206 relations: Adverse drug reaction, Agomelatine, Agonist, Akathisia, Alaproclate, Anorexia nervosa, Anorgasmia, Anticoagulant, Antidepressant, Antidepressants and suicide risk, Antihistamine, Antiplatelet drug, Anxiety disorder, Apoptosis, Aspirin, Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, Autism spectrum, Binge eating disorder, Bisphosphonate, Blood vessel, Bone fracture, Brain, Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, Bulimia nervosa, Bupropion, Buspirone, Cardiotoxicity, Cericlamine, Chemical synapse, Chemokine, Chlorphenamine, Chronic pain, Citalopram, Clinical trial, Cognition, Cognitive therapy, Coma, Coronary artery disease, Correlation and dependence, CREB, Cyclic adenosine monophosphate, CYP1A2, CYP2B6, CYP2C19, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, Cytochrome P450, Cytokine, Dapoxetine, ..., David Healy (psychiatrist), Depersonalization disorder, Depression (mood), Desvenlafaxine, Dextromethorphan, Diabetes mellitus type 1, Discontinuation, Dopamine transporter, Downregulation and upregulation, Drug class, Drug overdose, Drug-induced QT prolongation, Duloxetine, Eating disorder, Electrocardiography, Epileptic seizure, Erectile dysfunction, Escitalopram, Extracellular, Femoxetine, Fluoxetine, Fluvoxamine, Food and Drug Administration, Functional selectivity, Gastrointestinal bleeding, Generalized anxiety disorder, Genetic marker, Health care, Heart arrhythmia, Hepatitis, Hypericum perforatum, Hyperreflexia, Ibuprofen, Ifoxetine, Indalpine, Infant, Inflammatory bowel disease, Interferon gamma, Interleukin 1 beta, Interleukin 6, International Review of Psychiatry, Intracranial hemorrhage, Junctional rhythm, Levomilnacipran, Libido, Ligand (biochemistry), Linezolid, List of antidepressants, Lithium (medication), Litoxetine, Lubazodone, Macrophage, Major depressive disorder, MDMA, Mechanism of action, Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency, Melanoma, Methylene blue, Microglia, Migraine, Milnacipran, Mirtazapine, Mitogen-activated protein kinase, Moclobemide, Monoamine oxidase inhibitor, Monoamine transporter, Multiple sclerosis, Mydriasis, Myocardial infarction, Myoclonus, Naproxen, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, Nefazodone, Neonatal withdrawal, Neuron, Neurotransmitter, Neurotransmitter receptor, Norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, Norepinephrine transporter, Obsessive–compulsive disorder, Omiloxetine, Over-the-counter drug, Pain Medicine (journal), Panic disorder, Panuramine, Paroxetine, Partial agonist, Pausinystalia johimbe, PDE5 inhibitor, Perspiration, Pethidine, Phenelzine, Photosensitivity, Pirandamine, Placebo, Positron emission tomography, Posttraumatic stress disorder, Prenatal development, Preterm birth, Priapism, Protein kinase A, Pulmonary hypertension, QT interval, Receptor (biochemistry), Receptor antagonist, Receptor modulator, Reuptake, Reuptake inhibitor, Rheumatoid arthritis, Risk–benefit ratio, Selegiline, Seproxetine, Septic shock, Serotonergic, Serotonin, Serotonin modulator and stimulator, Serotonin releasing agent, Serotonin reuptake inhibitor, Serotonin syndrome, Serotonin transporter, Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, Sertraline, Sexual anhedonia, Sexual dysfunction, Sibutramine, Side effect, Sigma receptor, Sigma-1 receptor, Sigma-2 receptor, Sildenafil, Sinus tachycardia, Social anxiety disorder, Stereoisomerism, Stroke, Suicidal ideation, Suicide, T cell, Tachycardia, Therapeutic index, Tianeptine, Tramadol, Tranylcypromine, Tricyclic antidepressant, Triptan, Tumor necrosis factor alpha, United Kingdom, Venlafaxine, Vilazodone, Vortioxetine, Warfarin, Zimelidine, 5-HT receptor, 5-HT1A receptor, 5-HT2A receptor, 5-HT3 receptor, 5-HT7 receptor. Expand index (156 more) » « Shrink index
An adverse drug reaction (ADR) is an injury caused by taking a medication.
Agomelatine (brand names Valdoxan, Melitor, Thymanax) is an atypical antidepressant developed by the pharmaceutical company Servier.
An agonist is a chemical that binds to a receptor and activates the receptor to produce a biological response.
Akathisia is a movement disorder characterized by a feeling of inner restlessness and inability to stay still.
Alaproclate (developmental code name GEA-654) is a drug that was being developed as an antidepressant by the Swedish pharmaceutical company Astra AB (now AstraZeneca) in the 1970s.
Anorexia nervosa, often referred to simply as anorexia, is an eating disorder characterized by low weight, fear of gaining weight, and a strong desire to be thin, resulting in food restriction.
Anorgasmia, or Coughlan's syndrome, is a type of sexual dysfunction in which a person cannot achieve orgasm despite adequate stimulation.
Anticoagulants, commonly referred to as blood thinners, are chemical substances that prevent or reduce coagulation of blood, prolonging the clotting time.
Antidepressants are drugs used for the treatment of major depressive disorder and other conditions, including dysthymia, anxiety disorders, obsessive–compulsive disorder, eating disorders, chronic pain, neuropathic pain and, in some cases, dysmenorrhoea, snoring, migraine, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), addiction, dependence, and sleep disorders.
The relationship between antidepressant use and suicide risk is the target of medical research.
Antihistamines are drugs which treat allergic rhinitis and other allergies.
An antiplatelet drug (antiaggregant) is a member of a class of pharmaceuticals that decrease platelet aggregation and inhibit thrombus formation.
Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by significant feelings of anxiety and fear.
Apoptosis (from Ancient Greek ἀπόπτωσις "falling off") is a process of programmed cell death that occurs in multicellular organisms.
Aspirin, also known as acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), is a medication used to treat pain, fever, or inflammation.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder of the neurodevelopmental type.
Autism spectrum, also known as autism spectrum disorder (ASD), is a range of conditions classified as neurodevelopmental disorders.
Binge eating disorder (BED) is an eating disorder characterized by frequent and recurrent binge eating episodes with associated negative psychological and social problems, but without subsequent purging episodes (e.g. vomiting).
Bisphosphonates are a class of drugs that prevent the loss of bone density, used to treat osteoporosis and similar diseases.
The blood vessels are the part of the circulatory system, and microcirculation, that transports blood throughout the human body.
A bone fracture (sometimes abbreviated FRX or Fx, Fx, or #) is a medical condition in which there is a partial or complete break in the continuity of the bone.
The brain is an organ that serves as the center of the nervous system in all vertebrate and most invertebrate animals.
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor, also known as BDNF, is a protein that, in humans, is encoded by the BDNF gene.
Bulimia nervosa, also known as simply bulimia, is an eating disorder characterized by binge eating followed by purging.
Bupropion, sold under the brand names Wellbutrin and Zyban among others, is a medication primarily used as an antidepressant and smoking cessation aid.
Buspirone, sold under the brand name Buspar, is an anxiolytic drug that is primarily used to treat generalized anxiety disorder (GAD).
Cardiotoxicity is the occurrence of heart electrophysiology dysfunction or muscle damage.
Cericlamine (INN) (developmental code name JO-1017) is a potent and moderately selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) of the amphetamine family (specifically, a derivative of phentermine, and closely related to chlorphentermine, a highly selective serotonin releasing agent) that was investigated as an antidepressant for the treatment of depression, anxiety disorders, and anorexia nervosa by Jouveinal but did not complete development and was never marketed.
Chemical synapses are biological junctions through which neurons' signals can be exchanged to each other and to non-neuronal cells such as those in muscles or glands.
Chemokines (Greek -kinos, movement) are a family of small cytokines, or signaling proteins secreted by cells.
Chlorphenamine (also known as chlorpheniramine, CP, or CPM) is a first-generation antihistamine used in the prevention of the symptoms of allergic conditions such as rhinitis and urticaria.
Chronic pain is pain that lasts a long time.
Citalopram (brand names: Celexa, Cipramil and others) is an antidepressant drug of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.
Clinical trials are experiments or observations done in clinical research.
Cognition is "the mental action or process of acquiring knowledge and understanding through thought, experience, and the senses".
Cognitive therapy (CT) is a type of psychotherapy developed by American psychiatrist Aaron T. Beck.
Coma is a state of unconsciousness in which a person cannot be awaken; fails to respond normally to painful stimuli, light, or sound; lacks a normal wake-sleep cycle; and does not initiate voluntary actions.
Coronary artery disease (CAD), also known as ischemic heart disease (IHD), refers to a group of diseases which includes stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death.
In statistics, dependence or association is any statistical relationship, whether causal or not, between two random variables or bivariate data.
CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein) is a cellular transcription factor.
Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP, cyclic AMP, or 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a second messenger important in many biological processes.
Cytochrome P450 1A2 (abbreviated CYP1A2), a member of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system, is involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics in the body.
Cytochrome P450 2B6 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP2B6 gene.
Cytochrome P450 2C19 (abbreviated CYP2C19) is an enzyme.
Cytochrome P450 2C9 (abbreviated CYP2C9) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP2C9 gene.
Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the CYP2D6 gene.
Cytochrome P450 3A4 (abbreviated CYP3A4) is an important enzyme in the body, mainly found in the liver and in the intestine.
Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are proteins of the superfamily containing heme as a cofactor and, therefore, are hemoproteins.
Cytokines are a broad and loose category of small proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signaling.
Dapoxetine, marketed as Priligy and Westoxetin, among and other brands, is the first compound developed specially for the treatment of premature ejaculation (PE) in men 18–64 years old.
David Healy, a professor of psychiatry at Bangor University in the United Kingdom, is a psychiatrist, psychopharmacologist, scientist and author.
Depersonalization disorder (DPD), also known as depersonalization/derealization disorder, is a mental disorder in which the person has persistent or recurrent feelings of depersonalization or derealization.
Depression is a state of low mood and aversion to activity that can affect a person's thoughts, behavior, tendencies, feelings, and sense of well-being.
Desvenlafaxine (brand name: Pristiq, Desfax, Ellefore), also known as O-desmethylvenlafaxine, is an antidepressant of the serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) class developed and marketed by Wyeth (now part of Pfizer).
Dextromethorphan (DXM or DM) is a drug of the morphinan class with sedative, dissociative, and stimulant properties (at higher doses).
Diabetes mellitus type 1, also known as type 1 diabetes, is a form of diabetes mellitus in which not enough insulin is produced.
Discontinuation is the process of quitting a procedure, such as the course of treatment with a drug or a consumer product line.
The dopamine transporter (also dopamine active transporter, DAT, SLC6A3) is a membrane-spanning protein that pumps the neurotransmitter dopamine out of the synaptic cleft back into cytosol.
In the biological context of organisms' production of gene products, downregulation is the process by which a cell decreases the quantity of a cellular component, such as RNA or protein, in response to an external stimulus.
A drug class is a set of medications that have similar chemical structures, the same mechanism of action (i.e., bind to the same biological target), a related mode of action, and/or are used to treat the same disease.
The term drug overdose (or simply overdose or OD) describes the ingestion or application of a drug or other substance in quantities greater than are recommended or generally practiced.
Drug-induced QT prolongation is seen with a QT interval above 0.45 ms on the ECG and is usually a result of treatment by anti-arrhythmic drugs, such as amiodarone and sotalol, or a number of other drugs that have been reported to cause this problem (e.g., cisapride).
Duloxetine, sold under the brand name Cymbalta among others, is a medication mostly used for major depressive disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, fibromyalgia and neuropathic pain.
An eating disorder is a mental disorder defined by abnormal eating habits that negatively affect a person's physical or mental health.
Electrocardiography (ECG or EKG) is the process of recording the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time using electrodes placed on the skin.
An epileptic seizure is a brief episode of signs or symptoms due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain.
Erectile dysfunction (ED), also known as impotence, is a type of sexual dysfunction characterized by the inability to develop or maintain an erection of the penis during sexual activity.
Escitalopram, sold under the brand names Cipralex and Lexapro among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.
In cell biology, molecular biology and related fields, the word extracellular (or sometimes extracellular space) means "outside the cell".
Femoxetine (INN) (tentative brand name Malexil; developmental code name FG-4963) is a drug related to paroxetine that was being developed as an antidepressant by Danish pharmaceutical company Ferrosan in 1975 before acquisition by Novo Nordisk.
Fluoxetine, also known by trade names Prozac and Sarafem, among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.
Fluvoxamine, sold under the brand name Luvox among others, is a medication which is used primarily for the treatment of obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD), and is also used to treat major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders such as panic disorder and post-traumatic stress disorder.
The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or USFDA) is a federal agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services, one of the United States federal executive departments.
Functional selectivity (or “agonist trafficking”, “biased agonism”, “biased signalling”, "ligand bias" and “differential engagement”) is the ligand-dependent selectivity for certain signal transduction pathways relative to a reference ligand (often the endogenous hormone or peptide) at the same receptor.
Gastrointestinal bleeding (GI bleed), also known as gastrointestinal hemorrhage, is all forms of bleeding in the gastrointestinal tract, from the mouth to the rectum.
Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is an anxiety disorder characterized by excessive, uncontrollable and often irrational worry, that is, apprehensive expectation about events or activities.
A genetic marker is a gene or DNA sequence with a known location on a chromosome that can be used to identify individuals or species.
Health care or healthcare is the maintenance or improvement of health via the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of disease, illness, injury, and other physical and mental impairments in human beings.
Heart arrhythmia (also known as arrhythmia, dysrhythmia, or irregular heartbeat) is a group of conditions in which the heartbeat is irregular, too fast, or too slow.
Hepatitis is inflammation of the liver tissue.
Hypericum perforatum, known as perforate St John's-wort, common Saint John's wort and St John's wort, is a flowering plant in the family Hypericaceae.
Hyperreflexia (or hyper-reflexia) is defined as overactive or overresponsive reflexes.
Ibuprofen is a medication in the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) class that is used for treating pain, fever, and inflammation.
Ifoxetine (CGP-15,210-G) is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) which was investigated as an antidepressant in the 1980s but was never marketed.
Indalpine (INN, BAN; brand name Upstène; developmental code name LM-5008) is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class drug that was briefly marketed.
An infant (from the Latin word infans, meaning "unable to speak" or "speechless") is the more formal or specialised synonym for "baby", the very young offspring of a human.
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of inflammatory conditions of the colon and small intestine.
Interferon gamma (IFNγ) is a dimerized soluble cytokine that is the only member of the type II class of interferons.
Interleukin 1 beta (IL1β) also known as leukocytic pyrogen, leukocytic endogenous mediator, mononuclear cell factor, lymphocyte activating factor and other names, is a cytokine protein that in humans is encoded by the IL1B gene.
Interleukin 6 (IL-6) is an interleukin that acts as both a pro-inflammatory cytokine and an anti-inflammatory myokine.
The International Review of Psychiatry is a bimonthly peer-reviewed medical journal published by Taylor & Francis on behalf of the Institute of Psychiatry (King's College London).
Intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), also known as intracranial bleed, is bleeding within the skull.
Junctional rhythm describes an abnormal heart rhythm resulting from impulses coming from a locus of tissue in the area of the atrioventricular node, the "junction" between atria and ventricles.
Levomilnacipran (brand name Fetzima) is an antidepressant which was approved in the United States in 2013 for the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD) in adults.
Libido, colloquially known as sex drive, is a person's overall sexual drive or desire for sexual activity.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a ligand is a substance that forms a complex with a biomolecule to serve a biological purpose.
Linezolid is an antibiotic used for the treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria that are resistant to other antibiotics.
This is a complete list of clinically approved prescription antidepressants throughout the world, as well as clinically approved prescription drugs used to augment antidepressants, by pharmacological and/or structural classification.
Lithium compounds, also known as lithium salts, are primarily used as a psychiatric medication.
Litoxetine (developmental code names SL 81-0385, IXA-001) is an antidepressant which was under clinical development for the treatment of depression in the early 1990s but was never marketed.
Lubazodone (developmental code names YM-992, YM-35995) is an experimental antidepressant which was under development by Yamanouchi for the treatment for major depressive disorder in the late 1990s and early 2000s but was never marketed.
Macrophages (big eaters, from Greek μακρός (makrós).
Major depressive disorder (MDD), also known simply as depression, is a mental disorder characterized by at least two weeks of low mood that is present across most situations.
3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA), commonly known as ecstasy (E), is a psychoactive drug used primarily as a recreational drug.
In pharmacology, the term mechanism of action (MOA) refers to the specific biochemical interaction through which a drug substance produces its pharmacological effect.
The Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) is an executive agency of the Department of Health and Social Care in the United Kingdom which is responsible for ensuring that medicines and medical devices work and are acceptably safe.
Melanoma, also known as malignant melanoma, is a type of cancer that develops from the pigment-containing cells known as melanocytes.
Methylene blue, also known as methylthioninium chloride, is a medication and dye.
Microglia are a type of neuroglia (glial cell) located throughout the brain and spinal cord.
A migraine is a primary headache disorder characterized by recurrent headaches that are moderate to severe.
Milnacipran (trade names Ixel, Savella, Dalcipran, Toledomin) is a serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) used in the clinical treatment of fibromyalgia. It is not approved for the clinical treatment of major depressive disorder in the USA, but it is in other countries.
Mirtazapine, sold under the brand name Remeron among others, is an atypical antidepressant which is used primarily in the treatment of depression.
A mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK or MAP kinase) is a type of protein kinase that is specific to the amino acids serine and threonine (i.e., a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase).
Moclobemide (sold as Amira, Aurorix, Clobemix, Depnil and Manerix) is a reversible inhibitor of monoamine oxidase A (RIMA) drug primarily used to treat depression and social anxiety. It is not approved for use in the United States, but is approved in other Western countries such as the UK and Australia (TGA approved in December 2000). It is produced by affiliates of the Hoffmann–La Roche pharmaceutical company. Initially, Aurorix was also marketed by Roche in South Africa, but was withdrawn after its patent rights expired and Cipla Medpro's Depnil and Pharma Dynamic's Clorix became available at half the cost. No significant rise in blood pressure occurs when moclobemide is combined with amines such as tyramine-containing foods or pressor amine drugs, unlike with the older nonselective and irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), which cause a severe rise in blood pressure with such combination. Due to the lack of anticholinergic, cardiovascular, cognitive and psychomotor impairments moclobemide is advantageous in the elderly as well as those with cardiovascular disease.
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) are a class of drugs that inhibit the activity of one or both monoamine oxidase enzymes: monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) and monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B).
Monoamine transporters (MATs) are protein structures that function as integral plasma-membrane transporters to regulate concentrations of extracellular monoamine neurotransmitters.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged.
Mydriasis is the dilation of the pupil, usually having a non-physiological cause, or sometimes a physiological pupillary response.
Myocardial infarction (MI), commonly known as a heart attack, occurs when blood flow decreases or stops to a part of the heart, causing damage to the heart muscle.
Myoclonus is a brief, involuntary twitching of a muscle or a group of muscles.
Naproxen (brand names: Aleve, Naprosyn, and many others) is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) of the propionic acid class (the same class as ibuprofen) that relieves pain, fever, swelling, and stiffness.
The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) is an executive non-departmental public body of the Department of Health in the United Kingdom, which publishes guidelines in four areas.
Nefazodone, sold formerly under the brand names Serzone, Dutonin, and Nefadar among others, is an atypical antidepressant which was first marketed by Bristol-Myers Squibb in 1994 but has since largely been discontinued.
Neonatal withdrawal or neonatal abstinence syndrome (NAS) is a withdrawal syndrome of infants after birth caused by in utero exposure to drugs of dependence.
A neuron, also known as a neurone (British spelling) and nerve cell, is an electrically excitable cell that receives, processes, and transmits information through electrical and chemical signals.
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission.
A neurotransmitter receptor (also known as a neuroreceptor) is a membrane receptor protein that is activated by a neurotransmitter.
A norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (NRI, NERI) or adrenergic reuptake inhibitor (ARI), is a type of drug that acts as a reuptake inhibitor for the neurotransmitters norepinephrine (noradrenaline) and epinephrine (adrenaline) by blocking the action of the norepinephrine transporter (NET).
The norepinephrine transporter (NET), also known as solute carrier family 6 member 2 (SLC6A2), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC6A2 gene.
Obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) is a mental disorder where people feel the need to check things repeatedly, perform certain routines repeatedly (called "rituals"), or have certain thoughts repeatedly (called "obsessions").
Omiloxetine (omiloextinum, omiloxetino INN) was a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor drug candidate that underwent preclinical development by the Spanish pharmaceutical company, Ferrer Internacional, until 2005, when it was abandoned.
Over-the-counter (OTC) drugs are medicines sold directly to a consumer without a prescription from a healthcare professional, as opposed to prescription drugs, which may be sold only to consumers possessing a valid prescription.
Pain Medicine is a peer-reviewed medical journal covering pain management.
Panic disorder is an anxiety disorder characterized by reoccurring unexpected panic attacks.
Panuramine (Wy-26,002) is an antidepressant which was synthesized in 1981 by Wyeth.
Paroxetine, also known by trade names including Paxil and Seroxat among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class. It is used to treat major depressive disorder, obsessive-compulsive disorder, social anxiety disorder, panic disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. It has also been used in the treatment of hot flashes and night sweats associated with menopause. It has a similar tolerability profile to other SSRIs. The common side effects include drowsiness, dry mouth, loss of appetite, sweating, trouble sleeping and delayed ejaculation. It may also be associated with a slightly increased risk of birth defects. The rate of withdrawal symptoms in young people may be higher with paroxetine and venlafaxine than other SSRIs and SNRIs. Several studies have associated paroxetine with suicidal thinking and behavior in children and adolescents. Marketing of the drug began in 1992 by the pharmaceutical company SmithKline Beecham, known since 2000 as GlaxoSmithKline. Generic formulations have been available since 2003 when the patent expired. The United States Department of Justice fined GlaxoSmithKline $3 billion in 2012, including a sum for withholding data on paroxetine, unlawfully promoting it for under-18s and preparing an article, following one of its clinical trials, study 329, that misleadingly reported the drug was effective in treating adolescent depression.
In pharmacology, partial agonists are drugs that bind to and activate a given receptor, but have only partial efficacy at the receptor relative to a full agonist.
Pausinystalia johimbe, (Rubiaceae), common name Yohimbe, is a plant species native to western and central Africa (Nigeria, Cabinda, Cameroon, Congo-Brazzaville, Gabon, Equatorial Guinea).
A phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitor (PDE5 inhibitor) is a drug used to block the degradative action of cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) on cyclic GMP in the smooth muscle cells lining the blood vessels supplying the corpus cavernosum of the penis.
Perspiration, also known as sweating, is the production of fluids secreted by the sweat glands in the skin of mammals.
Pethidine, also known as meperidine and sold under the brand name Demerol among others, is a synthetic opioid pain medication of the phenylpiperidine class.
Phenelzine (Nardil, Nardelzine) is a non-selective and irreversible monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) of the hydrazine class which is used as an antidepressant and anxiolytic.
Photosensitivity is the amount to which an object reacts upon receiving photons, especially visible light.
Pirandamine (AY-23,713) is a tricyclic derivative which acts as a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI).
A placebo is a substance or treatment of no intended therapeutic value.
Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.
Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)Acceptable variants of this term exist; see the Terminology section in this article.
Prenatal development is the process in which an embryo and later fetus develops during gestation.
Preterm birth, also known as premature birth, is the birth of a baby at fewer than 37 weeks gestational age.
Priapism is a condition in which a penis remains erect for hours in the absence of stimulation or after stimulation has ended.
In cell biology, protein kinase A (PKANot to be confused with pKa, the symbol for the acid dissociation constant.) is a family of enzymes whose activity is dependent on cellular levels of cyclic AMP (cAMP).
Pulmonary hypertension (PH or PHTN) is a condition of increased blood pressure within the arteries of the lungs.
In cardiology, the QT interval is a measure of the time between the start of the Q wave and the end of the T wave in the heart's electrical cycle.
In biochemistry and pharmacology, a receptor is a protein molecule that receives chemical signals from outside a cell.
A receptor antagonist is a type of receptor ligand or drug that blocks or dampens a biological response by binding to and blocking a receptor rather than activating it like an agonist.
A receptor modulator, or receptor ligand, is a type of drug which binds to and modulates receptors.
Reuptake is the reabsorption of a neurotransmitter by a neurotransmitter transporter located along the plasma membrane of an axon terminal (i.e., the pre-synaptic neuron at a synapse) or glial cell after it has performed its function of transmitting a neural impulse.
A reuptake inhibitor (RI) is a type of drug known as a reuptake modulator that inhibits the plasmalemmal transporter-mediated reuptake of a neurotransmitter from the synapse into the pre-synaptic neuron.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a long-term autoimmune disorder that primarily affects joints.
A risk–benefit ratio is the ratio of the risk of an action to its potential benefits.
Selegiline, also known as L-deprenyl, is a substituted phenethylamine.
Seproxetine, also known as (S)-norfluoxetine, is a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI).
Septic shock is a serious medical condition that occurs when sepsis, which is organ injury or damage in response to infection, leads to dangerously low blood pressure and abnormalities in cellular metabolism.
Serotonergic or serotoninergic means "pertaining to or affecting serotonin".
Serotonin or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter.
A serotonin modulator and stimulator (SMS), sometimes referred to more simply as a serotonin modulator, is a type of drug with a multimodal action specific to the serotonin neurotransmitter system.
A serotonin releasing agent (SRA) is a type of drug that induces the release of serotonin into the neuronal synaptic cleft.
A serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SRI) is a type of drug which acts as a reuptake inhibitor of the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)) by blocking the action of the serotonin transporter (SERT).
Serotonin syndrome (SS) is a group of symptoms that may occur following use of certain serotonergic medications or drugs.
The serotonin transporter (SERT or 5-HTT) also known as the sodium-dependent serotonin transporter and solute carrier family 6 member 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC6A4 gene.
Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are a class of antidepressant drugs that treat major depressive disorder (MDD) and can also treat anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), chronic neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), and menopausal symptoms.
Sertraline, sold under the trade names Zoloft among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class.
Sexual anhedonia, also known as pleasure dissociative orgasmic disorder, is a condition in which an individual cannot feel pleasure from an orgasm.
Sexual dysfunction (or sexual malfunction or sexual disorder) is difficulty experienced by an individual or a couple during any stage of a normal sexual activity, including physical pleasure, desire, preference, arousal or orgasm.
Sibutramine, formerly sold under the brand name Meridia among others, is an appetite suppressant which has been discontinued in many countries.
In medicine, a side effect is an effect, whether therapeutic or adverse, that is secondary to the one intended; although the term is predominantly employed to describe adverse effects, it can also apply to beneficial, but unintended, consequences of the use of a drug.
Schematic σ receptor The sigma receptors σ1 and σ2 bind to ligands such as 4-PPBP (4-phenyl-1-(4-phenylbutyl) piperidine), SA 4503 (cutamesine), ditolylguanidine, dimethyltryptamine, and siramesine.
The sigma-1 receptor (σ1R), one of two sigma receptor subtypes, is a chaperone protein at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that modulates calcium signaling through the IP3 receptor.
The sigma-2 receptor (σ2R) is a sigma receptor subtype that has been found highly expressed in malignant cancer cells, and is currently under investigation for its potential diagnostic and therapeutic uses.
Sildenafil, sold as the brand name Viagra among others, is a medication used to treat erectile dysfunction and pulmonary arterial hypertension.
Sinus tachycardia (also colloquially known as sinus tach or sinus tachy) is a sinus rhythm with an elevated rate of impulses, defined as a rate greater than 100 beats/min (bpm) in an average adult.
Social anxiety disorder (SAD), also known as social phobia, is an anxiety disorder characterized by a significant amount of fear in one or more social situations, causing considerable distress and impaired ability to function in at least some parts of daily life.
In stereochemistry, stereoisomers are isomeric molecules that have the same molecular formula and sequence of bonded atoms (constitution), but differ in the three-dimensional orientations of their atoms in space.
A stroke is a medical condition in which poor blood flow to the brain results in cell death.
Suicidal ideation, also known as suicidal thoughts, is thinking about or having an unusual preoccupation with suicide.
Suicide is the act of intentionally causing one's own death.
A T cell, or T lymphocyte, is a type of lymphocyte (a subtype of white blood cell) that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity.
Tachycardia, also called tachyarrhythmia, is a heart rate that exceeds the normal resting rate.
The therapeutic index (TI; also referred to as therapeutic ratio) is a comparison of the amount of a therapeutic agent that causes the therapeutic effect to the amount that causes toxicity.
Tianeptine, sold under the brand names Stablon and Coaxil among others, is an atypical antidepressant which is used mainly in the treatment of major depressive disorder, although it may also be used to treat anxiety, asthma, and irritable bowel syndrome.
Tramadol, sold under the brand name Ultram among others, is an opioid pain medication used to treat moderate to moderately severe pain.
Tranylcypromine (contracted from trans-2-phenylcyclopropylamine; original trade name Parnate)Drugs.com.
Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are a class of medications that are used primarily as antidepressants.
Triptans are a family of tryptamine-based drugs used as abortive medication in the treatment of migraines and cluster headaches.
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF, tumor necrosis factor alpha, TNFα, cachexin, or cachectin) is a cell signaling protein (cytokine) involved in systemic inflammation and is one of the cytokines that make up the acute phase reaction.
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed with some organisations, including the and preferring to use Britain as shorthand for Great Britain is a sovereign country in western Europe.
Venlafaxine, sold under the brand name Effexor among others, is an antidepressant of the selective serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) class.
Vilazodone (United States trade name Viibryd) is a serotonergic antidepressant developed by Merck KGaA and licensed by Clinical Data, a biotech company purchased by Forest Laboratories in 2011.
Vortioxetine is an antidepressant medication that is prescribed to treat depression.
Warfarin, sold under the brand name Coumadin among others, is a medication that is used as an anticoagulant (blood thinner).
Zimelidine (INN, BAN) (brand names Zimeldine, Normud, Zelmid) was one of the first selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants to be marketed.
5-hydroxytryptamine receptors or 5-HT receptors, or serotonin receptors, are a group of G protein-coupled receptor and ligand-gated ion channels found in the central and peripheral nervous systems.
The serotonin 1A receptor (or 5-HT1A receptor) is a subtype of serotonin receptor (5-HT receptor) that binds the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT).
The mammalian 5-HT2A receptor is a subtype of the 5-HT2 receptor that belongs to the serotonin receptor family and is a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR).
The 5-HT3 receptor belongs to the Cys-loop superfamily of ligand-gated ion channels (LGICs) and therefore differs structurally and functionally from all other 5-HT receptors (5-hydroxytryptamine, or serotonin) receptors which are G protein-coupled receptors.
The 5-HT7 receptor is a member of the GPCR superfamily of cell surface receptors and is activated by the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) The 5-HT7 receptor is coupled to Gs (stimulates the production of the intracellular signaling molecule cAMP) and is expressed in a variety of human tissues, particularly in the brain, the gastrointestinal tract, and in various blood vessels.
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