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Sediment

Index Sediment

Sediment is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently transported by the action of wind, water, or ice, and/or by the force of gravity acting on the particles. [1]

88 relations: Abyssal plain, Aeolian processes, Alluvial fan, Antidune, Bar (river morphology), Base level, Bay mud, Beach cusps, Bed load, Biorhexistasy, Bioswale, Boulder, Braided river, Calcite, Channel (geography), Chemical substance, Clastic rock, Clay, Clay minerals, Climate, Cobble (geology), Colloid, Dam removal, Decantation, Deposition (geology), Depositional environment, Dune, Erosion, Eutrophication, Exner equation, Fluvial, Fossil, Glacial period, Glacier, Grain size, Granule (geology), Gravel, Gravity, Levee, Lithology, Littoral zone, Loess, Madagascar, Meander, Micrometre, Mineral, Moraine, Mud, Oceanic trench, Oxbow lake, ..., Pebble, Pelagic sediment, Plateau, Plough, Point bar, Rain dust, Regolith, Ripple marks, River delta, Rock (geology), Rouse number, Saltation (geology), Sand, Sandstone, Sediment transport, Sediment trap (geology), Sedimentary basin, Sedimentary rock, Sedimentation, Settling, Shear velocity, Shifting cultivation, Silt, Siltation, Siltstone, Slash-and-burn, Stream bed, Surface runoff, Suspended load, Suspension (chemistry), Terminal velocity, Till, Tropics, Turbidite, Von Kármán constant, Wash load, Waterfall, Weathering. Expand index (38 more) »

Abyssal plain

An abyssal plain is an underwater plain on the deep ocean floor, usually found at depths between and.

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Aeolian processes

Aeolian processes, also spelled eolian or æolian, pertain to wind activity in the study of geology and weather and specifically to the wind's ability to shape the surface of the Earth (or other planets).

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Alluvial fan

An alluvial fan is a fan- or cone-shaped deposit of sediment crossed and built up by streams.

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Antidune

An antidune is a bedform found in fluvial and other channeled environments.

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Bar (river morphology)

A bar in a river is an elevated region of sediment (such as sand or gravel) that has been deposited by the flow.

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Base level

In geology and geomorphology a base level is the lower limit for an erosion process.

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Bay mud

Bay mud consists of thick deposits of soft, unconsolidated silty clay, which is saturated with water; these soil layers are situated at the bottom of certain estuaries, which are normally in temperate regions that have experienced cyclical glacial cycles.

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Beach cusps

Beach cusps are shoreline formations made up of various grades of sediment in an arc pattern.

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Bed load

The term bed load or bedload describes particles in a flowing fluid (usually water) that are transported along the bed.

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Biorhexistasy

The Theory of Biorhexistasy describes climatic conditions necessary for periods of soil formation (pedogenesis) separated by periods of soil erosion.

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Bioswale

Bioswales are landscape elements designed to concentrate or remove debris and pollution out of surface runoff water.

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Boulder

In geology, a boulder is a rock fragment with size greater than in diameter.

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Braided river

A braided river, or braided channel, consists of a network of river channels separated by small, and often temporary, islands called braid bars or, in British usage, aits or eyots.

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Calcite

Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).

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Channel (geography)

In physical geography, a channel is a type of landform consisting of the outline of a path of relatively shallow and narrow body of fluid, most commonly the confine of a river, river delta or strait.

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Chemical substance

A chemical substance, also known as a pure substance, is a form of matter that consists of molecules of the same composition and structure.

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Clastic rock

Clastic rocks are composed of fragments, or clasts, of pre-existing minerals and rock.

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Clay

Clay is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with possible traces of quartz (SiO2), metal oxides (Al2O3, MgO etc.) and organic matter.

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Clay minerals

Clay minerals are hydrous aluminium phyllosilicates, sometimes with variable amounts of iron, magnesium, alkali metals, alkaline earths, and other cations found on or near some planetary surfaces.

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Climate

Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time.

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Cobble (geology)

A cobble (sometimes a cobblestone) is a clast of rock defined on the Udden–Wentworth scale as having a particle size of, larger than a pebble and smaller than a boulder.

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Colloid

In chemistry, a colloid is a mixture in which one substance of microscopically dispersed insoluble particles is suspended throughout another substance.

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Dam removal

Dam removal is the process of demolishing a dam, leaving a river to flow freely.

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Decantation

Decantation is a process for the separation of mixtures of immiscible liquids or of a liquid and a solid mixture such as a suspension.

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Deposition (geology)

Deposition is the geological process in which sediments, soil and rocks are added to a landform or land mass.

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Depositional environment

In geology, depositional environment or sedimentary environment describes the combination of physical, chemical and biological processes associated with the deposition of a particular type of sediment and, therefore, the rock types that will be formed after lithification, if the sediment is preserved in the rock record.

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Dune

In physical geography, a dune is a hill of loose sand built by aeolian processes (wind) or the flow of water.

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Erosion

In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that remove soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transport it to another location (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement).

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Eutrophication

Eutrophication (from Greek eutrophos, "well-nourished"), or hypertrophication, is when a body of water becomes overly enriched with minerals and nutrients that induce excessive growth of plants and algae.

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Exner equation

The Exner equation is a statement of conservation of mass that applies to sediment in a fluvial system such as a river.

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Fluvial

In geography and geology, fluvial processes are associated with rivers and streams and the deposits and landforms created by them.

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Fossil

A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.

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Glacial period

A glacial period (alternatively glacial or glaciation) is an interval of time (thousands of years) within an ice age that is marked by colder temperatures and glacier advances.

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Glacier

A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.

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Grain size

Grain size (or particle size) is the diameter of individual grains of sediment, or the lithified particles in clastic rocks.

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Granule (geology)

A granule is a clast of rock with a particle size of 2 to 4 millimetres based on the Krumbein phi scale of sedimentology.

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Gravel

Gravel is a loose aggregation of rock fragments.

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Gravity

Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.

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Levee

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Lithology

The lithology of a rock unit is a description of its physical characteristics visible at outcrop, in hand or core samples or with low magnification microscopy, such as colour, texture, grain size, or composition.

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Littoral zone

The littoral zone is the part of a sea, lake or river that is close to the shore.

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Loess

Loess (from German Löss) is a clastic, predominantly silt-sized sediment that is formed by the accumulation of wind-blown dust.

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Madagascar

Madagascar (Madagasikara), officially the Republic of Madagascar (Repoblikan'i Madagasikara; République de Madagascar), and previously known as the Malagasy Republic, is an island country in the Indian Ocean, off the coast of East Africa.

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Meander

A meander is one of a series of regular sinuous curves, bends, loops, turns, or windings in the channel of a river, stream, or other watercourse.

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Micrometre

The micrometre (International spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures; SI symbol: μm) or micrometer (American spelling), also commonly known as a micron, is an SI derived unit of length equaling (SI standard prefix "micro-".

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Mineral

A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.

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Moraine

A moraine is any glacially formed accumulation of unconsolidated glacial debris (regolith and rock) that occurs in both currently and formerly glaciated regions on Earth (i.e. a past glacial maximum), through geomorphological processes.

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Mud

Mud is a liquid or semi-liquid mixture of water and any combination of different kinds of soil (loam, silt, and clay).

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Oceanic trench

Oceanic trenches are topographic depressions of the sea floor, relatively narrow in width, but very long.

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Oxbow lake

An oxbow lake is a U-shaped lake that forms when a wide meander from the main stem of a river is cut off, creating a free-standing body of water.

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Pebble

A pebble is a clast of rock with a particle size of 2 to 64 millimetres based on the Krumbein phi scale of sedimentology.

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Pelagic sediment

Pelagic sediment or pelagite is a fine-grained sediment that accumulates as the result of the settling of particles to the floor of the open ocean, far from land.

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Plateau

In geology and physical geography a plateau (or; plural plateaus or plateaux),is also called a high plain or a tableland, it is an area of a highland, usually consisting of relatively flat terrain that is raised significantly above the surrounding area, often with one or more sides with steep slopes.

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Plough

A plough (UK) or plow (US; both) is a tool or farm implement used in farming for initial cultivation of soil in preparation for sowing seed or planting to loosen or turn the soil.

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Point bar

A point bar is a depositional feature made of alluvium that accumulates on the inside bend of streams and rivers below the slip-off slope.

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Rain dust

Rain dust or snow dust, traditionally known as muddy rain, red rain, or coloured rain, is a variety of rain (or any other form of precipitation) which contains enough desert dust for the dust to be visible without using a microscope.

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Regolith

Regolith is a layer of loose, heterogeneous superficial deposits covering solid rock.

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Ripple marks

In geology, ripple marks are sedimentary structures (i.e. bedforms of the lower flow regime) and indicate agitation by water (current or waves) or wind.

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River delta

A river delta is a landform that forms from deposition of sediment carried by a river as the flow leaves its mouth and enters slower-moving or stagnant water.

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Rock (geology)

Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids.

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Rouse number

The Rouse number (P or Z) is a non-dimensional number in fluid dynamics which is used to define a concentration profile of suspended sediment and which also determines how sediment will be transported in a flowing fluid.

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Saltation (geology)

In geology, saltation (from Latin saltus, "leap") is a specific type of particle transport by fluids such as wind or water.

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Sand

Sand is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles.

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Sandstone

Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized (0.0625 to 2 mm) mineral particles or rock fragments.

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Sediment transport

Sediment transport is the movement of solid particles (sediment), typically due to a combination of gravity acting on the sediment, and/or the movement of the fluid in which the sediment is entrained.

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Sediment trap (geology)

In geology, a sediment trap is any topographic depression where sediments substantially accumulate over time.

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Sedimentary basin

Sedimentary basins are regions of Earth of long-term subsidence creating accommodation space for infilling by sediments.

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Sedimentary rock

Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water.

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Sedimentation

Sedimentation is the tendency for particles in suspension to settle out of the fluid in which they are entrained and come to rest against a barrier.

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Settling

Settling is the process by which particulates settle to the bottom of a liquid and form a sediment.

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Shear velocity

Shear Velocity, also called friction velocity, is a form by which a shear stress may be re-written in units of velocity.

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Shifting cultivation

Shifting cultivation is an agricultural system in which plots of land are cultivated temporarily, then abandoned and allowed to revert to their natural vegetation while the cultivator moves on to another plot.

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Silt

Silt is granular material of a size between sand and clay, whose mineral origin is quartz and feldspar.

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Siltation

Siltation or siltification is the pollution of water by particulate terrestrial clastic material, with a particle size dominated by silt or clay.

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Siltstone

Siltstone is a sedimentary rock which has a grain size in the silt range, finer than sandstone and coarser than claystones.

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Slash-and-burn

Slash-and-burn agriculture, or fire–fallow cultivation, is a farming method that involves the cutting and burning of plants in a forest or woodland to create a field called a swidden.

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Stream bed

A stream bed is the channel bottom of a stream or river, the physical confine of the normal water flow.

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Surface runoff

Surface runoff (also known as overland flow) is the flow of water that occurs when excess stormwater, meltwater, or other sources flows over the Earth's surface.

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Suspended load

The suspended load of a flow of fluid, such as a river, is the portion of its sediment uplifted by the fluid's flow in the process of sediment transportation.

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Suspension (chemistry)

In chemistry, a suspension is a heterogeneous mixture that contains solid particles sufficiently large for sedimentation.

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Terminal velocity

Terminal velocity is the highest velocity attainable by an object as it falls through a fluid (air is the most common example).

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Till

Closeup of glacial till. Note that the larger grains (pebbles and gravel) in the till are completely surrounded by the matrix of finer material (silt and sand), and this characteristic, known as ''matrix support'', is diagnostic of till. Glacial till with tufts of grass Till or glacial till is unsorted glacial sediment.

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Tropics

The tropics are a region of the Earth surrounding the Equator.

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Turbidite

A turbidite is the geologic deposit of a turbidity current, which is a type of sediment gravity flow responsible for distributing vast amounts of clastic sediment into the deep ocean.

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Von Kármán constant

In fluid dynamics, the von Kármán constant (or Kármán's constant), named for Theodore von Kármán, is a dimensionless constant involved in the logarithmic law describing the distribution of the longitudinal velocity in the wall-normal direction of a turbulent fluid flow near a boundary with a no-slip condition.

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Wash load

Wash load as described by Hans Albert Einstein, "is if the sediment is added to the upstream end of a concrete channel and the channel is swept clean, and the sediment has not left any trace in the channel, its rate of transport need not be related to the flow rate." (2) The fine sediments that are in the wash load are generally smaller than.0625 mm, but what determines the wash load in reality is the relationship between the size of the bed load and the size of the particles that never settle in the "fine sediment load" or wash load.

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Waterfall

A waterfall is a place where water flows over a vertical drop or a series of steep drops in the course of a stream or river.

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Weathering

Weathering is the breaking down of rocks, soil, and minerals as well as wood and artificial materials through contact with the Earth's atmosphere, water, and biological organisms.

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Redirects here:

Bomb sag, Detrital sediment, Fluviatile sediment, Lake sediment, Sea Sediment, Sedements, Sediment (geology), Sedimentary layer, Sedimentary soil, Sedimented, Sediments.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sediment

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