275 relations: Academic Press, Aeolian processes, Alluvial fan, Anhydrite, Animal, Anoxic waters, Aragonite, Arenite, Arkose, Arthropod, Asthenosphere, Astronomy, Back-arc basin, Back-stripping, Bacteria, Banded iron formation, Baryte, Beach, Bed (geology), Bedform, Biochemistry, Bioturbation, Blood vessel, Bowen's reaction series, Breccia, Burrow, Calcite, Canal, Carbon, Carbon dioxide, Carbonate, Carbonate minerals, Carbonate rock, Carbonization, Cementation (geology), Chalcedony, Chalk, Chert, Civil engineering, Clastic dike, Clastic rock, Clay, Clay minerals, Coal, Competence (geology), Concretion, Conglomerate (geology), Connate fluids, Consolidation (soil), Continental collision, ..., Continental margin, Continental shelf, Convergent boundary, Coquina, Coral, Coral reef, Cross-bedding, Crust (geology), Current (stream), Decomposition, Deformation (mechanics), Dendrochronology, Density, Denudation, Deposition (geology), Depositional environment, Desert, Detritus, Diagenesis, Diapir, Diatom, Discordant, Distribution (mathematics), Dolomite, Dolostone, Drinking water, Dune, Dunham classification, Earth science, Erosion, Evaporite, Evolutionary history of life, Facies, Fault (geology), Feldspar, Fissility (geology), Flame structure, Flint, Flood, Floodplain, Flysch, Fold (geology), Footprint, Foraminifera, Forearc, Foreland basin, Fossil, Fossil fuel, Fungus, Geochemistry, Geologic time scale, Geology, Geomorphology, Glacier, Graded bedding, Grain size, Graphite, Gravel, Greywacke, Groundwater, Growth fault, Gully, Gypsum, Halite, Hematite, Hinterland, History of Earth, House, Hypoxia (environmental), Ice, Igneous rock, Illite, Iron, Iron(II) oxide, Iron(III) oxide, Iron-rich sedimentary rocks, Ironstone, Isostasy, Kaolinite, Lagoon, Lamination (geology), Landslide, Law of superposition, Leaching (chemistry), Lignite, Limestone, List of minerals, List of rock types, Lithification, Lithology, Lithosphere, Load cast, Lutite, Lysocline, Marine regression, Marine transgression, Mars, Mass wasting, Matrix (geology), Metamorphic rock, Metamorphism, Mica, Microscope, Milankovitch cycles, Mineral, Molasse, Mollusca, Mountain range, Mud, Mud volcano, Mudcrack, Mudflat, Mudrock, Natural resource, Northwestern United States, Ocean, Oil shale, Ooid, Oolite, Opal, Optical mineralogy, Ore, Organic matter, Organic-rich sedimentary rocks, Outline of academic disciplines, Overburden pressure, Palaeogeography, Paleoclimatology, Passive margin, Pedogenesis, Pedology, Permeability (earth sciences), Permineralization, Petrographic microscope, Phosphorite, Phosphorus, Physical geography, Plant, Plasticity (physics), Plate tectonics, Point bar, Pore water pressure, Porosity, Precipitation (chemistry), Prentice Hall, Pressure solution, Pyrite, Pyroclastic flow, Quartz, Quaternary, Quaternary glaciation, Radiolaria, Radiolarite, Red beds, Rhythmite, Rift, Ripple marks, River delta, Road, Rock (geology), Root, Roundness (geology), Rudite, Sand, Sandstone, Scavenger, Sea, Sea level, Sediment, Sediment gravity flow, Sediment transport, Sedimentary basin, Sedimentary structures, Sedimentation, Sedimentology, Shale, Shoal, Siliceous rock, Siliciclastic, Silicon dioxide, Silt, Slump (geology), Soil, Solution, Sorting (sediment), Sphere, Sphericity, Springer Science+Business Media, Stratum, Structural geology, Stylolite, Subduction, Sulfate minerals, Supersaturation, Suspension (chemistry), Swamp, Sylvite, Tectonic subsidence, Tectonic uplift, Tectonics, Textile, Texture (geology), Tide, Till, Tissue (biology), Touchet Formation, Trace fossil, Tunnel, Turbidite, Turbidity current, Turbulence, Unconformity, Varve, Vascular tissue, Virtuous circle and vicious circle, Volcanic rock, Volcanism, W. H. Freeman and Company, Wadi, Water, Way up structure, Weathering, Wiley-Blackwell, Wind, Wind wave. Expand index (225 more) » « Shrink index
Academic Press is an academic book publisher.
Aeolian processes, also spelled eolian or æolian, pertain to wind activity in the study of geology and weather and specifically to the wind's ability to shape the surface of the Earth (or other planets).
An alluvial fan is a fan- or cone-shaped deposit of sediment crossed and built up by streams.
Anhydrite is a mineral—anhydrous calcium sulfate, CaSO4.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
Anoxic waters are areas of sea water, fresh water, or groundwater that are depleted of dissolved oxygen and are a more severe condition of hypoxia.
Aragonite is a carbonate mineral, one of the two most common, naturally occurring, crystal forms of calcium carbonate, CaCO3 (the other forms being the minerals calcite and vaterite).
Arenite (Latin Arena, sand) is a sedimentary clastic rock with sand grain size between 0.0625 mm (0.00246 in) and 2 mm (0.08 in) and contain less than 15% matrix.
Arkose is a detrital sedimentary rock, specifically a type of sandstone containing at least 25% feldspar.
An arthropod (from Greek ἄρθρον arthron, "joint" and πούς pous, "foot") is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton (external skeleton), a segmented body, and paired jointed appendages.
The asthenosphere (from Greek ἀσθενής asthenḗs 'weak' + "sphere") is the highly viscous, mechanically weak and ductilely deforming region of the upper mantle of the Earth.
Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.
Back-arc basins are geologic basins, submarine features associated with island arcs and subduction zones.
Back-stripping (also back stripping or backstripping) is a geophysical analysis technique used on sedimentary rock sequences - the technique is used to quantitatively estimate the depth that the basement would be in the absence of sediment and water loading.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Banded iron formations (also known as banded ironstone formations or BIFs) are distinctive units of sedimentary rock that are almost always of Precambrian age.
Baryte or barite (BaSO4) is a mineral consisting of barium sulfate.
A beach is a landform alongside a body of water which consists of loose particles.
Salto del Fraile Formation, Peru. Beds are the layers of sedimentary rocks that are distinctly different from overlying and underlying subsequent beds of different sedimentary rocks.
A bedform is a feature that develops at the interface of fluid and a moveable bed, the result of bed material being moved by fluid flow.
Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.
Bioturbation is defined as the reworking of soils and sediments by animals or plants.
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.
Within the field of geology, Bowen's reaction series is the work of the petrologist, Norman L. Bowen who summarized, based on experiments and observations of natural rocks, the crystallization sequence of typical basaltic magma undergoing fractional crystallization (i.e., crystallization wherein early-formed crystals are removed from the magma by crystal settling, say, leaving behind a liquid of slightly different composition).
Breccia is a rock composed of broken fragments of minerals or rock cemented together by a fine-grained matrix that can be similar to or different from the composition of the fragments.
A burrow is a hole or tunnel excavated into the ground by an animal to create a space suitable for habitation, temporary refuge, or as a byproduct of locomotion.
Calcite is a carbonate mineral and the most stable polymorph of calcium carbonate (CaCO3).
Canals, or navigations, are human-made channels, or artificial waterways, for water conveyance, or to service water transport vehicles.
Carbon (from carbo "coal") is a chemical element with symbol C and atomic number 6.
Carbon dioxide (chemical formula) is a colorless gas with a density about 60% higher than that of dry air.
In chemistry, a carbonate is a salt of carbonic acid (H2CO3), characterized by the presence of the carbonate ion, a polyatomic ion with the formula of.
Carbonate minerals are those minerals containing the carbonate ion, CO32−.
Carbonate rocks are a class of sedimentary rocks composed primarily of carbonate minerals.
Carbonization (or carbonisation) is the conversion of an organic substance into carbon or a carbon-containing residue through pyrolysis or destructive distillation.
Cementation involves ions carried in groundwater chemically precipitating to form new crystalline material between sedimentary grains.
Chalcedony is a cryptocrystalline form of silica, composed of very fine intergrowths of quartz and moganite.
Chalk is a soft, white, porous, sedimentary carbonate rock, a form of limestone composed of the mineral calcite.
Chert is a fine-grained sedimentary rock composed of microcrystalline or cryptocrystalline silica, the mineral form of silicon dioxide (SiO2).
Civil engineering is a professional engineering discipline that deals with the design, construction, and maintenance of the physical and naturally built environment, including works such as roads, bridges, canals, dams, airports, sewerage systems, pipelines, and railways.
A clastic dike is a seam of sedimentary material that fills an open fracture in and cuts across sedimentary rock strata or layering in other rock types.
Clastic rocks are composed of fragments, or clasts, of pre-existing minerals and rock.
Clay is a finely-grained natural rock or soil material that combines one or more clay minerals with possible traces of quartz (SiO2), metal oxides (Al2O3, MgO etc.) and organic matter.
Clay minerals are hydrous aluminium phyllosilicates, sometimes with variable amounts of iron, magnesium, alkali metals, alkaline earths, and other cations found on or near some planetary surfaces.
Coal is a combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock usually occurring in rock strata in layers or veins called coal beds or coal seams.
In geology competence refers to the degree of resistance of rocks to either erosion or deformation in terms of relative mechanical strength.
A concretion is a hard, compact mass of matter formed by the precipitation of mineral cement within the spaces between particles, and is found in sedimentary rock or soil.
Conglomerate is a coarse-grained clastic sedimentary rock that is composed of a substantial fraction of rounded to subangular gravel-size clasts, e.g., granules, pebbles, cobbles, and boulders, larger than in diameter.
In geology and sedimentology, connate fluids are liquids that were trapped in the pores of sedimentary rocks as they were deposited.
Consolidation refers to the process by which soils change volume in response to a change in pressure.
Continental collision is a phenomenon of the plate tectonics of Earth that occurs at convergent boundaries.
The continental margin is one of the three major zones of the ocean floor, the other two being deep-ocean basins and mid-ocean ridges.
The continental shelf is an underwater landmass which extends from a continent, resulting in an area of relatively shallow water known as a shelf sea.
In plate tectonics, a convergent boundary, also known as a destructive plate boundary, is a region of active deformation where two or more tectonic plates or fragments of the lithosphere are near the end of their life cycle.
Coquina is a sedimentary rock that is composed either wholly or almost entirely of the transported, abraded, and mechanically-sorted fragments of the shells of molluscs, trilobites, brachiopods, or other invertebrates.
Corals are marine invertebrates in the class Anthozoa of phylum Cnidaria.
Coral reefs are diverse underwater ecosystems held together by calcium carbonate structures secreted by corals.
In geology, cross-bedding is layering within a stratum and at an angle to the main bedding plane.
In geology, the crust is the outermost solid shell of a rocky planet, dwarf planet, or natural satellite.
A current, in a river or stream, is the flow of water influenced by gravity as the water moves downhill to reduce its potential energy.
Decomposition is the process by which organic substances are broken down into simpler organic matter.
Deformation in continuum mechanics is the transformation of a body from a reference configuration to a current configuration.
Dendrochronology (or tree-ring dating) is the scientific method of dating tree rings (also called growth rings) to the exact year they were formed in order to analyze atmospheric conditions during different periods in history.
The density, or more precisely, the volumetric mass density, of a substance is its mass per unit volume.
In geology, denudation involves the processes that cause the wearing away of the Earth's surface by moving water, by ice, by wind and by waves, leading to a reduction in elevation and in relief of landforms and of landscapes.
Deposition is the geological process in which sediments, soil and rocks are added to a landform or land mass.
In geology, depositional environment or sedimentary environment describes the combination of physical, chemical and biological processes associated with the deposition of a particular type of sediment and, therefore, the rock types that will be formed after lithification, if the sediment is preserved in the rock record.
A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and consequently living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life.
In biology, detritus is dead particulate organic material (as opposed to dissolved organic material).
Diagenesis is the change of sediments or existing sedimentary rocks into a different sedimentary rock during and after rock formation (lithification), at temperatures and pressures less than that required for the formation of metamorphic rocks.
A diapir (French, from Greek diapeirein, to pierce through) is a type of geologic intrusion in which a more mobile and ductily deformable material is forced into brittle overlying rocks.
Diatoms (diá-tom-os "cut in half", from diá, "through" or "apart"; and the root of tém-n-ō, "I cut".) are a major group of microorganisms found in the oceans, waterways and soils of the world.
Category:Temporary maintenance holdings.
Distributions (or generalized functions) are objects that generalize the classical notion of functions in mathematical analysis.
Dolomite is an anhydrous carbonate mineral composed of calcium magnesium carbonate, ideally The term is also used for a sedimentary carbonate rock composed mostly of the mineral dolomite.
Dolostone or dolomite rock is a sedimentary carbonate rock that contains a high percentage of the mineral dolomite, CaMg(CO3)2.
Drinking water, also known as potable water, is water that is safe to drink or to use for food preparation.
In physical geography, a dune is a hill of loose sand built by aeolian processes (wind) or the flow of water.
The Dunham classification system for carbonate sedimentary rocks was originally devised by Robert J. Dunham in 1962, and subsequently modified by Embry and Klovan in 1971 to include coarse-grained limestones and sediments that had been organically bound at the time of deposition.
Earth science or geoscience is a widely embraced term for the fields of natural science related to the planet Earth.
In earth science, erosion is the action of surface processes (such as water flow or wind) that remove soil, rock, or dissolved material from one location on the Earth's crust, and then transport it to another location (not to be confused with weathering which involves no movement).
Evaporite is the term for a water-soluble mineral sediment that results from concentration and crystallization by evaporation from an aqueous solution.
The evolutionary history of life on Earth traces the processes by which both living organisms and fossil organisms evolved since life emerged on the planet, until the present.
In geology, a facies (pronounced variously as, or; plural also 'facies') is a body of rock with specified characteristics, which can be any observable attribute of rocks such as their overall appearance, composition, or condition of formation, and the changes that may occur in those attributes over a geographic area.
In geology, a fault is a planar fracture or discontinuity in a volume of rock, across which there has been significant displacement as a result of rock-mass movement.
Feldspars (KAlSi3O8 – NaAlSi3O8 – CaAl2Si2O8) are a group of rock-forming tectosilicate minerals that make up about 41% of the Earth's continental crust by weight.
In geology, fissility is the ability or tendency of a rock to split along flat planes of weakness (“parting surfaces”).
A flame structure is a type of soft-sediment deformation that forms in unconsolidated sediments.
Flint is a hard, sedimentary cryptocrystalline form of the mineral quartz, categorized as a variety of chert.
A flood is an overflow of water that submerges land that is usually dry.
A floodplain or flood plain is an area of land adjacent to a stream or river which stretches from the banks of its channel to the base of the enclosing valley walls, and which experiences flooding during periods of high discharge.
Flysch is a sequence of sedimentary rock layers that progress from deep-water and turbidity flow deposits to shallow-water shales and sandstones.
A geological fold occurs when one or a stack of originally flat and planar surfaces, such as sedimentary strata, are bent or curved as a result of permanent deformation.
Footprints are the impressions or images left behind by a person walking or running.
Foraminifera (Latin for "hole bearers"; informally called "forams") are members of a phylum or class of amoeboid protists characterized by streaming granular ectoplasm for catching food and other uses; and commonly an external shell (called a "test") of diverse forms and materials.
A forearc is the region between an oceanic trench and the associated volcanic arc.
A foreland basin is a structural basin that develops adjacent and parallel to a mountain belt.
A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.
A fossil fuel is a fuel formed by natural processes, such as anaerobic decomposition of buried dead organisms, containing energy originating in ancient photosynthesis.
A fungus (plural: fungi or funguses) is any member of the group of eukaryotic organisms that includes microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as the more familiar mushrooms.
Geochemistry is the science that uses the tools and principles of chemistry to explain the mechanisms behind major geological systems such as the Earth's crust and its oceans.
The geologic time scale (GTS) is a system of chronological dating that relates geological strata (stratigraphy) to time.
Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse") is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time.
Geomorphology (from Ancient Greek: γῆ, gê, "earth"; μορφή, morphḗ, "form"; and λόγος, lógos, "study") is the scientific study of the origin and evolution of topographic and bathymetric features created by physical, chemical or biological processes operating at or near the Earth's surface.
A glacier is a persistent body of dense ice that is constantly moving under its own weight; it forms where the accumulation of snow exceeds its ablation (melting and sublimation) over many years, often centuries.
In geology, a graded bed is one characterized by a systematic change in grain or clast size from one side of the bed to the other.
Grain size (or particle size) is the diameter of individual grains of sediment, or the lithified particles in clastic rocks.
Graphite, archaically referred to as plumbago, is a crystalline allotrope of carbon, a semimetal, a native element mineral, and a form of coal.
Gravel is a loose aggregation of rock fragments.
Greywacke or Graywacke (German grauwacke, signifying a grey, earthy rock) is a variety of sandstone generally characterized by its hardness, dark color, and poorly sorted angular grains of quartz, feldspar, and small rock fragments or lithic fragments set in a compact, clay-fine matrix.
Groundwater is the water present beneath Earth's surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of rock formations.
Growth faults are syndepositional or syn-sedimentary extensional faults that initiate and evolve at the margins of continental plates.
A gully is a landform created by running water, eroding sharply into soil, typically on a hillside.
Gypsum is a soft sulfate mineral composed of calcium sulfate dihydrate, with the chemical formula CaSO4·2H2O.
Halite, commonly known as rock salt, is a type of salt, the mineral (natural) form of sodium chloride (NaCl).
Hematite, also spelled as haematite, is the mineral form of iron(III) oxide (Fe2O3), one of several iron oxides.
Hinterland is a German word meaning "the land behind" (a city, a port, or similar).
The history of Earth concerns the development of planet Earth from its formation to the present day.
A house is a building that functions as a home.
Hypoxia refers to low oxygen conditions.
Ice is water frozen into a solid state.
Igneous rock (derived from the Latin word ignis meaning fire), or magmatic rock, is one of the three main rock types, the others being sedimentary and metamorphic.
Illite is a group of closely related non-expanding clay minerals.
Iron is a chemical element with symbol Fe (from ferrum) and atomic number 26.
Iron(II) oxide or ferrous oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula FeO.
Iron(III) oxide or ferric oxide is the inorganic compound with the formula Fe2O3.
Iron-rich sedimentary rocks are sedimentary rocks which contain 15% or more iron.
Ironstone is a sedimentary rock, either deposited directly as a ferruginous sediment or created by chemical replacement, that contains a substantial proportion of an iron compound from which iron either can be or once was smelted commercially.
Isostasy (Greek ''ísos'' "equal", ''stásis'' "standstill") is the state of gravitational equilibrium between Earth's crust and mantle such that the crust "floats" at an elevation that depends on its thickness and density.
Kaolinite is a clay mineral, part of the group of industrial minerals, with the chemical composition Al2Si2O5(OH)4.
A lagoon is a shallow body of water separated from a larger body of water by barrier islands or reefs.
In geology, lamination is a small-scale sequence of fine layers (laminae; singular: lamina) that occurs in sedimentary rocks.
The term landslide or, less frequently, landslip, refers to several forms of mass wasting that include a wide range of ground movements, such as rockfalls, deep-seated slope failures, mudflows and debris flows.
The law of superposition is an axiom that forms one of the bases of the sciences of geology, archaeology, and other fields dealing with geological stratigraphy.
Leaching is the process of extracting substances from a solid by dissolving them in a liquid, either naturally or through an industrial process.
Lignite, often referred to as brown coal, is a soft, brown, combustible, sedimentary rock formed from naturally compressed peat.
Limestone is a sedimentary rock, composed mainly of skeletal fragments of marine organisms such as coral, forams and molluscs.
This is a list of minerals for which there are articles on Wikipedia.
The following is a list of rock types recognized by petrologists.
Lithification (from the Ancient Greek word lithos meaning 'rock' and the Latin-derived suffix -ific) is the process in which sediments compact under pressure, expel connate fluids, and gradually become solid rock.
The lithology of a rock unit is a description of its physical characteristics visible at outcrop, in hand or core samples or with low magnification microscopy, such as colour, texture, grain size, or composition.
A lithosphere (λίθος for "rocky", and σφαίρα for "sphere") is the rigid, outermost shell of a terrestrial-type planet, or natural satellite, that is defined by its rigid mechanical properties.
Load casts are bulges, lumps, and lobes that can form on the bedding planes that separate the layers of sedimentary rocks.
Lutite is old terminology, which is not widely used, by Earth scientists in field descriptions for fine-grained, sedimentary rocks, which are composed of silt-size sediment, clay-size sediment, or a mixture of both.
The lysocline is the depth in the ocean below which the rate of dissolution of calcite increases dramatically.
Marine regression is a geological process occurring when areas of submerged seafloor are exposed above the sea level.
A marine transgression is a geologic event during which sea level rises relative to the land and the shoreline moves toward higher ground, resulting in flooding.
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second-smallest planet in the Solar System after Mercury.
Mass wasting, also known as slope movement or mass movement, is the geomorphic process by which soil, sand, regolith, and rock move downslope typically as a solid, continuous or discontinuous mass, largely under the force of gravity, but frequently with characteristics of a flow as in debris flows and mudflows.
The matrix or groundmass of rock is the finer-grained mass of material wherein larger grains, crystals or clasts are embedded.
Metamorphic rocks arise from the transformation of existing rock types, in a process called metamorphism, which means "change in form".
Metamorphism is the change of minerals or geologic texture (distinct arrangement of minerals) in pre-existing rocks (protoliths), without the protolith melting into liquid magma (a solid-state change).
The mica group of sheet silicate (phyllosilicate) minerals includes several closely related materials having nearly perfect basal cleavage.
A microscope (from the μικρός, mikrós, "small" and σκοπεῖν, skopeîn, "to look" or "see") is an instrument used to see objects that are too small to be seen by the naked eye.
Milankovitch cycles describe the collective effects of changes in the Earth's movements on its climate over thousands of years.
A mineral is a naturally occurring chemical compound, usually of crystalline form and not produced by life processes.
The term "molasse" refers to sandstones, shales and conglomerates that form as terrestrial or shallow marine deposits in front of rising mountain chains.
Mollusca is a large phylum of invertebrate animals whose members are known as molluscs or mollusksThe formerly dominant spelling mollusk is still used in the U.S. — see the reasons given in Gary Rosenberg's.
A mountain range or hill range is a series of mountains or hills ranged in a line and connected by high ground.
Mud is a liquid or semi-liquid mixture of water and any combination of different kinds of soil (loam, silt, and clay).
A mud volcano or mud dome is a landform created by the eruption of mud or slurries, water and gases.
Mudcracks (also known as desiccation cracks, mud cracks or cracked mud) are sedimentary structures formed as muddy sediment dries and contracts.
Mudflats or mud flats, also known as tidal flats, are coastal wetlands that form when mud is deposited by tides or rivers.
Mudrocks are a class of fine grained siliciclastic sedimentary rocks.
Natural resources are resources that exist without actions of humankind.
The Northwestern United States (Noroeste de Estados Unidos) is an informal geographic region of the United States.
An ocean (the sea of classical antiquity) is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere.
Oil shale is an organic-rich fine-grained sedimentary rock containing kerogen (a solid mixture of organic chemical compounds) from which liquid hydrocarbons, called shale oil (not to be confused with tight oil—crude oil occurring naturally in shales), can be produced.
Ooids are small (commonly ≤2 mm in diameter), spheroidal, "coated" (layered) sedimentary grains, usually composed of calcium carbonate, but sometimes made up of iron- or phosphate-based minerals.
Oolite or oölite (egg stone) is a sedimentary rock formed from ooids, spherical grains composed of concentric layers.
Opal is a hydrated amorphous form of silica (SiO2·nH2O); its water content may range from 3 to 21% by weight, but is usually between 6 and 10%.
Optical mineralogy is the study of minerals and rocks by measuring their optical properties.
An ore is an occurrence of rock or sediment that contains sufficient minerals with economically important elements, typically metals, that can be economically extracted from the deposit.
Organic matter, organic material, or natural organic matter (NOM) refers to the large pool of carbon-based compounds found within natural and engineered, terrestrial and aquatic environments.
Organic-rich sedimentary rocks are a specific type of sedimentary rock that contains significant amounts (>3%) of organic carbon.
An academic discipline or field of study is a branch of knowledge that is taught and researched as part of higher education.
Overburden pressure, also called lithostatic pressure, confining pressure or vertical stress, is the pressure or stress imposed on a layer of soil or rock by the weight of overlying material.
Palaeogeography (or paleogeography) is the study of historical geography, generally physical landscapes.
Paleoclimatology (in British spelling, palaeoclimatology) is the study of changes in climate taken on the scale of the entire history of Earth.
A passive margin is the transition between oceanic and continental lithosphere that is not an active plate margin.
Pedogenesis (from the Greek pedo-, or pedon, meaning 'soil, earth,' and genesis, meaning 'origin, birth') (also termed soil development, soil evolution, soil formation, and soil genesis) is the process of soil formation as regulated by the effects of place, environment, and history.
Pedology (from Greek: πέδον, pedon, "soil"; and λόγος, logos, "study") is the study of soils in their natural environment.
Permeability in fluid mechanics and the earth sciences (commonly symbolized as κ, or k) is a measure of the ability of a porous material (often, a rock or an unconsolidated material) to allow fluids to pass through it.
Permineralization is a process of fossilization in which mineral deposits form internal casts of organisms.
A petrographic microscope is a type of optical microscope used in petrology and optical mineralogy to identify rocks and minerals in thin sections.
Phosphorite, phosphate rock or rock phosphate is a non-detrital sedimentary rock which contains high amounts of phosphate minerals.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
Physical geography (also known as geosystems or physiography) is one of the two major sub-fields of geography.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
In physics and materials science, plasticity describes the deformation of a (solid) material undergoing non-reversible changes of shape in response to applied forces.
Plate tectonics (from the Late Latin tectonicus, from the τεκτονικός "pertaining to building") is a scientific theory describing the large-scale motion of seven large plates and the movements of a larger number of smaller plates of the Earth's lithosphere, since tectonic processes began on Earth between 3 and 3.5 billion years ago.
A point bar is a depositional feature made of alluvium that accumulates on the inside bend of streams and rivers below the slip-off slope.
Pore water pressure (sometimes abbreviated to pwp) refers to the pressure of groundwater held within a soil or rock, in gaps between particles (pores).
Porosity or void fraction is a measure of the void (i.e. "empty") spaces in a material, and is a fraction of the volume of voids over the total volume, between 0 and 1, or as a percentage between 0% and 100%.
Precipitation is the creation of a solid from a solution.
Prentice Hall is a major educational publisher owned by Pearson plc.
In structural geology and diagenesis, pressure solution or pressure dissolution is a deformation mechanism that involves the dissolution of minerals at grain-to-grain contacts into an aqueous pore fluid in areas of relatively high stress and either deposition in regions of relatively low stress within the same rock or their complete removal from the rock within the fluid.
The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite, also known as fool's gold, is an iron sulfide with the chemical formula FeS2 (iron(II) disulfide).
A pyroclastic flow (also known as a pyroclastic density current or a pyroclastic cloud) is a fast-moving current of hot gas and volcanic matter (collectively known as tephra) that moves away from a volcano reaching speeds of up to.
Quartz is a mineral composed of silicon and oxygen atoms in a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon–oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall chemical formula of SiO2.
Quaternary is the current and most recent of the three periods of the Cenozoic Era in the geologic time scale of the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS).
The Quaternary glaciation, also known as the Quaternary Ice Age or Pleistocene glaciation, is a series of glacial events separated by interglacial events during the Quaternary period from 2.58 Ma (million years ago) to present.
The Radiolaria, also called Radiozoa, are protozoa of diameter 0.1–0.2 mm that produce intricate mineral skeletons, typically with a central capsule dividing the cell into the inner and outer portions of endoplasm and ectoplasm.The elaborate mineral skeleton is usually made of silica.
Radiolarite is a siliceous, comparatively hard, fine-grained, chert-like, and homogeneous sedimentary rock that is composed predominantly of the microscopic remains of radiolarians.
Red beds (or redbeds) are sedimentary rocks, which typically consist of sandstone, siltstone, and shale that are predominantly red in color due to the presence of ferric oxides.
A rhythmite consists of layers of sediment or sedimentary rock which are laid down with an obvious periodicity and regularity.
In geology, a rift is a linear zone where the lithosphere is being pulled apart and is an example of extensional tectonics.
In geology, ripple marks are sedimentary structures (i.e. bedforms of the lower flow regime) and indicate agitation by water (current or waves) or wind.
A river delta is a landform that forms from deposition of sediment carried by a river as the flow leaves its mouth and enters slower-moving or stagnant water.
A road is a thoroughfare, route, or way on land between two places that has been paved or otherwise improved to allow travel by foot or some form of conveyance, including a motor vehicle, cart, bicycle, or horse.
Rock or stone is a natural substance, a solid aggregate of one or more minerals or mineraloids.
In vascular plants, the root is the organ of a plant that typically lies below the surface of the soil.
Roundness is the degree of smoothing due to abrasion of sedimentary particles.
Rudite is a general name used for a sedimentary rocks that are composed of rounded or angular detrital grains, i.e. granules, pebbles, cobbles, and boulders, which are coarser than sand in size.
Sand is a naturally occurring granular material composed of finely divided rock and mineral particles.
Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-sized (0.0625 to 2 mm) mineral particles or rock fragments.
Scavenging is both a carnivorous and a herbivorous feeding behavior in which the scavenger feeds on dead animal and plant material present in its habitat.
A sea is a large body of salt water that is surrounded in whole or in part by land.
Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average level of the surface of one or more of Earth's oceans from which heights such as elevations may be measured.
Sediment is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently transported by the action of wind, water, or ice, and/or by the force of gravity acting on the particles.
This turbidite from the Devonian Becke-Oese Sandstone of Germany is an example of a deposit from a sediment gravity flow. Note the complete Bouma sequence. A sediment gravity flow is one of several types of sediment transport mechanisms, of which most geologists recognize four principal processes.
Sediment transport is the movement of solid particles (sediment), typically due to a combination of gravity acting on the sediment, and/or the movement of the fluid in which the sediment is entrained.
Sedimentary basins are regions of Earth of long-term subsidence creating accommodation space for infilling by sediments.
Sedimentary structures are those structures formed during sediment deposition.
Sedimentation is the tendency for particles in suspension to settle out of the fluid in which they are entrained and come to rest against a barrier.
Sedimentology encompasses the study of modern sediments such as sand, silt, and clay, and the processes that result in their formation (erosion and weathering), transport, deposition and diagenesis.
Shale is a fine-grained, clastic sedimentary rock composed of mud that is a mix of flakes of clay minerals and tiny fragments (silt-sized particles) of other minerals, especially quartz and calcite.
In oceanography, geomorphology, and earth sciences, a shoal is a natural submerged ridge, bank, or bar that consists of, or is covered by, sand or other unconsolidated material, and rises from the bed of a body of water to near the surface.
Siliceous rocks are sedimentary rocks that have silica (SiO2) as the principal constituent.
Siliciclastic rocks (commonly misspelled siliclastic) are clastic noncarbonate sedimentary rocks that are almost exclusively silica-bearing, either as forms of quartz or other silicate minerals.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
Silt is granular material of a size between sand and clay, whose mineral origin is quartz and feldspar.
A slump is a form of mass wasting that occurs when a coherent mass of loosely consolidated materials or rock layers moves a short distance down a slope.
Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life.
In chemistry, a solution is a special type of homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances.
Sorting describes the distribution of grain size of sediments, either in unconsolidated deposits or in sedimentary rocks.
A sphere (from Greek σφαῖρα — sphaira, "globe, ball") is a perfectly round geometrical object in three-dimensional space that is the surface of a completely round ball (viz., analogous to the circular objects in two dimensions, where a "circle" circumscribes its "disk").
Sphericity is the measure of how closely the shape of an object approaches that of a mathematically perfect sphere.
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In geology and related fields, a stratum (plural: strata) is a layer of sedimentary rock or soil, or igneous rock that were formed at the Earth's surface, with internally consistent characteristics that distinguish it from other layers.
Structural geology is the study of the three-dimensional distribution of rock units with respect to their deformational histories.
Stylolites or styolite (Greek: stylos, pillar; lithos, stone) are serrated surfaces within a rock mass at which mineral material has been removed by pressure dissolution, in a process that decreases the total volume of rock.
Subduction is a geological process that takes place at convergent boundaries of tectonic plates where one plate moves under another and is forced or sinks due to gravity into the mantle.
The sulfate minerals are a class of minerals that include the sulfate ion (SO42−) within their structure.
Supersaturation is a state of a solution that contains more of the dissolved material than could be dissolved by the solvent under normal circumstances.
In chemistry, a suspension is a heterogeneous mixture that contains solid particles sufficiently large for sedimentation.
A swamp is a wetland that is forested.
Sylvite, or sylvine, is potassium chloride (KCl) in natural mineral form.
Tectonic subsidence is the sinking of the Earth's crust on a large scale, relative to crustal-scale features or the geoid.
Tectonic uplift is the portion of the total geologic uplift of the mean Earth surface that is not attributable to an isostatic response to unloading.
Tectonics is the process that controls the structure and properties of the Earth's crust and its evolution through time.
A textile is a flexible material consisting of a network of natural or artificial fibres (yarn or thread).
Texture (or rock microstructure) in geology refers to the relationship between the materials of which a rock is composed.
Tides are the rise and fall of sea levels caused by the combined effects of the gravitational forces exerted by the Moon and the Sun and the rotation of Earth.
Closeup of glacial till. Note that the larger grains (pebbles and gravel) in the till are completely surrounded by the matrix of finer material (silt and sand), and this characteristic, known as ''matrix support'', is diagnostic of till. Glacial till with tufts of grass Till or glacial till is unsorted glacial sediment.
In biology, tissue is a cellular organizational level between cells and a complete organ.
The Touchet Formation or Touchet beds consist of large quantities of gravel and fine sediment which overlay almost a thousand meters (several thousand feet) of volcanic basalt of the Columbia River Basalt Group in south-central Washington and north-central Oregon.
A trace fossil, also ichnofossil (ιχνος ikhnos "trace, track"), is a geological record of biological activity.
A tunnel is an underground passageway, dug through the surrounding soil/earth/rock and enclosed except for entrance and exit, commonly at each end.
A turbidite is the geologic deposit of a turbidity current, which is a type of sediment gravity flow responsible for distributing vast amounts of clastic sediment into the deep ocean.
A turbidity current is most typically an underwater current of usually rapidly moving, sediment-laden water moving down a slope.
In fluid dynamics, turbulence or turbulent flow is any pattern of fluid motion characterized by chaotic changes in pressure and flow velocity.
An unconformity is a buried erosional or non-depositional surface separating two rock masses or strata of different ages, indicating that sediment deposition was not continuous.
A varve is an annual layer of sediment or sedimentary rock.
Vascular tissue is a complex conducting tissue, formed of more than one cell type, found in vascular plants.
The terms virtuous circle and vicious circle (also referred to as virtuous cycle and vicious cycle) refer to complex chains of events that reinforce themselves through a feedback loop.
Volcanic rock (often shortened to volcanics in scientific contexts) is a rock formed from magma erupted from a volcano.
Volcanism is the phenomenon of eruption of molten rock (magma) onto the surface of the Earth or a solid-surface planet or moon, where lava, pyroclastics and volcanic gases erupt through a break in the surface called a vent.
Wadi (wādī; ואדי), alternatively wād (وَاد), is the Arabic and Hebrew term traditionally referring to a valley.
Water is a transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance that is the main constituent of Earth's streams, lakes, and oceans, and the fluids of most living organisms.
A way up structure, way up criterion, or geopetal indicator is a characteristic relationship observed in a sedimentary or volcanic rock, or sequence of rocks, that makes it possible to determine whether they are the right way up (i.e. in the attitude in which they were originally deposited, also known as "stratigraphic up") or have been overturned by subsequent deformation.
Weathering is the breaking down of rocks, soil, and minerals as well as wood and artificial materials through contact with the Earth's atmosphere, water, and biological organisms.
Wiley-Blackwell is the international scientific, technical, medical, and scholarly publishing business of John Wiley & Sons.
Wind is the flow of gases on a large scale.
In fluid dynamics, wind waves, or wind-generated waves, are surface waves that occur on the free surface of bodies of water (like oceans, seas, lakes, rivers, canals, puddles or ponds).
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