126 relations: Albacete, Alejandro Lerroux, Alfonso XIII of Spain, Anarchism, Aragon, Army of Africa (Spain), Asturias, Autonomy, Axis powers, Barcelona, Basque Country (autonomous community), Basque language, Battle of the Ebro, Bolsheviks, Bombing of Guernica, Carlism, Catalan language, Catalonia, Catholic Church, Catholicism in the Second Spanish Republic, Civil liberties, Coat of arms of the Second Spanish Republic, Communism, Condor Legion, Confederación Nacional del Trabajo, Confidence and supply, Congress of Deputies, Constituent Cortes, Depression (economics), Dilectissima Nobis, Emilio Mola, Encyclical, Federation, FET y de las JONS, Final offensive of the Spanish Civil War, Flag of the Second Spanish Republic, Francisco Franco, Francisco Largo Caballero, Francoist Spain, Freedom of association, Freedom of speech, Galicia (Spain), Galician language, General strike, Gerald Brenan, German involvement in the Spanish Civil War, Gijón, Guardia de Asalto, Guernica (Picasso), Helen Graham (historian), ..., Himno de Riego, Imperial War Museum, Indalecio Prieto, International Brigades, International isolation, Interwar period, Jarama, José Antonio Primo de Rivera, José Calvo Sotelo, José Castillo (police officer), José Giral, José María Gil-Robles y Quiñones, José Ortega y Gasset, Juan de la Cierva, Juan Negrín, Kingdom of Italy, LAPE, Leon Lishner, Libertarian socialism, List of Prime Ministers of Spain, Lluís Companys, Madrid, Manuel Azaña, Málaga, Mexico City, Miguel Primo de Rivera, Military dictatorship, Multi-party system, National Library of New Zealand, Nationalist faction (Spanish Civil War), Nationalization, Nazi Germany, Neutral country, Niceto Alcalá-Zamora, Non-intervention in the Spanish Civil War, Order of the Spanish Republic, Oviedo, Pact of San Sebastián, Plus ultra, Pope Pius XI, Popular Front (Spain), President of the Republic (Spain), Pronunciamiento, Provisional Government of the Second Spanish Republic, Radical Republican Party, Republic, Revisionism (Spain), Segismundo Casado, Semi-presidential system, Seville, Siege of the Alcázar, Spanish Civil War, Spanish Confederation of Autonomous Right-wing Groups, Spanish Constitution of 1931, Spanish coup of July 1936, Spanish general election, 1933, Spanish general election, 1936, Spanish Guinea, Spanish local elections, 1931, Spanish peseta, Spanish protectorate in Morocco, Spanish Republican Armed Forces, Spanish Republican government in exile, Spanish Revolution of 1936, Spanish Sahara, Spanish Socialist Workers' Party, Stanley G. Payne, Statute of Autonomy, Straperlo, Suffrage, Tangier International Zone, The Spanish Labyrinth, Unión General de Trabajadores, Unión Militar Republicana Antifascista, Valencia, Zaragoza. Expand index (76 more) » « Shrink index
Albacete (translit) is a city and municipality in the Spanish autonomous community of Castilla–La Mancha, and capital of the province of Albacete.
Alejandro Lerroux García (La Rambla, Córdoba, 4 March 1864 – Madrid, 25 June 1949) was a Spanish politician who was the leader of the Radical Republican Party during the Second Spanish Republic.
Alfonso XIII (Spanish: Alfonso León Fernando María Jaime Isidro Pascual Antonio de Borbón y Habsburgo-Lorena; 17 May 1886 – 28 February 1941) was King of Spain from 1886 until the proclamation of the Second Republic in 1931.
Anarchism is a political philosophy that advocates self-governed societies based on voluntary institutions.
Aragon (or, Spanish and Aragón, Aragó or) is an autonomous community in Spain, coextensive with the medieval Kingdom of Aragon.
The Army of Africa (Ejército de África, الجيش الإسباني في أفريقيا, Al-Jaysh al-Isbānī fī Afriqā) or "Moroccan Army Corps" (Cuerpo de Ejército Marroquí') was a field army of the Spanish Army that garrisoned the Spanish protectorate in Morocco from the late 19th century until Morocco's independence in 1956. At the start of the 20th century, the Spanish Empire's colonial possessions in Africa comprised Morocco, Spanish Sahara, Ifni, Cape Juby and Spanish Guinea.
Asturias (Asturies; Asturias), officially the Principality of Asturias (Principado de Asturias; Principáu d'Asturies), is an autonomous community in north-west Spain.
In development or moral, political, and bioethical philosophy, autonomy is the capacity to make an informed, un-coerced decision.
The Axis powers (Achsenmächte; Potenze dell'Asse; 枢軸国 Sūjikukoku), also known as the Axis and the Rome–Berlin–Tokyo Axis, were the nations that fought in World War II against the Allied forces.
Barcelona is a city in Spain.
The Basque Country (Euskadi; País Vasco; Pays Basque), officially the Basque Autonomous Community (Euskal Autonomia Erkidegoa, EAE; Comunidad Autónoma Vasca, CAV) is an autonomous community in northern Spain.
Basque (euskara) is a language spoken in the Basque country and Navarre. Linguistically, Basque is unrelated to the other languages of Europe and, as a language isolate, to any other known living language. The Basques are indigenous to, and primarily inhabit, the Basque Country, a region that straddles the westernmost Pyrenees in adjacent parts of northern Spain and southwestern France. The Basque language is spoken by 28.4% of Basques in all territories (751,500). Of these, 93.2% (700,300) are in the Spanish area of the Basque Country and the remaining 6.8% (51,200) are in the French portion. Native speakers live in a contiguous area that includes parts of four Spanish provinces and the three "ancient provinces" in France. Gipuzkoa, most of Biscay, a few municipalities of Álava, and the northern area of Navarre formed the core of the remaining Basque-speaking area before measures were introduced in the 1980s to strengthen the language. By contrast, most of Álava, the western part of Biscay and central and southern areas of Navarre are predominantly populated by native speakers of Spanish, either because Basque was replaced by Spanish over the centuries, in some areas (most of Álava and central Navarre), or because it was possibly never spoken there, in other areas (Enkarterri and southeastern Navarre). Under Restorationist and Francoist Spain, public use of Basque was frowned upon, often regarded as a sign of separatism; this applied especially to those regions that did not support Franco's uprising (such as Biscay or Gipuzkoa). However, in those Basque-speaking regions that supported the uprising (such as Navarre or Álava) the Basque language was more than merely tolerated. Overall, in the 1960s and later, the trend reversed and education and publishing in Basque began to flourish. As a part of this process, a standardised form of the Basque language, called Euskara Batua, was developed by the Euskaltzaindia in the late 1960s. Besides its standardised version, the five historic Basque dialects are Biscayan, Gipuzkoan, and Upper Navarrese in Spain, and Navarrese–Lapurdian and Souletin in France. They take their names from the historic Basque provinces, but the dialect boundaries are not congruent with province boundaries. Euskara Batua was created so that Basque language could be used—and easily understood by all Basque speakers—in formal situations (education, mass media, literature), and this is its main use today. In both Spain and France, the use of Basque for education varies from region to region and from school to school. A language isolate, Basque is believed to be one of the few surviving pre-Indo-European languages in Europe, and the only one in Western Europe. The origin of the Basques and of their languages is not conclusively known, though the most accepted current theory is that early forms of Basque developed prior to the arrival of Indo-European languages in the area, including the Romance languages that geographically surround the Basque-speaking region. Basque has adopted a good deal of its vocabulary from the Romance languages, and Basque speakers have in turn lent their own words to Romance speakers. The Basque alphabet uses the Latin script.
The Battle of the Ebro (Batalla del Ebro, Batalla de l'Ebre) was the longest and largest battle of the Spanish Civil War.
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
The bombing of Guernica (26 April 1937) was an aerial bombing of the Basque town of Guernica during the Spanish Civil War.
Carlism (Karlismo; Carlisme) is a Traditionalist and legitimist political movement in Spain seeking the establishment of a separate line of the Bourbon dynasty on the Spanish throne.
Catalan (autonym: català) is a Western Romance language derived from Vulgar Latin and named after the medieval Principality of Catalonia, in northeastern modern Spain.
Catalonia (Catalunya, Catalonha, Cataluña) is an autonomous community in Spain on the northeastern extremity of the Iberian Peninsula, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy.
The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with more than 1.299 billion members worldwide.
Catholicism in the Second Spanish Republic was an important area of dispute, and tensions between the Catholic hierarchy and the Republic were apparent from the beginning - the establishment of the Republic began 'the most dramatic phase in the contemporary history of both Spain and the Church.' The dispute over the role of the Catholic Church and the rights of Catholics were one of the major issues which worked against the securing of a broad democratic majority and "left the body politic divided almost from the start." The historian Mary Vincent has argued that the Catholic Church was an active element in the polarising politics of the years preceding the Spanish Civil War.
Civil liberties or personal freedoms are personal guarantees and freedoms that the government cannot abridge, either by law or by judicial interpretation, without due process.
The Coat of arms of the Second Spanish Republic was the emblem of the Second Spanish Republic, the democratic government that existed in Spain between April 14, 1931, when King Alfonso XIII left the country, and April 1, 1939, when the last of the Republican forces surrendered to Francoist forces at the end of the Spanish Civil War.
In political and social sciences, communism (from Latin communis, "common, universal") is the philosophical, social, political, and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, which is a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes, money and the state.
The Condor Legion (Legion Condor) was a unit composed of military personnel from the air force and army of Nazi Germany, which served with the Nationalists during the Spanish Civil War of July 1936 to March 1939.
The Confederación Nacional del Trabajo (National Confederation of Labour; CNT) is a Spanish confederation of anarcho-syndicalist labour unions, which was long affiliated with the International Workers' Association (AIT).
In a parliamentary democracy based on the Westminster system, confidence and supply are required for a minority government to retain power in the lower house.
The Congress of Deputies (Congreso de los Diputados; Diputatuen Kongresua; Congrés dels Diputats; Congreso dos Deputados) is the lower house of the Cortes Generales, Spain's legislative branch.
The Constituent Cortes (Las Cortes Constituyentes) is the description of Spain's parliament, the Cortes, when convened as a constituent assembly.
In economics, a depression is a sustained, long-term downturn in economic activity in one or more economies.
Dilectissima Nobis, "On Oppression of the Church of Spain", is an encyclical issued by Pope Pius XI on June 3, 1933, in which he decried persecution of the Church in Spain, citing the expropriation of all Church buildings, episcopal residences, parish houses, seminaries and monasteries.
Emilio Mola y Vidal, 1st Duke of Mola, Grandee of Spain (9 July 1887 – 3 June 1937) was a Spanish Nationalist commander during the Spanish Civil War.
An encyclical was originally a circular letter sent to all the churches of a particular area in the ancient Roman Church.
A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity characterized by a union of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions under a central (federal) government.
The Falange Española Tradicionalista y de las Juntas de Ofensiva Nacional-Sindicalista (FET y de las JONS) (English: Traditionalist Spanish Phalanx and of the Councils of the National-Syndicalist Offensive) was the sole legal party of the Francoist State in Spain.
The final offensive of the Spanish Civil War took place between 26 March and 1 April 1939, towards the end of the Spanish Civil War.
The flag of the Second Spanish Republic, known in Spanish as la tricolor, was the official flag of Spain between 1931 and 1939 and the flag of the Spanish Republican government in exile until 1977.
Francisco Franco Bahamonde (4 December 1892 – 20 November 1975) was a Spanish general who ruled over Spain as a military dictator from 1939, after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War, until his death in 1975.
Francisco Largo Caballero (15 October 1869 – 23 March 1946) was a Spanish politician and trade unionist.
Francoist Spain (España franquista) or the Franco regime (Régimen de Franco), formally known as the Spanish State (Estado Español), is the period of Spanish history between 1939, when Francisco Franco took control of Spain after the Nationalist victory in the Spanish Civil War establishing a dictatorship, and 1975, when Franco died and Prince Juan Carlos was crowned King of Spain.
Freedom of association encompasses both an individual's right to join or leave groups voluntarily, the right of the group to take collective action to pursue the interests of its members, and the right of an association to accept or decline membership based on certain criteria.
Freedom of speech is a principle that supports the freedom of an individual or a community to articulate their opinions and ideas without fear of retaliation, censorship, or sanction.
Galicia (Galician: Galicia, Galiza; Galicia; Galiza) is an autonomous community of Spain and historic nationality under Spanish law.
Galician (galego) is an Indo-European language of the Western Ibero-Romance branch.
A general strike (or mass strike) is a strike action in which a substantial proportion of the total labour force in a city, region, or country participates.
Edward FitzGerald "Gerald" Brenan, CBE (7 April 1894 – 19 January 1987) was a British writer and Hispanist who spent much of his life in Spain.
German involvement in the Spanish Civil War of 1936 commenced with the outbreak of war in July 1936, with Adolf Hitler immediately sending in powerful air and armored units to assist General Francisco Franco and his Nationalist forces.
Gijón, or Xixón is the largest city and municipality in the autonomous community of Asturias in Spain.
The Guardia de Asalto (Assault Guard) was the heavy reserve force of the blue-uniformed urban police force of Spain during the Spanish Second Republic.
Guernica is a mural-sized oil painting on canvas by Spanish artist Pablo Picasso completed in June 1937,Richardson (2016) at his home on Rue des Grands Augustins, in Paris.
Helen Graham (DPhil, Oxford) is an English historian, the Professor of Modern Spanish History at the Department of History, Royal Holloway University of London.
The Himno de Riego ("Anthem of Riego") is a song dating from the Liberal Triennium and named in honour of Colonel Rafael del Riego, composed by José Melchor Gomis.
Imperial War Museums (IWM) is a British national museum organisation with branches at five locations in England, three of which are in London.
Indalecio Prieto Tuero (30 April 1883 – 11 February 1962) was a Spanish politician, a minister and one of the leading figures of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) in the years before and during the Second Spanish Republic.
The International Brigades (Brigadas Internacionales) were paramilitary units set up by the Communist International to assist the Popular Front government of the Second Spanish Republic during the Spanish Civil War.
International isolation is a penalty applied by the international community or a sizeable or powerful group of countries, like the United Nations, towards one nation, government or people group.
In the context of the history of the 20th century, the interwar period was the period between the end of the First World War in November 1918 and the beginning of the Second World War in September 1939.
Jarama is a river in central Spain.
José Antonio Primo de Rivera y Sáenz de Heredia, 1st Duke of Primo de Rivera, 3rd Marquis of Estella, GdE (April 24, 1903 – November 20, 1936), often referred to as José Antonio, was a Spanish lawyer, nobleman, politician, and founder of the Falange Española ("Spanish Phalanx"), later Falange Española de las JONS.
José Calvo Sotelo (6 May 1893 – 13 July 1936) was a Spanish politician, minister of Finance during the Dictatorship of Miguel Primo de Rivera and a leading figure of the anti-republican radical right during the Second Republic.
José del Castillo Sáez de Tejada or José Castillo (29 June 1901, Alcalá la Real – 12 July 1936, Madrid) was a Spanish Police Guardia de Asalto (Assault Guard) lieutenant during the Second Spanish Republic.
José Giral y Pereira (22 October 1879 – 23 December 1962) was a Spanish politician, who served 65th Prime Minister of Spain during the Second Spanish Republic.
José María Gil-Robles y Quiñones de León (Salamanca, 27 November 1898 – Madrid, 13 September 1980) was a Spanish politician, leader of the CEDA and a prominent figure in the period leading up to the Spanish Civil War.
José Ortega y Gasset (9 May 1883 – 18 October 1955) was a Spanish philosopher, and essayist.
Juan de la Cierva y Codorníu, 1st Count of De La Cierva (21 September 1895 in Murcia, Spain – 9 December 1936 in Croydon, United Kingdom) was a Spanish civil engineer, pilot and aeronautical engineer.
Juan Negrín y López (3 February 1892 – 12 November 1956) was a Spanish politician and physician.
The Kingdom of Italy (Regno d'Italia) was a state which existed from 1861—when King Victor Emmanuel II of Sardinia was proclaimed King of Italy—until 1946—when a constitutional referendum led civil discontent to abandon the monarchy and form the modern Italian Republic.
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Leon Lishner (4 July 1913 - 21 November 1995) was an American operatic bass-baritone.
Libertarian socialism (or socialist libertarianism) is a group of anti-authoritarian political philosophies inside the socialist movement that rejects socialism as centralized state ownership and control of the economy.
The Prime Minister of the Kingdom of Spain is the head of the Government of Spain.
Lluís Companys i Jover (June 21, 1882 – October 15, 1940) was a Spanish politician from Catalonia.
Madrid is the capital of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole.
Manuel Azaña Díaz (10 January 1880 – 3 November 1940) was the second Prime Minister of the Second Spanish Republic (1931–1933), and later served again as Prime Minister (1936), and then as the second and last President of the Republic (1936–1939).
Málaga is a municipality, capital of the Province of Málaga, in the Autonomous Community of Andalusia, Spain.
Mexico City, or the City of Mexico (Ciudad de México,; abbreviated as CDMX), is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America.
Miguel Primo de Rivera y Orbaneja, 2nd Marquess of Estella, 22nd Count of Sobremonte, GE, OIC, OSH, LCSF, OMC, OTS, KOC (8 January 1870 – 16 March 1930) was a dictator, aristocrat, and military officer who served as Prime Minister of Spain from 1923 to 1930 during Spain's Restoration era.
A military dictatorship (also known as a military junta) is a form of government where in a military force exerts complete or substantial control over political authority.
A multi-party system is a system in which multiple political parties across the political spectrum run for national election, and all have the capacity to gain control of government offices, separately or in coalition.
The National Library of New Zealand (Te Puna Mātauranga o Aotearoa) is New Zealand's legal deposit library charged with the obligation to "enrich the cultural and economic life of New Zealand and its interchanges with other nations" (National Library of New Zealand (Te Puna Mātauranga) Act 2003).
The Nationalist faction (Bando nacional) or Rebel faction (Bando sublevado) was a major faction in the Spanish Civil War of 1936 to 1939.
Nationalization (or nationalisation) is the process of transforming private assets into public assets by bringing them under the public ownership of a national government or state.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
A neutral country is a state, which is either neutral towards belligerents in a specific war, or holds itself as permanently neutral in all future conflicts (including avoiding entering into military alliances such as NATO).
Niceto Alcalá-Zamora y Torres (6 July 1877 – 18 February 1949) was a Spanish lawyer and politician who served, briefly, as the first prime minister of the Second Spanish Republic, and then—from 1931 to 1936—as its president.
During the Spanish Civil War, several countries followed a principle of non-intervention, to avoid any potential escalation and possible expansion of the war to other nations, which would result in the signing of the Non-Intervention Agreement in August 1936 and the setting up of the Non-Intervention Committee, which first met in September.
The Order of the Spanish Republic (Spanish: "La Orden de la República Española") was founded in 1932 in the Second Spanish Republic for civil and military merit to the state.
Oviedo or Uviéu (officially in Asturian) is the capital city of the Principality of Asturias in northern Spain and the administrative and commercial centre of the region.
The Pact of San Sebastián was a meeting led by Niceto Alcalá Zamora and Miguel Maura, which took place in San Sebastián, Spain on August 17, 1930.
Plus ultra ("Further beyond") is a Latin motto and the national motto of Spain.
Pope Pius XI, (Pio XI) born Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti (31 May 1857 – 10 February 1939), was head of the Catholic Church from 6 February 1922 to his death in 1939.
The Popular Front (Frente Popular) in Spain's Second Republic was an electoral coalition and pact signed in January 1936 by various left-wing political organizations, instigated by Manuel Azaña for the purpose of contesting that year's election.
President of the Republic (Presidente de la República) was the title of the head of state during the Second Spanish Republic (1931–39).
A pronunciamiento (pronunciamento; "pronouncement, announcement or declaration") is a form of military rebellion or coup d'état particular to Spain, Portugal and Latin America, particularly in the 19th century.
The Provisional Government of the Second Spanish Republic was the government that held political power in Spain from the fall of Alfonso XIII of Spain on April 14, 1931 and the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic until the approval of the Spanish Constitution of 1931 on December 9 and the formation of the first regular government on December 15.
The Radical Republican Party (Partido Republicano Radical), sometimes shortened to the Radical Party, was a Spanish political party founded in 1908 by Alejandro Lerroux in Santander, Cantabria by a split from the historical Republican Union party led by Nicolás Salmerón.
A republic (res publica) is a form of government in which the country is considered a "public matter", not the private concern or property of the rulers.
Revisionism is a term which emerged in the late 1990s and is applied to a group of historiographic theories related to the recent history of Spain.
Segismundo Casado López (1893, Nava de la Asunción, Segovia – 1968, Madrid) was a Spanish Army officer in the Second Spanish Republic during the Spanish Civil War, commanding the Republican Spanish Army in 1939.
A semi-presidential system or dual executive system is a system of government in which a president exists alongside a prime minister and a cabinet, with the latter two being responsible for the legislature of a state.
Seville (Sevilla) is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Andalusia and the province of Seville, Spain.
The Siege of the Alcázar was a highly symbolic Nationalist victory in Toledo in the opening stages of the Spanish Civil War.
The Spanish Civil War (Guerra Civil Española),Also known as The Crusade (La Cruzada) among Nationalists, the Fourth Carlist War (Cuarta Guerra Carlista) among Carlists, and The Rebellion (La Rebelión) or Uprising (Sublevación) among Republicans.
The Spanish Confederation of Autonomous Right-wing Groups (Confederación Española de Derechas Autónomas, CEDA) was a Spanish political party in the Second Spanish Republic.
The Spanish Constitution of 1931 was approved by the Constituent Assembly on 9 December 1931.
The Spanish coup of July 1936 (Golpe de Estado de España de julio de 1936) fractured the Spanish Republican Armed Forces and marked the beginning of the Spanish Civil War.
Elections to Spain’s legislature, the Cortes Generales, were held on 19 November 1933 for all 473 seats in the unicameral Cortes of the Second Spanish Republic.
Legislative elections were held in Spain on 16 February 1936.
Spanish Guinea (Spanish: Guinea Española) was a set of insular and continental territories controlled by Spain since 1778 in the Gulf of Guinea and on the Bight of Bonny, in Central Africa.
The 1931 Spanish local elections were held on 12 April throughout all Spain municipalities to elect 80,472 councillors.
The peseta was the currency of Spain between 1869 and 2002.
The Spanish protectorate in Morocco was established on 27 November 1912 by a treaty between France and Spain that converted the Spanish sphere of influence in Morocco into a formal protectorate.
The Spanish Republican Armed Forces (Fuerzas Armadas de la República Española) were initially formed by the following two branches of the military of the Second Spanish Republic.
The Government of the Spanish Republic in exile (Gobierno de la República Española en el exilio) was a continuation in exile of the government of the Second Spanish Republic following the victory of Francisco Franco's forces in the Spanish Civil War.
The Spanish Revolution was a workers' social revolution that began during the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War in 1936 and resulted in the widespread implementation of anarchist and more broadly libertarian socialist organizational principles throughout various portions of the country for two to three years, primarily Catalonia, Aragon, Andalusia, and parts of the Valencian Community.
Spanish Sahara (Sahara Español; الصحراء الإسبانية As-Sahrā'a Al-Isbānīyah), officially the Overseas Province of the Spanish Sahara, was the name used for the modern territory of Western Sahara when it was occupied and ruled as a territory by Spain between 1884 and 1975.
The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (Partido Socialista Obrero Español; PSOE) is a social-democraticThe PSOE is described as a social-democratic party by numerous sources.
Stanley George Payne (born September 9, 1934 in Denton, Texas) is an American historian of modern Spain and European Fascism at the University of Wisconsin–Madison.
Nominally, a Statute of Autonomy (Estatuto de Autonomía, Estatut d'Autonomia, Estatuto de Autonomía, Estatutu d' Autonomía, Autonomia Estatutua) is a law hierarchically located under the constitution of a country, and over any other form of legislation (including organic laws).
Straperlo was a business which tried to introduce in Spain in the 1930s a fraudulent roulette which could be controlled electrically with the push of a button.
Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise is the right to vote in public, political elections (although the term is sometimes used for any right to vote).
The Tangier International Zone (Minṭaqat Ṭanja ad-Dawliyya,, Zona Internacional de Tánger) was a international zone centered on the city of Tangier, Morocco, then under French and Spanish protectorate, under the joint administration of France, Spain, and the United Kingdom (later Portugal, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, Sweden, and the United States), that existed from 1924 until its reintegration into independent Morocco in 1956.
The Spanish Labyrinth (full title: The Spanish Labyrinth: An Account of the Social and Political Background of the Spanish Civil War) by Gerald Brenan, is an account of Spain's social, economic and political history as a background to the Spanish Civil War.
The Unión General de Trabajadores (UGT, General Union of Workers) is a major Spanish trade union, historically affiliated with the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE).
The Unión Militar Republicana Antifascista (UMRA, Republican Antifascist Military Union) was a self-described anti-fascist organization for members of the Spanish Republican Armed Forces in Spain during the Second Spanish Republic.
Valencia, officially València, on the east coast of Spain, is the capital of the autonomous community of Valencia and the third-largest city in Spain after Madrid and Barcelona, with around 800,000 inhabitants in the administrative centre.
Zaragoza, also called Saragossa in English, is the capital city of the Zaragoza province and of the autonomous community of Aragon, Spain.
2nd Spanish Republic, 2nd Spanish republic, Asturian Uprising, Asturian Uprising of 1934, Loyalist Spain, Proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic, Republic of spain, Republican Spain, Second Republic (Spain), Second Republic of Spain, Second Spanish republic, Segunda República, Segunda República Española, Spanish II Republic, Spanish Republic, Spanish Republic (1931-1939), Spanish Republic (1931–1939), Spanish Republican, Spanish Republics, Spanish Second Republic.