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The Inner Mongolian Campaign in the period from 1933 to 1936 were part of the ongoing invasion of northern China by the Empire of Japan prior to the official start of hostilities in the Second Sino-Japanese War.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
The M15 Adrian helmet (Casque Adrian) was a combat helmet issued to the French Army during World War I. It was the first standard helmet of the French Army and was designed when millions of French troops were engaged in trench warfare, and head wounds from the falling shrapnel generated by the new technique of indirect fire became a frequent cause of battlefield casualties.
The Second Sino-Japanese War began on 7 July 1937 with the Marco Polo Bridge Incident in the Republic of China.
Agnes Smedley (February 23, 1892 – May 6, 1950) was an American journalist and writer, well known for her semi-autobiographical novel Daughter of Earth as well as for her sympathetic chronicling of the Communist forces in the Chinese Civil War.
An air superiority fighter, also spelled air-superiority fighter, is a type of fighter aircraft designed for entering and seizing control of enemy airspace as a means of establishing complete dominance over the enemy's air force (air supremacy).
General Albert Coady Wedemeyer (July 9, 1897 – December 17, 1989) was a United States Army commander who served in Asia during World War II from October 1943 to the end of the war.
Alexander Ernst Alfred Hermann Freiherr von Falkenhausen (29 October 1878 – 31 July 1966) was a German General and military advisor to Chiang Kai-shek.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
Alvin David Coox, (pronounced "cooks"; March 8, 1924, Rochester, New York – November 4, 1999, San Diego, California) was an American military historian and author known for his award-winning book, Nomonhan: Japan Against Russia.
The American Volunteer Groups were volunteer air units organized by the United States government to aid the Nationalist government of China against Japan in the Second Sino-Japanese War.
The Amoy Operation was part of a campaign by Japan during the Second Sino-Japanese War to blockade China to prevent it from communicating with the outside world and importing needed arms and materials.
The Anti-Comintern Pact was an anti-Communist pact concluded between Germany and Japan (later to be joined by other, mainly fascist, governments) on November 25, 1936, and was directed against the Communist International.
After the Japanese invasion of Manchuria, and until 1933, large volunteer armies waged war against Japanese and Manchukuo forces over much of Northeast China.
Anti-Japanese sentiment (also called Japanophobia, Nipponophobia and anti-Japanism) involves the hatred or fear of anything Japanese.
Anti-Sovietism and anti-Soviet refer to persons and activities actually or allegedly aimed against the Soviet Union or government power within the Soviet Union.
An Anti-tank gun is a form of artillery designed to destroy armored fighting vehicles, normally from a static defensive position.
Several nations of the world hold an annual Armed Forces Day in honor of their military forces.
The Armistice of 11 November 1918 was the armistice that ended fighting on land, sea and air in World War I between the Allies and their last opponent, Germany.
An armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) is an armed combat vehicle protected by armour, generally combining operational mobility with offensive and defensive capabilities.
Armoured warfare, mechanised warfare or tank warfare is the use of armoured fighting vehicles in modern warfare.
Artillery is a class of large military weapons built to fire munitions far beyond the range and power of infantry's small arms.
The Asiatic-Pacific Theater, was the theater of operations of U.S. forces during World War II in the Pacific War during 1941–45.
During the final stage of World War II, the United States detonated two nuclear weapons over the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9, 1945, respectively.
The attack on Pearl Harbor was a surprise military strike by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service against the United States naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii Territory, on the morning of December 7, 1941.
Attrition warfare is a military strategy consisting of belligerent attempts to win a war by wearing down the enemy to the point of collapse through continuous losses in personnel and materiel.
An autocannon or automatic cannon is a large, fully automatic, rapid-fire projectile weapon that fires armour-piercing or explosive shells, as opposed to the bullet fired by a machine gun.
An automatic rifle is a type of self-loading rifle that is capable of automatic fire.
The, also known as the Old Imperial Family (旧皇族), were branches of the Japanese Imperial Family created from branches of the Fushimi-no-miya house.
Bai Chongxi (18 March 1893 – 1 December 1966;;, Xiao'erjing: ﺑَﻰْ ﭼْﻮ ثِ) was a Chinese general in the National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China (ROC) and a prominent Chinese Nationalist leader.
Barbara Wertheim Tuchman (January 30, 1912 – February 6, 1989) was an American historian and author.
A battalion is a military unit.
The Battle of Beiping–Tianjin, also known as the Battle of Beijing and the Peiking-Tientsin Operation or by the Japanese as the (25–31 July 1937) was a series of battles of the Second Sino-Japanese War fought in the proximity of Beiping (now Beijing) and Tianjin.
The Battle of Changde (Battle of Changteh) was a major engagement in the Second Sino-Japanese War in and around the Chinese city of Changde (Changteh) in the province of Hunan.
The First Battle of Changsha (17 September 1939 – 6 October 1939) was the first of four attempts by Japan to take the city of Changsha (長沙市), Hunan (湖南省), during the second Sino-Japanese War.
The Battle of Changsha (6 September – 8 October 1941) was Japan's second attempt at taking the city of Changsha, China, the capital of Hunan Province, as part of the Second Sino-Japanese War.
The third Battle of Changsha (24 December 1941 – 15 January 1942) was the first major offensive in China by Imperial Japanese forces following the Japanese attack on the Western Allies.
The Battle of France, also known as the Fall of France, was the German invasion of France and the Low Countries during the Second World War.
The Battle of Guilin–Liuzhou, also known as the Battle of Guiliu, was one of the 22 major engagements between the National Revolutionary Army (NRA) and Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
The Battle of Kunlun Pass was a series of conflicts between the Imperial Japanese Army and the Chinese forces surrounding Kunlun Pass, a key strategic position in Guangxi province.
The Battle of Lanfeng (兰封会战) was part of the larger campaign for Northern and Eastern Henan (February 7 – June 10, 1938) and was occurring at the same time as the Battle of Xuzhou (Late December – Early June 1938).
The Battle of Mount Song (松山战役, in Japanese: "The Battle of Ramou" (拉孟の戦い)) in 1944 was part of a larger campaign in southwestern China during the Second World War.
The Battle of Nanchang was a military campaign fought around Nanchang, Jiangxi between the Chinese National Revolutionary Army and the Japanese Imperial Japanese Army in the Second Sino-Japanese War.
The Battle of Nanking (or Nanjing) was fought in early December 1937 during the Second Sino-Japanese War between the Chinese National Revolutionary Army and the Imperial Japanese Army for control of Nanking (Nanjing), the capital of the Republic of China.
During the Second Sino-Japanese War the Japanese 1st Army under Lt.
Battle of Northern Burma and Western Yunnan (October 1943 – March 1945) was the name of the Chinese campaign with their allies in the 1943-45 Burma Campaign.
The Battle of Pingxingguan, commonly called the Great Victory of Pingxingguan in Mainland China, was an engagement fought on September 25, 1937, at the beginning of the Second Sino-Japanese War, between the Eighth Route Army of the Communist Party of China and the Imperial Japanese Army.
The Battle of Rehe (sometimes called the Battle of Jehol) was the second part of Operation Nekka, a campaign by which the Empire of Japan successfully captured the Inner Mongolian province of Rehe from the Chinese warlord Zhang Xueliang and annexed it to the new state of Manchukuo.
The Battle of Shanggao, also called Operation Kinkō (錦江作戦), was one of the 22 major engagements between the National Revolutionary Army and Imperial Japanese Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
The Battle of Shanghai was the first of the twenty-two major engagements fought between the National Revolutionary Army (NRA) of the Republic of China (ROC) and the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) of the Empire of Japan during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
The Battle of South Guangxi was one of the 22 major engagements between the National Revolutionary Army and Imperial Japanese Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
The Battle of South Henan, was one of the 22 major engagements between the National Revolutionary Army (NRA) and Imperial Japanese Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
The Battle of South Shanxi, also known as the Battle of Jinnan and Zhongtiao Mountains Campaign by the Chinese and as the Chungyuan Operation by the Japanese, was one of the 22 major engagements between the National Revolutionary Army and the Imperial Japanese Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945).
The Battle of Stalingrad (23 August 1942 – 2 February 1943) was the largest confrontation of World War II, in which Germany and its allies fought the Soviet Union for control of the city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) in Southern Russia.
The Battle of Suixian–Zaoyang, also known as the Battle of Suizao was one of the 22 major engagements between the National Revolutionary Army (NRA) and Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
The Battle of Tai'erzhuang was a battle of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1938, between the armies of the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan.
The Japanese offensive called 太原作戦 or the Battle of Taiyuan was a major battle fought between China and Japan named for Taiyuan (the capital of Shanxi province), which lay in the 2nd Military Region.
The Battle of Toungoo, was one of the key battles in the Battle of Yunnan-Burma Road in the Burma Campaign of World War II and Second Sino-Japanese War.
Battle of Wanjialing, known in Chinese text as the Victory of Wanjialing, refers to the Chinese Army's successful engagement during the Wuhan theatre of the Second Sino-Japanese War against the Japanese 101st, 106th, 9th and 27th divisions around the Wanjialing region in 1938. The two and a half month battle resulted in heavy losses of the Japanese 101st and 106th Divisions.
The Battle of West Henan–North Hubei was one of the 22 major engagements between the National Revolutionary Army and Imperial Japanese Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
The Battle of West Hubei, was one of 22 major engagements between the National Revolutionary Army and Imperial Japanese Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
The Battle of West Hunan, also known as the Battle of Xuefeng Mountains and the Zhijiang Campaign, was the Japanese invasion of west Hunan and the subsequent Chinese counterattack that occurred between 6 April and 7 June 1945, during the last months of the Second Sino-Japanese War.
The Battle of West Suiyuan was part of the Second Sino-Japanese War.
The Battle of Wuhan, popularly known to the Chinese as the Defense of Wuhan, and to the Japanese as the Capture of Wuhan, was a large-scale battle of the Second Sino-Japanese War.
The Battle of Wuyuan (March 16 – April 3, 1940) was a Chinese counterattack that defeated the Japanese invasion of the Wuyuan area.
The Battle of Xinkou was a decisive engagement of the Taiyuan Campaign, the second of the 22 major engagements between the National Revolutionary Army and Imperial Japanese Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
The Battle of Xuzhou was a military conflict between the Empire of Japan and the Republic of China forces in May 1938 during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
The Battle of Yenangyaung was fought in Burma, now Myanmar, during the Burma Campaign in World War II.
Battle of Yunnan-Burma Road (Mid March – Early June 1942) was the name of the Chinese intervention to aid their British allies in the 1942 Burma Campaign.
The Battle of Zaoyang–Yichang, also known as the Battle of Zaoyi, was one of the 22 major engagements between the National Revolutionary Army and Imperial Japanese Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
The Battles of Khalkhyn Gol were the decisive engagements of the undeclared Soviet–Japanese border conflicts fought among the Soviet Union, Mongolia, Japan and Manchukuo in 1939.
Beijing, formerly romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's second most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.
The Japanese 京漢線作戦 or Beiping–Hankou Railway Operation (Mid August – Dec. 1937) was a follow up to the Battle of Beiping–Tianjin of the Japanese army in North China at the beginning of the 2nd Sino-Japanese War, fought simultaneously with Tianjin–Pukou Railway Operation.
The Beiyang Army (Pei-yang Army) was a powerful, Western-style Imperial Chinese Army established by the Qing Dynasty government in the late 19th century.
The Beiyang government (北洋政府), also sometimes spelled Peiyang Government, refers to the government of the Republic of China, which was in place in the capital city Beijing from 1912 to 1928.
Biological warfare (BW)—also known as germ warfare—is the use of biological toxins or infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi with the intent to kill or incapacitate humans, animals or plants as an act of war.
A biplane is a fixed-wing aircraft with two main wings stacked one above the other.
The Blue Sky with a White Sun serves as the design for the party flag and emblem of the Kuomintang (KMT), the canton of the flag of the Republic of China, the national emblem of the Republic of China and as the naval jack of the ROC Navy.
The Boeing B-29 Superfortress is a four-engine propeller-driven heavy bomber designed by Boeing, which was flown primarily by the United States during World War II and the Korean War.
The Boeing P-26 "Peashooter" was the first American all-metal production fighter aircraft and the first pursuit monoplane to enter squadron service with the United States Army Air Corps.
Bofors AB is a Swedish arms manufacturer.
A bomber is a combat aircraft designed to attack ground and naval targets by dropping air-to-ground weaponry (such as bombs), firing torpedoes and bullets or deploying air-launched cruise missiles.
The bombing of Chongqing (重慶爆撃, from 18 February 1938 to 23 August 1943) was part of a terror bombing operation conducted by the Imperial Japanese Army Air Service and Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service on the Chinese provisional capital of Chongqing, authorized by the Imperial General Headquarters.
The Boxer Protocol was signed on September 7, 1901, between the Qing Empire of China and the Eight-Nation Alliance that had provided military forces (Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Russia, the United Kingdom, and the United States) plus Belgium, Spain and the Netherlands after China's defeat in the intervention to put down the Boxer Rebellion at the hands of the Eight-Power Expeditionary Force.
The Boxer Rebellion (拳亂), Boxer Uprising or Yihetuan Movement (義和團運動) was a violent anti-foreign, anti-colonial and anti-Christian uprising that took place in China between 1899 and 1901, toward the end of the Qing dynasty.
A brigade is a major tactical military formation that is typically composed of three to six battalions plus supporting elements.
British rule in Burma, also known as British Burma, lasted from 1824 to 1948, from the Anglo-Burmese wars through the creation of Burma as a Province of British India to the establishment of an independently administered colony, and finally independence.
The Brodie helmet is a steel combat helmet designed and patented in London in 1915 by John Leopold Brodie.
The BT tanks (translit, lit. "fast moving tank" or "high-speed tank") were a series of Soviet light tanks produced in large numbers between 1932 and 1941.
Bubonic plague is one of three types of plague caused by bacterium Yersinia pestis.
A buffer state is a country lying between two rival or potentially hostile greater powers.
The Burma Campaign was a series of battles fought in the British colony of Burma, South-East Asian theatre of World War II, primarily between the forces of the British Empire and China, with support from the United States, against the invading forces of Imperial Japan, Thailand, and the Indian National Army.
The Burma Road was a road linking Burma with the southwest of China.
The Cairo Conference (codenamed Sextant) of November 22–26, 1943, held in Cairo, Egypt, outlined the Allied position against Japan during World War II and made decisions about postwar Asia.
Cambodia (កម្ពុជា, or Kampuchea:, Cambodge), officially known as the Kingdom of Cambodia (ព្រះរាជាណាចក្រកម្ពុជា, prĕəh riəciənaacak kampuciə,; Royaume du Cambodge), is a sovereign state located in the southern portion of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Cambridge is a university city and the county town of Cambridgeshire, England, on the River Cam approximately north of London.
Cambridge University Press (CUP) is the publishing business of the University of Cambridge.
The Canton Operation was part of a campaign by Japan during the Second Sino-Japanese War to blockade China to prevent it from communicating with the outside world and importing needed arms and materials.
Cavalry (from the French cavalerie, cf. cheval 'horse') or horsemen were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback.
A cemetery or graveyard is a place where the remains of dead people are buried or otherwise interred.
The Central Hubei Operation was one of the engagements between the National Revolutionary Army and Imperial Japanese Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
The Central Plains War of 1930 was a civil war between the Nationalist Kuomintang government in Nanjing led by Chiang Kai-shek and several regional military commanders that were former allies of Chiang during the Northern Expedition.
The century of humiliation, also known by permutations such as the hundred years of national humiliation, refers to the period of intervention and imperialism by Western powers and Japan in China between 1839 and 1949.
Chahar (ᠴᠠᠬᠠᠷ Чахар), also known as Chaha'er, Chakhar, or Qahar, was a province of the Republic of China in existence from 1912 to 1936, mostly covering territory in what is part of eastern Inner Mongolia.
Changde is a prefecture-level city in the northwest of Hunan province, People's Republic of China, with a population of 5,717,218 as of the 2010 census, of which 1,232,182 reside in the urban districts of Dingcheng and Wuling.
Changsha is the capital and most populous city of Hunan province in the south central part of the People's Republic of China.
Chen Cheng (January 4, 1897 – March 5, 1965) was a Chinese political and military leader, and one of the main National Revolutionary Army commanders during the Second Sino-Japanese War and the Chinese Civil War.
Chen Gongbo (Japanese: Chin Kōhaku, October 19, 1892 – June 3, 1946) was a Chinese politician, noted for his role as second (and final) President of the collaborationist pro-Japanese Nanjing Nationalist Government during World War II.
Chen Yi (August 26, 1901 – January 6, 1972) was a Chinese communist military commander and politician.
Cheng Qian (31 March 1882 – 5 April 1968) was a Chinese military general.
Chiang Kai-shek (31 October 1887 – 5 April 1975), also romanized as Chiang Chieh-shih or Jiang Jieshi and known as Chiang Chungcheng, was a political and military leader who served as the leader of the Republic of China between 1928 and 1975, first in mainland China until 1949 and then in exile in Taiwan.
The Type Zhongzheng rifle (中正式), also known as the Chiang Kai-shek/Jiang Jieshi Rifle, Generalissimo Rifle, and Type 24 (二四式) after the Chinese Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, was a Chinese-made copy of the German Mauser M1924, the forerunner of the Karabiner 98k.
China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a unitary one-party sovereign state in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around /1e9 round 3 billion.
China Burma India Theater (CBI) was the United States military designation during World War II for the China and Southeast Asian or India-Burma (IBT) theaters.
China Daily is an English-language daily newspaper published in the People's Republic of China.
China proper, Inner China or the Eighteen Provinces was a term used by Western writers on the Manchu Qing dynasty to express a distinction between the core and frontier regions of China.
China–Japan relations or Sino-Nippon relations (日中関係; にっちゅうかんけい) refer to the international relations between the People's Republic of China and the State of Japan.
The Chin–Doihara Agreement (Doihara-Qín Déchún) was a treaty that resolved the North Chahar Incident of 27 June 1935 between the Empire of Japan and Republic of China.
The Chinese Civil War was a war fought between the Kuomintang (KMT)-led government of the Republic of China and the Communist Party of China (CPC).
The Chinese Expeditionary Force was an expeditionary unit of the Chinese Army that was dispatched to Burma and India in support of the Allied efforts against the Imperial Japanese Army during the Japanese invasion and occupation of Burma in the South-East Asian theatre of the Second World War.
The Chinese famine of 1942–43 occurred mainly in Henan, most particularly within the western part of the province.
Chinese nationalism is the form of nationalism in China which asserts that the Chinese people are a nation and promotes the cultural and national unity of the Chinese.
Chinese people are the various individuals or ethnic groups associated with China, usually through ancestry, ethnicity, nationality, citizenship or other affiliation.
The Chinese Workers' and Peasants' Red Army, renamed Chinese People's Red Army in 1936, commonly known as the Chinese Red Army, or simply the Red Army, was the armed forces of the Communist Party of China from 1928 to 1937.
Chinese reunification (1928), better known in Chinese history as the Northeast Flag Replacement, is Zhang Xueliang's announcement on 29 December 1928 on replacing all banners of the Beiyang government in Manchuria with the flag of the Nationalist government, thus nominally uniting China under one state.
Chinese (re)unification, more specifically Cross-strait (re)unification, is the irredentist concept of Greater China that expresses the goal of unifying the People's Republic of China and Taiwan into a single sovereign state.
Cholera is an infection of the small intestine by some strains of the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
Chongqing, formerly romanized as Chungking, is a major city in southwest China.
Claire Lee Chennault (September 6, 1890 – July 27, 1958) was an American military aviator best known for his leadership of the "Flying Tigers" and the Republic of China Air Force in World War II.
The term Collaborationist Chinese Army refers to the military forces of the puppet governments founded by Imperial Japan in mainland China during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
A combat knife is a fighting knife designed solely for military use and primarily intended for hand-to-hand or close combat fighting.
Comfort women were women and girls forced into sexual slavery by the Imperial Japanese Army in occupied territories before and during World War II.
The Communist Party of China (CPC), also referred to as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the founding and ruling political party of the People's Republic of China.
The Cornell University Press is a division of Cornell University housed in Sage House, the former residence of Henry William Sage.
The Curtiss F11C Goshawk was a 1930s United States naval biplane fighter aircraft that saw limited success but was part of a long line of Curtiss Hawk airplanes built by the Curtiss Aeroplane and Motor Company for the American military.
The Curtiss P-40 Warhawk is an American single-engined, single-seat, all-metal fighter and ground-attack aircraft that first flew in 1938.
Lieutenant General Dai Li (Tai Li;; May 28, 1897 - March 17, 1946) was born Dai Chunfeng (Tai Chun-feng; 戴春風) with the courtesy name of Yunong (Yu-nung; 雨農) in Bao'an, Jiangshan of Qing Dynasty China's Zhejiang province.
A dam is a barrier that stops or restricts the flow of water or underground streams.
Dao (Chinese: 刀; Pinyin: dāo) are single-edged Chinese swords, primarily used for slashing and chopping.
A declaration of war is a formal act by which one state goes to war against another.
The Defense of Harbin occurred during the early Second Sino-Japanese War, as part of the campaign of the Invasion of Manchuria by forces of the Empire of Japan from 25 January to 4 February 1932.
The Battle of Hengyang was the longest defense of a single city of the entire Second Sino-Japanese War.
The Defense of Sihang Warehouse took place from October 26 to November 1, 1937, and marked the beginning of the end of the three-month Battle of Shanghai in the opening phase of the Second Sino-Japanese War.
The Defense of the Great Wall (January 1 – May 31, 1933) was a campaign between the armies of Republic of China and Empire of Japan, which took place before the Second Sino-Japanese War officially commenced in 1937.
Demchugdongrub (8 February 1902– 23 May 1966), also known as Prince De or Teh, was a Mongolian prince descended from the Borjigin imperial clan who lived during the 20th century and became the leader of an independence movement in Inner Mongolia.
Demilitarisation or demilitarization may mean the reduction of state armed forces.
The Democratic Progressive Party (DPP), also known as Minjindang (MJD) is a liberal political party in the Taiwan and the dominant party in the Pan-Green Coalition as it is currently the majority ruling party, controlling both the presidency and the unicameral Legislative Yuan.
Deng Xiaoping (22 August 1904 – 19 February 1997), courtesy name Xixian (希贤), was a Chinese politician.
The Republic of China Air Force (ROCAF) was formed by the Kuomintang after the establishment of the Aviation Ministry in 1920.
DISA is a company founded in Denmark (with the name Compagnie Madsen A/S) which since 1900 has produced metal casting products.
Dissimilar air combat training (DACT) was introduced as a formal part of US air combat training after disappointing aerial combat exchange rates in the Vietnam War.
A division is a large military unit or formation, usually consisting of between 10,000 and 20,000 soldiers.
A dogfight, or dog fight, is an aerial battle between fighter aircraft, conducted at close range.
The Doolittle Raid, also known as the Tokyo Raid, on Saturday, April 18, 1942, was an air raid by the United States on the Japanese capital Tokyo and other places on the island of Honshu during World War II, the first air operation to strike the Japanese Home Islands.
Douglas MacArthur (26 January 18805 April 1964) was an American five-star general and Field Marshal of the Philippine Army.
Du Yuming (1904–1981) was a Kuomintang field commander.
Dwarkanath Shantaram Kotnis (Marathi: द्वारकानाथ शांताराम कोटणीस; 10 October 1910 in India – 9 December 1942 in China), also known by his Chinese name Ke Dihua, was one of the five Indian physicians dispatched to China to provide medical assistance during the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1938.
Dysentery is an inflammatory disease of the intestine, especially of the colon, which always results in severe diarrhea and abdominal pains.
The East Hebei Autonomous Council, also known as the East Ji Autonomous Council and the East Hebei Autonomous Anti-Communist Council, was a short-lived late-1930s state in northern China.
The Eastern Front of World War II was a theatre of conflict between the European Axis powers and co-belligerent Finland against the Soviet Union, Poland and other Allies, which encompassed Central Europe, Eastern Europe, Northeast Europe (Baltics), and Southeast Europe (Balkans) from 22 June 1941 to 9 May 1945.
The Economist Newspaper Limited, trading as The Economist Group, is a British multinational media company headquartered in London and best known as publisher of The Economist.
Edgar William Brandt (1880–1960) was a French ironworker, prolific weapons designer and head of a company that designed 60mm, 81mm and 120mm mortars that were very widely copied throughout and subsequent to World War II.
Edgar Parks Snow (17 July 1905 – 15 February 1972) was an American journalist known for his books and articles on Communism in China and the Chinese Communist revolution.
The Eighth Route Army, officially known as the '''18th Army Group''' of the National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China, was a group army under the command of the Chinese Communist Party, nominally within the structure of the Chinese military headed by the Chinese Nationalist Party during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
The Emperor or Huangdi was the secular imperial title of the Chinese sovereign reigning between the founding of the Qin dynasty that unified China in 221 BC, until the abdication of Puyi in 1912 following the Xinhai Revolution and the establishment of the Republic of China, although it was later restored twice in two failed revolutions in 1916 and 1917.
The Emperor of Japan is the head of the Imperial Family and the head of state of Japan.
The was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.
Encirclement is a military term for the situation when a force or target is isolated and surrounded by enemy forces.
Encirclement Campaigns were the campaigns launched by forces of the Chinese Nationalist Government against forces of the Communist Party of China during the early stage of the Chinese Civil War.
The Enola Gay is a Boeing B-29 Superfortress bomber, named after Enola Gay Tibbets, the mother of the pilot, Colonel Paul Tibbets, who selected the aircraft while it was still on the assembly line.
Europe first, also known as Germany first, was the key element of the grand strategy agreed upon by the United States and the United Kingdom during World War II.
An explosive belt (also called suicide belt, suicide vest) is an improvised explosive device, a belt or a vest packed with explosives and armed with a detonator, worn by suicide bombers.
The Fabian strategy is a military strategy where pitched battles and frontal assaults are avoided in favor of wearing down an opponent through a war of attrition and indirection.
Fang Xianjue (Traditional Chinese: 方先覺; Simplified Chinese:方先觉) was born in a small Jiangsu (now in Suzhou, Anhui) village gentry family in 1903.
Feng Yuxiang (6 November 1882 – 1 September 1948) was a warlord and leader in Republican China from Chaohu, Anhui.
The Fengtian Clique was one of several mutually hostile cliques or factions that split from the Beiyang Clique in the Republic of China's Warlord Era.
A fighter aircraft is a military aircraft designed primarily for air-to-air combat against other aircraft, as opposed to bombers and attack aircraft, whose main mission is to attack ground targets.
The First Sino-Japanese War (25 July 1894 – 17 April 1895) was fought between Qing dynasty of China and Empire of Japan, primarily for influence over Joseon.
In military tactics, a flanking maneuver, or flanking manoeuvre is a movement of an armed force around a flank to achieve an advantageous position over an enemy.
Fleas are small flightless insects that form the order Siphonaptera.
The First American Volunteer Group (AVG) of the Chinese Air Force in 1941–1942, nicknamed the Flying Tigers, was composed of pilots from the United States Army Air Corps (USAAC), Navy (USN), and Marine Corps (USMC), recruited under presidential authority and commanded by Claire Lee Chennault.
The term "Four Policemen" refers to a post-war council consisting of the Big Four that U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt proposed as a guarantor of world peace.
Franklin Delano Roosevelt Sr. (January 30, 1882 – April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American statesman and political leader who served as the 32nd President of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945.
The Free Thai Movement (เสรีไทย) was a Thai underground resistance movement against Imperial Japan during World War II.
French Indochina (previously spelled as French Indo-China) (French: Indochine française; Lao: ສະຫະພັນອິນດູຈີນ; Khmer: សហភាពឥណ្ឌូចិន; Vietnamese: Đông Dương thuộc Pháp/東洋屬法,, frequently abbreviated to Đông Pháp; Chinese: 法属印度支那), officially known as the Indochinese Union (French: Union indochinoise) after 1887 and the Indochinese Federation (French: Fédération indochinoise) after 1947, was a grouping of French colonial territories in Southeast Asia.
The French Third Republic (La Troisième République, sometimes written as La IIIe République) was the system of government adopted in France from 1870 when the Second French Empire collapsed during the Franco-Prussian War until 1940 when France's defeat by Nazi Germany in World War II led to the formation of the Vichy government in France.
Fu Zuoyi (June 2, 1895 − April 19, 1974) was a Chinese military leader.
Prince was a Japanese politician in the Empire of Japan who served as the 34th, 38th and 39th Prime Minister of Japan and founder/leader of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association.
Gansu (Tibetan: ཀན་སུའུ་ Kan su'u) is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the northwest of the country.
The gas mask is a mask used to protect the user from inhaling airborne pollutants and toxic gases.
(),, or are Japanese women who study the ancient tradition of art, dance and singing, and are distinctively characterized by traditional costumes and makeup.
A gentlemen's agreement or gentleman's agreement is an informal and legally non-binding agreement between two or more parties.
Taiwan, formerly known as Formosa, is an island in East Asia; located some off the southeastern coast of mainland China across the Taiwan Strait.
George Aylwin Hogg (26 January 1915 – 22 July 1945) was a British adventurer.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
The Gewehr 88 (commonly called the Model 1888 commission rifle) was a late 19th-century German bolt action rifle, adopted in 1888.
The Gewehr 98 (abbreviated G98, Gew 98 or M98) is a German bolt-action Mauser rifle firing cartridges from a 5-round internal clip-loaded magazine that was the German service rifle from 1898 to 1935, when it was replaced by the Karabiner 98k, a shorter weapon using the same basic design.
The Great Depression was a severe worldwide economic depression that took place mostly during the 1930s, beginning in the United States.
A great power is a sovereign state that is recognized as having the ability and expertise to exert its influence on a global scale.
Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all final goods and services produced in a period (quarterly or yearly) of time.
Gu Zhutong (1893 – January 17, 1987), courtesy name Moshan (墨山), was a military general and administrator of the Republic of China.
Guangxi (pronounced; Zhuang: Gvangjsih), officially the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, is a Chinese autonomous region in South Central China, bordering Vietnam.
Guangzhou, also known as Canton, is the capital and most populous city of the province of Guangdong.
Guangzhouwan (officially Kouang-Tchéou-Wan; also spelled Kwangchow Wan, Kwangchow-wan, Kwang-Chou-Wan or Quang-Tchéou-Wan) was a small enclave on the southern coast of China ceded by Qing China to France as a leased territory and administered as an outlier of French Indochina.
Guerrilla warfare is a form of irregular warfare in which a small group of combatants, such as paramilitary personnel, armed civilians, or irregulars, use military tactics including ambushes, sabotage, raids, petty warfare, hit-and-run tactics, and mobility to fight a larger and less-mobile traditional military.
Kung Hsiang-hsi (September 11, 1881 – August 16, 1967), often known as Dr.
The Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 are a series of international treaties and declarations negotiated at two international peace conferences at The Hague in the Netherlands.
The Hainan Island Operation, or in Japanese, was part of a campaign by the Empire of Japan during the Second Sino-Japanese War to blockade the Republic of China and prevent it from communicating with the outside world as well as to prevent imports of much-needed arms and materials.
was a Japanese field marshal who served as successively as chief of the Army General Staff, and minister of war in the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II between 1937 and 1944.
was a Japanese political slogan that became popular from the Second Sino-Japanese War to World War II, and was popularized in a speech by Prime Minister of Japan Fumimaro Konoe on January 8, 1940.
The Han Chinese,.
Han Youwen (October 1912–February 22, 1998) was an ethnic Salar Muslim General in the National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China, born in Hualong Hui Autonomous County, Qinghai.
In Chinese culture, a hanjian is a derogatory and pejorative term for a national traitor to the Han Chinese state and, to a lesser extent, Han ethnicity.
Johan 'Hans' van de Ven (born 10 January 1958 in Velsen) is an authority on the history of 19th and 20th century China.
The Type 88, sometimes known as "Hanyang 88", is a Chinese-made bolt-action rifle, based on the German Gewehr 88.
He Long (March 22, 1896 – June 9, 1969) was a Chinese Communist revolutionary and one of the ten marshals of the People's Liberation Army.
He Yingqin (April 2, 1890 – October 21, 1987) was one of the most senior generals of the Kuomintang (KMT) during Republican China, and a close ally of Chiang Kai-shek.
The heavy machine gun or HMG is a class of machine gun implying greater characteristics than general purpose or medium machine guns.
The; was a secret agreement between the Empire of Japan and the Republic of China concluded on 10 June 1935, 2 years prior to the outbreak of general hostilities in the Second Sino-Japanese War.
Hebei (postal: Hopeh) is a province of China in the North China region.
The Hebei–Chahar Political Council, or Hebei-Chahar Political Commission, was established at Beijing under Gen.
Henan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the central part of the country.
Herbert P. Bix (born 1938) is an American historian.
Hideki Tojo (Kyūjitai: 東條 英機; Shinjitai: 東条 英機;; December 30, 1884 – December 23, 1948) was a general of the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA), the leader of the Imperial Rule Assistance Association, and the 27th Prime Minister of Japan during much of World War II, from October 17, 1941, to July 22, 1944.
A hip flask is a thin flask for holding a distilled beverage.
was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order of succession, reigning from 25 December 1926, until his death on 7 January 1989.
is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture and the largest city in the Chūgoku region of western Honshu - the largest island of Japan.
Count was a Gensui (or Marshal) in the Imperial Japanese Army and Commander of the Southern Expeditionary Army Group during World War II.
Historical negationism or denialism is an illegitimate distortion of the historical record.
In historiography, the term historical revisionism identifies the re-interpretation of the historical record.
The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC,William G. Boltz, Early Chinese Writing, World Archaeology, Vol.
The first human habitation in the Japanese archipelago has been traced to prehistoric times.
The History of the Republic of China begins after the Qing dynasty in 1912, when the formation of the Republic of China as a constitutional republic put an end to 4,000 years of Imperial rule.
Hồ Chí Minh (Chữ nôm: 胡志明; 19 May 1890 – 2 September 1969), born Nguyễn Sinh Cung, also known as Nguyễn Tất Thành and Nguyễn Ái Quốc, was a Vietnamese Communist revolutionary leader who was Chairman and First Secretary of the Workers' Party of Vietnam.
Home front is the informal term for the civilian populace of the nation at war as an active support system of their military.
A howitzer is a type of artillery piece characterized by a relatively short barrel and the use of comparatively small propellant charges to propel projectiles over relatively high trajectories, with a steep angle of descent.
Hu Kexian was a Chinese general who served in the National Revolutionary Army (NRA) during the Second Sino-Japanese War and the Chinese Civil War.
Hu Songshan (1880–1955), a Hui, was born in 1880, in Tongxin County, Ningxia, China.
Hu Zongnan (16 May 1896 – 14 February 1962), courtesy name Shoushan (壽山), native of Zhenhai, Ningbo.
The Huanggutun Incident, or, was an assassination plotted and committed on June 4, 1928, by the Japanese Kwantung Army that targeted Fengtian warlord Zhang Zuolin.
The Hui people (Xiao'erjing: خُوِذُو; Dungan: Хуэйзў, Xuejzw) are an East Asian ethnoreligious group predominantly composed of Han Chinese adherents of the Muslim faith found throughout China, mainly in the northwestern provinces of the country and the Zhongyuan region.
The Hundred Regiments Offensive (20 August – 5 December 1940) was a major campaign of the Communist Party of China's National Revolutionary Army divisions commanded by Peng Dehuai against the Imperial Japanese Army in Central China.
The Ili Rebellion (Üch Wiläyt inqilawi) was a Soviet-backed revolt against the Kuomintang government of the Republic of China in 1944.
The was part of the Supreme War Council and was established in 1893 to coordinate efforts between the Imperial Japanese Army and Imperial Japanese Navy during wartime.
The Imperial Japanese Army (IJA; Dai-Nippon Teikoku Rikugun; "Army of the Greater Japanese Empire") was the official ground-based armed force of the Empire of Japan from 1868 to 1945.
The or, more literally, the Greater Japan Empire Army Air Corps, was the aviation force of the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA).
The Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN; Kyūjitai: 大日本帝國海軍 Shinjitai: 大日本帝国海軍 or 日本海軍 Nippon Kaigun, "Navy of the Greater Japanese Empire") was the navy of the Empire of Japan from 1868 until 1945, when it was dissolved following Japan's defeat and surrender in World War II.
The was the air arm of the Imperial Japanese Navy.
Imperial Japanese Navy Land Forces of World War II were ground combat units consisting of navy personnel organized for offensive operations and for the defense of Japanese naval facilities both overseas and in the Japanese home islands.
The, or Imperial Aid Association, was Japan's wartime organization created by Prime Minister Fumimaro Konoe on October 12, 1940, to promote the goals of his Shintaisei ("New Order") movement.
Imperialism is a policy that involves a nation extending its power by the acquisition of lands by purchase, diplomacy or military force.
The Indian independence movement encompassed activities and ideas aiming to end the East India Company rule (1757–1857) and the British Indian Empire (1857–1947) in the Indian subcontinent.
Industrialisation or industrialization is the period of social and economic change that transforms a human group from an agrarian society into an industrial society, involving the extensive re-organisation of an economy for the purpose of manufacturing.
Inner Mongolia, officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region or Nei Mongol Autonomous Region (Ѳвѳр Монголын Ѳѳртѳѳ Засах Орон in Mongolian Cyrillic), is one of the autonomous regions of China, located in the north of the country.
The International Military Tribunal for the Far East (IMTFE), also known as the Tokyo Trial or the Tokyo War Crimes Tribunal, was a military trial convened on April 29, 1946, to try the leaders of the Empire of Japan for joint conspiracy to start and wage war (categorized as "Class A" crimes), conventional war crimes ("Class B") and crimes against humanity ("Class C").
Iron ores are rocks and minerals from which metallic iron can be economically extracted.
In 1937 an Islamic rebellion broke out in southern Xinjiang.
was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army and the commander of the expeditionary force sent to China in 1937.
Jakob Rosenfeld (January 11, 1903 – April 22, 1952), more commonly known as General Luo, served as the Minister of Health in the 1947 Provisional Communist Military Government of China under Mao Zedong.
James Gareth Endicott (1898–1993) was a Canadian clergyman, Christian missionary, and socialist.
The January 28 Incident or Shanghai Incident (January 28 – March 3, 1932) was a conflict between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan, before official hostilities of the Second Sino-Japanese War commenced in 1937.
The Japanese conquest of Burma was the opening chapter of the Burma Campaign in the South-East Asian Theatre of World War II, which took place over four years from 1942 to 1945.
Japanese history textbook controversies involve controversial content in one of the government-approved history textbooks used in the secondary education (junior high schools and senior high schools) of Japan.
The Japanese Instrument of Surrender was the written agreement that formalized the surrender of the Empire of Japan, marking the end of World War II.
The was a short undeclared military confrontation between the Empire of Japan and Vichy France in northern Indochina.
The Japanese invasion of Manchuria began on 18 September 1931, when the Kwantung Army of the Empire of Japan invaded Manchuria immediately following the Mukden Incident.
War crimes of the Empire of Japan occurred in many Asia-Pacific countries during the period of Japanese imperialism, primarily during the Second Sino-Japanese War and World War II.
The Jiangqiao Campaign was a series of battles and skirmishes occurring after the Mukden Incident, during the invasion of Manchuria by the Imperial Japanese Army, prior to the Second Sino-Japanese War.
Jiangxi, formerly spelled as Kiangsi Gan: Kongsi) is a province in the People's Republic of China, located in the southeast of the country. Spanning from the banks of the Yangtze river in the north into hillier areas in the south and east, it shares a border with Anhui to the north, Zhejiang to the northeast, Fujian to the east, Guangdong to the south, Hunan to the west, and Hubei to the northwest. The name "Jiangxi" derives from the circuit administrated under the Tang dynasty in 733, Jiangnanxidao (道, Circuit of Western Jiangnan; Gan: Kongnomsitau). The short name for Jiangxi is 赣 (pinyin: Gàn; Gan: Gōm), for the Gan River which runs across from the south to the north and flows into the Yangtze River. Jiangxi is also alternately called Ganpo Dadi (贛鄱大地) which literally means the "Great Land of Gan and Po".
The Jinan (Tsinan) incident (済南事件) or May 3 Tragedy was an armed conflict between the Imperial Japanese Army and the Kuomintang's Northern Expedition army in Jinan (then romanized as Tsinan), the capital of East China's Shandong province in May 1928.
Jingxi (Zhuang: Cingsae Si) is a county-level city of western Guangxi, China.
The Jinzhou (Chinchow) Operation was an operation in 1931 during the Japanese invasion of Manchuria, which was a preliminary, contributing factor to the outbreak of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937.
John Heinrich Detlef Rabe (November 23, 1882 – January 5, 1950) was a German businessman and Nazi Party member who is best known for his efforts to stop the atrocities of the Japanese army during the Nanking Occupation and his work to protect and help the Chinese civilians during the event.
John W. Dower (born June 21, 1938 in Providence, Rhode Island) is an American author and historian.
Joseph Warren Stilwell (March 19, 1883 – October 12, 1946) was a United States Army general who served in the China Burma India Theater during World War II.
Kanji (漢字) are the adopted logographic Chinese characters that are used in the Japanese writing system.
was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army in World War II.
Isoroku Yamamoto Tomoyuki Yamashita Korechika Anami Henry Pu-yi |commander2.
The Karabiner 98 kurz ("carbine 98 short", often abbreviated Kar98k or K98k) is a bolt-action rifle chambered for the 7.92×57mm Mauser cartridge that was adopted on 21 June 1935 as the standard service rifle by the German Wehrmacht.
The Kazakh Soviet Socialist Republic was one of the transcontinental constituent republics of the Soviet Union from 1936-1991 in northern Central Asia.
was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army in World War II.
was a lieutenant general in the Imperial Japanese Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War, who has been implicated in the Nanjing massacre of December 1937.
The Khabarovsk War Crime Trials were hearings held between 25–31 December 1949, in the Soviet Union's industrial city of Khabarovsk (Хаба́ровск), the largest city within the Russian Far East (Дáльний Востóк) adjacent to Japan.
Kim Gu (김구; 金九; Kim Koo or Kim Ku; also known by his pen name Baekbeom (백범; 白凡), August 29, 1876June 26, 1949) was a Korean nationalist politician.
was a soldier in the Imperial Japanese Army and politician.
The Korean Peninsula is a peninsula of Eurasia located in East Asia.
was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II, and was War Minister at the time of the surrender of Japan.
The Krupp family (see pronunciation), a prominent 400-year-old German dynasty from Essen, became famous for their production of steel, artillery, ammunition, and other armaments.
was a Japanese general in the Imperial Japanese Army, Governor-General of Korea and 28th Prime Minister of Japan from July 22, 1944, to April 7, 1945.
The Yunnan–Haiphong railway (Chemins de Fer de L'Indo-Chine et du Yunnan, "Indo-China–Yunnan Railroad") is an railway built by France during 1904–1910, connecting Haiphong, Vietnam with Kunming, Yunnan province, China.
The Kuomintang of China (KMT; often translated as the Nationalist Party of China) is a major political party in the Republic of China on Taiwan, based in Taipei and is currently the opposition political party in the Legislative Yuan.
The Kwantung Army was an army group of the Imperial Japanese Army in the first half of the 20th century.
, are the traditional forms of kanji, Chinese written characters used in Japanese.
The Carro Veloce CV-33 or L3/33 was a tankette originally built in 1933 and used by the Italian Army before and during World War II.
In common law systems, land tenure is the legal regime in which land is owned by an individual, who is said to "hold" the land.
Laos (ລາວ,, Lāo; Laos), officially the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao: ສາທາລະນະລັດ ປະຊາທິປະໄຕ ປະຊາຊົນລາວ, Sathalanalat Paxathipatai Paxaxon Lao; République démocratique populaire lao), commonly referred to by its colloquial name of Muang Lao (Lao: ເມືອງລາວ, Muang Lao), is a landlocked country in the heart of the Indochinese peninsula of Mainland Southeast Asia, bordered by Myanmar (Burma) and China to the northwest, Vietnam to the east, Cambodia to the southwest and Thailand to the west and southwest.
The League of Nations (abbreviated as LN in English, La Société des Nations abbreviated as SDN or SdN in French) was an intergovernmental organisation founded on 10 January 1920 as a result of the Paris Peace Conference that ended the First World War.
Leapfrogging, also known as island hopping, was a military strategy employed by the Allies in the Pacific War against Japan and the Axis powers during World War II.
The Ledo Road (লিডু, လီဒိုလမ်းမကြီး) (from Ledo, Assam, India to Kunming, Yunnan, China) was an overland connection between India and China, built during World War II to enable the Western Allies to deliver supplies to China, to aid the war effort against Japan — as an alternative to the Burma Road became required, once that had been cut-off by the Japanese in 1942.
Li Zongren or Li Tsung-jen (13 August 1890 – 30 January 1969), courtesy name Delin (Te-lin; 德鄰), was a prominent Guangxi warlord and Kuomintang (KMT) military commander during the Northern Expedition, Second Sino-Japanese War and Chinese Civil War.
Liang Hongzhi; (Wade-Giles: Liang Hung-chih; Hepburn: Ryō Koushi, 1882 - November 6, 1946) was a leading official in the Anhui clique of the Beiyang Government, later noted for his role as in the collaborationist Reformed Government of the Republic of China during World War II.
A light machine gun (LMG) is a machine gun designed to be employed by an individual soldier, with or without an assistant, as an infantry support weapon.
Lin Biao (December 5, 1907 – September 13, 1971) was a Marshal of the People's Republic of China who was pivotal in the Communist victory in the Chinese Civil War, especially in Northeast China.
The following is the List of aircraft of the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service and the Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force, both past and present.
The German trained divisions were the elite of the infantry divisions in the Chiang Kai-Shek's National Revolutionary Army (NRA) trained under Sino-German cooperation until 1941.
This is a list of the campaigns and military conflicts of the Japanese during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
This list of wars by death toll includes death toll estimates of all deaths that are either directly or indirectly caused by war.
"Little Boy" was the codename for the atomic bomb dropped on the Japanese city of Hiroshima on 6 August 1945 during World War II by the Boeing B-29 Superfortress Enola Gay, piloted by Colonel Paul W. Tibbets, Jr., commander of the 509th Composite Group of the United States Army Air Forces.
Liu Bin-Di (Xiao'erjing: ﻟِﯿَﻮْ بٍ دِ) was a Hui Muslim KMT officer in Xinjiang, working for the Republic of China government and was sent by Ürümqi to subdue the Hui area.
Liu Bocheng (December 4, 1892 – October 7, 1986) was a Chinese Communist military commander and Marshal of the People's Liberation Army.
Liu Shaoqi (24 November 189812 November 1969) was a Chinese revolutionary, politician, and theorist.
Logistics is generally the detailed organization and implementation of a complex operation.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
The Long March (October 1934 – October 1935) was a military retreat undertaken by the Red Army of the Communist Party of China, the forerunner of the People's Liberation Army, to evade the pursuit of the Kuomintang (KMT or Chinese Nationalist Party) army.
Long Yun (November 27, 1884-June 27, 1962) was governor and warlord of the Chinese province of Yunnan from 1927 to October 1945, when he was overthrown in a coup (known as "The Kunming Incident") by Du Yuming under the order of Chiang Kai-shek.
Lu Han (1895–1974) was a KMT general of Yi ethnicity.
Luo Ronghuan (November 26, 1902 – December 16, 1963) was a Chinese communist military leader.
are the findings of the Lytton Commission, entrusted in 1931 by the League of Nations in an attempt to evaluate the Mukden Incident, which led to the Empire of Japan's seizure of Manchuria.
The M1 helmet is a combat helmet that was used by the United States military from World War II until 1985, when it was succeeded by the PASGT helmet.
The M1917 Browning machine gun is a heavy machine gun used by the United States armed forces in World War I, World War II, Korea, and to a limited extent in Vietnam; it has also been used by other nations.
The M2 Machine Gun or Browning.50 Caliber Machine Gun is a heavy machine gun designed toward the end of World War I by John Browning.
Ma Biao (1885–1948) was a Chinese Muslim Ma Clique General in the National Revolutionary Army, and served under Ma Bufang, the Governor of Qinghai.
Ma Bufang (1903 – 31 July 1975) (Xiao'erjing: ما بوفنگ) was a prominent Muslim Ma clique warlord in China during the Republic of China era, ruling the province of Qinghai.
Ma Buqing (1901–1977) (Xiao'erjing: ﻣَﺎ ﺑُﻮْ شٍ) was a prominent Ma clique warlord in China during the Republic of China era, controlling armies in the province of Qinghai.
The Ma clique or Ma family warlords is a collective name for a group of Hui (Muslim Chinese) warlords in Northwestern China who ruled the Chinese provinces of Qinghai, Gansu and Ningxia for 10 years from 1919 until 1928.
Ma Fulu (Chinese: 马福禄; Pinyin: Mǎ Fúlù, Xiao'erjing: ﻣَﺎ ﻓُﻮْ ﻟُﻮْ; 1854–1900), a Chinese Muslim, was the son of General Ma Qianling, and the brother of Ma Fucai, Ma Fushou, and Ma Fuxiang.
Ma Hongbin (Xiao'erjing: ﻣَﺎ ﺡْﻮ بٍ, September 14, 1884 – October 21, 1960), was a prominent Chinese Muslim warlord active mainly during the Republican era, and was part of the Ma clique.
Ma Hongkui (Xiao'erjing: ﻣَﺎ ﺡْﻮ ﻛُﻮِ; March 14, 1892 – January 14, 1970) was a prominent warlord in China during the Republic of China era, ruling the province of Ningxia.
Ma Hu-shan (Xiao'erjing: ﻣَﺎ ﺧُﻮْ شً,; 1910–1954) was the brother-in-law and follower of Ma Chung-ying, a Ma Clique warlord.
Ma Zhanshan (Ma Chan-shan;; November 30, 1885 – November 29, 1950) was a Chinese general who initially opposed the Imperial Japanese Army in the invasion of Manchuria, briefly defected to Manchukuo, and then rebelled and fought against the Japanese in Manchuria and other parts of China.
Ma Zhongying, also Ma Chung-ying (Xiao'erjing: ﻣَﺎ ﺟْﻮ ىٍ; c. 1910–1936?) was a Hui Chinese Muslim warlord during the Warlord era of China.
A machine pistol is typically a handgun-style machine gun, capable of fully automatic or burst fire, and chambered for pistol cartridges.
Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (2 October 1869 – 30 January 1948) was an Indian activist who was the leader of the Indian independence movement against British rule.
Mainland China, also known as the Chinese mainland, is the geopolitical as well as geographical area under the direct jurisdiction of the People's Republic of China (PRC).
The Manchu are an ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria derives its name.
Manchukuo was a puppet state of the Empire of Japan in Northeast China and Inner Mongolia from 1932 until 1945.
Manchuria is a name first used in the 17th century by Chinese people to refer to a large geographic region in Northeast Asia.
The Yat-Sen Suit, also called the Mao suit, Chinese tunic suit or Zhongshan suit, is a style of Chinese menswear associated in China with Sun Yat-sen (better known to mainland Chinese as "Sun Zhongshan"), although it is more commonly associated in the West with Mao Zedong.
Mao Zedong (December 26, 1893September 9, 1976), commonly known as Chairman Mao, was a Chinese communist revolutionary who became the founding father of the People's Republic of China, which he ruled as the Chairman of the Communist Party of China from its establishment in 1949 until his death in 1976.
Maoism, known in China as Mao Zedong Thought, is a political theory derived from the teachings of the Chinese political leader Mao Zedong, whose followers are known as Maoists.
The Marco Polo Bridge or Lugou Bridge is a stone bridge located 15 km southwest of Beijing city center in the Fengtai District.
The Marco Polo Bridge Incident, also known by several other names, was a battle between the Republic of China's National Revolutionary Army and the Imperial Japanese Army.
In political science, Marxism–Leninism is the ideology of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, of the Communist International and of Stalinist political parties.
was a lieutenant general in the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II.
Mass murder is the act of murdering a number of people, typically simultaneously or over a relatively short period of time and in close geographic proximity.
The Mauser C96 (Construktion 96) is a semi-automatic pistol that was originally produced by German arms manufacturer Mauser from 1896 to 1937.
The Maxim gun was a weapon invented by American-born British inventor Hiram Stevens Maxim in 1884: it was the first recoil-operated machine gun in production.
The May Fourth Movement was an anti-imperialist, cultural, and political movement growing out of student participants in Beijing on 4 May 1919, protesting against the Chinese government's weak response to the Treaty of Versailles, especially allowing Japan to receive territories in Shandong which had been surrendered by Germany after the Siege of Tsingtao.
Mengjiang (Mengkiang;; Hepburn: Mōkyō), also known in English as Mongol Border Land or the Mongol United Autonomous Government, was an autonomous area in Inner Mongolia, existing initially as a puppet state of the Empire of Japan before being under nominal Chinese sovereignty of the Nanjing Nationalist Government from 1940 (which itself was a puppet state).
The Maschinengewehr 08, or MG 08, was the German Army's standard machine gun in World War I and is an adaptation of Hiram S. Maxim's original 1884 Maxim gun.
The Maschinengewehr 34, or MG 34, is a German recoil-operated air-cooled machine gun, first tested in 1929, introduced in 1934, and issued to units in 1936.
Military communications or military signals involve all aspects of communications, or conveyance of information, by armed forces.
The recorded military history of China extends from about 2200 BC to the present day.
The military history of Japan is characterized by a period of clan warfare that lasted until the 12th century AD.
Military intelligence is a military discipline that uses information collection and analysis approaches to provide guidance and direction to assist commanders in their decisions.
A military reserve force is a military organisation composed of citizens of a country who combine a military role or career with a civilian career.
204 Mission, also known as Tulip Force, was a British military mission to China organized in 1940-1941 that went into action soon after Pearl Harbor.
The Mitsubishi A5M, formal Japanese Navy designation Mitsubishi Navy Type 96 Carrier-based Fighter (九六式艦上戦闘機), experimental Navy designation Mitsubishi Navy Experimental 9-Shi Carrier Fighter, company designation Mitsubishi Ka-14, was a Japanese carrier-based fighter aircraft.
The Mitsubishi G3M (九六式陸上攻撃機 Kyūroku-shiki rikujō kōgeki-ki: Type 96 land-based attack aircraft "Rikko"; Allied reporting name "Nell") was a Japanese bomber and transport aircraft used by the Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service (IJNAS) during World War II.
Modern warfare is warfare using the concepts, methods, and military technology that have come into use during and after World Wars I and II.
Modernization theory is used to explain the process of modernization within societies.
Mong-yu (N23°58'23" E97°59'00"), Burma, was at the junction of the World War II-famed Ledo Road and the Burma Road.
The Mongols (ᠮᠣᠩᠭᠣᠯᠴᠤᠳ, Mongolchuud) are an East-Central Asian ethnic group native to Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region.
A monoplane is a fixed-wing aircraft with a single main wing plane, in contrast to a biplane or other multiplane, each of which has multiple planes.
Morris Abraham "Two-Gun" Cohen (1887–1970) was a British and Canadian adventurer of Jewish origin who became aide-de-camp to Sun Yat-sen and a major-general in the Chinese National Revolutionary Army.
A mortar is usually a simple, lightweight, man portable, muzzle-loaded weapon, consisting of a smooth-bore metal tube fixed to a base plate (to absorb recoil) with a lightweight bipod mount.
A mosque (from masjid) is a place of worship for Muslims.
Mountain guns are artillery pieces designed for use in mountain warfare and areas where usual wheeled transport is not possible.
The MP 18 manufactured by Theodor Bergmann Abteilung Waffenbau was the first submachine gun used in combat.
The Mukden Incident, or Manchurian Incident, was a staged event engineered by Japanese military personnel as a pretext for the Japanese invasion in 1931 of northeastern China, known as Manchuria.
The Museum of the War of Chinese People's Resistance Against Japanese Aggression or Chinese People's Anti-Japanese War Memorial Hall is a museum and memorial hall in Beijing.
Myitkyina ((Eng; mitchinar) Kachin: Myitkyina) is the capital city of Kachin State in Myanmar (Burma), located from Yangon, and from Mandalay.
() is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture on the island of Kyushu in Japan.
Nanjing, formerly romanized as Nanking and Nankin, is the capital of Jiangsu province of the People's Republic of China and the second largest city in the East China region, with an administrative area of and a total population of 8,270,500.
The Nanking Massacre was an episode of mass murder and mass rape committed by Japanese troops against the residents of Nanjing (Nanking), then the capital of the Republic of China, during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
The National Revolutionary Army (NRA), sometimes shortened to Revolutionary Army (革命軍) before 1928, and as National Army (國軍) after 1928, was the military arm of the Kuomintang (KMT, or the Chinese Nationalist Party) from 1925 until 1947 in the Republic of China.
The Nationalist government, officially the National Government of the Republic of China, refers to the government of the Republic of China between 1 July 1925 to 20 May 1948, led by the Kuomintang (KMT, Chinese Nationalist Party).
Naval Station Pearl Harbor is a U.S. naval base adjacent to Honolulu, in the U.S. state of Hawaii.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
The Neutrality Acts were passed by the United States Congress in the, in response to the growing turmoil in Europe and Asia that eventually led to World War II.
The New Fourth Army was a unit of the National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China established in 1937.
The New Fourth Army Incident (新四軍事件), also known as the South Anhui Incident (皖南事变), occurred in China in January 1941 during the Second Sino-Japanese War, during which the Chinese Civil War was in theory suspended, uniting the Communists and Nationalists against the Japanese.
After the founding of the Republic of China, Guangxi served as the base for one of the most powerful warlord cliques of China: the Old Guangxi clique.
Nie Rongzhen (December 29, 1899 – May 14, 1992) was a prominent Chinese Communist military leader, and one of ten Marshals in the People's Liberation Army of China.
Ningbo, formerly written Ningpo, is a sub-provincial city in northeast Zhejiang province in China. It comprises the urban districts of Ningbo proper, three satellite cities, and a number of rural counties including islands in Hangzhou Bay and the East China Sea. Its port, spread across several locations, is among the busiest in the world and the municipality possesses a separate state-planning status. As of the 2010 census, the entire administrated area had a population of 7.6 million, with 3.5 million in the six urban districts of Ningbo proper. To the north, Hangzhou Bay separates Ningbo from Shanghai; to the east lies Zhoushan in the East China Sea; on the west and south, Ningbo borders Shaoxing and Taizhou respectively.
was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army, Governor-General of Korea, and 36th Prime Minister of Japan from 30 August 1939 to 16 January 1940.
Henry Norman Bethune (March 4, 1890 – November 12, 1939; p) was a Canadian physician, medical innovator, and noted communist. Bethune came to international prominence first for his service as a frontline surgeon supporting the democratically elected Republican government during the Spanish Civil War. But it was his service with the Communist Eighth Route Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War that would earn him enduring acclaim. Dr. Bethune effectively brought modern medicine to rural China and often treated sick villagers as much as wounded soldiers. His selfless commitment made a profound impression on the Chinese people, especially CPC's leader, Mao Zedong. Mao Zedong wrote a eulogy to him, which was memorized by generations of Chinese people. While Bethune was the man responsible for developing a mobile blood-transfusion service for frontline operations in the Spanish Civil War, he himself died of blood poisoning. A prominent communist and veteran of the First World War, he wrote that wars were motivated by profits, not principles. Statues in his honour can be found in cities throughout China.
North China (literally "China's north") is a geographical region of China, lying North of the Qinling Huaihe Line.
The Northern Expedition was a military campaign launched by the National Revolutionary Army of the Kuomintang (KMT), also known as the Nationalists, against the Beiyang government and other regional warlords in 1926.
Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.
Operation Chahar (Chaharu Sakusen), known in Chinese as the Nankou Campaign, occurred in August 1937, following the Battle of Beiping-Tianjin at the beginning of Second Sino-Japanese War.
Operation Ichi-Go (一号作戦 Ichi-gō Sakusen, lit. "Operation Number One") was a campaign of a series of major battles between the Imperial Japanese Army forces and the National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China, fought from April to December 1944.
Operation Zet was a secret operation of the Soviet Union to provide military and technical resources to the Republic of China as a part of the Sino-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact.
Pacific Ocean Areas was a major Allied military command in the Pacific Ocean theater of World War II.
The Pacific War, sometimes called the Asia-Pacific War, was the theater of World War II that was fought in the Pacific and Asia. It was fought over a vast area that included the Pacific Ocean and islands, the South West Pacific, South-East Asia, and in China (including the 1945 Soviet–Japanese conflict). The Second Sino-Japanese War between the Empire of Japan and the Republic of China had been in progress since 7 July 1937, with hostilities dating back as far as 19 September 1931 with the Japanese invasion of Manchuria. However, it is more widely accepted that the Pacific War itself began on 7/8 December 1941, when Japan invaded Thailand and attacked the British possessions of Malaya, Singapore, and Hong Kong as well as the United States military and naval bases in Hawaii, Wake Island, Guam and the Philippines. The Pacific War saw the Allies pitted against Japan, the latter briefly aided by Thailand and to a much lesser extent by the Axis allied Germany and Italy. The war culminated in the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and other large aerial bomb attacks by the Allies, accompanied by the Soviet declaration of war and invasion of Manchuria on 9 August 1945, resulting in the Japanese announcement of intent to surrender on 15 August 1945. The formal surrender of Japan ceremony took place aboard the battleship in Tokyo Bay on 2 September 1945. Japan's Shinto Emperor was forced to relinquish much of his authority and his divine status through the Shinto Directive in order to pave the way for extensive cultural and political reforms. After the war, Japan lost all rights and titles to its former possessions in Asia and the Pacific, and its sovereignty was limited to the four main home islands.
The Pacification of Manchukuo was a Japanese anti-insurgency campaign during the Second Sino-Japanese War to suppress any armed resistance to the newly established puppet state of Manchukuo from various anti-Japanese volunteer armies in occupied Manchuria and later the Communist Northeast Anti-Japanese United Army.
The Panzer I was a light tank produced in Germany in the 1930s.
The Paracel Islands, also known as Xisha in Chinese and Hoàng Sa in Vietnamese, is a group of islands, reefs, banks and other maritime features in the South China Sea.
A peasant is a pre-industrial agricultural laborer or farmer, especially one living in the Middle Ages under feudalism and paying rent, tax, fees or services to a landlord.
Peng Dehuai (October 24, 1898November 29, 1974) was a prominent Chinese Communist military leader, who served as China's Defense Minister from 1954 to 1959.
The Penghu or Pescadores Islands are an archipelago of 90 islands and islets in the Taiwan Strait.
The Chinese People's Liberation Army (PLA) is the armed forces of the People's Republic of China (PRC) and Communist Party of China (CPC).
The permanent members of the United Nations Security Council (also known as the Permanent Five, Big Five, or P5) are the five states which the UN Charter of 1945 grants a permanent seat on the UN Security Council.
Phan Bội Châu (26 December 1867 – 29 October 1940) was a pioneer of Vietnamese 20th century nationalism.
Phạm Văn Đồng (1 March 1906 – 29 April 2000) was a Vietnamese politician who served as Prime Minister of North Vietnam from 1955 to 1976 and, following unification, as Prime Minister of Vietnam from 1976 until he retired in 1987 under the rule of Lê Duẩn and Nguyễn Văn Linh.
Hanyu Pinyin Romanization, often abbreviated to pinyin, is the official romanization system for Standard Chinese in mainland China and to some extent in Taiwan.
Plague is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis.
The Potsdam Declaration or the Proclamation Defining Terms for Japanese Surrender was a statement that called for the surrender of all Japanese armed forces during World War II.
The is the head of government of Japan.
was a scion of the Japanese imperial family and was a career naval officer who served as chief of staff of the Imperial Japanese Navy from 1932 to 1941.
was the sixth head of a cadet branch of the Japanese imperial family, and a career army officer who served as Chief of the Imperial Japanese Army General Staff from 1931 to 1940.
General was a Japanese imperial prince, a career officer in the Imperial Japanese Army and the 43rd Prime Minister of Japan from 17 August 1945 to 9 October 1945, a period of 54 days.
was the second and last heir of the Takeda-no-miya collateral branch of the Japanese Imperial Family.
General was the founder of a collateral branch of the Japanese imperial family and a career officer in the Imperial Japanese Army.
Propaganda in imperial Japan, in the period just before and during World War II, was designed to assist the ruling government of Japan during that time.
The proposed Japanese invasion of Sichuan, also known as the Sichuan invasion, Szechwan Invasion, Chongqing Operation, Chongqing Campaign or Operation 5, was the Imperial Japanese Army's failed plan to destroy the Chongqing-based Chiang Kai-shek government during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
The Provisional Government of the Republic of China (or Chūka Minkoku Rinji Seifu) was a Chinese puppet state of the Empire of Japan that existed from 1937 to 1940 during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
A puppet state is a state that is supposedly independent but is in fact dependent upon an outside power.
A puttee, also spelled puttie, is the name, adapted from the Hindi paṭṭī, bandage (Skt. paṭṭa, strip of cloth), for a covering for the lower part of the leg from the ankle to the knee, alternatively known as: legwraps, leg bindings, winingas, or wickelbander.
Puyi or Pu Yi (7 February 190617 October 1967), of the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan, was the last Emperor of China and the twelfth and final ruler of the Qing dynasty.
Qaidam Basin, also spelled Tsaidam (Цайдам, from ཚྭའི་འདམ་,"salt marsh") is an hyperarid basin that occupies a large part of the Haixi Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture in Qinghai Province, western China.
The Qing dynasty, also known as the Qing Empire, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China, established in 1636 and ruling China from 1644 to 1912.
Qinghai, formerly known in English as Kokonur, is a province of the People's Republic of China located in the northwest of the country.
The Qinhuai River is a tributary of the Yangtze with a total length of 110 km.
Ray Huang (25 June 19188 January 2000) was a Chinese historian and philosopher.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
The Reformed Government of the Republic of China (Zhōnghuá Mínguó Wéixīn Zhèngfǔ or 中華民国政府改革) was a Chinese puppet state created by Japan that existed from 1938 to 1940 during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
A refugee, generally speaking, is a displaced person who has been forced to cross national boundaries and who cannot return home safely (for more detail see legal definition).
A regiment is a military unit.
Rehe (ᠬᠠᠯᠠᠭᠤᠨ ᠭᠣᠣᠯ), also known as Jehol, is a former Chinese special administrative region and province.
A religious war or holy war (bellum sacrum) is a war primarily caused or justified by differences in religion.
was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army and Governor of Hong Kong under Japanese occupation from February 20, 1942 to December 24, 1944.
was a Japanese military officer, lieutenant general in the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II.
The Republic of China was a sovereign state in East Asia, that occupied the territories of modern China, and for part of its history Mongolia and Taiwan.
The Republic of China Air Force (ROCAF) is the aviation branch of the Republic of China Armed Forces.
The Republic of China Military Academy is the military academy for the army of the Republic of China, located in Fengshan District, Kaohsiung.
The Republic of China Navy (ROCN) is the maritime branch of the Republic of China Armed Forces.
The Resistance at Nenjiang Bridge was a small battle fought between forces of the Chinese National Revolutionary Army against the Imperial Japanese Army and collaborationist forces, after the Mukden Incident during the Invasion of Manchuria in 1931, prior to the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War.
A resistance movement is an organized effort by some portion of the civil population of a country to withstand the legally established government or an occupying power and to disrupt civil order and stability.
Taiwan Retrocession Day is an annual observance and unofficial holiday in the Republic of China to commemorate the end of 50 years of Japanese rule of Taiwan and Penghu, and their handover to China on 25 October 1945.
Rewi Alley (known in China as 路易•艾黎, Lùyì Àilí, 2 December 1897 – 27 December 1987) was a New Zealand-born writer and political activist.
Rheinmetall AG has a presence in two corporate sectors (automotive and defence) with six divisions, and is headquartered in Düsseldorf, Germany.
Rheinmetall Air Defence AG is a division of German armament manufacturer Rheinmetall, created when the company's Oerlikon Contraves unit was renamed on 1 January 2009 and integrated with Rheinmetall's other air-defence products.
Sir Robert Leslie Craigie, GCMG, CB, PC (1883–1959) was the British ambassador in Japan from 1937 through 1941.
Rudolph Joseph Rummel (October 21, 1932 – March 2, 2014) was professor of political science who taught at the Indiana University, Yale University, and University of Hawaii.
The Russo–Japanese War (Russko-yaponskaya voina; Nichirosensō; 1904–05) was fought between the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over rival imperial ambitions in Manchuria and Korea.
was a founder of the Japanese Communist Party (JCP) who worked for periods as a writer, editor, labor organizer, communist agent, politician, and university professor.
A scorched-earth policy is a military strategy that aims to destroy anything that might be useful to the enemy while it is advancing through or withdrawing from a location.
The Second Guangxi Campaign was a three-front Chinese counter offensive to retake the last major Japanese stronghold in Guangxi province, South China from April to August 1945.
The Second United Front was the alliance between the Chinese Nationalist Party (Kuomintang, or KMT) and Communist Party of China (CPC) to resist the Japanese invasion during the Second Sino-Japanese War, which suspended the Chinese Civil War from 1937 to 1941.
was a General in the Imperial Japanese Army in World War II and a War Minister.
A semi-automatic pistol is a type of pistol that is semi-automatic, meaning it uses the energy of the fired cartridge to cycle the action of the firearm and advance the next available cartridge into position for firing.
The are a group of uninhabited islands controlled by Japan in the East China Sea.
Shaanxi is a province of the People's Republic of China.
Shandong (formerly romanized as Shantung) is a coastal province of the People's Republic of China, and is part of the East China region.
Shanghai (Wu Chinese) is one of the four direct-controlled municipalities of China and the most populous city proper in the world, with a population of more than 24 million.
The Shanghai International Settlement originated from the 1863 merger of the British and American enclaves in Shanghai, parts of the Qing Empire held extraterritorially under the terms of a series of Unequal Treaties.
The Shanghai massacre of April 12, 1927, known commonly as the April 12 Incident, was the violent suppression of Communist Party of China (CPC) organizations in Shanghai by the military forces of Chiang Kai-shek and conservative factions in the Kuomintang (Nationalist Party, or KMT).
Shanxi (postal: Shansi) is a province of China, located in the North China region.
The Shanxi clique (Chinese: 晉系) was one of several military factions that split off from the Beiyang Army during China's warlord era.
Sheng Shicai (3 December 1895 – 13 July 1970) was a Chinese warlord who ruled Xinjiang from 1933 to 1944.
is a largely archaic Japanese name for China.
are the simplified forms of kanji used in Japan since the promulgation of the Tōyō Kanji List in 1946.
Surgeon General was a Japanese army medical officer, microbiologist and the director of Unit 731, a biological warfare unit of the Imperial Japanese Army involved in forced and frequently lethal human experimentation during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945).
was a Field Marshal (Gensui) in the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
The Sino-American Special Technical Cooperative Organization, also known as the Sino-American Cooperative Organization (SACO), was an organization created by the SACO Treaty signed by China and the United States in 1942 during the Second World War.
The Sino-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact was signed in Nanjing on August 21, 1937, between the Republic of China and the Soviet Union during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
The Solothurn S-18/100 20 mm anti-tank cannon was a German and Swiss anti-tank rifle used during the Second World War.
Sòng Zhéyuán (宋哲元) (October 30, 1885 – April 5, 1940) was a Chinese general during the Chinese Civil War and Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945).
Soong Mei-ling or Soong May-ling (March 5, 1898 – October 23, 2003), also known as Madame Chiang Kai-shek or Madame Chiang, was a Chinese political figure who was First Lady of the Republic of China, the wife of Generalissimo and President Chiang Kai-shek.
A sortie (from the French word meaning ''exit'') is a deployment or dispatch of one military unit, be it an aircraft, ship, or troops, from a strongpoint.
The South West Pacific theatre, during World War II, was a major theatre of the war between the Allies and the Empire of Japan.
The Soviet invasion of Manchuria, formally known as the Manchurian Strategic Offensive Operation (Манчжурская стратегическая наступательная операция, lit. Manchzhurskaya Strategicheskaya Nastupatelnaya Operatsiya) or simply the Manchurian Operation (Маньчжурская операция), began on 9 August 1945 with the Soviet invasion of the Japanese puppet state of Manchukuo.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Soviet Volunteer Group was the volunteer part of the Soviet Air Forces sent to support the Republic of China during the Second Sino-Japanese War between 1937 and 1941.
The, also known as the, was a pact between the Soviet Union and the Empire of Japan signed on April 13, 1941, two years after the brief Soviet–Japanese Border War.
Special forces and special operations forces are military units trained to conduct special operations.
The Special Operations Executive (SOE) was a British World War II organisation.
In the field of international relations, a sphere of influence (SOI) is a spatial region or concept division over which a state or organization has a level of cultural, economic, military, or political exclusivity, accommodating to the interests of powers outside the borders of the state that controls it.
The Spratly Islands (南沙群岛 (Nánshā Qúndǎo), Kepulauan Spratly, Kapuluan ng Kalayaan, Quần đảo Trường Sa) are a disputed group of islands, islets and cays and more than 100 reefs, sometimes grouped in submerged old atolls, in the South China Sea.
Strategic material is any sort of raw material that is important to an individual's or organization's strategic plan and supply chain management.
Su Yu (August 10, 1907 – February 5, 1984) was a Chinese Communist military leader.
A submachine gun (SMG) is a magazine-fed, automatic carbine designed to fire pistol cartridges.
A suicide attack is any violent attack in which the attacker expects their own death as a direct result of the method used to harm, damage or destroy the target.
Suiyuan was a historical province of China.
The Suiyuan Campaign (Suīyuǎn shìjiàn) was an attempt by the Inner Mongolian Army and Grand Han Righteous Army, two forces founded and supported by Imperial Japan, to take control of the Suiyuan province from the Republic of China.
Sun Li-jen (December 8, 1900 – November 19, 1990) KBE was a Chinese Nationalist (KMT) general, a graduate of Virginia Military Institute, best known for his leadership in the Second Sino-Japanese War and the Chinese Civil War.
Sun Lianzhong (1893–1990) was a Chinese general during the Warlord Era, Second Sino-Japanese War and Chinese Civil War.
The National Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall is located in Xinyi District, Taipei, Taiwan.
The surrender of Imperial Japan was announced on August 15 and formally signed on September 2, 1945, bringing the hostilities of World War II to a close.
The Swatow Operation (June 21–27, 1939) was part of a campaign by Japan during the Second Sino-Japanese War to blockade China in order to prevent it from communicating with the outside world and importing needed arms and materials.
The T-26 tank was a Soviet light infantry tank used during many conflicts of the 1930s and in World War II.
Soong Tse-ven or Soong Tzu-wen (December 4, 1894 – April 26, 1971) was a prominent businessman and politician in the early-20th-century Republic of China.
Taipei, officially known as Taipei City, is the capital and a special municipality of Taiwan (officially known as the Republic of China, "ROC").
Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a state in East Asia.
The Taiwan independence movement is a political movement to pursue formal independence of Taiwan, Goals for independence have arisen from international law in relation to the 1952 Treaty of San Francisco.
The second ever direct presidential election was held in Taiwan on March 18, 2000, to elect the 10th-term President and Vice-President of the Republic of China under the 1947 Constitution.
The election for the 12th-term President and Vice-President of the Republic of China (Taiwan) was held in Taiwan on Saturday, March 22, 2008.
Taiwanese people (Mandarin: 臺灣人 (traditional), 台湾人 (simplified); Minnan: 臺灣儂; Hakka 臺灣人 (Romanization: Thòi-vàn ngìn)) are people from Taiwan who share a common Taiwanese culture and speak Mandarin Chinese, Hokkien, Hakka, or Aboriginal languages as a mother tongue.
was a member of the Imperial House of Japan.
was a lieutenant general in the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II, known for his role in the Battle of Hong Kong in late 1941.
was a rear admiral in the Imperial Japanese Navy who served during the Second Sino-Japanese War, and in the Pacific War during World War II.
Tang Enbo (birth name was, |)(1898–1954) was a Nationalist general in the Republic of China.
Tang Shengzhi (Wade-Giles: Tang Sheng-chih; 12 October 1889 – 6 April 1970) was a Chinese warlord during the Warlord Era, a military commander during the Second Sino-Japanese War and a politician after World War II.
The Tanggu Truce, sometimes called the, was a cease-fire signed between Republic of China and Empire of Japan in Tanggu District, Tianjin on May 31, 1933, formally ending the Japanese invasion of Manchuria which had begun two years earlier.
A tariff is a tax on imports or exports between sovereign states.
A tax (from the Latin taxo) is a mandatory financial charge or some other type of levy imposed upon a taxpayer (an individual or other legal entity) by a governmental organization in order to fund various public expenditures.
Thailand in World War II officially adopted a position of neutrality until it was invaded by Japan in December 1941.
The Economist is an English-language weekly magazine-format newspaper owned by the Economist Group and edited at offices in London.
The Hump was the name given by Allied pilots in the Second World War to the eastern end of the Himalayan Mountains over which they flew military transport aircraft from India to China to resupply the Chinese war effort of Chiang Kai-shek and the units of the United States Army Air Forces (AAF) based in China.
The Three Alls Policy (三光作戦 Sankō Sakusen) was a Japanese scorched earth policy adopted in China during World War II, the three "alls" being "kill all, burn all, loot all".
The Three Principles of the People, also translated as Three People's Principles, San-min Doctrine, or Tridemism is a political philosophy developed by Sun Yat-sen as part of a philosophy to make China a free, prosperous, and powerful nation.
The Japanese 津浦線作戦 or Tientsin–Pukow Railway Operation (Early August to mid November, 1937) was a follow up operation to the Battle of Beiping-Tianjin of the Japanese army in North China at the beginning of the Second Sino-Japanese War, thought concurrently with the Beiping–Hankou Railway Operation.
The Tibetan Empire ("Great Tibet") existed from the 7th to 9th centuries AD when Tibet was unified as a large and powerful empire, and ruled an area considerably larger than the Tibetan Plateau, stretching to parts of East Asia, Central Asia and South Asia.
The Tibetan people are an ethnic group native to Tibet.
Time is an American weekly news magazine and news website published in New York City.
was an Imperial Japanese Army general during World War II.
was a Japanese general, considered to be one of the Imperial Japanese Army's most successful and ablest strategists during the Second Sino-Japanese War, who commanded the Japanese Second Army during the first years after the Marco Polo Bridge Incident.
Total war is warfare that includes any and all civilian-associated resources and infrastructure as legitimate military targets, mobilizes all of the resources of society to fight the war, and gives priority to warfare over non-combatant needs.
, or commonly known as the Treaty of Peace with Japan, Peace Treaty of San Francisco, or San Francisco Peace Treaty), mostly between Japan and the Allied Powers, was officially signed by 48 nations on September 8, 1951, in San Francisco. It came into force on April 28, 1952 and officially ended the American-led Allied Occupation of Japan. According to Article 11 of the Treaty, Japan accepts the judgments of the International Military Tribunal for the Far East and of other Allied War Crimes Courts imposed on Japan both within and outside Japan. This treaty served to officially end Japan's position as an imperial power, to allocate compensation to Allied civilians and former prisoners of war who had suffered Japanese war crimes during World War II, and to end the Allied post-war occupation of Japan and return sovereignty to that nation. This treaty made extensive use of the United Nations Charter and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights to enunciate the Allies' goals. This treaty, along with the Security Treaty signed that same day, is said to mark the beginning of the San Francisco System; this term, coined by historian John W. Dower, signifies the effects of Japan's relationship with the United States and its role in the international arena as determined by these two treaties and is used to discuss the ways in which these effects have governed Japan's post-war history. This treaty also introduced the problem of the legal status of Taiwan due to its lack of specificity as to what country Taiwan was to be surrendered, and hence some supporters of Taiwan independence argue that sovereignty of Taiwan is still undetermined.
The was a treaty signed at the Shunpanrō hotel, Shimonoseki, Japan on 17 April 1895, between the Empire of Japan and the Qing Empire, ending the First Sino-Japanese War.
The Sino-Japanese Peace Treaty, commonly known as the Treaty of Taipei, was a peace treaty between Japan and the Republic of China (ROC) signed in Taipei, Taiwan on 28 April 1952, and took effect on August 5 the same year, marking the formal end of the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–45).
The Treaty of Versailles (Traité de Versailles) was the most important of the peace treaties that brought World War I to an end.
The Tungchow mutiny, sometimes referred to as the Tongzhou Incident, was an assault on Japanese civilians and troops by the collaborationist East Hopei Army in Tongzhou, China on 29 July 1937 shortly after the Marco Polo Bridge Incident that marked the official beginning of the Second Sino-Japanese War.
Turpan, also known as Turfan or Tulufan, is a prefecture-level city located in the east of Xinjiang, People's Republic of China.
The Twenty-One Demands (対華21ヶ条要求, Taika Nijūikkajō Yōkyū) were a set of demands made during the First World War by the Empire of Japan under Prime Minister Ōkuma Shigenobu sent to the government of the Republic of China on January 8, 1915.
In military terminology, a two-front war is a war in which fighting takes place on two geographically separate fronts.
Typhoid fever, also known simply as typhoid, is a bacterial infection due to ''Salmonella'' typhi that causes symptoms.
was a covert biological and chemical warfare research and development unit of the Imperial Japanese Army that undertook lethal human experimentation during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945) of World War II.
The United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA) was an international relief agency, largely dominated by the United States but representing 44 nations.
The United Nations Security Council (UNSC) is one of the six principal organs of the United Nations, charged with the maintenance of international peace and security as well as accepting new members to the United Nations and approving any changes to its United Nations Charter.
The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S.) or America, is a federal republic composed of 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions.
The United States Army Air Forces (USAAF or AAF), informally known as the Air Force, was the aerial warfare service of the United States of America during and immediately after World War II (1939/41–1945), successor to the previous United States Army Air Corps and the direct predecessor of the United States Air Force of today, one of the five uniformed military services.
On December 8, 1941, the United States Congress declared war (Public Law 77-328, 55 STAT 795) on the Empire of Japan in response to that country's surprise attack on Pearl Harbor the prior day.
The USS Panay incident was a Japanese attack on the American gunboat while it was anchored in the Yangtze River outside Nanking (now spelled Nanjing), China on 12 December 1937.
The Uyghurs or Uygurs (as the standard romanisation in Chinese GB 3304-1991) are a Turkic ethnic group who live in East and Central Asia.
Vasily Ivanovich Chuikov (12 February 1900 – 18 March 1982) was a Soviet military officer.
Việt Minh (abbreviated from Việt Nam độc lập đồng minh, French: "Ligue pour l'indépendance du Viêt Nam", English: “League for the Independence of Vietnam") was a national independence coalition formed at Pác Bó by Hồ Chí Minh on May 19, 1941.
The Việt Nam Quốc Dân Đảng (越南國民黨; Vietnamese Nationalist Party), abbreviated VNQDĐ or Việt Quốc, was a nationalist and moderate socialist political party that sought independence from French colonial rule in Vietnam during the early 20th century.
Victory Day (also shortened as V-Day) is a common name of many different public holidays in various countries to commemorate victories in important battles or wars in the countries' history.
Victory in Europe Day, generally known as V-E Day, VE Day or simply V Day, celebrated on May 8, 1945 to mark the formal acceptance by the Allies of World War II of Nazi Germany's unconditional surrender of its armed forces.
Vietnam, officially the Socialist Republic of Vietnam, is the easternmost country on the Indochina Peninsula in Southeast Asia.
Wang Jingwei (Wang Ching-wei; 4 May 1883 – 10 November 1944); born as Wang Zhaoming (Wang Chao-ming), but widely known by his pen name "Jingwei", was a Chinese politician.
The Wang Jingwei regime is the common name of the Reorganized National Government of the Republic of China (p), a puppet state of the Empire of Japan, located in eastern China.
Wang Kemin (Wade-Giles: Wang K'o-min, May 4, 1879 – December 25, 1945) was a leading official in the Chinese republican movement and early Beiyang government, later noted for his role as in the collaborationist Provisional Government of the Republic of China and Nanjing Nationalist Government during World War II.
Wanping Fortress, also known as Wanping Castle, is a Ming Dynasty fortress or "walled city" in Beijing.
The Warlord Era (19161928) was a period in the history of the Republic of China when the control of the country was divided among former military cliques of the Beiyang Army and other regional factions, which was spread across in the mainland regions of Sichuan, Shanxi, Qinghai, Ningxia, Guangdong, Guangxi, Gansu, Yunnan, and Xinjiang.
or (1901-1982) was the nom de guerre for Mitsugi Seguchi, a Japanese writer, literary critic, and political activist.
Water cooling is a method of heat removal from components and industrial equipment.
The Wehrmacht (lit. "defence force")From wehren, "to defend" and Macht., "power, force".
Wei Lihuang (16 February 1897 – 17 January 1960) was a Chinese general who served the Nationalist government throughout the Chinese Civil War and Second Sino-Japanese War as one of China's most successful military commanders.
Weidenfeld & Nicolson Ltd (established 1948), often shortened to W&N or Weidenfeld, is a British publisher of fiction and reference books.
The Western Hubei Operation was an engagement between the National Revolutionary Army and Imperial Japanese Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
Witold Urbanowicz (30 March 1908 – 17 August 1996) was a Polish fighter ace of the Second World War.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
World War II was the deadliest military conflict in history in absolute terms of total casualties.
Wuhan is the capital of Hubei province, People's Republic of China.
X Force was the name given to the portion of the National Revolutionary Army's Chinese Expeditionary Force that retreated from Burma into India in 1942.
Xi'an is the capital of Shaanxi Province, China.
The Xi'an Incident of 1936 was a political crisis that took place in Xi'an, China prior to the Second Sino-Japanese War.
Xie Jinyuan (Hsieh Chin-yuan; 26 April 1905 – 24 April 1941) was a Chinese Nationalist military officer famous for commanding the Defense of Sihang Warehouse during the Battle of Shanghai in the Second Sino-Japanese War.
The Xinhai Revolution, also known as the Chinese Revolution or the Revolution of 1911, was a revolution that overthrew China's last imperial dynasty (the Qing dynasty) and established the Republic of China (ROC).
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى; SASM/GNC: Xinjang Uyĝur Aptonom Rayoni; p) is a provincial-level autonomous region of China in the northwest of the country.
Xu Xiangqian (November 8, 1901 – September 21, 1990) was a Chinese Communist military leader and one of the Ten Marshals of the People's Liberation Army.
General Xu Yongchang (15 December 188512 July 1959) (Hsu Yung-chang;; style name: Cichen (Tzu-chen)) was the Minister of Board of Military Operations of the Republic of China between December 22, 1948, and April 22, 1949, and the representative of the Republic of China on September 2, 1945, at the signing of the Instrument of Surrender of Japan that ended World War II.
Xue Yue (December 26, 1896 – May 3, 1998) was a Chinese Nationalist military general, nicknamed by Claire Lee Chennault of the Flying Tigers as the "Patton of Asia" and called the "God of War" (戰神) by the Chinese.
The Yalta Conference, also known as the Crimea Conference and code named the Argonaut Conference, held from 4 to 11 February 1945, was the World War II meeting of the heads of government of the United States, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union for the purpose of discussing Germany and Europe's postwar reorganization.
Yan Xishan; 8 October 1883 – 22 July 1960) was a Chinese warlord who served in the government of the Republic of China. He effectively controlled the province of Shanxi from the 1911 Xinhai Revolution to the 1949 Communist victory in the Chinese Civil War. As the leader of a relatively small, poor, remote province, he survived the machinations of Yuan Shikai, the Warlord Era, the Nationalist Era, the Japanese invasion of China and the subsequent civil war, being forced from office only when the Nationalist armies with which he was aligned had completely lost control of the Chinese mainland, isolating Shanxi from any source of economic or military supply. He has been viewed by Western biographers as a transitional figure who advocated using Western technology to protect Chinese traditions, while at the same time reforming older political, social and economic conditions in a way that paved the way for the radical changes that would occur after his rule.Gillin The Journal of Asian Studies 289.
The Yangtze, which is 6,380 km (3,964 miles) long, is the longest river in Asia and the third-longest in the world.
The Yangtze River Delta or YRD is a triangle-shaped metropolitan region generally comprising the Wu Chinese-speaking areas of Shanghai, southern Jiangsu province and northern Zhejiang province.
, also known as Prince Yasuhito, was the second son of Emperor Taishō, a younger brother of the Emperor Hirohito and a general in the Imperial Japanese Army.
was a general of the Imperial Japanese Army, and commander-in-chief of the China Expeditionary Army from November 1944 to the end of World War II.
Ye Jianying (28 April 1897 – 22 October 1986) was a Chinese communist general, Marshal of the People's Liberation Army.
Ye Ting (September 10, 1896 – April 8, 1946), born in Huiyang, Guangdong, was a Chinese military leader.
Yin Rukeng; (Wade-Giles: Yin Ju-keng; Hepburn: In Jyokou, 1885 - December 1, 1947) was a politician in the early Republic of China, later noted for his role as in the collaborationist Provisional Government of the Republic of China and Nanjing Nationalist Government during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
The is a Japanese newspaper published in Tokyo, Osaka, Fukuoka, and other major Japanese cities.
is a professor of Japanese modern history at Chuo University in Tokyo, Japan.
(January 4, 1882 – January 8, 1949) was a general in the Imperial Japanese Army in World War II.
Yunnan is a province of the People's Republic of China, located in the far southwest of the country.
The Yunnan Clique was one of several mutually hostile cliques or factions that split from the Beiyang Government in the Republic of China's warlord era.
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Zhang Aiping; born January 9, 1910 in Da County, Sichuan; died July 5, 2003 in Beijing) was a Chinese communist military leader.
Zhang Fakui (25 July 1896 – 10 March 1980) was a Chinese Nationalist general who fought against northern warlords, the Imperial Japanese Army and Chinese Communist forces in his military career.
Zhang Lingfu (August 20, 1903 – May 16, 1947) was a high-ranking general of the Chinese National Revolutionary Army.
Zhang Xueliang or Chang Hsueh-liang or Chang Hsiao-liang (3 June 1901 – 15 October 2001), occasionally called Peter Hsueh Liang Chang and nicknamed the "Young Marshal" (少帥), was the effective ruler of northeast China and much of northern China after the assassination of his father, Zhang Zuolin, by the Japanese on 4 June 1928.
Zhang Zhizhong or Chang Chih-chung (27 October 1895 – April 1969) was a general in the National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China.
Zhang Zizhong (August 11, 1891 – May 16, 1940) was a general of the Chinese National Revolutionary Army (NRA) during the Second Sino-Japanese War.
Zhang Zuolin (19 March 1875Xiao, Lin, and Li 1184 June 1928) was the warlord of Manchuria from 1916–28, during the Warlord Era in China.
, formerly romanized as Chekiang, is an eastern coastal province of China.
The Zhejiang-Jiangxi campaign (Japanese: 浙贛作戦), also known as Operation Sei-go, refers to a campaign by the China Expeditionary Army of the Imperial Japanese Army under Shunroku Hata and Chinese 3rd War Area forces under Gu Zhutong in the Chinese provinces of Zhejiang and Jiangxi from mid May to early September 1942.
The Zhili clique was one of several mutually hostile cliques or factions that split from the Beiyang clique during the Republic of China's warlord era.
Zhou Enlai (5 March 1898 – 8 January 1976) was the first Premier of the People's Republic of China, serving from October 1949 until his death in January 1976.
Zhou Fohai (Hepburn: Shū Futsukai; May 29, 1897 – February 28, 1948), Chinese politician, and second in command of the Executive Yuan in Wang Jingwei's collaborationist Reformed Government of the Republic of China.
Zhu De ((also Chu Teh; 1 December 1886 – 6 July 1976) was a Chinese general, warlord, politician, revolutionary and one of the pioneers of the Communist Party of China. Born poor in 1886 in Sichuan, he was adopted by a wealthy uncle at age nine; this prosperity provided him a superior early education that led to his admission into a military academy. After his time at the academy, he joined a rebel army and soon became a warlord. It was after this period that he adopted communism. He ascended through the ranks of the Chinese Red Army as it closed in on securing the nation. By the time China was under Mao's control, Zhu was a high-ranking official within the Communist Party of China. He served as Commander-in-Chief of the Eighth Route Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War. In 1955 he became one of the Ten Marshals of the People's Liberation Army, of which he is regarded as the principal founder. Zhu remained a prominent political figure until his death in 1976. As the chairman of the Standing Committee of the National People's Congress from 1975-76, Zhu was the head of state of the People's Republic of China.
Zhu Shaoliang or Chu Shao-liang was a general in the National Revolutionary Army of the Republic of China.
The 15 cm schwere Feldhaubitze 18 or sFH 18 (German: "heavy field howitzer, model 18"), nicknamed Immergrün ("Evergreen"), was the basic German division-level heavy howitzer during the Second World War, serving alongside the smaller but more numerous 10.5 cm leFH 18.
The 16th parallel north is a circle of latitude that is 16 degrees north of the Earth's equatorial plane.
The 1938 Yellow River flood (literally "Huayuankou embankment breach incident") was a flood created by the Nationalist Government in central China during the early stage of the Second Sino-Japanese War in an attempt to halt the rapid advance of Japanese forces.
The 1939–40 Winter Offensive was one of the major engagements between the National Revolutionary Army and Imperial Japanese Army during the Second Sino-Japanese War, in which Chinese forces launched their first major counter-offensive on multiple fronts.
The Cairo Declaration was the outcome of the Cairo Conference in Cairo, Egypt, on November 27, 1943.
The Pak 36 (Panzerabwehrkanone 36) is a 3.7 cm caliber German anti-tank gun used during the Second World War.
The 36th Division was a cavalry division in the National Revolutionary Army.
This article lists firearm cartridges which have a bullet in the to caliber range.
The 7.92×57mm Mauser (designated as the 8mm Mauser or 8×57mm by the SAAMI and 8 × 57 IS by the C.I.P.) is a rimless bottlenecked rifle cartridge.
The 9×19mm Parabellum is a firearms cartridge that was designed by Georg Luger and introduced in 1902 by the German weapons manufacturer Deutsche Waffen und Munitionsfabriken (DWM) (German Weapons and Munitions Factory) for their Luger semi-automatic pistol.
2nd Sino-Japanese War, 2nd Sino-Japanese war, Anti-Fascist War, Anti-Japanese War, China during World War II, China in World War II, China under Japanese rule, Chinese armies in the Second Sino-Japanese War, Chinese resistance to Japan, Chinese theater of World War II, Chinese theatre of World War II, Combat actions of the 8th and 4th Route Communist Armies, Combat effectiveness of Chinese armies in the Second Sino-Japanese War, Greater East Asia War in China, Japanese invasion and occupation, Japanese invasion of China, Japanese invasion of China 1937, Japanese occupation of China, Japanese occupation of China 1937, Kang Zhan, Military history of China during World War II, Motives of the Second Sino-Japanese War, Oil embargo (Sino-Japanese War), Oil embargo (Sino-Japanese war), Second China-Japan War, Second Chinese-Japanese War, Second Japanese-Chinese War (1937-1945), Second Sino Japanese War, Second Sino-Japan War, Second Sino-Japanese war, Second Sino–Japanese War, Second sino-japanese war, Sino Japanese War (1937-1945), Sino-Japanese Conflict, Second, Sino-Japanese War (1931-1945), Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945), Sino-Japanese War (1937-45), Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945), Sino-Japanese War II, Sino–Japanese War (1937–45), Testimoines about combat actions of 8deg and 4deg Route Communist Armies, Testimoines about combat actions of 8deg and 4deg Route Communist Armies and other units of chinese forces, Testimoines about combat actions of 8° and 4° Route Communist Armies, Testimoines about combat actions of 8° and 4° Route Communist Armies and other units of chinese forces, Testimonies about Effectiveness of Chinese Army, Testimonies about Effectivessnes of Chinese Army, The Second Sino-Japanese War, The War of Resistance Against Japan, War of Anti-Japanese Resistance, War of Resistance, War of Resistance Against Japan, War of Resistance Against Japanese Aggression, War of Resistance against Japan, War of Resistance against the Japanese, War of Resistance to Japan, War of Resistance to Japanese Aggression, 八年抗战, 八年抗戰, 抗日战争, 抗日戰爭, 第二次中日战争, 第二次中日戰爭.