265 relations: Abrus precatorius, Abscisic acid, Acacia, Acaena, Acorn, Aesculus, Aleurone, Allah, Almond, Amino acid, Amygdalin, Anacardiaceae, Animal, Annona, Annonaceae, Annual plant, Ant, Apiaceae, Apple, Apricot, Arabidopsis, Arctium, Arecaceae, Argentine ant, Aril, Asarum, Asclepias, Bead, Bean, Belgium, Bet hedging (biology), Biological dispersal, Bird, Bird food, Book of Genesis, Bur, Canna (plant), Carbon-14, Castor oil, Cereal, Chemical compound, Cherry, Climate, Clusia, Coconut, Coffee bean, Conifer cone, Conkers, Convolvulaceae, Cooking, ..., Cooking oil, Cork (material), Corydalis, Cotton, Cottonseed meal, Cotyledon, Crambe, Croton (plant), Cucurbita, Custard apple, Cyanide poisoning, Cycas, Date palm, Datura, Dehiscence (botany), Delphinium, Devonian, Dicotyledon, Digestion, Dioclea (plant), DNA repair, Dormancy, Double fertilization, Dough, Drink, Drupe, Durian, Ecological niche, Egg cell, Egg white, Elaiosome, Elasticity (physics), Embryo, Endosperm, Evolution of seed size, Fabaceae, Famennian, Feces, Fern, Fertilisation, Fertilizer, Fiber, Fish, Flowering plant, Food additive, Forest, Forestry, Fossil, Fruit, Genetically modified crops, Germination, Givetian, Gluten, God, Gossypium, Grassland, Gymnosperm, Hazel, Hazelnut, Helianthus, Herbivore, Herod the Great, Hilum (biology), Holly, Homology (biology), Honey locust, Human digestive system, Husk, Integument, Invasive species, Israel, Job's tears, Jojoba, Judean date palm, Juniper, Kapok tree, King James Version, Laburnum, Lawn, Lectin, Legume, Ligase, Light, Lignin, Liliaceae, Linseed oil, List of largest seeds, Livestock, Locoweed, Lodoicea, Lychee, Magnoliaceae, Maize, Malvaceae, Mammal, Mangrove, Maple, Marchantiophyta, Masada, Melia azedarach, Microorganism, Mimetes cucullatus, Monocotyledon, Moss, Mucuna, Mustard (condiment), Mutualism (biology), Myco-heterotrophy, Mycorrhiza, Myrmecochory, Natural selection, Nematicide, Nut (fruit), Nutmeg, Nutrient, Oak, Oldest viable seed, Orchidaceae, Ovule, Papaveraceae, Pasture, Pea, Peach, Peanut, Permafrost, Permeability (earth sciences), Phaseolus vulgaris, Phenotype, Pine, Pinophyta, Pinus echinata, Pinus taeda, Placentation, Plant, Plant development, Plant embryogenesis, Ploidy, Plum, Poaceae, Pollen, Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase, Polyploid, Pomegranate, Poppy, Populus, Potato, Proteaceae, Protein, Quince, Quran, Radicle, Radish, Rain, Rambutan, Ranunculaceae, Recalcitrant seed, Reproduction, Reptile, Ricin, Ricinus, Rumex, Rye, Sanguinaria, Sarcotesta, Sclereid, Scutellum (botany), Seed company, Seed dormancy, Seed enhancement, Seed library, Seed orchard, Seed paper, Seed predation, Seed saving, Seed testing, Seed trap, Seedbed, Seedling, Sexual reproduction, Siberia, Silene stenophylla, Snow, Soil seed bank, Soursop, South Africa, Sowing, Soybean, Spermatophyte, Sphere, Spice, Sporangium, Spruce, Starch, Stratification (seeds), Strychnine, Strychnos nux-vomica, Sugar-apple, Sunflower seed, Tannin, Taraxacum, Taxus, Tea tree oil, Trillium, Trypsin, Trypsin inhibitor, Tuber, Vegetable oil, Vegetative reproduction, Vicia faba, Walnut, Weighing scale, West Virginia, Whale oil, Wisteria, Zygote. Expand index (215 more) » « Shrink index
Abrus precatorius, known commonly as jequirity, Crab's eye, or crab's eye creeper, cock's eyes, rosary pea, paternoster pea, love pea, precatory pea or bean, prayer bead, John Crow Bead, coral bead, red-bead vine, country licorice, Indian licorice, wild licorice, Jamaica wild licorice, Akar Saga, coondrimany, gidee gidee, Jumbie beadMendes (1986), p. 79.
Abscisic acid (ABA) is a plant hormone.
Acacia, commonly known as the wattles or acacias, is a large genus of shrubs and trees in the subfamily Mimosoideae of the pea family Fabaceae.
Acaena is a genus of about 100 species of mainly evergreen, creeping herbaceous perennial plants and subshrubs in the family Rosaceae, native mainly to the Southern Hemisphere, notably New Zealand, Australia and South America, but with a few species extending into the Northern Hemisphere, north to Hawaii (A. exigua) and California (A. pinnatifida).
The acorn, or oak nut, is the nut of the oaks and their close relatives (genera Quercus and Lithocarpus, in the family Fagaceae).
The genus Aesculus, with varieties called buckeye and horse chestnut, comprises 13–19 species of flowering plants in the soapberry and lychee family Sapindaceae.
Aleurone (from Greek aleuron, flour) is a protein found in protein granules of maturing seeds and tubers.
Allah (translit) is the Arabic word for God in Abrahamic religions.
The almond (Prunus dulcis, syn. Prunus amygdalus) is a species of tree native to Mediterranean climate regions of the Middle East, from Syria and Turkey to India and Pakistan, although it has been introduced elsewhere.
Amino acids are organic compounds containing amine (-NH2) and carboxyl (-COOH) functional groups, along with a side chain (R group) specific to each amino acid.
Amygdalin (from Ancient Greek: ἀμυγδαλή amygdálē "almond") is a naturally occurring chemical compound, famous for falsely being promoted as a cancer cure.
The Anacardiaceae, commonly known as the cashew family or sumac family, are a family of flowering plants, including about 83 genera with about 860 known species.
Animals are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the biological kingdom Animalia.
Annona (from Taíno annon) is a genus of flowering plants in the pawpaw/sugar apple family, Annonaceae.
The Annonaceae are a family, the custard apple family, of flowering plants consisting of trees, shrubs, or rarely lianas.
An annual plant is a plant that completes its life cycle, from germination to the production of seeds, within one year, and then dies.
Ants are eusocial insects of the family Formicidae and, along with the related wasps and bees, belong to the order Hymenoptera.
Apiaceae or Umbelliferae, is a family of mostly aromatic flowering plants named after the type genus Apium and commonly known as the celery, carrot or parsley family, or simply as umbellifers.
An apple is a sweet, edible fruit produced by an apple tree (Malus pumila).
An apricot is a fruit, or the tree that bears the fruit, of several species in the genus Prunus (stone fruits).
Arabidopsis (rockcress) is a genus in the family Brassicaceae.
Arctium is a genus of biennial plants commonly known as burdock, family Asteraceae.
The Arecaceae are a botanical family of perennial trees, climbers, shrubs, and acaules commonly known as palm trees (owing to historical usage, the family is alternatively called Palmae).
The Argentine ant (Linepithema humile), formerly Iridomyrmex humilis, is an ant native to northern Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay, Bolivia and southern Brazil.
An aril (pronounced), also called an arillus, is a specialized outgrowth from a seed that partly or completely covers the seed.
Asarum is a genus of plants in the birthwort family Aristolochiaceae, commonly known as wild ginger.
Asclepias L. (1753), the milkweeds, is an American genus of herbaceous perennial, dicotyledonous plants that contains over 140 known species.
A bead is a small, decorative object that is formed in a variety of shapes and sizes of a material such as stone, bone, shell, glass, plastic, wood or pearl and with a small hole for threading or stringing.
A bean is a seed of one of several genera of the flowering plant family Fabaceae, which are used for human or animal food.
Belgium, officially the Kingdom of Belgium, is a country in Western Europe bordered by France, the Netherlands, Germany and Luxembourg.
Biological bet hedging occurs when organisms suffer decreased fitness in their typical conditions in exchange for increased fitness in stressful conditions.
Biological dispersal refers to both the movement of individuals (animals, plants, fungi, bacteria, etc.) from their birth site to their breeding site ('natal dispersal'), as well as the movement from one breeding site to another ('breeding dispersal').
Birds, also known as Aves, are a group of endothermic vertebrates, characterised by feathers, toothless beaked jaws, the laying of hard-shelled eggs, a high metabolic rate, a four-chambered heart, and a strong yet lightweight skeleton.
Bird food is food (often varieties of seeds, nuts, or dried fruits) eaten by birds.
The Book of Genesis (from the Latin Vulgate, in turn borrowed or transliterated from Greek "", meaning "Origin"; בְּרֵאשִׁית, "Bərēšīṯ", "In beginning") is the first book of the Hebrew Bible (the Tanakh) and the Old Testament.
A bur (also spelled burr) is a seed or dry fruit or infructescence that has hooks or teeth.
Canna (or canna lily, although not a true lily) is a genus of 10 species of flowering plants.
Carbon-14, 14C, or radiocarbon, is a radioactive isotope of carbon with an atomic nucleus containing 6 protons and 8 neutrons.
Castor oil is a vegetable oil obtained by pressing the seeds of the castor oil plant (Ricinus communis).
A cereal is any edible components of the grain (botanically, a type of fruit called a caryopsis) of cultivated grass, composed of the endosperm, germ, and bran.
A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one element held together by chemical bonds.
A cherry is the fruit of many plants of the genus Prunus, and is a fleshy drupe (stone fruit).
Climate is the statistics of weather over long periods of time.
Clusia is the type genus of the flowering plant family Clusiaceae.
The coconut tree (Cocos nucifera) is a member of the family Arecaceae (palm family) and the only species of the genus Cocos.
A coffee bean is a seed of the coffee plant and the source for coffee.
A cone (in formal botanical usage: strobilus, plural strobili) is an organ on plants in the division Pinophyta (conifers) that contains the reproductive structures.
Conkers is a traditional children's game in Britain and Ireland played using the seeds of horse chestnut trees—the name 'conker' is also applied to the seed and to the tree itself.
Convolvulaceae, known commonly as the bindweed or morning glory family, is a family of about 60 genera and more than 1,650 species of mostly herbaceous vines, but also trees, shrubs and herbs.
Cooking or cookery is the art, technology, science and craft of preparing food for consumption.
Cooking oil is plant, animal, or synthetic fat used in frying, baking, and other types of cooking.
Cork is an impermeable buoyant material, the phellem layer of bark tissue that is harvested for commercial use primarily from Quercus suber (the cork oak), which is endemic to southwest Europe and northwest Africa.
Corydalis (Greek korydalís "crested lark") is a genus of about 470 species of annual and perennial herbaceous plants in the Papaveraceae family, native to the temperate Northern Hemisphere and the high mountains of tropical eastern Africa.
Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber that grows in a boll, or protective case, around the seeds of the cotton plants of the genus Gossypium in the mallow family Malvaceae.
Cottonseed meal is the byproduct remaining after cotton is ginned and the seeds crushed and the oil extracted.
A cotyledon ("seed leaf" from Latin cotyledon, from Greek: κοτυληδών kotylēdōn, gen.: κοτυληδόνος kotylēdonos, from κοτύλη ''kotýlē'' "cup, bowl") is a significant part of the embryo within the seed of a plant, and is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as "The primary leaf in the embryo of the higher plants (Phanerogams); the seed-leaf." Upon germination, the cotyledon may become the embryonic first leaves of a seedling.
Crambe is a genus of about 20 species of annual and perennial flowering plants in the cabbage family Brassicaceae, native to a variety of habitats in Europe, Turkey, southwest and central Asia and eastern Africa.
Croton is an extensive flowering plant genus in the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae.
Cucurbita (Latin for gourd) is a genus of herbaceous vines in the gourd family, Cucurbitaceae, also known as cucurbits, native to the Andes and Mesoamerica.
Custard apple is a common name for a fruit, and the tree which bears it, Annona reticulata. Custard apple may also refer to similar fruits produced by related trees: रामफल Ramphal Custard-apple - India.
Cyanide poisoning is poisoning that results from exposure to a number of forms of cyanide.
Cycas is the type genus and the only genus recognised in the family Cycadaceae.
Phoenix dactylifera, commonly known as date or date palm, is a flowering plant species in the palm family, Arecaceae, cultivated for its edible sweet fruit.
Datura is a genus of nine species of poisonous vespertine flowering plants belonging to the family Solanaceae.
Dehiscence is the splitting along a built-in line of weakness in a plant structure in order to release its contents, and is common among fruits, anthers and sporangia.
Delphinium is a genus of about 300 species of perennial flowering plants in the family Ranunculaceae, native throughout the Northern Hemisphere and also on the high mountains of tropical Africa.
The Devonian is a geologic period and system of the Paleozoic, spanning 60 million years from the end of the Silurian, million years ago (Mya), to the beginning of the Carboniferous, Mya.
The dicotyledons, also known as dicots (or more rarely dicotyls), are one of the two groups into which all the flowering plants or angiosperms were formerly divided.
Digestion is the breakdown of large insoluble food molecules into small water-soluble food molecules so that they can be absorbed into the watery blood plasma.
Dioclea is a genus of flowering plants in the pea family, Fabaceae, that is native to the Americas.
DNA repair is a collection of processes by which a cell identifies and corrects damage to the DNA molecules that encode its genome.
Dormancy is a period in an organism's life cycle when growth, development, and (in animals) physical activity are temporarily stopped.
Double fertilization is a complex fertilization mechanism of flowering plants (angiosperms).
Dough is a thick, malleable, sometimes elastic, paste made out of any grains, leguminous or chestnut crops.
A drink or beverage is a liquid intended for human consumption.
In botany, a drupe (or stone fruit) is an indehiscent fruit in which an outer fleshy part (exocarp, or skin; and mesocarp, or flesh) surrounds a single shell (the pit, stone, or pyrene) of hardened endocarp with a seed (kernel) inside.
The durian is the fruit of several tree species belonging to the genus Durio.
In ecology, a niche (CanE, or) is the fit of a species living under specific environmental conditions.
The egg cell, or ovum (plural ova), is the female reproductive cell (gamete) in oogamous organisms.
Egg white is the clear liquid (also called the albumen or the glair/glaire) contained within an egg.
Elaiosomes (Greek élaion "oil" and sóma "body") are fleshy structures that are attached to the seeds of many plant species.
In physics, elasticity (from Greek ἐλαστός "ductible") is the ability of a body to resist a distorting influence and to return to its original size and shape when that influence or force is removed.
An embryo is an early stage of development of a multicellular diploid eukaryotic organism.
The endosperm is the tissue produced inside the seeds of most of the flowering plants following fertilization.
The first seeded plants emerged in the late Devonian 370 million years ago.
The Fabaceae or Leguminosae, Article 18.5 states: "The following names, of long usage, are treated as validly published:....Leguminosae (nom. alt.: Fabaceae; type: Faba Mill.);...
The Famennian is the latter of two faunal stages in the Late Devonian epoch.
Feces (or faeces) are the solid or semisolid remains of the food that could not be digested in the small intestine.
A fern is a member of a group of vascular plants that reproduce via spores and have neither seeds nor flowers.
Fertilisation or fertilization (see spelling differences), also known as generative fertilisation, conception, fecundation, syngamy and impregnation, is the fusion of gametes to initiate the development of a new individual organism.
A fertilizer (American English) or fertiliser (British English; see spelling differences) is any material of natural or synthetic origin (other than liming materials) that is applied to soils or to plant tissues to supply one or more plant nutrients essential to the growth of plants.
Fiber or fibre (see spelling differences, from the Latin fibra) is a natural or synthetic substance that is significantly longer than it is wide.
Fish are gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits.
The flowering plants, also known as angiosperms, Angiospermae or Magnoliophyta, are the most diverse group of land plants, with 416 families, approximately 13,164 known genera and c. 295,383 known species.
Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or enhance its taste, appearance, or other qualities.
A forest is a large area dominated by trees.
Forestry is the science and craft of creating, managing, using, conserving, and repairing forests, woodlands, and associated resources to meet desired goals, needs, and values for human and environment benefits.
A fossil (from Classical Latin fossilis; literally, "obtained by digging") is any preserved remains, impression, or trace of any once-living thing from a past geological age.
In botany, a fruit is the seed-bearing structure in flowering plants (also known as angiosperms) formed from the ovary after flowering.
Genetically modified crops (GMCs, GM crops, or biotech crops) are plants used in agriculture, the DNA of which has been modified using genetic engineering methods.
Germination is the process by which an organism grows from a seed or similar structure.
The Givetian is one of two faunal stages in the Middle Devonian period.
Gluten (from Latin gluten, "glue") is a composite of storage proteins termed prolamins and glutelins and stored together with starch in the endosperm (which nourishes the embryonic plant during germination) of various cereal (grass) grains.
In monotheistic thought, God is conceived of as the Supreme Being and the principal object of faith.
Gossypium is a genus of flowering plants in the tribe Gossypieae of the mallow family, Malvaceae from which cotton is harvested.
Grasslands are areas where the vegetation is dominated by grasses (Poaceae); however, sedge (Cyperaceae) and rush (Juncaceae) families can also be found along with variable proportions of legumes, like clover, and other herbs.
The gymnosperms are a group of seed-producing plants that includes conifers, cycads, Ginkgo, and gnetophytes.
The hazel (Corylus) is a genus of deciduous trees and large shrubs native to the temperate Northern Hemisphere.
The hazelnut is the nut of the hazel and therefore includes any of the nuts deriving from species of the genus Corylus, especially the nuts of the species Corylus avellana.
Helianthus or sunflower is a genus of plants comprising about 70 species Flora of North America.
A herbivore is an animal anatomically and physiologically adapted to eating plant material, for example foliage, for the main component of its diet.
Herod (Greek:, Hērōdēs; 74/73 BCE – c. 4 BCE/1 CE), also known as Herod the Great and Herod I, was a Roman client king of Judea, referred to as the Herodian kingdom.
In botany, a hilum (pronounced) is a scar or mark left on a seed coat by the former attachment to the ovary wall or to the funiculus (which in turn attaches to the ovary wall).
Ilex, or holly, is a genus of 400 to 600 species of flowering plants in the family Aquifoliaceae, and the only living genus in that family.
In biology, homology is the existence of shared ancestry between a pair of structures, or genes, in different taxa.
The honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos) also known as the thorny locust, is a deciduous tree in the Fabaceae family, native to central North America where it is mostly found in the moist soil of river valleys ranging from southeastern South Dakota to New Orleans and central Texas, and as far east as eastern Massachusetts.
The human digestive system consists of the gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion (the tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder).
Husk (or hull) in botany is the outer shell or coating of a seed.
In biology, integument is the natural covering of an organism or an organ, such as its skin, husk, shell, or rind.
An invasive species is a species that is not native to a specific location (an introduced species), and that has a tendency to spread to a degree believed to cause damage to the environment, human economy or human health.
Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in the Middle East, on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea.
Job's tears (US) or Job's-tears (UK), scientific name Coix lacryma-jobi, also known as adlay or adlay millet, is a tall grain-bearing perennial tropical plant of the family Poaceae (grass family).
Jojoba, with the botanical name Simmondsia chinensis, and also known as goat nut, deer nut, pignut, wild hazel, quinine nut, coffeeberry, and gray box bush, is native to Southwestern North America.
The Judean date palm is a date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) grown in Judea.
Junipers are coniferous plants in the genus Juniperus of the cypress family Cupressaceae.
Kapok tree can refer to several plants with seeds that grow long hairs.
The King James Version (KJV), also known as the King James Bible (KJB) or simply the Version (AV), is an English translation of the Christian Bible for the Church of England, begun in 1604 and completed in 1611.
Laburnum, sometimes called golden chain or golden rain, is a genus of two species of small trees in the subfamily Faboideae of the pea family Fabaceae.
A lawn is an area of soil-covered land planted with grasses and other durable plants such as clover which are maintained at a short height with a lawnmower and used for aesthetic and recreational purposes.
Lectins are carbohydrate-binding proteins, macromolecules that are highly specific for sugar moieties of other molecules.
A legume is a plant or its fruit or seed in the family Fabaceae (or Leguminosae).
In biochemistry, a ligase is an enzyme that can catalyze the joining of two large molecules by forming a new chemical bond, usually with accompanying hydrolysis of a small pendant chemical group on one of the larger molecules or the enzyme catalyzing the linking together of two compounds, e.g., enzymes that catalyze joining of C-O, C-S, C-N, etc.
Light is electromagnetic radiation within a certain portion of the electromagnetic spectrum.
Lignin is a class of complex organic polymers that form important structural materials in the support tissues of vascular plants and some algae. Lignins are particularly important in the formation of cell walls, especially in wood and bark, because they lend rigidity and do not rot easily. Chemically, lignins are cross-linked phenolic polymers.
The lily family, Liliaceae, consists of fifteen genera and about 705 known species (Christenhusz & Byng 2016) of flowering plants within the order Liliales.
Linseed oil, also known as flaxseed oil or flax oil, is a colourless to yellowish oil obtained from the dried, ripened seeds of the flax plant (Linum usitatissimum).
The largest seed in the world is the coco de mer, the seed of a palm tree.
Livestock are domesticated animals raised in an agricultural setting to produce labor and commodities such as meat, eggs, milk, fur, leather, and wool.
Locoweed (also crazyweed and loco) is a common name in North America for any plant that produces swainsonine, a phytotoxin harmful to livestock.
Lodoicea, commonly known as the sea coconut, coco de mer, or double coconut, is a monotypic genus in the palm family.
Lychee (variously spelled litchi, liechee, liche, lizhi or li zhi, or lichee) (Litchi chinensis) is the sole member of the genus Litchi in the soapberry family, Sapindaceae.
The Magnoliaceae are a flowering plant family, the magnolia family, in the order Magnoliales.
Maize (Zea mays subsp. mays, from maíz after Taíno mahiz), also known as corn, is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples in southern Mexico about 10,000 years ago.
Malvaceae, or the mallows, is a family of flowering plants estimated to contain 244 genera with 4225 known species.
Mammals are the vertebrates within the class Mammalia (from Latin mamma "breast"), a clade of endothermic amniotes distinguished from reptiles (including birds) by the possession of a neocortex (a region of the brain), hair, three middle ear bones, and mammary glands.
A mangrove is a shrub or small tree that grows in coastal saline or brackish water.
Acer is a genus of trees or shrubs commonly known as maple.
The Marchantiophyta are a division of non-vascular land plants commonly referred to as hepatics or liverworts.
Masada (מצדה, "fortress") is an ancient fortification in the Southern District of Israel situated on top of an isolated rock plateau, akin to a mesa.
Melia azedarach, commonly known by many names, including chinaberry tree, Pride of India, bead-tree, Cape lilac, syringa berrytree, Persian lilac, and Indian lilac, is a species of deciduous tree in the mahogany family, Meliaceae, that is native to Indomalaya and Australasia.
A microorganism, or microbe, is a microscopic organism, which may exist in its single-celled form or in a colony of cells. The possible existence of unseen microbial life was suspected from ancient times, such as in Jain scriptures from 6th century BC India and the 1st century BC book On Agriculture by Marcus Terentius Varro. Microbiology, the scientific study of microorganisms, began with their observation under the microscope in the 1670s by Antonie van Leeuwenhoek. In the 1850s, Louis Pasteur found that microorganisms caused food spoilage, debunking the theory of spontaneous generation. In the 1880s Robert Koch discovered that microorganisms caused the diseases tuberculosis, cholera and anthrax. Microorganisms include all unicellular organisms and so are extremely diverse. Of the three domains of life identified by Carl Woese, all of the Archaea and Bacteria are microorganisms. These were previously grouped together in the two domain system as Prokaryotes, the other being the eukaryotes. The third domain Eukaryota includes all multicellular organisms and many unicellular protists and protozoans. Some protists are related to animals and some to green plants. Many of the multicellular organisms are microscopic, namely micro-animals, some fungi and some algae, but these are not discussed here. They live in almost every habitat from the poles to the equator, deserts, geysers, rocks and the deep sea. Some are adapted to extremes such as very hot or very cold conditions, others to high pressure and a few such as Deinococcus radiodurans to high radiation environments. Microorganisms also make up the microbiota found in and on all multicellular organisms. A December 2017 report stated that 3.45 billion year old Australian rocks once contained microorganisms, the earliest direct evidence of life on Earth. Microbes are important in human culture and health in many ways, serving to ferment foods, treat sewage, produce fuel, enzymes and other bioactive compounds. They are essential tools in biology as model organisms and have been put to use in biological warfare and bioterrorism. They are a vital component of fertile soils. In the human body microorganisms make up the human microbiota including the essential gut flora. They are the pathogens responsible for many infectious diseases and as such are the target of hygiene measures.
Mimetes cucullatus is a species of plant in the family Proteaceae.
Monocotyledons, commonly referred to as monocots, (Lilianae sensu Chase & Reveal) are flowering plants (angiosperms) whose seeds typically contain only one embryonic leaf, or cotyledon.
Mosses are small flowerless plants that typically grow in dense green clumps or mats, often in damp or shady locations.
Mucuna is a genus of around 100 accepted species of climbing lianas (vines) and shrubs of the family Fabaceae and typically found in tropical woodlands.
Mustard is a condiment made from the seeds of a mustard plant (white/ yellow mustard, Sinapis alba; brown/ Indian mustard, Brassica juncea; or black mustard, Brassica nigra).
Mutualism or interspecific cooperation is the way two organisms of different species exist in a relationship in which each individual benefits from the activity of the other.
Myco-heterotrophy (from Greek μύκης mykes, "fungus", ἕτερος heteros, "another", "different" and τροφή trophe, "nutrition") is a symbiotic relationship between certain kinds of plants and fungi, in which the plant gets all or part of its food from parasitism upon fungi rather than from photosynthesis.
A mycorrhiza (from Greek μύκης mýkēs, "fungus", and ῥίζα rhiza, "root"; pl. mycorrhizae, mycorrhiza or mycorrhizas) is a symbiotic association between a fungus and the roots of a vascular host plant.
Myrmecochory ((sometimes myrmechory); from mýrmēks and χορεία khoreíā "circular dance") is seed dispersal by ants, an ecologically significant ant-plant interaction with worldwide distribution.
Natural selection is the differential survival and reproduction of individuals due to differences in phenotype.
A nematicide is a type of chemical pesticide used to kill plant-parasitic nematodes.
A nut is a fruit composed of an inedible hard shell and a seed, which is generally edible.
Nutmeg is the seed or ground spice of several species of the genus Myristica.
A nutrient is a substance used by an organism to survive, grow, and reproduce.
An oak is a tree or shrub in the genus Quercus (Latin "oak tree") of the beech family, Fagaceae.
There are several candidates for the oldest viable seed.
The Orchidaceae are a diverse and widespread family of flowering plants, with blooms that are often colourful and fragrant, commonly known as the orchid family.
In seed plants, the ovule is the structure that gives rise to and contains the female reproductive cells.
The Papaveraceae are an economically important family of about 42 genera and approximately 775 known species of flowering plants in the order Ranunculales, informally known as the poppy family.
Pasture (from the Latin pastus, past participle of pascere, "to feed") is land used for grazing.
The pea is most commonly the small spherical seed or the seed-pod of the pod fruit Pisum sativum.
The peach (Prunus persica) is a deciduous tree native to the region of Northwest China between the Tarim Basin and the north slopes of the Kunlun Mountains, where it was first domesticated and cultivated.
The peanut, also known as the groundnut or the goober and taxonomically classified as Arachis hypogaea, is a legume crop grown mainly for its edible seeds.
In geology, permafrost is ground, including rock or (cryotic) soil, at or below the freezing point of water for two or more years.
Permeability in fluid mechanics and the earth sciences (commonly symbolized as κ, or k) is a measure of the ability of a porous material (often, a rock or an unconsolidated material) to allow fluids to pass through it.
Phaseolus vulgaris, also known as the common bean and green bean, among other names, is a herbaceous annual plant grown worldwide for its edible dry seeds or unripe fruit (both commonly called beans).
A phenotype is the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits, such as its morphology, development, biochemical or physiological properties, behavior, and products of behavior (such as a bird's nest).
A pine is any conifer in the genus Pinus,, of the family Pinaceae.
The Pinophyta, also known as Coniferophyta or Coniferae, or commonly as conifers, are a division of vascular land plants containing a single extant class, Pinopsida.
Pinus echinata, the shortleaf pine, is a species of pine native to the eastern United States from southernmost New York State, south to northern Florida, west to eastern Oklahoma, and southwest to eastern Texas.
Pinus taeda, commonly known as loblolly pine, is one of several pines native to the Southeastern United States, from central Texas east to Florida, and north to Delaware and southern New Jersey.
In biology, placentation refers to the formation, type and structure, or arrangement of the placenta.
Plants are mainly multicellular, predominantly photosynthetic eukaryotes of the kingdom Plantae.
Plants produce new tissues and structures throughout their life from meristems located at the tips of organs, or between mature tissues.
Plant embryogenesis is a process that occurs after the fertilization of an ovule to produce a fully developed plant embryo.
Ploidy is the number of complete sets of chromosomes in a cell, and hence the number of possible alleles for autosomal and pseudoautosomal genes.
A plum is a fruit of the subgenus Prunus of the genus Prunus. The subgenus is distinguished from other subgenera (peaches, cherries, bird cherries, etc.) in the shoots having terminal bud and solitary side buds (not clustered), the flowers in groups of one to five together on short stems, and the fruit having a groove running down one side and a smooth stone (or pit).
Poaceae or Gramineae is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses, commonly referred to collectively as grass.
Pollen is a fine to coarse powdery substance comprising pollen grains which are male microgametophytes of seed plants, which produce male gametes (sperm cells).
Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) is a family of proteins involved in a number of cellular processes such as DNA repair, genomic stability, and programmed cell death.
Polyploid cells and organisms are those containing more than two paired (homologous) sets of chromosomes.
The pomegranate (Punica granatum) is a fruit-bearing deciduous shrub or small tree in the family Lythraceae that grows between tall.
A poppy is a flowering plant in the subfamily Papaveroideae of the family Papaveraceae.
Populus is a genus of 25–35 species of deciduous flowering plants in the family Salicaceae, native to most of the Northern Hemisphere.
The potato is a starchy, tuberous crop from the perennial nightshade Solanum tuberosum.
The Proteaceae are a family of flowering plants predominantly distributed in the Southern Hemisphere.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
The quince (Cydonia oblonga) is the sole member of the genus Cydonia in the family Rosaceae (which also contains apples and pears, among other fruits).
The Quran (القرآن, literally meaning "the recitation"; also romanized Qur'an or Koran) is the central religious text of Islam, which Muslims believe to be a revelation from God (Allah).
In botany, the radicle is the first part of a seedling (a growing plant embryo) to emerge from the seed during the process of germination.
The radish (Raphanus raphanistrum subsp. sativus) is an edible root vegetable of the Brassicaceae family that was domesticated in Europe in pre-Roman times.
Rain is liquid water in the form of droplets that have condensed from atmospheric water vapor and then becomes heavy enough to fall under gravity.
The rambutan (taxonomic name: Nephelium lappaceum) is a medium-sized tropical tree in the family Sapindaceae.
Ranunculaceae (buttercup or crowfoot family; Latin rānunculus "little frog", from rāna "frog") is a family of over 2,000 known species of flowering plants in 43 genera, distributed worldwide.
Recalcitrant seeds (subsequently known as unorthodox seeds) are seeds that do not survive drying and freezing during ex-situ conservation and vice versa.
Reproduction (or procreation or breeding) is the biological process by which new individual organisms – "offspring" – are produced from their "parents".
Reptiles are tetrapod animals in the class Reptilia, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, amphisbaenians, lizards, tuatara, and their extinct relatives.
Ricin, a lectin (a carbohydrate-binding protein) produced in the seeds of the castor oil plant, Ricinus communis, is a highly potent toxin.
Ricinus communis, the castor bean or castor oil plant, is a species of perennial flowering plant in the spurge family, Euphorbiaceae.
The docks and sorrels, genus Rumex L., are a genus of about 200 species of annual, biennial, and perennial herbs in the buckwheat family Polygonaceae.
Rye (Secale cereale) is a grass grown extensively as a grain, a cover crop and a forage crop.
Sanguinaria canadensis (bloodroot) is a perennial, herbaceous flowering plant native to eastern North America.
The sarcotesta is a fleshy seedcoat, a type of testa.
Sclereids are a reduced form of sclerenchyma cells with highly thickened, lignified cellular walls that form small bundles of durable layers of tissue in most plants.
The scutellum is part of the structure of a barley and rice seed—the modified seed leaf.
Seed companies produce and sell seeds for flowers, fruit and vegetables to the amateur gardener.
A dormant seed is one that is unable to germinate in a specified period of time under a combination of environmental factors that are normally suitable for the germination of the non-dormant seed.
Seed enhancement is a range of treatments of seeds that improves their performance after harvesting and conditioned, but before they are sown.
A seed library is an institution that lends or shares seed.
A seed orchard is an intensively-managed plantation of specifically arranged trees for the mass production of genetically improved seeds to create plants, or seeds for the establishment of new forests.
Seed paper is a type of handmade paper that includes any number of different plant seeds.
Seed predation, often referred to as granivory, is a type of plant-animal interaction in which granivores (seed predators) feed on the seeds of plants as a main or exclusive food source,Hulme, P.E. and Benkman, C.W. (2002) "Granivory", pp.
In agriculture and gardening, seed saving (sometimes known as brown bagging) is the practice of saving seeds or other reproductive material (e.g. tubers) from vegetables, grain, herbs, and flowers for use from year to year for annuals and nuts, tree fruits, and berries for perennials and trees.
Seed testing is performed for a number of reasons, including research purposes or to determine if seed storage techniques are functioning.
Seed traps are used in ecology and forestry to capture seeds falling from plants, allowing seed production and dispersal to be quantified.
A seedbed or seedling bed is the local soil environment in which seeds are planted.
A seedling is a young plant sporophyte developing out of a plant embryo from a seed.
Sexual reproduction is a form of reproduction where two morphologically distinct types of specialized reproductive cells called gametes fuse together, involving a female's large ovum (or egg) and a male's smaller sperm.
Siberia (a) is an extensive geographical region, and by the broadest definition is also known as North Asia.
Silene stenophylla is a species of flowering plant in the family Caryophyllaceae.
Snow refers to forms of ice crystals that precipitate from the atmosphere (usually from clouds) and undergo changes on the Earth's surface.
The soil seed bank is the natural storage of seeds, often dormant, within the soil of most ecosystems.
Soursop (also graviola, custard apple, and in Latin America, guanábana) is the fruit of Annona muricata, a broadleaf, flowering, evergreen tree.
South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa.
Sowing is the process of planting.
The soybean (Glycine max), or soya bean, is a species of legume native to East Asia, widely grown for its edible bean, which has numerous uses.
The spermatophytes, also known as phanerogams or phenogamae, comprise those plants that produce seeds, hence the alternative name seed plants.
A sphere (from Greek σφαῖρα — sphaira, "globe, ball") is a perfectly round geometrical object in three-dimensional space that is the surface of a completely round ball (viz., analogous to the circular objects in two dimensions, where a "circle" circumscribes its "disk").
A spice is a seed, fruit, root, bark, or other plant substance primarily used for flavoring, coloring or preserving food.
A sporangium (pl., sporangia) (modern Latin, from Greek σπόρος (sporos) ‘spore’ + αγγείον (angeion) ‘vessel’) is an enclosure in which spores are formed.
A spruce is a tree of the genus Picea, a genus of about 35 species of coniferous evergreen trees in the family Pinaceae, found in the northern temperate and boreal (taiga) regions of the Earth.
Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of a large number of glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.
In horticulture, stratification is a process of treating seeds to simulate natural conditions that the seeds must experience before germination can occur.
Strychnine (also or) is a highly toxic, colorless, bitter, crystalline alkaloid used as a pesticide, particularly for killing small vertebrates such as birds and rodents.
Strychnos nux-vomica, the strychnine tree, also known as nux vomica, poison nut, semen strychnos, and quaker buttons, is a deciduous tree native to India, and southeast Asia.
The sugar-apple, sweetsop, or custard apple is the fruit of Annona squamosa, the most widely grown species of Annona and a native of the tropical Americas and West Indies.
The sunflower seed is the fruit of the sunflower (Helianthus annuus).
Tannins (or tannoids) are a class of astringent, polyphenolic biomolecules that bind to and precipitate proteins and various other organic compounds including amino acids and alkaloids.
Taraxacum is a large genus of flowering plants in the family Asteraceae, which consists of species commonly known as dandelions.
Taxus is a small genus of coniferous trees or shrubs in the yew family Taxaceae.
Tea tree oil, also known as melaleuca oil or ti tree oil, is an essential oil with a fresh camphoraceous odor and a colour that ranges from pale yellow to nearly colourless and clear.
Trillium (trillium, wakerobin, tri flower, birthroot, birthwort) is a genus of perennial flowering plants native to temperate regions of North America and Asia.
Trypsin is a serine protease from the PA clan superfamily, found in the digestive system of many vertebrates, where it hydrolyzes proteins.
A trypsin inhibitor is a type of serine protease inhibitor that reduces the biological activity of trypsin.
Tubers are enlarged structures in some plant species used as storage organs for nutrients.
Vegetable oils, or vegetable fats, are fats extracted from seeds, or less often, from other parts of fruits.
Vegetative reproduction (also known as vegetative propagation, vegetative multiplication or vegetative cloning) is any form of asexual reproduction occurring in plants in which a new plant grows from a fragment of the parent plant or grows from a specialized reproductive structure.
Vicia faba, also known as the broad bean, fava bean, faba bean, field bean, bell bean, or tic bean, is a species of flowering plant in the pea and bean family Fabaceae.
A walnut is the nut of any tree of the genus Juglans (Family Juglandaceae), particularly the Persian or English walnut, Juglans regia.
Weighing scales (or weigh scales or scales) are devices to measure weight.
West Virginia is a state located in the Appalachian region of the Southern United States.
Whale oil is oil obtained from the blubber of whales.
Wisteria is a genus of flowering plants in the legume family, Fabaceae (Leguminosae), that includes ten species of woody climbing vines that are native to China, Korea, and Japan and as an introduced species to the Eastern United States.
A zygote (from Greek ζυγωτός zygōtos "joined" or "yoked", from ζυγοῦν zygoun "to join" or "to yoke") is a eukaryotic cell formed by a fertilization event between two gametes.