238 relations: Abebe Aregai, Aberra Kassa, Abiy Addi, Abune Petros, Abyssinia Crisis, Addis Ababa, Adigrat, Adwa, Allies of World War II, Amba Aradam, Amharas, Ammunition dump, Anglo-German Naval Agreement, Ankober, Annexation, Anschluss, Anthony Rhodes, Anti-aircraft warfare, Apsis, Arbegona (woreda), Argentina, Armistice of Cassibile, Armored car (military), Army of the Ethiopian Empire, Artillery, Asfawossen Kassa, Assab, Austria, Axum, Balcha Safo, Banaadir, Battle of Amba Aradam, Battle of Maychew, Battle of Shire, Battle of the Ogaden, Begemder, Belgian Land Component, Benito Mussolini, Beyene Merid, Bishop in the Catholic Church, Blackshirts, Brazil, British Somaliland, Butajira, Canon de 75 antiaérien mle 1913-1917, Carlo Agostini, Castration, Censorship in Italy, Chemical warfare, Christmas Offensive, ..., Colonial war, Comando Truppe Alpine, Commander-in-chief, Commonwealth of Nations, Council of Ministers (Ethiopia), Counter-offensive, Covenant of the League of Nations, Cremona, Debre Berhan, Debre Libanos, Debre Zebit, Declaration of war, Dessie, Desta Damtew, Djibouti, Dolo, Ethiopia, Dubats, Duke, East African Campaign (World War II), Easter Accords, Egypt, Elena of Montenegro, Emilio De Bono, Emperor of Ethiopia, Empire of Japan, Eritrea, Eritrean Ascari, Esmond Clifford, Ethiopia–Japan relations, Ethiopian Air Force, Ethiopian aristocratic and court titles, Ethiopian calendar, Ethiopian Empire, Ethiopian prisoners of war during the Second Italo-Ethiopian War, Expanding bullet, Eye for an eye, Feudalism, Fiat 3000, Fiche, First Italo-Ethiopian War, Ford Model A (1927–31), Franco-Italian Agreement of 1935, Frontal assault, Geneva Protocol, Gibraltar, Gideon Force, Giovanni Messe, Gojjam, Gore, Ethiopia, Governor-general, Gulf of Aden, Gurage Zone, Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907, Haile Mariam Mammo, Haile Selassie, Haile Selassie Gugsa, Hailu Tekle Haymanot, Hamid Idris Awate, Harar, Herbert Matthews, Hit-and-run tactics, Hoare–Laval Pact, Hotchkiss M1914 machine gun, Hotchkiss M1922 machine gun, Hubert Julian, Imperator, Imru Haile Selassie, Indro Montanelli, International Committee of the Red Cross, Interwar period, Irgalem, Italian conquest of British Somaliland, Italian East Africa, Italian Empire, Italian Eritrea, Italian Fascism, Italian guerrilla war in Ethiopia, Italian invasion of Albania, Italian Libya, Italian Somaliland, Italians of Ethiopia, Italo-Ethiopian Treaty of 1928, Italy, Iyasu V, Jerusalem, Jijiga, Kassa Haile Darge, Kebur Zabagna, Kelafo, Khartoum, King-Emperor, Kingdom of Romania, L3/35, Lake Ashenge, Lake Tana, Le Temps, League (unit), League of Nations, Libya, Limmu (woreda), Lira, List of leaders of the League of Nations, Luigi Frusci, M1895 Colt–Browning machine gun, Manchuria, Mandatory Palestine, Mareb River, Marshal of Italy, Mauser, Mekelle, Mexico, Military occupation, Ministry of the Colonies (Italy), Miscegenation, Mulo (woreda), Mulugeta Yeggazu, Nasibu Zeamanuel, National Fascist Party, Nazi Germany, Negele Borana, Nekemte, Newsreel, Nicolae Titulescu, Non abbiamo bisogno, Obelisk of Axum, Oerlikon 20 mm cannon, Ogaden, Olol Dinle, Open city, Oromo people, Pact of Steel, Palazzo Venezia, Paris Peace Treaties, 1947, Patriots (Ethiopia), Pedro del Valle, Pietro Badoglio, Ponza, Pope Pius XI, Potez 25, Prince Amedeo, Duke of Aosta, Quirinal Hill, Quirinal Palace, Regent, Regia Aeronautica, Regia Marina, Republic of China (1912–1949), Resistance movement, Review of International Studies, Rodolfo Graziani, Royal Italian Army, Schrecklichkeit, Second Battle of Tembien, Seyoum Mengesha, Shell (projectile), Shire Inda Selassie, Slavery in Ethiopia, Somalis, Spanish Civil War, Stresa Front, Sudan, Sulfur mustard, Tankette, Telegraphy, Tewodros II, The English Historical Review, Tigray Province, Time (magazine), Timeline of abolition of slavery and serfdom, Timeline of the Second Italo-Ethiopian War, Tito Minniti, Treaty of Versailles, Tripartite Pact, Truck, Udine, United States Marine Corps, Uruguay, Viceroy, Vickers machine gun, Victor Emmanuel III of Italy, Viking Tamm, Wehib Pasha, Welwel, Ethiopia, Wondosson Kassa, World War II, Yekatit 12, Yemen, 3.7 cm Pak 36, 3rd Army Corps (Italy). Expand index (188 more) » « Shrink index
Ras Abebe Aregai (18 August 1903 – 17 December 1960) was an Ethiopian military commander who, during the Italian occupation, led a group of resistance fighters (collectively known as the Arbegnoch or "Patriots") that operated in Menz and Shewa.
Aberra Kassa (1905 – 21 December 1936) was an army commander and a member of the Royal family of the Ethiopian Empire.
Abiy Addi (also spelled Abi Addi; Tigrigna ዓብዪ ዓዲ "Big town") is a town and separate woreda in north central Ethiopia, and was capital of the former province of Tembien before that province was incorporated into Tigray.
Aboune Petros (Ge'ez: አቡነ ጴጥሮስ) or Abuna Petros (1892-1936) was an Ethiopian bishop and martyr, executed on 29 July 1936 by the Italian occupation forces in Ethiopia for publicly condemning colonialism, invasion and massacre.
The Abyssinia Crisis was a crisis in 1935 originating in the so-called Walwal incident in the then ongoing conflict between the Kingdom of Italy and the Empire of Ethiopia (then commonly known as "Abyssinia" in Europe).
Addis Ababa (አዲስ አበባ,, "new flower"; or Addis Abeba (the spelling used by the official Ethiopian Mapping Authority); Finfinne "natural spring") is the capital and largest city of Ethiopia.
Adigrat (ʿaddigrat, also called ʿAddi Grat) is a city and separate woreda in the Tigray Regional State of Ethiopia.
Adwa (ዓድዋ; also spelled Aduwa) is a market town and separate woreda in northern Ethiopia.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
Amba Aradam is a mountain in northern Ethiopia.
Amharas (አማራ, Āmara; አምሐራ, ʾÄməḥära), also known as Abyssinians, are an ethnic group traditionally inhabiting the northern and central highlands of Ethiopia, particularly the Amhara Region.
An ammunition depot, ammunition supply point (ASP), ammunition handling area (AHA), ammunition dump, is a military storage facility for live ammunition and explosives.
The Anglo-German Naval Agreement of 18 June 1935 was a naval agreement between the United Kingdom and Germany regulating the size of the Kriegsmarine in relation to the Royal Navy.
Ankober, formerly known as Ankobar, is a town in central Ethiopia.
Annexation (Latin ad, to, and nexus, joining) is the administrative action and concept in international law relating to the forcible transition of one state's territory by another state.
Anschluss ('joining') refers to the annexation of Austria into Nazi Germany on 12 March 1938.
Anthony Rhodes (September 24, 1916 – August 23, 2004) was a British writer of memoirs, novels, travelogues, reviews and histories.
Anti-aircraft warfare or counter-air defence is defined by NATO as "all measures designed to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of hostile air action."AAP-6 They include ground-and air-based weapon systems, associated sensor systems, command and control arrangements and passive measures (e.g. barrage balloons).
An apsis (ἁψίς; plural apsides, Greek: ἁψῖδες) is an extreme point in the orbit of an object.
Arbegona is one of the woredas in the Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region of Ethiopia.
Argentina, officially the Argentine Republic (República Argentina), is a federal republic located mostly in the southern half of South America.
The Armistice of Cassibile was an armistice signed on 3 September 1943 by Walter Bedell Smith and Giuseppe Castellano, and made public on 8 September, between the Kingdom of Italy and the Allies during World War II.
A military armored (or armoured) car is a lightweight wheeled armored fighting vehicle, historically employed for reconnaissance, internal security, armed escort, and other subordinate battlefield tasks.
The Armies of the Ethiopian Empire have existed since earliest times.
Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.
Asfawossen Kassa (1913 – 21 December 1936) was an army commander and a member of the Royal family of the Ethiopian Empire.
Assab or Aseb (ዓሰብ,; عصب) is a port city in the Southern Red Sea Region of Eritrea.
Austria (Österreich), officially the Republic of Austria (Republik Österreich), is a federal republic and a landlocked country of over 8.8 million people in Central Europe.
Axum or Aksum (ኣኽሱም, አክሱም) is a city in the northern part of Ethiopia.
Dejazmach Balcha Safo (ባልቻ ሳፎ; 1863 – 6 November 1936), popularly referred to by his "horse-name" Balcha Aba Nefso (ባልቻ አባ ነፍሶ), was an accomplished Ethiopian military commander and lord protector of the crown, who served in both the First and Second Italo-Ethiopian Wars.
Benaadir (Banaadir, بنادر) is an administrative region (gobol) in southeastern Somalia.
The Battle of Amba Aradam (also known as the Battle of Enderta) was a battle fought on the northern front of what was known as the Second Italo-Abyssinian War.
The Battle of Maychew (also known as the Battle of Mai Ceu) was the last major battle fought on the northern front during the Second Italo-Abyssinian War.
The Battle of Shire (Italian: Battaglia dello Mayatutors) was a battle fought on the northern front of what was known as the Second Italo-Abyssinian War.
The Battle of the Ogaden was fought in 1936 in the southern front of the Second Italo-Abyssinian War.
Begemder (Amharic: በጌምድር) (also Gondar or Gonder after its 20th century capital) was a province in the northwestern part of Ethiopia.
The Land Component (Landcomponent, Composante terre) is the land-based branch of the Belgian Armed Forces.
Benito Amilcare Andrea Mussolini (29 July 1883 – 28 April 1945) was an Italian politician and journalist who was the leader of the National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF).
Major-General Dejazmatch Beyene Merid (sometimes rendered as Beine Merid) (1897 - 24 February 1937) was an Ethiopian army commander, a patriot, and the son-in-law of Emperor Haile Selassie I.
In the Catholic Church, a bishop is an ordained minister who holds the fullness of the sacrament of holy orders and is responsible for teaching doctrine, governing Catholics in his jurisdiction, sanctifying the world and representing the Church.
The Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale (MVSN, "Voluntary Militia for National Security"), commonly called the Blackshirts (Camicie Nere, CCNN, singular: Camicia Nera) or squadristi (singular: squadrista), was originally the paramilitary wing of the National Fascist Party and, after 1923, an all-volunteer militia of the Kingdom of Italy.
Brazil (Brasil), officially the Federative Republic of Brazil (República Federativa do Brasil), is the largest country in both South America and Latin America.
British Somaliland, officially the British Somaliland Protectorate (Dhulka Maxmiyada Soomaalida ee Biritishka, translit) was a British protectorate in present-day northwestern Somalia.
Butajira is a town and separate woreda in south-central Ethiopia.
The Canon de 75 antiaérien mle 1913–1917 were a family of French 75 mm anti-aircraft guns designed and manufactured by Schneider et Cie at Le Creusot.
Carlo Agostini (22 April 1888 – 28 December 1952) was an Italian prelate of the Roman Catholic Church.
Castration (also known as gonadectomy) is any action, surgical, chemical, or otherwise, by which an individual loses use of the testicles.
In Italy, freedom of press is guaranteed by the Italian Constitution of 1948.
Chemical warfare (CW) involves using the toxic properties of chemical substances as weapons.
The Christmas Offensive took place during the Second Italo-Ethiopian War.
Colonial war (in some contexts referred to as small war) is a blanket term relating to the various conflicts that arose as the result of overseas territories being settled by foreign powers creating a colony.
The Comando Truppe Alpine (Alpine Troops Command) or COMTA (formerly also COMALP) commands the Mountain Troops of the Italian Army, called Alpini and various support and training units.
A commander-in-chief, also sometimes called supreme commander, or chief commander, is the person or body that exercises supreme operational command and control of a nation's military forces.
The Commonwealth of Nations, often known as simply the Commonwealth, is an intergovernmental organisation of 53 member states that are mostly former territories of the British Empire.
The Council of Ministers is the cabinet of the Government of Ethiopia.
A counter-offensive is the term used by the military to describe large-scale, usually strategic offensive operations by forces that had successfully halted the enemy's offensive, while occupying defensive positions.
The Covenant of the League of Nations was the charter of the League of Nations.
Cremona is a city and comune in northern Italy, situated in Lombardy, on the left bank of the Po River in the middle of the Pianura Padana (Po Valley).
Debre Berhan or Birhan, formerly spelled Debra-Berhan or Bernam, is a city and woreda in central Ethiopia.
Debre Libanos (ደብረ፡ሊባኖስ, Däbrä Libanos) is a monastery in Ethiopia, lying northwest of Addis Ababa in the Semien Shewa Zone of the Oromia Region.
Debre Zebit is a village in northern Ethiopia.
A declaration of war is a formal act by which one state goes to war against another.
Dessie (ደሴ) (also spelled Dese or Dessye), is a city and a Zone in north-central Ethiopia.
''Ras'' Desta Damtew (Amharic: ደስታ ዳምጠው; ca. 1892 - 24 February 1937) was an Ethiopian noble, an army commander, and a son-in-law of Emperor Haile Selassie I.
Djibouti (جيبوتي, Djibouti, Jabuuti, Gabuuti), officially the Republic of Djibouti, is a country located in the Horn of Africa.
Dolo is a town in southeastern Ethiopia, within 30 kilometers of the Ethiopia-Somalia border.
Dubats (English: White turbans) was the designation given to armed irregular bands employed by the Italian "Royal Corps of Colonial Troops" (Regio Corpo di Truppe Coloniali in Italian) in Italian Somaliland from 1924 to 1941.
A duke (male) or duchess (female) can either be a monarch ruling over a duchy or a member of royalty or nobility, historically of highest rank below the monarch.
The East African Campaign (also known as the Abyssinian Campaign) was fought in East Africa during World War II by Allied forces, mainly from the British Empire, against Axis forces, primarily from Italy of Italian East Africa (Africa Orientale Italiana, or AOI), between June 1940 and November 1941.
The Anglo-Italian Agreements of 1938, also called the Easter Pact or Easter Accords (in Italian Patto or Accordi di Pasqua), were a series of agreements concluded between the British and the Italian governments in Rome on 16 April 1938 to facilitate the cooperation of the Italian government in keeping the existing world order and to prevent its alliance with Germany.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Princess Elena of Montenegro, or more commonly known as Queen Elena of Italy (8 January 1871 – 28 November 1952) was the daughter of King Nicholas I of Montenegro and his wife, Milena Vukotić.
Emilio De Bono (19 March 1866 – 11 January 1944) was an Italian General, fascist activist, Marshal, and member of the Fascist Grand Council (Gran Consiglio del Fascismo).
The Emperor of Ethiopia (ንጉሠ ነገሥት, nəgusä nägäst, "King of Kings") was the hereditary ruler of the Ethiopian Empire, until the abolition of the monarchy in 1975.
The was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.
Eritrea (ኤርትራ), officially the State of Eritrea, is a country in the Horn of Africa, with its capital at Asmara.
The Eritrean Ascari were indigenous soldiers from Eritrea, who were enrolled as askaris in the Royal Corps of Colonial Troops (Regio Corpo di Truppe Coloniali) of the Italian Army during the period 1889–1941.
Colonel Esmond Humphrey Miller Clifford (1895–1970) was a Royal Engineers officer of the British Army who served between 1914 and 1948 through both world wars.
Ethiopia–Japan relations are the international relations between Ethiopia and Japan.
The Ethiopian Air Force (ETAF) (Amharic: የኢትዮጵያ አየር ሃይል, Ye Ithopya Ayer Hayl) is the air arm of the Ethiopian National Defense Forces and is tasked with protecting the national air space, providing support to ground forces, as well as assisting civil operations during national emergencies.
Until the end of the Ethiopian monarchy in 1974, there were two categories of nobility in Ethiopia.
The Ethiopian calendar (የኢትዮጵያ ዘመን አቆጣጠር; yä'Ityoṗṗya zämän aḳoṭaṭär) is the principal calendar used in Ethiopia and also serves as the liturgical year for Christians in Eritrea and Ethiopia belonging to the Eritrean Orthodox Tewahedo Church, Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church, Eastern Catholic Churches and Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria.
The Ethiopian Empire (የኢትዮጵያ ንጉሠ ነገሥት መንግሥተ), also known as Abyssinia (derived from the Arabic al-Habash), was a kingdom that spanned a geographical area in the current state of Ethiopia.
During the Second Italo-Ethiopian War, the Italians captured selected prominent Ethiopians as prisoners of war and sent them off to different prison camps while the unfortunate ones were executed immediately.
Expanding bullets, also known as dumdum bullets, are projectiles designed to expand on impact, increasing in diameter to limit penetration and/or produce a larger diameter wound for faster incapacitation.
"Only one eye for one eye", also known as "An eye for an eye" or "A tooth for a tooth"), or the law of retaliation, is the principle that a person who has injured another person is to be penalized to a similar degree, and the person inflicting such punishment should be the injured party. In softer interpretations, it means the victim receives the value of the injury in compensation. The intent behind the principle was to restrict compensation to the value of the loss. The principle is sometimes referred using the Latin term lex talionis or the law of talion. The English word talion (from the Latin talio) means a retaliation authorized by law, in which the punishment corresponds in kind and degree to the injury.
Feudalism was a combination of legal and military customs in medieval Europe that flourished between the 9th and 15th centuries.
The Fiat 3000 was the first tank to be produced in series in Italy.
Fiche is a town in central Ethiopia.
The First Italo-Ethiopian War was fought between Italy and Ethiopia from 1895 to 1896.
The Ford Model A (also colloquially called the A-Model Ford or the A, and A-bone among rodders and customizers), was the second huge success for the Ford Motor Company, after its predecessor, the Model T. First produced on October 20, 1927, but not sold until December 2, it replaced the venerable Model T, which had been produced for 18 years.
The Franco-Italian Agreement (called often Mussolini-Laval accord) of 7 January 1935 was signed in Rome by the French Foreign Minister Pierre Laval and Italian Prime Minister Benito Mussolini.
The military tactic of frontal assault is a direct, hostile movement of forces toward the front of an enemy force (as compared to the flanks or rear of the enemy).
The Protocol for the Prohibition of the Use in War of Asphyxiating, Poisonous or other Gases, and of Bacteriological Methods of Warfare, usually called the Geneva Protocol, is a treaty prohibiting the use of chemical and biological weapons in international armed conflicts.
Gibraltar is a British Overseas Territory located at the southern tip of the Iberian Peninsula.
Gideon Force was a small British and African special force, which acted as a Corps d'Elite amongst the Sudan Defence Force, Ethiopian regular forces and Arbegnoch (Patriots) fighting the Italian occupation in Ethiopia, during the East African Campaign of World War II.
Giovanni Messe (10 December 1883 – 18 December 1968) was an Italian general, politician, and field marshal (Maresciallo d'Italia).
Gojjam (Amharic: ጎጃም gōjjām or Goǧǧam, originally ጐዛም gʷazzam, later ጐዣም gʷažžām, ጎዣም gōžžām) was a kingdom in the north-western part of Ethiopia, with its capital city at Debre Marqos.
Gore is a town in south-western Ethiopia.
Governor-general (plural governors-general) or governor general (plural governors general), in modern usage, is the title of an office-holder appointed to represent the monarch of a sovereign state in the governing of an independent realm.
The Gulf of Aden, also known as the Gulf of Berbera, (خليج عدن,, Gacanka Berbera) is a gulf amidst Yemen to the north, the Arabian Sea and Guardafui Channel to the east, Somalia to the south, and Djibouti to the west.
Gurage is a Zone in the Ethiopian Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples' Region (SNNPR).
The Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 are a series of international treaties and declarations negotiated at two international peace conferences at The Hague in the Netherlands.
Haile Mariam Mammo (1904 – 6 June 1938), alternatively Lej Hayla Maryam Mammo, was an Ethiopian soldier and a leader of the Patriot movement during the Italian occupation of Ethiopia.
Haile Selassie I (ቀዳማዊ ኃይለ ሥላሴ, qädamawi haylä səllasé,;, born Ras Tafari Makonnen, was Ethiopia's regent from 1916 to 1930 and emperor from 1930 to 1974.
Haile Selassie Gugsa (1907–1985) was an army commander and a member of the Imperial family of the Ethiopian Empire.
Hailu Tekle Haymanot, KBE (1868–1950), also named Hailu II of Gojjam, was an army commander and a member of the nobility of the Ethiopian Empire.
Hamid Idris Awate (10 April 1910 – 28 May 1962) was an Eritrean independence leader.
Harar (Harari: ሐረር), and known to its inhabitants as Gēy (Harari: ጌይ), is a walled city in eastern Ethiopia.
Herbert Lionel Matthews (January 10, 1900 – July 30, 1977) was a reporter and editorialist for The New York Times who won widespread attention after revealing that Fidel Castro was still alive and living in the Sierra Maestra mountains, though Fulgencio Batista had claimed publicly that he was killed during the 26th of July Movement's landing.
Hit-and-run tactics is a tactical doctrine where the purpose of the combat involved is not to seize control of territory, but to inflict damage on a target and immediately exit the area to avoid the enemy's defense and/or retaliation.
The Hoare–Laval Pact was an initially secret December 1935 proposal by British Foreign Secretary Samuel Hoare and French Prime Minister Pierre Laval for ending the Second Italo-Abyssinian War.
The Mle 1914 Hotchkiss machine gun chambered for the 8mm Lebel cartridge became the standard machine gun of the French Army during World War I. It was manufactured by the French arms company Hotchkiss et Cie, which had been established in the 1860s by American industrialist Benjamin B. Hotchkiss.
The Hotchkiss M1922 was a light machine gun manufactured by Hotchkiss.
Hubert Fauntleroy Julian (21 September 1897 – 19 February 1983) was a Trinidad-born aviation pioneer.
The Latin word imperator derives from the stem of the verb imperare, meaning ‘to order, to command’.
Leul Ras Imru Haile Selassie, CBE (Amharic: ዕምሩ፡ኃይለ፡ሥላሴ; 23 November 1892 – 15 August 1980) was an Ethiopian noble, soldier, and diplomat.
Indro Alessandro Raffaello Schizogene Montanelli Knight Grand Cross OMRI (22 April 1909 – 22 July 2001) was an Italian journalist and historian.
The International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC) is a humanitarian institution based in Geneva, Switzerland, and a three-time Nobel Prize Laureate.
In the context of the history of the 20th century, the interwar period was the period between the end of the First World War in November 1918 and the beginning of the Second World War in September 1939.
Irgalem (ይርጋለም; also spelled Yrgalam, Yrgalem and Yrga Alem; alternate names include Abosto, Dalle) is a town in southern Ethiopia.
Italian East Africa (Africa Orientale Italiana) was an Italian colony in the Horn of Africa.
The Italian Empire (Impero Italiano) comprised the colonies, protectorates, concessions, dependencies and trust territories of the Kingdom of Italy and, after 1946, the Italian Republic.
Italian Eritrea was a colony of the Kingdom of Italy in the territory of present-day Eritrea.
Italian Fascism (fascismo italiano), also known simply as Fascism, is the original fascist ideology as developed in Italy.
The Italian guerrilla war in Ethiopia was a conflict fought from the summer of 1941 to the autumn of 1943 by remnants of Italian troops in Ethiopia, in what had been the short-lived attempt to incorporate Ethiopia as part of Italian East Africa.
The Italian invasion of Albania (April 7–12, 1939) was a brief military campaign by the Kingdom of Italy against the Albanian Kingdom.
Italian Libya (Libia Italiana; ليبيا الإيطالية) was a unified colony of Italian North Africa (Africa Settentrionale Italiana, or ASI) established in 1934 in what is now modern Libya.
Italian Somaliland (Somalia italiana, الصومال الإيطالي Al-Sumal Al-Italiy, Dhulka Talyaaniga ee Soomaaliya), also known as Italian Somalia, was a colony of the Kingdom of Italy in present-day northeastern, central and southern Somalia.
Italians of Ethiopia are the immigrants from Italy who moved to live in Ethiopia as far back as the 19th century, and their descendants.
The Italo-Ethiopian Treaty of 1928, also known as the Italo–Ethiopian Treaty of Friendship and Arbitration, was a treaty signed between the Kingdom of Italy (''Regno d'Italia'') and the Ethiopian Empire (Abyssinia) on 2 August 1928.
Italy (Italia), officially the Italian Republic (Repubblica Italiana), is a sovereign state in Europe.
Lij Iyasu, or Iyasu V (ኢያሱ፭ኛ, the Ethiopian version of Joshua), also known as Lij Iyasu (ልጅ ኢያሱ; 4 February 1895 – 25 November 1935), was the designated but uncrowned Emperor of Ethiopia (1913–16).
Jerusalem (יְרוּשָׁלַיִם; القُدس) is a city in the Middle East, located on a plateau in the Judaean Mountains between the Mediterranean and the Dead Sea.
Jijiga (Jigjiga) is a city in eastern Ethiopia and the capital of the Somali Region of the country.
Leul Ras Kassa Hailu KS, GCVO, GBE, (Amharic: ካሣ ኀይሉ ዳርጌ; 7 August 1881 – 16 November 1956) was a Shewan nobleman, the son of Haile Wolde Kiros of Lasta and Tisseme Darge, and grandson of Ras Darge Sahle Selassie the brother of Menelik II's father.
Kebur Zabagna or Zebenya (lit) was the Ethiopian Imperial Guard.
Kelafo (Qalaafe) is a town in eastern Ethiopia.
Khartoum is the capital and largest city of Sudan.
A king-emperor, the female equivalent being queen-empress, is a sovereign ruler who is simultaneously a king of one territory and emperor of another.
The Kingdom of Romania (Regatul României) was a constitutional monarchy in Southeastern Europe which existed from 1881, when prince Carol I of Romania was proclaimed King, until 1947, when King Michael I of Romania abdicated and the Parliament proclaimed Romania a republic.
The L3/35 or Carro Veloce CV-35 was an Italian tankette that saw combat before and during World War II.
Lake Hashenge (also Lake Ashangi, Lake Ashenge) is a lake in the southern Tigray Region of Ethiopia.
Lake Tana (also spelled T'ana, ጣና ሀይቅ,,; an older variant is Tsana, Ge'ez: ጻና Ṣānā; sometimes called "Dembiya" after the region to the north of the lake) is the source of the Blue Nile and is the largest lake in Ethiopia.
Le Temps (literally "The Times") is a Swiss French-language daily newspaper published in Berliner format in Geneva by Le Temps SA.
A league is a unit of length.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
Libya (ليبيا), officially the State of Libya (دولة ليبيا), is a sovereign state in the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the north, Egypt to the east, Sudan to the southeast, Chad and Niger to the south and Algeria and Tunisia to the west.
Limmu is one of woredas in the Oromia Region of Ethiopia.
Lira (plural lire) is the name of several currency units.
The leaders of the League of Nations consisted of a Secretary General and a President of the Assembly selected from member states.
Luigi Frusci (16 January 1879 – 1949) was an officer in the Italian Royal Army (Regio Esercito) during the Italian conquest of Ethiopia and World War II.
The Colt–Browning M1895, nicknamed "potato digger" because of its unusual operating mechanism, is an air-cooled, belt-fed, gas-operated machine gun that fires from a closed bolt with a cyclic rate of 450 rounds per minute.
Manchuria is a name first used in the 17th century by Chinese people to refer to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia.
Mandatory Palestine (فلسطين; פָּלֶשְׂתִּינָה (א"י), where "EY" indicates "Eretz Yisrael", Land of Israel) was a geopolitical entity under British administration, carved out of Ottoman Syria after World War I. British civil administration in Palestine operated from 1920 until 1948.
The Mareb River (or Gash River), is a river flowing out of central Eritrea.
Marshal of Italy (Italian: Maresciallo d'Italia) was a rank in the Italian Royal Army (Regio Esercito).
Mauser, begun as Königliche Waffen Schmieden, is a German arms manufacturer.
Mekelle (መቐለ, mäqälle), formerly the capital of Enderta awraja in Tigray, is today the capital city of Tigray National Regional state.
Mexico (México; Mēxihco), officially called the United Mexican States (Estados Unidos Mexicanos) is a federal republic in the southern portion of North America.
Military occupation is effective provisional control by a certain ruling power over a territory which is not under the formal sovereignty of that entity, without the violation of the actual sovereign.
The Ministry of the Colonies was the ministry of the government of the Kingdom of Italy responsible for the government of the country's colonial possessions and the direction of their economies.
Miscegenation (from the Latin miscere "to mix" + genus "kind") is the mixing of different racial groups through marriage, cohabitation, sexual relations, or procreation.
Mulo is one of the woredas in the Oromia Region of Ethiopia.
Ras Mulugeta Yeggazu, (Amharic: ሙሉጌታ ይገዙ; killed 27 February 1936) was an Ethiopian government official.
Nasibu Zeamanuel, also Nasibu Zamanuael (Amharic: ነሲቡ ዘአማኑኤል; 1893 – 16 October 1936), was an army commander of the Ethiopian Empire.
The National Fascist Party (Partito Nazionale Fascista, PNF) was an Italian political party, created by Benito Mussolini as the political expression of fascism (previously represented by groups known as Fasci).
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
Negele Borana (or Neghelle) is a town and separate woreda in southern Ethiopia.
Nekemte (also called Nakamti) is a market town and separate woreda in western Ethiopia.
A newsreel is a form of short documentary film, containing news stories and items of topical interest, that was prevalent between the 1910s and the late 1960s.
Nicolae Titulescu (March 4, 1882 – March 17, 1941) was a Romanian diplomat, at various times government minister, finance and foreign minister, and for two terms President of the General Assembly of the League of Nations (1930–32).
Non abbiamo bisogno (Italian for "We do not need") is a Roman Catholic encyclical published on 29 June 1931 by Pope Pius XI.
The Obelisk of Axum (የአክሱም ሐውልት) is a 4th-century AD, 24-meter-tall (79-feet) granite stele/obelisk, weighing 160 tonnes, in the city of Axum in Ethiopia.
and --> The Oerlikon 20 mm cannon is a series of autocannons, based on an original German 20 mm Becker design that appeared very early in World War I. It was widely produced by Oerlikon Contraves and others, with various models employed by both Allied and Axis forces during World War II, and many versions still in use today.
Ogaden (pronounced and often spelled Ogadēn; Ogaadeen) is the unofficial name of the Somali Region, the territory comprising the eastern portion of Ethiopia.
Sultan Olol Dinle (Suldaan Olol Diinle) (?-1960s) was a Somali sultan who ruled Kelafo as the head of the Ajuran clan.
In war, in the event of the imminent capture of a city, the government/military structure of the nation that controls the city will sometimes declare it an open city, thus announcing that it has abandoned all defensive efforts.
The Oromo people (Oromoo; ኦሮሞ, ’Oromo) are an ethnic group inhabiting Ethiopia and parts of Kenya and Somalia.
The Pact of Steel (Stahlpakt, Patto d'Acciaio), known formally as the Pact of Friendship and Alliance between Germany and Italy, was a military and political alliance between the Kingdom of Italy and Nazi Germany.
The Palazzo Venezia, formerly Palace of St.
The Paris Peace Treaties (Traité de Paris) was signed on 10 February 1947, as the outcome of the Paris Peace Conference, held from 29 July to 15 October 1946.
The Patriots or Arbegnoch were Ethiopian resistance fighters in Italian East Africa from 1936 until 1941.
Lieutenant General Pedro Augusto del Valle (August 28, 1893 – April 28, 1978) was a United States Marine Corps officer who became the first Hispanic to reach the rank of lieutenant general.
Marshal Pietro Badoglio, 1st Duke of Addis Abeba, 1st Marquess of Sabotino (28 September 1871 – 1 November 1956), was an Italian general during both World Wars and a Prime Minister of Italy, as well as the first viceroy of Italian East Africa.
Ponza (Italian: isola di Ponza) is the largest island of the Italian Pontine Islands archipelago, located south of Cape Circeo in the Tyrrhenian Sea.
Pope Pius XI, (Pio XI) born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti (31 May 1857 – 10 February 1939), was head of the Catholic Church from 6 February 1922 to his death in 1939.
Potez 25 (also written as Potez XXV) was a French twin-seat, single-engine biplane designed during the 1920s.
Prince Amedeo, Duke of Aosta (Amedeo Umberto Isabella Luigi Filippo Maria Giuseppe Giovanni di Savoia-Aosta; 21 October 1898 – 3 March 1942) was the third Duke of Aosta and a first cousin, once removed of the King of Italy, Victor Emmanuel III.
The Quirinal Hill (Collis Quirinalis; Quirinale) is one of the Seven Hills of Rome, at the north-east of the city center.
The Quirinal Palace (known in Italian as the Palazzo del Quirinale or simply Quirinale) is a historic building in Rome, Italy, one of the three current official residences of the President of the Italian Republic, together with Villa Rosebery in Naples and Tenuta di Castelporziano in Rome.
A regent (from the Latin regens: ruling, governing) is a person appointed to govern a state because the monarch is a minor, is absent or is incapacitated.
The Italian Royal Air Force (Regia Aeronautica Italiana) was the name of the air force of the Kingdom of Italy.
The Royal Navy (Italian: Regia Marina) was the navy of the Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) from 1861 to 1946.
The Republic of China was a sovereign state in East Asia, that occupied the territories of modern China, and for part of its history Mongolia and Taiwan.
A resistance movement is an organized effort by some portion of the civil population of a country to withstand the legally established government or an occupying power and to disrupt civil order and stability.
The Review of International Studies is a peer-reviewed academic journal on international relations published by Cambridge University Press on behalf of the British International Studies Association.
Marshal Rodolfo Graziani, 1st Marquis of Neghelli (11 August 1882 – 11 January 1955), was a prominent Italian military officer in the Kingdom of Italy's Regio Esercito (Royal Army), primarily noted for his campaigns in Africa before and during World War II.
The Royal Italian Army (Italian: Regio Esercito Italiano) was the army of the Kingdom of Italy from the unification of Italy in 1861 to the birth of the Italian Republic in 1946.
Schrecklichkeit (German "terror" or "frightfulness") is a word used by English speakers to describe an assumed military policy of the German Army towards civilians in World War I. It was the basis of German actions during their march through Belgium in 1914.
The Second Battle of Tembien was a battle fought on the northern front of what was known as the Second Italo-Abyssinian War.
Seyoum Mengesha KBE (Amharic: ሥዩም መንገሻ; 21 June 1887 – 15 December 1960) was an army commander and a member of the Royal family of the Ethiopian Empire.
A shell is a payload-carrying projectile that, as opposed to shot, contains an explosive or other filling, though modern usage sometimes includes large solid projectiles properly termed shot.
Shire (ሽረ), also known as Inda Selassie (እንዳ ሥላሴ, Tigrinya "House of the Trinity"), is a town and separate woreda in northern Ethiopia.
Slavery in Ethiopia existed for centuries.
Somalis (Soomaali, صوماليون) are an ethnic group inhabiting the Horn of Africa (Somali Peninsula).
The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.
The Stresa Front was an agreement made in Stresa, a town on the banks of Lake Maggiore in Italy, between French prime minister Pierre Laval, British prime minister Ramsay MacDonald, and Italian prime minister Benito Mussolini on April 14, 1935.
The Sudan or Sudan (السودان as-Sūdān) also known as North Sudan since South Sudan's independence and officially the Republic of the Sudan (جمهورية السودان Jumhūriyyat as-Sūdān), is a country in Northeast Africa.
Sulfur mustard, commonly known as mustard gas, is the prototypical substance of the sulfur-based family of cytotoxic and vesicant chemical warfare agents known as the sulfur mustards which have the ability to form large blisters on exposed skin and in the lungs.
A tankette is a tracked armoured fighting vehicle that resembles a small tank, roughly the size of a car.
Telegraphy (from Greek: τῆλε têle, "at a distance" and γράφειν gráphein, "to write") is the long-distance transmission of textual or symbolic (as opposed to verbal or audio) messages without the physical exchange of an object bearing the message.
Téwodros II (ቴዎድሮስ, baptized as Sahle Dingil, and often referred to in English by the equivalent Theodore II) (c. 1818 – April 13, 1868) was the Emperor of Ethiopia from 1855 until his death.
The English Historical Review is a peer-reviewed academic journal that was established in 1886 and published by Oxford University Press (formerly Longman).
Tigray was a province of the Ethiopian Empire and of the PDRE until 1995.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
The abolition of slavery occurred at different times in different countries.
The following is a timeline relating to the Second Italo–Abyssinian War to the end of 1936.
Tito Minniti (1909 – 26 December 1935) was an Italian pilot who was killed after he was captured by Ethiopians during the Second Italo-Abyssinian War in 1935 near Degehabur.
The Treaty of Versailles (Traité de Versailles) was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end.
The Tripartite Pact, also known as the Berlin Pact, was an agreement between Germany, Italy and Japan signed in Berlin on 27 September 1940 by, respectively, Joachim von Ribbentrop, Galeazzo Ciano and Saburō Kurusu.
A truck or lorry is a motor vehicle designed to transport cargo.
Udine (Udin, Weiden in Friaul, Utinum, Videm) is a city and comune in northeastern Italy, in the middle of the Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, between the Adriatic Sea and the Alps (Alpi Carniche).
The United States Marine Corps (USMC), also referred to as the United States Marines, is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for conducting amphibious operations with the United States Navy.
Uruguay, officially the Oriental Republic of Uruguay (República Oriental del Uruguay), is a sovereign state in the southeastern region of South America.
A viceroy is a regal official who runs a country, colony, city, province, or sub-national state, in the name of and as the representative of the monarch of the territory.
The Vickers machine gun or Vickers gun is a name primarily used to refer to the water-cooled.303 British (7.7 mm) machine gun produced by Vickers Limited, originally for the British Army.
Victor Emmanuel III (Vittorio Emanuele Ferdinando Maria Gennaro di Savoia; Vittorio Emanuele III, Viktor Emanueli III; 11 November 1869 – 28 December 1947) was the King of Italy from 29 July 1900 until his abdication on 9 May 1946.
Viking Sebastian Henricsson Tamm (21July 1896 – 25November 1975) was a Swedish Army officer.
Wehib Pasha also known as Vehip Pasha, Mehmed Wehib Pasha, Mehmet Vehip Pasha (modern Turkish: Kaçı Vehip Paşa or Mehmet Vehip (Kaçı), 1877–1940), was a general in the Ottoman Army.
Welwel (also transliterated Walwal; Italian Ual-Ual), is a town in eastern Ethiopia known as the Ogaden.
Wondosson Kassa, also known as Wond Wossen Kassa (1903 – 19 December 1936), was a member of the royalty of the Ethiopian Empire, an army commander, and a patriot.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Yekatit 12 is a date in the Ethiopian calendar, equivalent to 19 February in the Gregorian calendar, which is commonly used to refer to the indiscriminate massacre, known as the Addis Ababa massacre, and imprisonment of Ethiopians by elements of the Italian occupation forces following an attempted assassination of Marshal Rodolfo Graziani, Marchese di Neghelli, Viceroy of Italian East Africa, on 19 February 1937.
Yemen (al-Yaman), officially known as the Republic of Yemen (al-Jumhūriyyah al-Yamaniyyah), is an Arab sovereign state in Western Asia at the southern end of the Arabian Peninsula.
The Pak 36 (Panzerabwehrkanone 36) is a 3.7 cm caliber German anti-tank gun used during the Second World War.
The 3rd Army Corps was one of three corps the Italian Army fielded during the Cold War.
1935 invasion of Abyssinia, 2nd Italo-Abyssinian War, Italian conquest of Abyssinia, Italian conquest of Ethiopia, Italy's invasion of Ethiopia in 1935, Rape of Ethiopia, Second Italian-Abyssian War, Second Italian-Abyssinian War, Second Italo-Abyssinian War, Second Italo–Abyssinian War, Second Italo–Ethiopian War, Wal Wal incident.