267 relations: Abwehr, Admiralty, Adolf Hitler, Afrika Korps, Aggie MacKenzie, Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula, Alastair Denniston, Albania, Albert Embankment, Alex Rider, Alex Younger, Allies of World War II, Andrew Fulton (Party chairman), Anthony Blunt, Anthony Horowitz, Anti-tank warfare, Assassination of Zoran Đinđić, Balad Air Base, Balkans, Basra prison incident, Battle of the Caucasus, BBC Radio 1, Beaulieu, Hampshire, Belgrade, Benjamin deForest Bayly, Berlin, Bertram Mills, Between Silk and Cyanide, Black propaganda, Bletchley Park, Bloomsbury Publishing, Bolsheviks, Bomba (cryptography), Bond girl, Boris Johnson, British intelligence agencies, British Islands, British Security Co-ordination, C-36 (cipher machine), Cambridge Circus, London, Cambridge Five, Camp X, Central Intelligence Agency, Century House, London, Charles Cumming, Chief of the Secret Intelligence Service, Christopher Curwen, Civil Service (United Kingdom), Code name, Cold War, ..., Colin Figures, Colin McColl, Colin Murray, Computer security, Counter-proliferation, Counter-terrorism, Counterintelligence, Craig Murray, Cryptanalysis, Cryptanalysis of the Enigma, Daily Star (United Kingdom), David Spedding, Death of Gareth Williams, Defence Intelligence Fusion Centre, Dick Franks, Dick White, Die Another Day, Dilly Knox, Diplomatic bag, Diplomatic immunity, Director Special Forces, Directorate of Military Intelligence (United Kingdom), Donald Maclean (spy), Dorset Square, Double-Cross System, England, Enhanced interrogation techniques, Enigma machine, Ernst Stavro Blofeld, Extraction (military), Extraordinary rendition, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Fort Monckton, Frank Foley, Frederick Forsyth, George Blake, George Smiley, German Empire, Gestapo, GoldenEye, Gordon Welchman, Government Communications Headquarters, Government of the United Kingdom, Graham Greene, Guy Burgess, Hanslope Park, Her Majesty's Government Communications Centre, Herat, Home Army and V-1 and V-2, Horst Kopkow, Hugh Sinclair, Human intelligence (intelligence gathering), Hut 6, Hutton Inquiry, Ian Fleming, Imagery intelligence, Imperial German Navy, Intelligence agency, Intelligence and Security Committee of Parliament, Intelligence assessment, Intelligence Services Act 1994, Interception of Communications Act 1985, Intermediate-range ballistic missile, International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia, Investigatory Powers Tribunal, Iraq, Irish republicanism, Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, James Bond, James Bond (literary character), James Bond filmography, James Bond in film, Jan Karski, Japanese naval codes, John Alexander Sinclair, John Cairncross, John Laing Group, John le Carré, John Major, John Rennie (MI6 officer), John Sawers, John Scarlett, Joint Intelligence Committee (United Kingdom), Joint Special Operations Command, KGB, Kim Philby, Konstantin Volkov (diplomat), Korean War, Krystyna Skarbek, Lambeth, Lashkar-e-Taiba, Leo Marks, Libyan Civil War (2011), Libyan Civil War (2014–present), Licence to kill (concept), Lionel Crabb, List of Alex Rider characters, List of intelligence agencies, London, Lorenz cipher, Main Intelligence Directorate, Mansfield Smith-Cumming, Margaret Thatcher, Maurice Oldfield, Medium-range ballistic missile, Metropolitan Police Anti-Terrorist Branch, MI5, Michael Goleniewski, Mikhail Gorbachev, Military intelligence, Milton Keynes, Ministry of Public Security (Poland), Mohammad Mosaddegh, National Audit Office (United Kingdom), National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, Naval Intelligence Division, Nazi Germany, Nazism, NKVD, Office of Strategic Services, Oleg Gordievsky, Oleg Penkovsky, Operation Barbarossa, Operation Gold, Operation Mass Appeal, Operation Most III, Operation Torch, Parliament of the United Kingdom, Paul Dukes, Permanent Representative of the United Kingdom to the United Nations, Politburo, Pound sterling, Pyry (neighborhood), Q (James Bond), R. H. Bruce Lockhart, Radovan Karadžić, Ralph Izzard, Ratko Mladić, Real Irish Republican Army, Red Army, Richard B. Tinsley, Richard Burton, Richard Dearlove, Richard Tomlinson, River Thames, RPG-22, Saif al-Islam Gaddafi, Sarajevo, Schutzstaffel, Scott Ritter, Second Battle of Fallujah, Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, September 11 attacks, Sicherheitsdienst, Sidney Reilly, Siege of Sarajevo, SIS Building, Skyfall, Slobodan Milošević, South Bank, Soviet Union, Special Activities Division, Special Air Service, Special Boat Service, Special Operations Executive, Special Reconnaissance Regiment, SPECTRE, Spectre (2015 film), St Ermin's Hotel, St James's Street, Stewart Menzies, Tehran, Terry Farrell (architect), Thailand, The Daily Telegraph, The Guardian, The Holocaust, The Spy Who Came in from the Cold, The World Is Not Enough, Torture, Traian Băsescu, Tunnels underneath the River Thames, Type B Cipher Machine, Ultra, United Kingdom, United Kingdom Special Forces, United States invasion of Afghanistan, Uzbekistan, V-2 rocket, Valentine Vivian, Vauxhall, Vauxhall Bridge, Venlo Incident, Victoria, London, Vienna, Vladimir Kuzichkin, War Office, War on Terror, Warsaw, Western Hemisphere, Westminster Bridge Road, Whitehall, Wilfred Dunderdale, Wilhelm Canaris, William Melville, William Stephenson, Winston Churchill, World War I, World War II, Zagreb, Zoran Đinđić, Zygalski sheets, 00 Agent, 1953 Iranian coup d'état, 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt, 2003 invasion of Iraq, 54 Broadway. 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The Abwehr was the German military intelligence service for the Reichswehr and Wehrmacht from 1920 to 1945.
The Admiralty, originally known as the Office of the Admiralty and Marine Affairs, was the government department responsible for the command of the Royal Navy firstly in the Kingdom of England, secondly in the Kingdom of Great Britain, and from 1801 to 1964, the United Kingdom and former British Empire.
Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945) was a German politician, demagogue, and revolutionary, who was the leader of the Nazi Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei; NSDAP), Chancellor of Germany from 1933 to 1945 and Führer ("Leader") of Nazi Germany from 1934 to 1945.
The Afrika Korps or German Africa Corps (Deutsches Afrikakorps, DAK) was the German expeditionary force in Africa during the North African Campaign of World War II.
Agnes "Aggie" MacKenzie (born 12 October 1955) is a Scottish television presenter, most prominently known for presenting the Channel 4 series How Clean Is Your House? and the ITV daytime series Storage Hoarders.
Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (lit or, Tanẓīm Qā‘idat al-Jihād fī Jazīrat al-‘Arab, "Organization of Jihad's Base in the Arabian Peninsula"), or AQAP, also known as Ansar al-Sharia in Yemen (جماعة أنصار الشريعة, Jamā‘at Anṣār ash-Sharī‘ah, "Group of the Helpers of the Sharia"), is a militant Islamist organization, primarily active in Yemen and Saudi Arabia.
Commander Alexander "Alastair" Guthrie Denniston (1 December 1881 – 1 January 1961) was a British codebreaker in Room 40, first head of the Government Code and Cypher School (GC&CS) and field hockey player.
Albania (Shqipëri/Shqipëria; Shqipni/Shqipnia or Shqypni/Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe.
Albert Embankment is part of the river bank on the south side of the River Thames in Central London.
Alex Rider is a series of spy novels by British author Anthony Horowitz about a 14–15-year-old spy named Alex Rider.
Alexander William "Alex" Younger (born 4 July 1963) is a career British intelligence officer for the Secret Intelligence Service (MI6) who, from November 2014 has served as the Chief of the Secret Intelligence Service, succeeding Sir John Sawers on his retirement.
The Allies of World War II, called the United Nations from the 1 January 1942 declaration, were the countries that together opposed the Axis powers during the Second World War (1939–1945).
Robert Andrew Fulton (born 6 February 1944) was appointed chairman of the Scottish Conservative Party in February 2008.
Anthony Frederick Blunt (26 September 1907 – 26 March 1983), known as Sir Anthony Blunt, KCVO, from 1956 to 1979, was a leading British art historian who in 1964, after being offered immunity from prosecution, confessed to having been a Soviet spy.
Anthony Horowitz, OBE (born 5 April 1955) is an English novelist and screenwriter specialising in mystery and suspense.
Anti-tank warfare arose as a result of the need to develop technology and tactics to destroy tanks during World War I. Since the first tanks were developed by the Triple Entente in 1916 but not operated in battle until 1917, the first anti-tank weapons were developed by the German Empire.
Zoran Đinđić, the sixth Prime Minister of the Republic of Serbia, was assassinated at 12:23 p.m. Central European Time on Wednesday, March 12, 2003, in Belgrade, Serbia.
Balad Air Base is an Iraqi Air Force base located near Balad in the Sunni Triangle north of Baghdad, Iraq.
The Balkans, or the Balkan Peninsula, is a geographic area in southeastern Europe with various and disputed definitions.
The Basra prison incident was an event involving British troops in Basra, Iraq.
The Battle of the Caucasus is a name given to a series of Axis and Soviet operations in the Caucasus area on the Eastern Front of World War II.
BBC Radio 1 is a British radio station operated by the British Broadcasting Corporation which also broadcasts internationally, specialising in modern and current popular music and chart hits throughout the day. Radio 1 provides alternative genres after 7pm, including electronic dance, hip hop, rock, indie or interviews. It was launched in 1967 to meet the demand for music generated by pirate radio stations, when the average age of the UK population was 27. The BBC claim that they target the 1529 age group, and the average age of its UK audience since 2009 is 30. BBC Radio 1 started 24-hour broadcasting on 1 May 1991.
Beaulieu is a small village located on the south eastern edge of the New Forest national park in Hampshire, England, and home to both Palace House and the British National Motor Museum.
Belgrade (Beograd / Београд, meaning "White city",; names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Serbia.
Benjamin deForest "Pat" Bayly (June 20, 1903 – 1994) was a Canadian electrical engineer and a professor at the University of Toronto.
Berlin is the capital and the largest city of Germany, as well as one of its 16 constituent states.
Bertram Wagstaff Mills (August 1873 – 16 April 1938) was a British circus owner originally from Paddington, London, who ran the Bertram Mills Circus.
Between Silk and Cyanide: A Codemaker's War 1941–1945 is a memoir of public interest by former Special Operations Executive (SOE) cryptographer Leo Marks, describing his work including memorable events, actions and omissions of his colleagues during the Second World War.
Black propaganda is false information and material that purports to be from a source on one side of a conflict, but is actually from the opposing side.
Bletchley Park was the central site for British (and subsequently, Allied) codebreakers during World War II.
Bloomsbury Publishing plc (formerly M.B.N.1 Limited and Bloomsbury Publishing Company Limited) is a British independent, worldwide publishing house of fiction and non-fiction.
The Bolsheviks, originally also Bolshevists or Bolsheviki (p; derived from bol'shinstvo (большинство), "majority", literally meaning "one of the majority"), were a faction of the Marxist Russian Social Democratic Labour Party (RSDLP) which split apart from the Menshevik faction at the Second Party Congress in 1903.
The bomba, or bomba kryptologiczna (Polish for "bomb" or "cryptologic bomb") was a special-purpose machine designed about October 1938 by Polish Cipher Bureau cryptologist Marian Rejewski to break German Enigma-machine ciphers.
A Bond girl is a character (or the actress portraying a character) who is an attractive love interest and/or female sidekick of James Bond in a novel, film, or video game.
Alexander Boris de Pfeffel Johnson (born 19 June 1964), best known as Boris Johnson, is a British politician, popular historian and journalist serving as Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs since 2016 and the Member of Parliament (MP) for Uxbridge and South Ruislip since 2015.
The Government of the United Kingdom maintains intelligence agencies within several different government departments.
The British Islands is a term within the law of the United Kingdom which since 1889 has referred collectively to the following four polities.
British Security Co-ordination (BSC) was a covert organisation set up in New York City by the British Secret Intelligence Service (MI6) in May 1940 upon the authorisation of Prime Minister Winston Churchill.
The C-35 and C-36 were cipher machines designed by Swedish cryptographer Boris Hagelin in the 1930s.
Cambridge Circus is a famous junction at the intersection of Shaftesbury Avenue and Charing Cross Road in central London.
The Cambridge Spy Ring was a ring of spies in the United Kingdom, who passed information to the Soviet Union during World War II and was active at least into the early 1950s.
Camp X was the unofficial name of the secret Special Training School No.
The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is a civilian foreign intelligence service of the United States federal government, tasked with gathering, processing, and analyzing national security information from around the world, primarily through the use of human intelligence (HUMINT).
Century House, London is a 22-story-building located at 100 Westminster Bridge Road in London.
Charles Cumming (born 5 April 1971) is a British writer of spy fiction.
The Chief of the Secret Intelligence Service serves as the head of the Secret Intelligence Service (SIS, also commonly known as MI6), which is part of the United Kingdom intelligence community.
Sir Christopher Keith Curwen, (9 April 1929 – 18 December 2013) was a British Intelligence officer specialising in South East Asia who was Head of the Secret Intelligence Service (MI6) from 1985 to 1989.
Her Majesty's Home Civil Service, also known as Her Majesty's Civil Service or the Home Civil Service, is the permanent bureaucracy or secretariat of Crown employees that supports Her Majesty's Government, which is composed of a cabinet of ministers chosen by the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, as well as two of the three devolved administrations: the Scottish Government and the Welsh Government, but not the Northern Ireland Executive.
A code name or cryptonym is a word or name used, sometimes clandestinely, to refer to another name, word, project or person.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Sir Colin Frederick Figures (1 July 1925 – 8 December 2006) was Head of the British Secret Intelligence Service (known as MI6) from 1981 to 1985.
Sir Colin Hugh Verel McColl, (born 6 September 1932) was Head of the British Secret Intelligence Service (MI6) from 1989 to 1994.
Colin Murray (born Colin Wright on 10 March 1977) is a Northern Irish sports and music radio and television presenter.
Cybersecurity, computer security or IT security is the protection of computer systems from theft of or damage to their hardware, software or electronic data, as well as from disruption or misdirection of the services they provide.
Counterproliferation refers to diplomatic, intelligence, and military efforts to combat the proliferation of weapons, including both weapons of mass destruction (WMD), long-range missiles, and certain conventional weapons.
Counter-terrorism (also spelled counterterrorism) incorporates the practice, military tactics, techniques, and strategy that government, military, law enforcement, business, and intelligence agencies use to combat or prevent terrorism.
Counterintelligence is "an activity aimed at protecting an agency's intelligence program against an opposition's intelligence service." It likewise refers to information gathered and activities conducted to counter espionage, other intelligence activities, sabotage, or assassinations conducted for or on behalf of foreign powers, organizations or persons, international terrorist activities, sometimes including personnel, physical, document or communications security programs.
Craig John Murray (born 17 October 1958) is a British former diplomat turned political activist, human rights campaigner, blogger and whistleblower.
Cryptanalysis (from the Greek kryptós, "hidden", and analýein, "to loosen" or "to untie") is the study of analyzing information systems in order to study the hidden aspects of the systems.
Cryptanalysis of the Enigma ciphering system enabled the western Allies in World War II to read substantial amounts of Morse-coded radio communications of the Axis powers that had been enciphered using Enigma machines.
The Daily Star is a daily tabloid newspaper published from Monday to Saturday in the United Kingdom since 2 November 1978.
Sir David Rolland Spedding (7 March 1943 – 13 June 2001) was Head of the British Secret Intelligence Service (MI6) from 1994 to 1999.
Gareth Williams (26 September 1978 –) was a Welsh mathematician and employee of GCHQ seconded to the Secret Intelligence Service (SIS or MI6) who was found dead in suspicious circumstances at a Security Service safe house flat in Pimlico, London, on 23 August 2010.
The Defence Intelligence Fusion Centre (DIFC) is based at RAF Wyton in Cambridgeshire.
Sir Arthur Temple "Dick" Franks (13 July 1920 – 12 October 2008) was Head of the British Secret Intelligence Service from 1979 to 1982.
Sir Dick Goldsmith White, (20 December 1906 – 21 February 1993) was a British intelligence officer.
Die Another Day is a 2002 British spy film, the twentieth film in the ''James Bond'' series produced by Eon Productions, as well as the fourth and final film to star Pierce Brosnan as the fictional MI6 agent James Bond.
Alfred Dillwyn "Dilly" Knox, CMG (23 July 1884 – 27 February 1943) was a British classics scholar and papyrologist at King's College, Cambridge and a codebreaker.
A diplomatic bag, also known as a diplomatic pouch, is a container with certain legal protections used for carrying official correspondence or other items between a diplomatic mission and its home government or other diplomatic, consular, or otherwise official entity.
Diplomatic immunity is a form of legal immunity that ensures diplomats are given safe passage and are considered not susceptible to lawsuit or prosecution under the host country's laws, but they can still be expelled.
Director Special Forces (DSF) is the professional head of the United Kingdom Special Forces (UKSF) directorate which is a senior role within the Ministry of Defence (MoD).
The Directorate of Military Intelligence (DMI) was a department of the British War Office.
Donald Duart Maclean (25 May 1913 – 6 March 1983) was a British diplomat and member of the Cambridge Five who acted as spies for the Soviet Union.
Dorset Square is a garden square in Marylebone, London.
The Double-Cross System or XX System was a World War II counter-espionage and deception operation of the British Security Service, a civilian organisation usually referred to by its cover title MI5.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom.
"Enhanced interrogation techniques" or "enhanced interrogation" is a euphemism for the U.S. government's program of systematic torture of detainees by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), and various components of the U.S. Armed Forces at black sites around the world, including Bagram, Guantanamo Bay, and Abu Ghraib, authorized by officials of the George W. Bush administration.
The Enigma machines were a series of electro-mechanical rotor cipher machines developed and used in the early- to mid-20th century to protect commercial, diplomatic and military communication.
Ernst Stavro Blofeld is a fictional character and villain from the James Bond series of novels and films, created by Ian Fleming.
In military tactics, extraction (also exfiltration or exfil), is the process of removing personnel when it is considered imperative that they be immediately relocated out of a hostile environment and taken to a secure area.
Extraordinary rendition, also called irregular rendition or forced rendition, is the U.S. government-sponsored abduction and extrajudicial transfer of a person from one country to another that has predominantly been carried out by the United States government with the consent of other countries.
The Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO), commonly called the Foreign Office, is a department of the Government of the United Kingdom.
Fort Monckton is a historic military fort on the eastern end of Stokes Bay, Gosport, Hampshire.
Major Francis Edward Foley CMG (24 November 1884, Highbridge, Somerset – 8 May 1958, Stourbridge, Worcestershire) was a British Secret Intelligence Service officer.
Frederick McCarthy Forsyth (born 25 August 1938) is an English author, former journalist and spy, and occasional political commentator.
George Blake (born George Behar; 11 November 1922) is a former British spy who worked as a double agent for the Soviet Union.
George Smiley OBE is a fictional character created by John le Carré.
The German Empire (Deutsches Kaiserreich, officially Deutsches Reich),Herbert Tuttle wrote in September 1881 that the term "Reich" does not literally connote an empire as has been commonly assumed by English-speaking people.
The Gestapo, abbreviation of Geheime Staatspolizei (Secret State Police), was the official secret police of Nazi Germany and German-occupied Europe.
GoldenEye is a 1995 British spy film, the seventeenth in the ''James Bond'' series produced by Eon Productions, and the first to star Pierce Brosnan as the fictional MI6 officer James Bond.
William Gordon Welchman (15 June 1906 – 8 October 1985) was an English mathematician, university professor, Second World War codebreaker at Bletchley Park and author.
The Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) is an intelligence and security organisation responsible for providing signals intelligence (SIGINT) and information assurance to the government and armed forces of the United Kingdom.
The Government of the United Kingdom, formally referred to as Her Majesty's Government, is the central government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
Henry Graham Greene (2 October 1904 – 3 April 1991), better known by his pen name Graham Greene, was an English novelist regarded by many as one of the greatest writers of the 20th century.
Guy Francis de Moncy Burgess (16 April 1911 – 30 August 1963) was a British diplomat and Soviet agent, a member of the Cambridge Five spy ring that operated from the mid-1930s to the early years of the Cold War.
Hanslope Park is located about half a mile south-east of the village of Hanslope in the Borough of Milton Keynes.
Her Majesty's Government Communications Centre (HMGCC) is a small group tasked to provide electronics and software to support the communication needs of the British Government.
Herat (هرات,Harât,Herât; هرات; Ἀλεξάνδρεια ἡ ἐν Ἀρίοις, Alexándreia hē en Aríois; Alexandria Ariorum) is the third-largest city of Afghanistan.
During World War II, the Polish resistance Home Army (Armia Krajowa), which conducted military operations against occupying German forces, was also heavily involved in intelligence work.
Horst Kopkow (29 November 1910, Ortelsburg, East Prussia, Germany (now Szczytno, Poland) – 13 October 1996, Gelsenkirchen, Germany) was a Nazi German SS major who worked for German Security police and, after the war, was concealed by British intelligence to use his knowledge during the Cold War.
Admiral Sir Hugh Francis Paget Sinclair, (18 August 1873 – 4 November 1939), known as Quex Sinclair, was a British intelligence officer.
Human intelligence (frequently abbreviated HUMINT and sometimes pronounced as hyoo-mint) is intelligence gathered by means of interpersonal contact, as opposed to the more technical intelligence gathering disciplines such as signals intelligence (SIGINT), imagery intelligence (IMINT) and measurement and signature intelligence (MASINT).
Hut 6 was a wartime section of the Government Code and Cypher School (GC&CS) at Bletchley Park, Buckinghamshire, Britain, tasked with the solution of German Army and Air Force Enigma machine cyphers.
The Hutton Inquiry was a 2003 judicial inquiry in the UK chaired by Lord Hutton, who was appointed by the Labour government to investigate the circumstances surrounding the death of David Kelly, a biological warfare expert and former UN weapons inspector in Iraq.
Ian Lancaster Fleming (28 May 1908 – 12 August 1964) was an English author, journalist and naval intelligence officer who is best known for his James Bond series of spy novels.
Imagery intelligence (IMINT) is an intelligence gathering discipline which collects information via satellite and aerial photography.
The Imperial German Navy ("Imperial Navy") was the navy created at the time of the formation of the German Empire.
An intelligence agency is a government agency responsible for the collection, analysis, and exploitation of information in support of law enforcement, national security, military, and foreign policy objectives.
The Intelligence and Security Committee of Parliament (ISC) is a committee of Parliament of the United Kingdom appointed to oversee the work of the intelligence machinery of the United Kingdom.
Intelligence assessment is the development of behavior forecasts or recommended courses of action to the leadership of an organisation, based on wide ranges of available overt and covert information.
The Intelligence Services Act 1994 (c. 13) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom.
The Interception of Communications Act 1985 (1985 c. 56) was an Act of Parliament in the United Kingdom.
An intermediate-range ballistic missile (IRBM) is a ballistic missile with a range of 3,000–5,500 km (1,864–3,418 miles), between a medium-range ballistic missile (MRBM) and an intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM).
The International Tribunal for the Prosecution of Persons Responsible for Serious Violations of International Humanitarian Law Committed in the Territory of the Former Yugoslavia since 1991, more commonly referred to as the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), was a body of the United Nations established to prosecute serious crimes committed during the Yugoslav Wars, and to try their perpetrators.
In the United Kingdom, the Investigatory Powers Tribunal (IPT) is a judicial body, independent of the British government, which hears complaints about surveillance by public bodies—in fact, "the only Tribunal to whom complaints about the Intelligence Services can be directed".
Iraq (or; العراق; عێراق), officially known as the Republic of Iraq (جُمُهورية العِراق; کۆماری عێراق), is a country in Western Asia, bordered by Turkey to the north, Iran to the east, Kuwait to the southeast, Saudi Arabia to the south, Jordan to the southwest and Syria to the west.
Irish republicanism (poblachtánachas Éireannach) is an ideology based on the belief that all of Ireland should be an independent republic.
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL), also known as the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria or Islamic State of Iraq and al-Sham (ISIS), Islamic State (IS) and by its Arabic language acronym Daesh (داعش dāʿish), is a Salafi jihadist terrorist organisation and former unrecognised proto-state that follows a fundamentalist, Salafi/Wahhabi doctrine of Sunni Islam.
The James Bond series focuses on a fictional British Secret Service agent created in 1953 by writer Ian Fleming, who featured him in twelve novels and two short-story collections.
Commander James Bond, CMG, RNVR, is a fictional character created by the British journalist and novelist Ian Fleming in 1953.
Commander James Bond RN—code number 007—is a fictional character created by the British journalist and novelist Ian Fleming in 1952.
The James Bond film series is a British series of spy films based on the fictional character of MI6 agent James Bond, "007", who originally appeared in a series of books by Ian Fleming.
Jan Karski (24 June 1914 – 13 July 2000) was a Polish World War II resistance-movement soldier, and later a professor at Georgetown University.
The vulnerability of Japanese naval codes and ciphers was crucial to the conduct of World War II, and had an important influence on foreign relations between Japan and the west in the years leading up to the war as well.
Sir John Alexander Sinclair, (29 May 1897 – 22 March 1977) was a British Army general who was head of the Secret Intelligence Service (SIS) from 1953 to 1956.
John Cairncross (25 July 1913 – 8 October 1995) was a British civil servant who became an intelligence officer and spy during the Second World War.
John Laing Group plc (pronounced "Lang") is a British developer and operator of privately financed, public sector infrastructure projects such as roads, railways, hospitals and schools through Public-Private Partnership (PPP) and Private Finance Initiative (PFI) arrangements.
David John Moore Cornwell (born 19 October 1931), better known by the pen name John le Carré, is a British author of espionage novels.
Sir John Major (born 29 March 1943) is a British politician who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1990 to 1997.
Sir John Ogilvy Rennie, (13 January 1914 – 30 September 1981) was the 6th Director of the Secret Intelligence Service (MI6) from 1968 to 1973.
Sir Robert John Sawers (born 26 July 1955) is a British former diplomat and senior civil servant.
Sir John McLeod Scarlett (born 18 August 1948) is a retired British senior intelligence officer.
The Joint Intelligence Committee (JIC) is an interagency deliberative body responsible for intelligence assessment, coordination and oversight of the Secret Intelligence Service, Security Service, GCHQ and Defence Intelligence.
The Joint Special Operations Command (JSOC) is a component command of the United States Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) and is charged to study special operations requirements and techniques to ensure interoperability and equipment standardization; to plan and conduct special operations exercises and training; to develop joint special operations tactics; and to execute special operations missions worldwide.
The KGB, an initialism for Komitet gosudarstvennoy bezopasnosti (p), translated in English as Committee for State Security, was the main security agency for the Soviet Union from 1954 until its break-up in 1991.
Harold Adrian Russell "Kim" Philby (1 January 1912 – 11 May 1988) was a high-ranking member of British intelligence who worked as a double agent before defecting to the Soviet Union in 1963.
Konstantin Volkov (died 1945) was an NKVD agent and would-be defector.
The Korean War (in South Korean, "Korean War"; in North Korean, "Fatherland: Liberation War"; 25 June 1950 – 27 July 1953) was a war between North Korea (with the support of China and the Soviet Union) and South Korea (with the principal support of the United States).
Maria Krystyna Janina Skarbek, OBE, GM, Croix de guerre (1 May 1908 – 15 June 1952), also known as Christine Granville,Clare Mulley, The Spy Who Loved, 2012, p. 1.
Lambeth is a district in Central London, England, in the London Borough of Lambeth.
Lashkar-e-Taiba (LeT, لشکر طیبہ; literally Army of the Good, translated as Army of the Righteous, or Army of the Pure and alternatively spelled as Lashkar-e-Tayyiba, Lashkar-e-Toiba; Lashkar-e-Taiba; Lashkar-i-Tayyeba) is one of the largest and most active Islamic terrorism militant organizations in South Asia, operating mainly from Pakistan.
Leopold Samuel "Leo" Marks, MBE (24 September 1920 – 15 January 2001) was an English writer, screenwriter, and cryptographer.
The first Libyan Civil War, also referred to as the Libyan Revolution or 17 February Revolution, was an armed conflict in 2011 in the North African country of Libya fought between forces loyal to Colonel Muammar Gaddafi and those seeking to oust his government.
The second Libyan Civil War is an ongoing conflict among rival factions seeking control of the territory and oil of Libya.
Licence to kill is the official sanction by a government or government agency to a particular operative or employee to initiate the use of lethal force in the delivery of their objectives, well known as a literary device used in espionage fiction.
Lionel Kenneth Phillip Crabb, (28 January 1909 – presumed dead 19 April 1956), known as Buster Crabb, was a Royal Navy frogman and MI6 diver who vanished during a reconnaissance mission around a Soviet cruiser berthed at Portsmouth Dockyard in 1956.
This is a list of protagonists and antagonists from British author Anthony Horowitz's Alex Rider series.
This is a list of intelligence agencies.
London is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom.
The Lorenz SZ40, SZ42a and SZ42b were German rotor stream cipher machines used by the German Army during World War II.
Main Intelligence Directorate (p), abbreviated GRU (p), is the foreign military intelligence agency of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation (formerly the Soviet Army General Staff of the Soviet Union).
Captain Sir Mansfield George Smith Cumming, (1 April 1859 – 14 June 1923) was the first director of what would become the Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), also known as MI6.
Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, (13 October 19258 April 2013) was a British stateswoman who served as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1979 to 1990 and Leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 to 1990.
Sir Maurice Oldfield (16 November 1915 – 11 March 1981) was a British intelligence officer and espionage administrator.
A medium-range ballistic missile (MRBM) is a type of ballistic missile with medium range, this last classification depending on the standards of certain organizations.
The Anti-Terrorist Branch (or SO13 by its designation) was a Specialist Operations branch of London's Metropolitan Police Service, formed to respond to terrorist activities within the capital and the surrounding areas.
The Security Service, also MI5 (Military Intelligence, Section 5), is the United Kingdom's domestic counter-intelligence and security agency and is part of its intelligence machinery alongside the Secret Intelligence Service (MI6), Government Communications Headquarters (GCHQ) and Defence Intelligence (DI).
Michael Goleniewski a.k.a. 'SNIPER', 'LAVINIA', (16 August 1922 – 12 July 1993), was a Polish officer in the People's Republic of Poland's Ministry of Public Security, the deputy head of military counterintelligence GZI WP, later head of the technical and scientific section of the Polish intelligence, and a spy for the Soviet government during the 1950s.
Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev, GCL (born 2 March 1931) is a Russian and former Soviet politician.
Military intelligence is a military discipline that uses information collection and analysis approaches to provide guidance and direction to assist commanders in their decisions.
Milton Keynes, locally abbreviated to MK, is a large townAlthough Milton Keynes was specified to be a city in scale and the term "city" is used locally (inter alia to avoid confusion with its constituent towns), formally this title cannot be used.
The Ministry of Public Security of Poland (Ministerstwo Bezpieczeństwa Publicznego or MBP) was a postwar communist, secret police, intelligence and counter-espionage service operating from 1945 to 1954 under minister for Public Security general (Generał brygady) Stanisław Radkiewicz, and supervised by Jakub Berman of the Politburo.
Mohammad Mosaddegh (محمد مصدق;; 16 June 1882 – 5 March 1967) was an Iranian politician.
The National Audit Office (NAO) is an independent Parliamentary body in the United Kingdom which is responsible for auditing central government departments, government agencies and non-departmental public bodies.
The National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) is both a combat support agency under the United States Department of Defense and an intelligence agency of the United States Intelligence Community, with the primary mission of collecting, analyzing, and distributing geospatial intelligence (GEOINT) in support of national security.
The Naval Intelligence Division (NID) created originally as a component part of the Admiralty War Staff in 1912, it was the intelligence arm of the British Admiralty before the establishment of a unified Defence Intelligence Staff in 1964.
Nazi Germany is the common English name for the period in German history from 1933 to 1945, when Germany was under the dictatorship of Adolf Hitler through the Nazi Party (NSDAP).
National Socialism (Nationalsozialismus), more commonly known as Nazism, is the ideology and practices associated with the Nazi Party – officially the National Socialist German Workers' Party (Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) – in Nazi Germany, and of other far-right groups with similar aims.
The People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (Народный комиссариат внутренних дел, Narodnyy Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del), abbreviated NKVD (НКВД), was the interior ministry of the Soviet Union.
The Office of Strategic Services (OSS) was a wartime intelligence agency of the United States during World War II, and a predecessor of the modern Central Intelligence Agency (CIA).
Oleg Antonovich Gordievsky, CMG (Оле́г Анто́нович Гордие́вский; born 10 October 1938) is a former colonel of the KGB and KGB resident-designate (rezident) and bureau chief in London, who was a secret agent of the British Secret Intelligence Service from 1974 to 1985.
Oleg Vladimirovich Penkovsky (Олег Владимирович Пеньковский; 23 April 1919 – 16 May 1963), codenamed HERO, was a Soviet military intelligence (GRU) colonel during the late 1950s and early 1960s.
Operation Barbarossa (German: Unternehmen Barbarossa) was the code name for the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, which started on Sunday, 22 June 1941, during World War II.
Operation Gold (also known as Operation Stopwatch by the British) was a joint operation conducted by the American Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the British MI6 Secret Intelligence Service (SIS) in the 1950s to tap into landline communication of the Soviet Army headquarters in Berlin using a tunnel into the Soviet-occupied zone.
Operation Mass Appeal was an operation set up by the British Secret Intelligence Service (MI6) in the runup to the 2003 invasion of Iraq.
Operation Most III (Polish for Bridge III) or Operation Wildhorn III (in British documents) was a World War II operation in which Poland's Armia Krajowa provided the Allies with crucial intelligence on the German V-2 rocket.
Operation Torch (8–16 November 1942, formerly Operation Gymnast) was a Anglo–American invasion of French North Africa, during the North African Campaign of the Second World War.
The Parliament of the United Kingdom, commonly known as the UK Parliament or British Parliament, is the supreme legislative body of the United Kingdom, the Crown dependencies and overseas territories.
Sir Paul Henry Dukes (10 February 1889 – 27 August 1967) was a British author and MI6 officer.
The permanent representative of the United Kingdom to the United Nations is the United Kingdom's foremost diplomatic representative to the United Nations, and in charge of the United Kingdom Mission to the United Nations (UKMIS).
A politburo or political bureau is the executive committee for communist parties.
The pound sterling (symbol: £; ISO code: GBP), commonly known as the pound and less commonly referred to as Sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Jersey, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, and Tristan da Cunha.
Pyry is one of the southernmost neighborhoods of the city of Warsaw.
Q is a fictional character in the James Bond films and film novelisations.
Sir Robert Hamilton Bruce Lockhart, KCMG (2 September 1887 – 27 February 1970) was a British diplomat (Moscow, Prague), journalist, author, secret agent and footballer.
Radovan Karadžić (Радован Караџић,; born 19 June 1945) is a Bosnian Serb former politician and convicted war criminal who served as the President of Republika Srpska during the Bosnian War and sought the direct unification of that entity with Serbia.
Ralph William Burdick Izzard, OBE (27 August 1910 – 2 December 1992) was an English journalist, author, adventurer and, during World War II, a British Naval Intelligence officer.
Ratko Mladić (Ратко Младић,; born 12 March 1943) is a Bosnian Serb former general found guilty of committing war crimes, crimes against humanity, and genocide by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY).
The Real Irish Republican Army or Real IRA (RIRA), also called the New IRA (NIRA) since 2012, is a dissident Irish republican paramilitary organisation which aims to bring about a united Ireland.
The Workers' and Peasants' Red Army (Рабоче-крестьянская Красная армия (РККА), Raboche-krest'yanskaya Krasnaya armiya (RKKA), frequently shortened in Russian to Красная aрмия (КА), Krasnaya armiya (KA), in English: Red Army, also in critical literature and folklore of that epoch – Red Horde, Army of Work) was the army and the air force of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic, and, after 1922, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.
Richard Bolton Tinsley CBE (14 November 1875 – 3 July 1944) was a British secret agent and station chief of MI6 in Rotterdam during World War I.
Richard Burton, CBE (born Richard Walter Jenkins Jr.; 10 November 19255 August 1984) was a Welsh actor.
Sir Richard Billing Dearlove (born 23 January 1945) was head of the British Secret Intelligence Service (MI6), a role fictionally known as "M" and actually, though informally, as "C", from 1999 until 6 May 2004.
Richard John Charles Tomlinson (born 13 January 1963) is a former officer of the British Secret Intelligence Service (MI6).
The River Thames is a river that flows through southern England, most notably through London.
The Soviet RPG-22 Netto is a one-shot disposable anti-tank rocket launcher first deployed in 1985, based on the RPG-18 rocket launcher, but firing a larger 72.5 mm fin stabilised projectile.
Saif al-Islam Gaddafi (سيف الإسلام معمر القذافي; born 25 June 1972) is a Libyan political figure.
Sarajevo (see names in other languages) is the capital and largest city of Bosnia and Herzegovina, with a population of 275,524 in its current administrative limits.
The Schutzstaffel (SS; also stylized as with Armanen runes;; literally "Protection Squadron") was a major paramilitary organization under Adolf Hitler and the Nazi Party (NSDAP) in Nazi Germany, and later throughout German-occupied Europe during World War II.
William Scott Ritter Jr. (born July 15, 1961) was a United Nations weapons inspector in Iraq from 1991 to 1998, and later a critic of United States foreign policy in the Middle East.
The Second Battle of Fallujah—code-named Operation Al-Fajr (Arabic: الفجر "the dawn") and Operation Phantom Fury—was a joint American, Iraqi, and British offensive in November and December 2004, considered the highest point of conflict in Fallujah during the Iraq War.
Her Majesty's Principal Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, normally referred to as the Foreign Secretary, is a senior, high-ranking official within the Government of the United Kingdom and head of the Foreign and Commonwealth Office.
The September 11, 2001 attacks (also referred to as 9/11) were a series of four coordinated terrorist attacks by the Islamic terrorist group al-Qaeda against the United States on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001.
Sicherheitsdienst (Security Service), full title Sicherheitsdienst des Reichsführers-SS (Security Service of the Reichsführer-SS), or SD, was the intelligence agency of the SS and the Nazi Party in Nazi Germany.
Sidney George Reilly MC (– 5 November 1925), commonly known as the "Ace of Spies," was a Russian-born adventurer and secret agent employed by Scotland Yard's Special Branch and later by the British Secret Service Bureau, the precursor to the modern British Secret Intelligence Service (MI6/SIS).
The Siege of Sarajevo was the siege of the capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina, and the longest of a capital city in the history of modern warfare.
The SIS Building or MI6 Building at Vauxhall Cross houses the headquarters of the Secret Intelligence Service (SIS, MI6), the United Kingdom's foreign intelligence agency.
Skyfall is a 2012 spy film, the twenty-third in the ''James Bond'' series produced by Eon Productions.
Slobodan Milošević (Слободан Милошевић; 20 August 1941 – 11 March 2006) was a Yugoslav and Serbian politician and the President of Serbia (originally the Socialist Republic of Serbia, a constituent republic within the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia) from 1989 to 1997 and President of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia from 1997 to 2000.
South Bank is an entertainment and commercial district in central London, next to the River Thames opposite the City of Westminster.
The Soviet Union, officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991.
The Special Activities Division (SAD) is a division of the United States Central Intelligence Agency responsible for covert operations.
The Special Air Service (SAS) is a special forces unit of the British Army.
The Special Boat Service (SBS) is the special forces unit of the United Kingdom's Royal Navy.
The Special Operations Executive (SOE) was a British World War II organisation.
The Special Reconnaissance Regiment (SRR) is a special reconnaissance unit of the British Army.
SPECTRE (SPecial Executive for Counterintelligence, Terrorism, Revenge and Extortion) is a fictional organization featured in the James Bond novels by Ian Fleming, the films based on those novels, and James Bond video games.
Spectre is a 2015 spy film, the twenty-fourth in the ''James Bond'' film series produced by Eon Productions for Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer and Columbia Pictures.
St James's Street is the principal street in the district of St James's, central London.
Major General Sir Stewart Graham Menzies, (30 January 1890 – 29 May 1968) was Chief of MI6, the British Secret Intelligence Service (SIS) from 1939 to 1952, during and after the Second World War.
Tehran (تهران) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province.
Sir Terry Farrell, CBE, RIBA, FRSA, FCSD, MRTPI (born 12 May 1938) is a British architect and urban designer.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a unitary state at the center of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces.
The Daily Telegraph, commonly referred to simply as The Telegraph, is a national British daily broadsheet newspaper published in London by Telegraph Media Group and distributed across the United Kingdom and internationally.
The Guardian is a British daily newspaper.
The Holocaust, also referred to as the Shoah, was a genocide during World War II in which Nazi Germany, aided by its collaborators, systematically murdered approximately 6 million European Jews, around two-thirds of the Jewish population of Europe, between 1941 and 1945.
The Spy Who Came in from the Cold is a 1963 Cold War spy novel by the British author John le Carré.
The World Is Not Enough is a 1999 British spy film, the nineteenth in the ''James Bond'' series produced by Eon Productions, and the third to star Pierce Brosnan as the fictional MI6 agent James Bond.
Torture (from the Latin tortus, "twisted") is the act of deliberately inflicting physical or psychological pain in order to fulfill some desire of the torturer or compel some action from the victim.
Traian Băsescu (born 4 November 1951) is a Romanian politician who served as President of Romania from 2004 to 2014.
The table below lists many of the tunnels under the River Thames in and near London, which, thanks largely to its underlying bed of clay, is one of the most tunnelled cities in the world.
In the history of cryptography, "System 97 Typewriter for European Characters" or "Type B Cipher Machine", codenamed Purple by the United States, was a diplomatic cryptographic machine used by the Japanese Foreign Office just before and during World War II.
Ultra was the designation adopted by British military intelligence in June 1941 for wartime signals intelligence obtained by breaking high-level encrypted enemy radio and teleprinter communications at the Government Code and Cypher School (GC&CS) at Bletchley Park.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
The United Kingdom Special Forces (UKSF) is a Ministry of Defence directorate that provides a joint special operations task force headquarters.
The United States invasion of Afghanistan occurred after the September 11 attacks in late 2001, supported by close allies.
Uzbekistan, officially also the Republic of Uzbekistan (Oʻzbekiston Respublikasi), is a doubly landlocked Central Asian Sovereign state.
The V-2 (Vergeltungswaffe 2, "Retribution Weapon 2"), technical name Aggregat 4 (A4), was the world's first long-range guided ballistic missile.
Colonel Valentine Patrick Terrell Vivian CMG CBE (1886–1969) was the vice-chief of the SIS or MI6 and was the first head of its counter-espionage unit, Section V. It was Vivian, who while attempting to introduce new blood into the service, selected Kim Philby who was later to become notorious as "The Third Man" double agent and who defected to the Russians causing considerable harm to the system he had infiltrated.
Vauxhall is a mixed commercial and residential district of southwest London in the London Borough of Lambeth.
Vauxhall Bridge is a Grade II* listed steel and granite deck arch bridge in central London.
The Venlo Incident was a covert German Sicherheitsdienst (SD-Security Service) operation, in the course of which two British Secret Intelligence Service (SIS) agents were abducted on the outskirts of the town of Venlo, the Netherlands, on 9 November 1939.
Victoria is a small district in the City of Westminster in central London, named after Victoria Street and Victoria Station and indirectly, after Queen Victoria.
Vienna (Wien) is the federal capital and largest city of Austria and one of the nine states of Austria.
Vladimir Anatolyevich Kuzichkin Владимир Анатольевич Кузичкин (born 1947) was a Soviet KGB (PGU KGB SSSR) officer, major who defected to the Tehran Station of the British secret intelligence service in 1982.
The War Office was a department of the British Government responsible for the administration of the British Army between 1857 and 1964, when its functions were transferred to the Ministry of Defence.
The War on Terror, also known as the Global War on Terrorism, is an international military campaign that was launched by the United States government after the September 11 attacks in the United States in 2001.
Warsaw (Warszawa; see also other names) is the capital and largest city of Poland.
The Western Hemisphere is a geographical term for the half of Earth which lies west of the prime meridian (which crosses Greenwich, London, United Kingdom) and east of the antimeridian.
Westminster Bridge Road is a short, busy road in London, England.
Whitehall is a road in the City of Westminster, Central London, which forms the first part of the A3212 road from Trafalgar Square to Chelsea.
Commander Wilfred Albert (Biffy) Dunderdale (24 December 1899 – 13 November 1990John Bruce Lockhart, "Dunderdale, Wilfred Albert (1899-1990)", rev., Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004) was a British spy and intelligence officer.
Wilhelm Franz Canaris (1 January 1887 – 9 April 1945) was a German admiral and chief of the Abwehr, the German military intelligence service, from 1935 to 1944.
William Melville (25 April 1850 – 1 February 1918) was an Irish law enforcement officer and the first chief of the British Secret Service Bureau.
Sir William Samuel Stephenson, CC, MC, DFC (23 January 1897 – 31 January 1989) was a Canadian soldier, airman, businessman, inventor, spymaster, and the senior representative of British Security Coordination (BSC) for the entire western hemisphere during World War II.
Sir Winston Leonard Spencer-Churchill (30 November 187424 January 1965) was a British politician, army officer, and writer, who was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1940 to 1945 and again from 1951 to 1955.
World War I (often abbreviated as WWI or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
Zagreb is the capital and the largest city of Croatia.
Zoran Đinđić (Зоран Ђинђић,; 1 August 1952 – 12 March 2003) was a Serbian politician who was the Prime Minister of Serbia from 2001 until his assassination in 2003.
The method of Zygalski sheets was a cryptologic technique used by the Polish Cipher Bureau before and during World War II, and during the war also by British cryptologists at Bletchley Park, to decrypt messages enciphered on German Enigma machines.
In Ian Fleming's James Bond novels and the derived films, the 00 Section of MI6 is considered the secret service's elite.
The 1953 Iranian coup d'état, known in Iran as the 28 Mordad coup d'état (کودتای ۲۸ مرداد), was the overthrow of the democratically elected Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh in favour of strengthening the monarchical rule of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi on 19 August 1953, orchestrated by the United Kingdom (under the name "Operation Boot") and the United States (under the name TPAJAX Project or "Operation Ajax").
The 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt, also known as the August Coup (r "August Putsch"), was an attempt by members of the Soviet Union's government to take control of the country from Soviet President and General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev.
The 2003 invasion of Iraq was the first stage of the Iraq War (also called Operation Iraqi Freedom).
54 Broadway sometimes known as Broadway buildings is an office building in Broadway, London.
Box 850, Britain's MI6, British SIS, British Secret Service, British Secret Services, British secret service, Her Majesty's Secret Service, MI 6, MI-6, MI6, MI6 Operations, Mi-6, Mi6, Military Intelligence (MI6), Military Intelligence, Section 6, Passport Control Officer, Passport control officer, Secret Service Bureau, Secret Service of the United Kingdom, UK Secret Service.