the meter-gauge Ethio-Djibouti Railways.
The Red Sea, (also the Erythraean Sea), is a seawater inlet of the Indian Ocean, lying between Africa and Asia.
A regent (from the Latin regens, " ruling") is "a person appointed to administer a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated." The rule of a regent or regents is called a regency.
The Italian Royal Air Force (Regia Aeronautica Italiana) was the name of the air force of the Kingdom of Italy.
The Royal Navy, in Italian: Regia Marina, was the navy of the Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) from 1861 to 1946.
The Republic of China governed the present-day territories of China, Mongolia and Taiwan at differing times between 1912 and 1949.
A resistance movement is an organized effort by some portion of the civil population of a country to resist the legally established government or an occupying power and to disrupt civil order and stability.
Roberto Farinacci (October 16, 1892 — April 28, 1945) was a leading Italian Fascist politician, and important member of the National Fascist Party (PNF) before and during World War II, and one of its ardent anti-Semitic proponents; Christopher Hibbert describes him as "slavishly pro-German".
Rodolfo Graziani, 1st Marquis of Neghelli (August 11, 1882 – January 11, 1955), was a prominent Italian military officer in the Kingdom of Italy's Regio Esercito (Royal Army), primarily noted for his campaigns in Africa before and during World War II.
The Royal Italian Army (Italian: Regio Esercito, "Royal Army") was the army of the Kingdom of Italy from the unification of Italy in 1861 to the birth of the Italian Republic in 1946.
Schneider Electric SE is a European multinational corporation that specializes in electricity distribution, automation management and produces installation components for energy management.
Scoop is a 1938 novel by the English writer Evelyn Waugh, a satire of sensationalist journalism and foreign correspondents.
The Second Battle of Tembien was a battle fought on the northern front of what was known as the Second Italo-Abyssinian War.
Seyoum Mengesha KBE (Amharic: ሥዩም መንገሻ; 21 June 1887 – 15 December 1960) was an army commander and a member of the Royal family of the Ethiopian Empire.
A shell is a payload-carrying projectile which, as opposed to shot, contains an explosive or other filling, though modern usage sometimes includes large solid projectiles properly termed shot (AP, APCR, APCNR, APDS, APFSDS and proof shot).
Shire (ሽሬ), also known as Inda Selassie (እንዳ ሥላሴ, Tigrinya "House of the Trinity"), is a town and separate woreda in northern Ethiopia.
Sidamo was a province in the southern part of Ethiopia, with its capital city at Irgalem, and after 1978 at Awasa.
Sir Sidney Barton GBE, KCVO, CMG (26 November 1876 – 20 January 1946) was a British barrister and diplomat, serving as consul-general in Shanghai and as minister to Ethiopia.
Slavery in Ethiopia has existed for centuries.
Somalis (Soomaali, صومال) are an ethnic group inhabiting the Horn of Africa (Somali Peninsula).
The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.
The Stresa Front, formally called the Final Declaration of the Stresa Conference, was an agreement between French prime minister Pierre Laval, British prime minister Ramsay MacDonald, and Italian prime minister Benito Mussolini on 14 April 1935.
Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān), officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūrīyat as-Sūdān), is a country in the Nile Valley of North Africa, bordered by Egypt to the north, the Red Sea, Eritrea, and Ethiopia, to the east, South Sudan to the south, the Central African Republic to the southwest, Chad to the west and Libya to the northwest.
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The Suez Canal (قناة السويس) is an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea to the Red Sea.
Mustard agent, or the sulphur mustards, commonly, but erroneously, known as mustard gas, is a class of related cytotoxic and vesicant chemical warfare agents with the ability to form large blisters on the exposed skin and in the lungs.
Estelle Sylvia Pankhurst (5 May 1882 – 27 September 1960) was an English campaigner for the suffragette movement in the United Kingdom.
Tekle Hawariat Tekle Mariyam (Amharic: ተክለ ሐዋርዓት ተክለ ማርያም; June 1884 – April 1977) was an Ethiopian politician and intellectual of the Japanizer school.
Telegraphy (from Greek: τῆλε tele, "at a distance" and γράφειν graphein, "to write") is the long-distance transmission of textual/symbolic (as opposed to verbal or audio) messages without the physical exchange of an object bearing the message.
Téwodros II (ቴዎድሮስ, baptized as Sahle Dingil, and often referred to in English by the equivalent Theodore II) (c. 1818 – April 13, 1868) was the Emperor of Ethiopia from 1855 until his death.
Tigray was a province of the Ethiopian Empire and of the PDRE until 1995.
Time (styled within the magazine as TIME) is an American weekly news magazine published in New York City.
The following is a timeline relating to the Second Italo–Abyssinian War to the end of 1936.
Tito Minniti (1909 – 26 December 1935) was an Italian pilot who was killed after he was captured by Ethiopians during the Second Italo-Abyssinian War in 1935 near Degehabur.
The Treaty of Peace with Italy was a treaty signed in Paris on February 10, 1947, between Italy and the victorious powers of World War II, formally ending the hostilities.
The Tripartite Pact, also known as the Berlin Pact, was an agreement between Germany, Italy and Japan signed in Berlin on 27 September 1940 by, respectively, Adolf Hitler, Galeazzo Ciano and Saburō Kurusu.
A truck (United States, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, called a lorry in the United Kingdom, Ireland, and Indian Subcontinent) is a motor vehicle designed to transport cargo.
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Udine (Udin, Weiden, Utinum, Videm) is a city and comune in northeastern Italy, in the middle of the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, between the Adriatic Sea and the Alps (Alpi Carniche), less than from the Slovenian border.
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The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for providing power projection from the sea, using the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces.
A viceroy is a regal official who runs a country, colony, or city province (or state) in the name of and as representative of the monarch.
Vickers was a famous name in British engineering that existed through many companies from 1828 until 1999.
Victor Emmanuel III (Vittorio Emanuele III, Viktor Emanueli III; 11 November 1869 – 28 December 1947) was King of Italy (29 July 1900 – 9 May 1946).
Vittorio Mussolini (27 September 1916 – 12 June 1997) was an Italian film critic and producer.
Webb Miller (February 10, 1891 – May 7, 1940) was an American journalist and war correspondent.
Vehib Pasha also known as Wehib Pasha, Vehip Pasha, Mehmed Wehib Pasha, Mehmet Vehip Pasha (modern Turkish: Kaçı Vehip Paşa or Mehmet Vehip (Kaçı), 1877–1940), was a general in the Ottoman Army.
Welwel (also transliterated Walwal; Italian Ual-Ual), is a town in eastern Ethiopia known as the Ogaden.
William Boot is a fictional journalist who is the protagonist in the 1938 Evelyn Waugh comic novel Scoop.
Wolde Giyorgis Wolde Yohannes (ወልደ ጊዮርጊስ ወልደ ዮሐንስ; 1901 – 29 July 1976) was an important government Minister during the reign of Haile Selassie of Ethiopia.
Wollo is an historical region and province in the northeastern part of Ethiopia, with its capital city at Dessie.
Wondosson Kassa, also known as Wond Wossen Kassa, (1903 – 19 December 1936) was a member of the royalty of the Ethiopian Empire, an army commander, and a patriot.
A world's fair, world fair, world exposition or universal exposition (sometimes expo or Expo for short) is a large public exhibition.
Yekatit 12 is a date in the Ethiopian calendar, equivalent to 19 February in the Gregorian calendar, which is commonly used to refer to the indiscriminate massacre and imprisonment of Ethiopians by elements of the Italian occupation forces following an attempted assassination of Viceroy Rodolfo Graziani 19 February 1937.
Yemen (اليَمَن), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (الجمهورية اليمنية), is an Arab country in Southwest Asia, occupying the southwestern to southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
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The Blackshirt Division 23 March (Italian:Divisione CC.NN. "23 Marzo") was an Italian MVSN Blackshirt (Fascist) militia unit formed for the Second Italo-Abyssinian War.
The Pak 36 (Panzerabwehrkanone 36) was a German anti-tank gun that fired a 3.7 cm calibre shell.
The territorial division Cagliary was mobilized 1 October, 1934, renamed Sabauda (30a) after a newly built town of Sabaudia and sent to Eritrea, arriving in Massawa 21 June, 1935.
The 3rd Army Corps was one of three corps the Italian Army fielded during the Cold War.
The 3rd CCNN Division (CCNN standing for Camicie Nere, Black Shirts; also known as 3rd CCNN Division XXI Aprile) was one of the seven Black Shirt militia Divisions that were organized and fought in the Second Italo-Abyssinian War.
1935 invasion of Abyssinia, 2nd Italo-Abyssinian War, Abyssinia Campaign, Ethiopia War, Invasion of Abyssinia, Invasion of Ethiopia, Italian conquest of Ethiopia, Italian invasion of Abyssinia, Italian invasion of Ethiopia, Italian invasion of ethiopia, Italian-Ethiopian War, Rape of Ethiopia, Second Italian-Abyssian War, Second Italian-Abyssinian War, Second Italo-Abyssinian War, Second Italo–Abyssinian War, Second Italo–Ethiopian War, Wal Wal incident.