62 relations: Acid dissociation constant, Allium, Antioxidant, Archaea, Bacteria, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta, Brassica, Catalytic triad, Cysteine, Deiodinase, Deprotonation, Dextrorotation and levorotation, EEF-1, EF-Tu, Enzyme, Eukaryote, Formate dehydrogenase, Genetic code, Glutathione peroxidase, Glycine reductase, Hydrogenase, Initiation factor, Journal of Chemical Sciences, Journal of Molecular Biology, L-seryl-tRNASec selenium transferase, Merck Index, Messenger RNA, Methylselenocysteine, Multi-wavelength anomalous dispersion, National Institutes of Health, Nuclear magnetic resonance, Nucleophile, PH, Positron emission tomography, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Protein, Proteinogenic amino acid, Pyridoxal phosphate, Pyrrolysine, Radioactive tracer, Reduction potential, SECIS element, SECISBP2, Selenide, Selenium, Selenol, Selenomethionine, Selenoprotein, SEPX1, Serine—tRNA ligase, ..., Spin (physics), Stop codon, Sulfur, The EMBO Journal, The FEBS Journal, Thiol, Thioredoxin reductase, Three prime untranslated region, Thressa Stadtman, Transfer RNA, Trends (journals), X-ray crystallography. Expand index (12 more) » « Shrink index
An acid dissociation constant, Ka, (also known as acidity constant, or acid-ionization constant) is a quantitative measure of the strength of an acid in solution.
Allium is a genus of monocotyledonous flowering plants that includes hundreds of species, including the cultivated onion, garlic, scallion, shallot, leek, and chives.
Antioxidants are molecules that inhibit the oxidation of other molecules.
Archaea (or or) constitute a domain of single-celled microorganisms.
Bacteria (common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) is a type of biological cell.
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) is a peer-reviewed scientific journal in the field of biochemistry and biophysics that was established in 1947.
Brassica is a genus of plants in the mustard family (Brassicaceae).
A catalytic triad is a set of three coordinated amino acids that can be found in the active site of some enzymes.
Cysteine (symbol Cys or C) is a semi-essential proteinogenic amino acid with the formula HO2CCH(NH2)CH2SH.
Deiodinase (or iodide peroxidase or "Monodeiodinase") is a peroxidase enzyme that is involved in the activation or deactivation of thyroid hormones.
Deprotonation is the removal (transfer) of a proton (a hydrogen cation, H+) from a Brønsted–Lowry acid in an acid-base reaction.
Dextrorotation and levorotation (also spelled as laevorotation)The first word component dextro- comes from Latin word for dexter "right (as opposed to left)".
eEF-1 is a eukaryotic elongation factor.
EF-Tu (elongation factor thermo unstable) is a prokaryotic elongation factor responsible for catalyzing the binding of an aminoacyl-tRNA (aa-tRNA) to the ribosome.
Enzymes are macromolecular biological catalysts.
Eukaryotes are organisms whose cells have a nucleus enclosed within membranes, unlike Prokaryotes (Bacteria and other Archaea).
Formate dehydrogenases are a set of enzymes that catalyse the oxidation of formate to carbon dioxide, donating the electrons to a second substrate, such as NAD+ in formate:NAD+ oxidoreductase (EC 184.108.40.206) or to a cytochrome in formate:ferricytochrome-b1 oxidoreductase (EC 220.127.116.11).
The genetic code is the set of rules used by living cells to translate information encoded within genetic material (DNA or mRNA sequences) into proteins.
Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) is the general name of an enzyme family with peroxidase activity whose main biological role is to protect the organism from oxidative damage.
In enzymology, a glycine reductase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction The 4 substrates of this enzyme are acetyl phosphate, NH3, thioredoxin disulfide, and H2O, whereas its 3 products are glycine, phosphate, and thioredoxin.
A hydrogenase is an enzyme that catalyses the reversible oxidation of molecular hydrogen (H2), as shown below: Hydrogen uptake is coupled to the reduction of electron acceptors such as oxygen, nitrate, sulfate, carbon dioxide, and fumarate.
Initiation factors are proteins that bind to the small subunit of the ribosome during the initiation of translation, a part of protein biosynthesis.
The Journal of Chemical Sciences is a bimonthly peer-viewed scientific journal that publishes original research articles, review articles and rapid communications in all areas of chemistry.
The Journal of Molecular Biology is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published weekly by Elsevier.
In enzymology, a L-seryl-tRNASec selenium transferase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction Thus, the two substrates of this enzyme are L-seryl-tRNASec and selenophosphate, whereas its two products are L-selenocysteinyl-tRNASec and phosphate.
The Merck Index is an encyclopedia of chemicals, drugs and biologicals with over 10,000 monographs on single substances or groups of related compounds.
Messenger RNA (mRNA) is a large family of RNA molecules that convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome, where they specify the amino acid sequence of the protein products of gene expression.
Methylselenocysteine, also known as Se-methylselenocysteine, is an analog of ''S''-methylcysteine in which the sulfur atom is replaced with a selenium atom.
Multi-wavelength anomalous diffraction (sometimes Multi-wavelength anomalous dispersion; abbreviated MAD) is a technique used in X-ray crystallography that facilitates the determination of the three-dimensional structure of biological macromolecules (e.g. DNA, drug receptors) via solution of the phase problem.
The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary agency of the United States government responsible for biomedical and public health research, founded in the late 1870s.
Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) is a physical phenomenon in which nuclei in a magnetic field absorb and re-emit electromagnetic radiation.
Nucleophile is a chemical species that donates an electron pair to an electrophile to form a chemical bond in relation to a reaction.
In chemistry, pH is a logarithmic scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution.
Positron-emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique that is used to observe metabolic processes in the body as an aid to the diagnosis of disease.
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) is the official scientific journal of the National Academy of Sciences, published since 1915.
Proteins are large biomolecules, or macromolecules, consisting of one or more long chains of amino acid residues.
Proteinogenic amino acids are amino acids that are incorporated biosynthetically into proteins during translation.
Pyridoxal phosphate (PLP, pyridoxal 5'-phosphate, P5P), the active form of vitamin B6, is a coenzyme in a variety of enzymatic reactions.
Pyrrolysine (symbol Pyl or O; encoded by the 'amber' stop codon UAG) is an ɑ-amino acid that is used in the biosynthesis of proteins in some methanogenic archaea and bacteria; it is not present in humans.
A radioactive tracer, or radioactive label, is a chemical compound in which one or more atoms have been replaced by a radionuclide so by virtue of its radioactive decay it can be used to explore the mechanism of chemical reactions by tracing the path that the radioisotope follows from reactants to products.
Reduction potential (also known as redox potential, oxidation / reduction potential, ORP, pE, ε, or E_) is a measure of the tendency of a chemical species to acquire electrons and thereby be reduced.
In biology, the SECIS element (SECIS: selenocysteine insertion sequence) is an RNA element around 60 nucleotides in length that adopts a stem-loop structure.
SECIS-binding protein 2 (commonly referred to as SBP2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SECISBP2 gene.
A selenide is a chemical compound containing a selenium anion with oxidation number of −2 (Se2&minus), much as sulfur does in a sulfide.
Selenium is a chemical element with symbol Se and atomic number 34.
Selenols are organic compounds that contain the functional group with the connectivity C–Se–H.
Selenomethionine is a naturally occurring amino acid.
In molecular biology a selenoprotein is any protein that includes a selenocysteine (Sec, U, Se-Cys) amino acid residue.
Methionine-R-sulfoxide reductase B1 is an enzyme that in humans is encoded by the SEPX1 gene.
In enzymology, a serine-tRNA ligase is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction The 3 substrates of this enzyme are ATP, L-serine, and tRNA(Ser), whereas its 3 products are AMP, diphosphate, and L-seryl-tRNA(Ser).
In quantum mechanics and particle physics, spin is an intrinsic form of angular momentum carried by elementary particles, composite particles (hadrons), and atomic nuclei.
In the genetic code, a stop codon (or termination codon) is a nucleotide triplet within messenger RNA that signals a termination of translation into proteins.
Sulfur or sulphur is a chemical element with symbol S and atomic number 16.
The EMBO Journal is a peer-reviewed scientific journal focusing on full-length papers describing original research of general interest in molecular biology and related areas.
The FEBS Journal is a biweekly peer-reviewed scientific journal published by John Wiley & Sons on behalf of the Federation of European Biochemical Societies.
Thiol is an organosulfur compound that contains a carbon-bonded sulfhydryl (R–SH) group (where R represents an alkyl or other organic substituent).
Thioredoxin reductases (TR, TrxR) are the only known enzymes to reduce thioredoxin (Trx).
In molecular genetics, the three prime untranslated region (3'-UTR) is the section of messenger RNA (mRNA) that immediately follows the translation termination codon.
Thressa Campbell Stadtman (February 12, 1920 – December 11, 2016) was an American biochemist, notable for her discovery of selenocysteine, and her research on selenoproteins and bioenergetics.
A transfer RNA (abbreviated tRNA and formerly referred to as sRNA, for soluble RNA) is an adaptor molecule composed of RNA, typically 76 to 90 nucleotides in length, that serves as the physical link between the mRNA and the amino acid sequence of proteins.
Trends is a series of scientific journals owned by Elsevier that publish review articles in a range of areas of biology.
X-ray crystallography is a technique used for determining the atomic and molecular structure of a crystal, in which the crystalline atoms cause a beam of incident X-rays to diffract into many specific directions.