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# Sedimentation

Sedimentation is the tendency for particles in suspension to settle out of the fluid in which they are entrained and come to rest against a barrier. [1]

The term bed load or bedload describes particles in a flowing fluid (usually water) that are transported along the bed.

## Buoyancy

In physics, buoyancy or upthrust, is an upward force exerted by a fluid that opposes the weight of an immersed object.

## Cell (biology)

The cell (from Latin cella, meaning "small room") is the basic structural, functional, and biological unit of all known living organisms.

## Centrifugal force

In Newtonian mechanics, the centrifugal force is an inertial force (also called a "fictitious" or "pseudo" force) directed away from the axis of rotation that appears to act on all objects when viewed in a rotating frame of reference.

## Circular sector

A circular sector or circle sector (symbol: ⌔), is the portion of a disk enclosed by two radii and an arc, where the smaller area is known as the minor sector and the larger being the major sector.

## Climate change

Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).

## Coagulation (disambiguation)

Coagulation is the process by which blood forms clots.

## Deposition (geology)

Deposition is the geological process in which sediments, soil and rocks are added to a landform or land mass.

## Diffusion

Diffusion is the net movement of molecules or atoms from a region of high concentration (or high chemical potential) to a region of low concentration (or low chemical potential) as a result of random motion of the molecules or atoms.

## Electromagnetism

Electromagnetism is a branch of physics involving the study of the electromagnetic force, a type of physical interaction that occurs between electrically charged particles.

## Exner equation

The Exner equation is a statement of conservation of mass that applies to sediment in a fluvial system such as a river.

## Flocculation

Flocculation, in the field of chemistry, is a process wherein colloids come out of suspension in the form of floc or flake, either spontaneously or due to the addition of a clarifying agent.

## Geologic record

The geologic record in stratigraphy, paleontology and other natural sciences refers to the entirety of the layers of rock strata &mdash; deposits laid down by volcanism or by deposition of sediment derived from weathering detritus (clays, sands etc.) including all its fossil content and the information it yields about the history of the Earth: its past climate, geography, geology and the evolution of life on its surface.

## Geology

Geology (from the Ancient Greek γῆ, gē, i.e. "earth" and -λoγία, -logia, i.e. "study of, discourse") is an earth science concerned with the solid Earth, the rocks of which it is composed, and the processes by which they change over time.

## Gravity

Gravity, or gravitation, is a natural phenomenon by which all things with mass or energy—including planets, stars, galaxies, and even light—are brought toward (or gravitate toward) one another.

## Lamm equation

The Lamm equation describes the sedimentation and diffusion of a solute under ultracentrifugation in traditional sector-shaped cells.

## Landform

A landform is a natural feature of the solid surface of the Earth or other planetary body.

## Macromolecule

A macromolecule is a very large molecule, such as protein, commonly created by the polymerization of smaller subunits (monomers).

## Mason–Weaver equation

The Mason–Weaver equation (named after Max Mason and Warren Weaver) describes the sedimentation and diffusion of solutes under a uniform force, usually a gravitational field.

## Molecule

A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atoms held together by chemical bonds.

## Particle (ecology)

In marine and freshwater ecology, a particle is a small object.

## Peptide

Peptides (from Gr.: πεπτός, peptós "digested"; derived from πέσσειν, péssein "to digest") are short chains of amino acid monomers linked by peptide (amide) bonds.

## Protein

Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.

## Reynolds number

The Reynolds number is an important dimensionless quantity in fluid mechanics used to help predict flow patterns in different fluid flow situations.

## Saltation (geology)

In geology, saltation (from Latin saltus, "leap") is a specific type of particle transport by fluids such as wind or water.

## Sediment

Sediment is a naturally occurring material that is broken down by processes of weathering and erosion, and is subsequently transported by the action of wind, water, or ice, and/or by the force of gravity acting on the particles.

## Sediment transport

Sediment transport is the movement of solid particles (sediment), typically due to a combination of gravity acting on the sediment, and/or the movement of the fluid in which the sediment is entrained.

## Sedimentary rock

Sedimentary rocks are types of rock that are formed by the deposition and subsequent cementation of that material at the Earth's surface and within bodies of water.

## Sedimentation coefficient

The sedimentation coefficient s of a particle is used to characterize its behaviour in sedimentation processes, notably centrifugation.

## Sedimentation equilibrium

Sedimentation equilibrium in a solution or suspension of different particles, such as molecules, exists when the rate of transport of each material in any one direction due to sedimentation equals the rate of transport in the opposite direction due to diffusion.

## Settling

Settling is the process by which particulates settle to the bottom of a liquid and form a sediment.

## Siltation

Siltation or siltification is the pollution of water by particulate terrestrial clastic material, with a particle size dominated by silt or clay.

## Solution

In chemistry, a solution is a special type of homogeneous mixture composed of two or more substances.

## Stokes flow

Stokes flow (named after George Gabriel Stokes), also named creeping flow or creeping motion,Kim, S. &amp; Karrila, S. J. (2005) Microhydrodynamics: Principles and Selected Applications, Dover.

## Suspension (chemistry)

In chemistry, a suspension is a heterogeneous mixture that contains solid particles sufficiently large for sedimentation.

## Terminal velocity

Terminal velocity is the highest velocity attainable by an object as it falls through a fluid (air is the most common example).

## Ultracentrifuge

The ultracentrifuge is a centrifuge optimized for spinning a rotor at very high speeds, capable of generating acceleration as high as (approx.). There are two kinds of ultracentrifuges, the preparative and the analytical ultracentrifuge.

## References

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