82 relations: Agrobacterium tumefaciens, Ankyrin repeat, ATP-binding cassette transporter, Bacteria, Bacterial conjugation, Bacterial effector protein, Bacterial outer membrane vesicles, Basic fibroblast growth factor, Biochemistry, Bordetella pertussis, CagA, Cell (biology), Cell membrane, Chaperone (protein), Chemical substance, Cholera toxin, Cytoplasm, Cytoskeleton, Cytosol, Digestive enzyme, Endoplasmic reticulum, Endoplasmic-reticulum-associated protein degradation, Enzyme, Escherichia coli, Eukaryote, Evolution, Excretion, Exocytosis, FGF1, Gastric acid, Gastrointestinal tract, Gland, Glycosylation, Golgi apparatus, Gram-negative bacteria, Helicobacter pylori, Host–pathogen interaction, Insulin, Interleukin-1 family, Intracellular, Legionella pneumophila, List of distinct cell types in the adult human body, Lumen (anatomy), Lung, Lysosome, Macromolecule, Meibomian gland, Membrane vesicle trafficking, Pathogenic bacteria, Periplasm, ..., Pertussis toxin, PH, Porosome, Post-translational modification, Proinsulin, Proteasome, Protein, Protein folding, Protein targeting, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Ribosome, RTX toxin, Salmonella, Sebaceous gland, Secretion, Secretomics, Secretory protein, Shigella, Surfactant, Tissue (biology), Toxin, Transformation (genetics), Trimeric autotransporter adhesin, Twin-arginine translocation pathway, Vesicle (biology and chemistry), Vesicle fusion, Vibrio, Vibrio cholerae, Virulence, Yersinia, Yersinia pestis. Expand index (32 more) » « Shrink index
Agrobacterium tumefaciens (updated scientific name Rhizobium radiobacter, synonym Agrobacterium radiobacter) is the causal agent of crown gall disease (the formation of tumours) in over 140 species of eudicots.
The ankyrin repeat is a 33-residue motif in proteins consisting of two alpha helices separated by loops, first discovered in signaling proteins in yeast Cdc10 and Drosophila Notch.
ATP-binding cassette transporters (ABC transporters) are members of a transport system superfamily that is one of the largest and is possibly one of the oldest families with representatives in all extant phyla from prokaryotes to humans.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Bacterial conjugation is the transfer of genetic material between bacterial cells by direct cell-to-cell contact or by a bridge-like connection between two cells.
Bacterial effectors are proteins secreted by pathogenic bacteria into the cells of their host, usually using a type 3 secretion system (TTSS/T3SS), a type 4 secretion system (TFSS/T4SS) or a Type VI secretion system (T6SS).
Bacteria communicate among themselves and with other living forms in their environment via nano-scale membrane vesicles in their bacterial outer membranes.
FGF2, also known as basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) and FGF-β, is a growth factor and signaling protein encoded by the FGF2 gene.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
Bordetella pertussis is a Gram-negative, aerobic, pathogenic, encapsulated coccobacillus of the genus Bordetella, and the causative agent of pertussis or whooping cough.
Helicobacter pylori virulence factor CagA (cytotoxin-associated gene A) is a 120–145kDa protein encoded on the 40kb cag pathogenicity island (PAI).
The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.
The cell membrane (also known as the plasma membrane or cytoplasmic membrane, and historically referred to as the plasmalemma) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all cells from the outside environment (the extracellular space).
In molecular biology, molecular chaperones are proteins that assist the covalent folding or unfolding and the assembly or disassembly of other macromolecular structures.
A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that consists of molecules of the same composition and structure.
Cholera toxin (also known as choleragen and sometimes abbreviated to CTX, Ctx or CT) is protein complex secreted by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae.
In cell biology, the cytoplasm is the material within a living cell, excluding the cell nucleus.
A cytoskeleton is present in all cells of all domains of life (archaea, bacteria, eukaryotes).
The cytosol, also known as intracellular fluid (ICF) or cytoplasmic matrix, is the liquid found inside cells.
Digestive enzymes are a group of enzymes that break down polymeric macromolecules into their smaller building blocks, in order to facilitate their absorption by the body.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle found in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae.
Endoplasmic-reticulum-associated protein degradation (ERAD) designates a cellular pathway which targets misfolded proteins of the endoplasmic reticulum for ubiquitination and subsequent degradation by a protein-degrading complex, called the proteasome.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Escherichia coli (also known as E. coli) is a Gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped, coliform bacterium of the genus Escherichia that is commonly found in the lower intestine of warm-blooded organisms (endotherms).
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
Evolution is change in the heritable characteristics of biological populations over successive generations.
Excretion is the process by which metabolic waste is eliminated from an organism.
Exocytosis is a form of active transport in which a cell transports molecules (e.g., neurotransmitters and proteins) out of the cell (exo- + cytosis) by expelling them through an energy-dependent process.
FGF1, also known as acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF), is a growth factor and signaling protein encoded by the FGF1 gene.
Gastric acid, gastric juice or stomach acid, is a digestive fluid formed in the stomach and is composed of hydrochloric acid (HCl), potassium chloride (KCl) and sodium chloride (NaCl).
The gastrointestinal tract (digestive tract, digestional tract, GI tract, GIT, gut, or alimentary canal) is an organ system within humans and other animals which takes in food, digests it to extract and absorb energy and nutrients, and expels the remaining waste as feces.
A gland is a group of cells in an animal's body that synthesizes substances (such as hormones) for release into the bloodstream (endocrine gland) or into cavities inside the body or its outer surface (exocrine gland).
Glycosylation (see also chemical glycosylation) is the reaction in which a carbohydrate, i.e. a glycosyl donor, is attached to a hydroxyl or other functional group of another molecule (a glycosyl acceptor).
The Golgi apparatus, also known as the Golgi complex, Golgi body, or simply the Golgi, is an organelle found in most eukaryotic cells.
Gram-negative bacteria are bacteria that do not retain the crystal violet stain used in the gram-staining method of bacterial differentiation.
Helicobacter pylori, previously known as Campylobacter pylori, is a gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium usually found in the stomach.
The host-pathogen interaction is defined as how microbes or viruses sustain themselves within host organisms on a molecular, cellular, organismal or population level.
Insulin (from Latin insula, island) is a peptide hormone produced by beta cells of the pancreatic islets; it is considered to be the main anabolic hormone of the body.
The Interleukin-1 family (IL-1 family) is a group of 11 cytokines that plays a central role in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses to infections or sterile insults.
In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word intracellular means "inside the cell".
Legionella pneumophila is a thin, aerobic, pleomorphic, flagellated, nonspore-forming, Gram-negative bacterium of the genus Legionella.
There are many different types of cell in the human body.
In biology, a lumen (plural lumina) is the inside space of a tubular structure, such as an artery or intestine.
The lungs are the primary organs of the respiratory system in humans and many other animals including a few fish and some snails.
A lysosome is a membrane-bound organelle found in nearly all animal cells.
A macromolecule is a very large molecule, such as protein, commonly created by the polymerization of smaller subunits (monomers).
The Meibomian glands (often written with a small m, and also called tarsal glands) are a holocrine type of exocrine glands, at the rim of the eyelids inside the tarsal plate, responsible for the supply of meibum, an oily substance that prevents evaporation of the eye's tear film.
Membrane vesicle trafficking in eukaryotic animal cells involves movement of important biochemical signal molecules from synthesis-and-packaging locations in the Golgi body to specific 'release' locations on the inside of the plasma membrane of the secretory cell, in the form of Golgi membrane-bound micro-sized vesicles, termed membrane vesicles (MVs).
Pathogenic bacteria are bacteria that can cause disease.
The periplasm is a concentrated gel-like matrix in the space between the inner cytoplasmic membrane and the bacterial outer membrane called the periplasmic space in gram-negative bacteria.
Pertussis toxin (PT) is a protein-based AB5-type exotoxin produced by the bacterium Bordetella pertussis, which causes whooping cough.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
280px Porosomes are cup-shaped supramolecular structures in the cell membranes of eukaryotic cells where secretory vesicles transiently dock in the process of vesicle fusion and secretion.
Post-translational modification (PTM) refers to the covalent and generally enzymatic modification of proteins following protein biosynthesis.
Proinsulin is the prohormone precursor to insulin made in the beta cells of the islets of Langerhans, specialized regions of the pancreas.
Proteasomes are protein complexes which degrade unneeded or damaged proteins by proteolysis, a chemical reaction that breaks peptide bonds.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Protein folding is the physical process by which a protein chain acquires its native 3-dimensional structure, a conformation that is usually biologically functional, in an expeditious and reproducible manner.
Protein targeting or protein sorting is the biological mechanism by which proteins are transported to the appropriate destinations in the cell or outside it.
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium that can cause disease in plants and animals, including humans.
Pseudomonas fluorescens is a common Gram-negative, rod-shaped bacterium.
The ribosome is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis (translation).
The RTX toxin superfamily is a group of cytolysins and cytotoxins produced by bacteria.
Salmonella is a genus of rod-shaped (bacillus) Gram-negative bacteria of the family Enterobacteriaceae.
Sebaceous glands are microscopic exocrine glands in the skin that secrete an oily or waxy matter, called sebum, to lubricate and waterproof the skin and hair of mammals.
Secretion is the movement of material from one point to another, e.g. secreted chemical substance from a cell or gland.
Secretomics is a subset of proteomics in which all of the secreted proteins of a cell, tissue, or organism are analyzed.
A secretory protein is any protein, whether it be endocrine or exocrine, which is secreted by a cell.
Shigella is a genus of gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, nonspore-forming, non-motile, rod-shaped bacteria genetically closely related to E. coli.
Surfactants are compounds that lower the surface tension (or interfacial tension) between two liquids, between a gas and a liquid, or between a liquid and a solid.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
A toxin (from toxikon) is a poisonous substance produced within living cells or organisms; synthetic toxicants created by artificial processes are thus excluded.
In molecular biology, transformation is the genetic alteration of a cell resulting from the direct uptake and incorporation of exogenous genetic material from its surroundings through the cell membrane(s).
In molecular biology, trimeric autotransporter adhesins (TAAs), are proteins found on the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
The twin-arginine translocation pathway (Tat pathway) is a protein export, or secretion pathway found in plants, bacteria, and archaea.
In cell biology, a vesicle is a small structure within a cell, or extracellular, consisting of fluid enclosed by a lipid bilayer.
Vesicle fusion is the merging of a vesicle with other vesicles or a part of a cell membrane.
Vibrio is a genus of Gram-negative bacteria, possessing a curved-rod shape (comma shape), several species of which can cause foodborne infection, usually associated with eating undercooked seafood.
Vibrio cholerae is a Gram-negative, comma-shaped bacterium.
Virulence is a pathogen's or microbe's ability to infect or damage a host.
Yersinia is a genus of bacteria in the family Yersiniaceae.
Yersinia pestis (formerly Pasteurella pestis) is a Gram-negative, non-motile rod-shaped coccobacillus, with no spores.
Bodily secretions, Cell secretion, Hypersecretion, Hyposecretion, Sec pathway, Secrete, Secreted, Secretion system, Secretions, Secretory, Secretory cell, Secretory granule, Secretory pathway, Secretory vesicle, Secretory vesicles, T1SS, T2SS, T4SS, T5SS, Type IV secretion.