195 relations: Achaemenid Empire, Aegean Sea, Aetolian League, Afghanistan, Alexander Balas, Alexander II Zabinas, Alexander the Great, Alexandria, Anatolia, Ancient Greece, Ancient Greek religion, Ancient Macedonians, Ancient Rome, Andragoras (Seleucid satrap), Antigonus (Seleucid admiral), Antigonus I Monophthalmus, Antigonus II Gonatas, Antioch, Antiochus Hierax, Antiochus I Soter, Antiochus II Theos, Antiochus III the Great, Antiochus IV Epiphanes, Antiochus V Eupator, Antiochus VI Dionysus, Antiochus VII Sidetes, Antiochus XIII Asiaticus, Appian, Arachosia, Aramaic language, Ariana, Ariarathes III of Cappadocia, Armenia, Armenians, Arsaces I of Parthia, Ashoka, Assyrian people, Attalid dynasty, Babylon, Babylonia, Babylonian religion, Bactria, Balochistan, Balochistan, Pakistan, Battle of Cana, Battle of Corupedium, Battle of Ipsus, Battle of Magnesia, Battle of Panium, Battle of Raphia, ..., Battle of the Arius, Battle of Thermopylae (191 BC), Bihar, Bindusara, Bithynia, Buddhism, Businessperson, Cappadocia, Carthage, Celts, Chandragupta Maurya, Chiliarch, Cilician pirates, Coele-Syria, Companion cavalry, Damascus, Dardanelles, Darius III, Deimachus, Demetrius I of Bactria, Demetrius I Soter, Demetrius II Nicator, Diadochi, Diodorus Siculus, Diodotus I, Diodotus Tryphon, Dionysius (ambassador), Edicts of Ashoka, Egypt, Elephant, Evelyn Shirley Shuckburgh, Gaius Popillius Laenas, Galatia, Gedrosia, Geographica, Greco-Bactrian Kingdom, Greek language, Greeks, Hannibal, Hanukkah, Harvard University Press, Hasmonean dynasty, Heliodorus (minister), Hellenistic Greece, Hellenistic period, Hellenization, Hindu Kush, History of Afghanistan, History of ancient Israel and Judah, History of India, Ilium (Epirus), India, Indo-Greek Kingdom, Indus River, Iran, Jews, John Hyrcanus, Judaism, Judea, Kandahar, Kingdom of Armenia (antiquity), Kingdom of Pontus, Kuwait, Levant, List of Seleucid rulers, List of Syrian monarchs, Lord of Asia, Lucullus, Lysimachus, Maccabean Revolt, Maccabees, Macedonia (ancient kingdom), Maurya Empire, Medes, Megasthenes, Mesopotamia, Mithridates I of Parthia, Mithridates VI of Pontus, Nabataean Kingdom, Near East, Nisean horse, Otava (publisher), Pakistan, Parni, Parni conquest of Parthia, Parthia, Parthian Empire, Partition of Babylon, Partition of Triparadisus, Pataliputra, Patna, Pen and Sword Books, Perdiccas, Pergamon, Persian language, Persian people, Philip II Philoromaeus, Philip V of Macedon, Phraates II, Pliny the Elder, Pompey, Pontus (region), Proconsul, Ptolemaic Kingdom, Ptolemy I Soter, Ptolemy II Philadelphus, Ptolemy III Euergetes, Ptolemy IV Philopator, Ptolemy Keraunos, Ptolemy V Epiphanes, Punjab, Rhodes (city), Roman army, Roman province, Roman Republic, Roman Syria, Roman–Seleucid War, Rump state, Sanskrit, Satrap, Seleucia, Seleucid army, Seleucid–Mauryan war, Seleucus I Nicator, Seleucus II Callinicus, Seleucus IV Philopator, Siege of Bactra, Sogdia, Sophagasenus, Strabo, Sulla, Syria, Syrian Wars, Taurus Mountains, Tetradrachm, The Journal of Hellenic Studies, Thrace, Tigranes the Great, Treaty of Apamea, Turkmenistan, Vincent Arthur Smith, War elephant, War reparations, Wars of the Diadochi, Zoroastrianism. Expand index (145 more) » « Shrink index
The Achaemenid Empire, also called the First Persian Empire, was an empire based in Western Asia, founded by Cyrus the Great.
The Aegean Sea (Αιγαίο Πέλαγος; Ege Denizi) is an elongated embayment of the Mediterranean Sea located between the Greek and Anatolian peninsulas, i.e., between the mainlands of Greece and Turkey.
The Aetolian League (also transliterated as Aitolian League) was a confederation of tribal communities and cities in ancient Greece centered in Aetolia in central Greece.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Alexander I Balas (Ἀλέξανδρoς Bάλας), was the ruler of the Greek Seleucid kingdom in 150–146 BC.
Alexander II Zabinas (Greek: Ἀλέξανδρoς Zαβίνας), ruler of the Greek Seleucid kingdom, was a counter-king who emerged in the chaos following the Seleucidian loss of Mesopotamia to the Parthians.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
Ancient Greece was a civilization belonging to a period of Greek history from the Greek Dark Ages of the 13th–9th centuries BC to the end of antiquity (AD 600).
Ancient Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs, rituals, and mythology originating in ancient Greece in the form of both popular public religion and cult practices.
The Macedonians (Μακεδόνες, Makedónes) were an ancient tribe that lived on the alluvial plain around the rivers Haliacmon and lower Axios in the northeastern part of mainland Greece.
In historiography, ancient Rome is Roman civilization from the founding of the city of Rome in the 8th century BC to the collapse of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD, encompassing the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and Roman Empire until the fall of the western empire.
Narisanka, better known by his Hellenized name of Andragoras (died 238 BCE) was an Iranian nobleman who served as the Seleucid satrap of the province of Parthia under the Seleucid rulers Antiochus I Soter and Antiochus II Theos.
Antigonus, son of Menophilus was a Seleucid official (nauarchos).
Antigonus I Monophthalmus (Antigonos ho Monophthalmos, Antigonus the One-eyed, 382–301 BC), son of Philip from Elimeia, was a Macedonian nobleman, general, and satrap under Alexander the Great.
Antigonus II Gonatas (Ἀντίγονος B΄ Γονατᾶς) (c. 319–239 BC) was a powerful ruler who solidified the position of the Antigonid dynasty in Macedon after a long period defined by anarchy and chaos and acquired fame for his victory over the Gauls who had invaded the Balkans.
Antioch on the Orontes (Antiókheia je epi Oróntou; also Syrian Antioch)Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ, "Antioch on Daphne"; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ Μεγάλη, "Antioch the Great"; Antiochia ad Orontem; Անտիոք Antiok; ܐܢܛܝܘܟܝܐ Anṭiokya; Hebrew: אנטיוכיה, Antiyokhya; Arabic: انطاكية, Anṭākiya; انطاکیه; Antakya.
Antiochus (Ἀντίoχoς; killed c. 226 BC), called Hierax (Ἱέραξ, "Hawk") for his grasping and ambitious character, was the younger son of Antiochus II and Laodice I and separatist leader in the Hellenistic Seleucid kingdom, who ruled as king of Syria during his brother's reign.
Antiochus I Soter (Ἀντίοχος Α΄ ὁ Σωτήρ; epithet means "the Saviour"; c. 324/3261 BC), was a king of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire.
Antiochus II Theos (Greek: Ἀντίοχος Β΄ ὁ Θεός; 286–246 BC) was a Greek king of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire who reigned from 261 to 246 BC.
Antiochus III the Great (Greek: Ἀντίoχoς Μέγας; c. 241187 BC, ruled 222–187 BC) was a Hellenistic Greek king and the 6th ruler of the Seleucid Empire.
Antiochus IV Epiphanes (Ἀντίοχος ὁ Ἐπιφανής, Antíochos ho Epiphanḗs, "God Manifest"; c. 215 BC – 164 BC) was a Hellenistic Greek king of the Seleucid Empire from 175 BC until his death in 164 BC.
Antiochus V Eupator (Greek: Αντίοχος Ε' Ευπάτωρ, whose epithet means "of a good father"; ca. 172 BC – 161 BC) was a ruler of the Greek Seleucid Empire who reigned 163–161 BC (based on dates from 1 Maccabees 6:16 and 7:1).
Antiochus VI Dionysus (c. 148–142/1 BC), king of the Hellenistic Seleucid kingdom, was the son of Alexander Balas and Cleopatra Thea, daughter of Ptolemy VI of Egypt.
Antiochus VII Euergetes (Ἀντίοχος Ζ΄ Ευεργέτης), nicknamed Sidetes (Σιδήτης) (from Side, a city in Asia Minor), ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire, reigned from 138 to 129 BC.
Antiochus XIII Philadelphus, known as Asiaticus was one of the last rulers of the Seleucid kingdom.
Appian of Alexandria (Ἀππιανὸς Ἀλεξανδρεύς Appianòs Alexandreús; Appianus Alexandrinus) was a Greek historian with Roman citizenship who flourished during the reigns of Emperors of Rome Trajan, Hadrian, and Antoninus Pius.
Arachosia is the Hellenized name of an ancient satrapy in the eastern part of the Achaemenid, Seleucid, Parthian, Greco-Bactrian, and Indo-Scythian empires.
Aramaic (אַרָמָיָא Arāmāyā, ܐܪܡܝܐ, آرامية) is a language or group of languages belonging to the Semitic subfamily of the Afroasiatic language family.
Ariana, the Latinized form of the Ancient Greek Ἀρ(ε)ιανή Ar(e)ianē (inhabitants: Ariani; Ἀρ(ε)ιανοί Ar(e)ianoi), was a general geographical term used by some Greek and Roman authors of the ancient period for a district of wide extent between Central Asia and the Indus River, compromising the eastern provinces of the Achaemenid Empire that covered the whole of modern-day Afghanistan, as well as the easternmost part of Iran and up to the Indus River in Pakistan (former Northern India).
Ariarathes III (Ἀριαράθης, Ariaráthēs; reigned 262 or 255 – 220 BC), son of Ariamnes, ruler of Cappadocia, and grandson of Ariarathes II, married Stratonice, a daughter of Antiochus II, king of Syria and wife Laodice I, and obtained a share in the government during the lifetime of his father.
Armenia (translit), officially the Republic of Armenia (translit), is a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia.
Armenians (հայեր, hayer) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands.
Arsaces I (from Ἀρσάκης; in 𐭀𐭓𐭔𐭊 Aršak, Persian Ashk اشک) was the founder of the Arsacid dynasty of Parthia, and after whom all 30+ monarchs of the Arsacid empire officially named themselves.
Ashoka (died 232 BCE), or Ashoka the Great, was an Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty, who ruled almost all of the Indian subcontinent from to 232 BCE.
Assyrian people (ܐܫܘܪܝܐ), or Syriacs (see terms for Syriac Christians), are an ethnic group indigenous to the Middle East.
The Attalid dynasty (Δυναστεία των Ατταλιδών Dynasteía ton Attalidón) was a Hellenistic dynasty that ruled the city of Pergamon in Asia Minor after the death of Lysimachus, a general of Alexander the Great.
Babylon (KA2.DIĜIR.RAKI Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; بَابِل, Bābil; בָּבֶל, Bavel; ܒܒܠ, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC.
Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).
Babylonian religion is the religious practice of Babylonia.
Bactria or Bactriana was the name of a historical region in Central Asia.
Balōchistān (بلوچستان; also Balūchistān or Balūchestān, often interpreted as the Land of the Baloch) is an arid desert and mountainous region in south-western Asia.
Balochistan (bəloːt͡ʃɪs't̪ɑːn) (بلوچِستان), is one of the five provinces of Pakistan.
The Battle of Cana was fought between Greek Seleucid king Antiochus XII Dionysus and the Arab Nabataean Kingdom.
The Battle of Corupedium, also called Corupedion or Curupedion (Κύρου πεδίον or Κόρου πεδίον, "the plain of Kyros or Koros") is the name of the last battle of the Diadochi, the rival successors to Alexander the Great.
The Battle of Ipsus (Ἱψός) was fought between some of the Diadochi (the successors of Alexander the Great) in 301 BC near the village of that name in Phrygia.
The Battle of Magnesia was the concluding battle of the Roman–Seleucid War, fought in 190 BC near Magnesia ad Sipylum on the plains of Lydia between Romans, led by the consul Lucius Cornelius Scipio and the Roman ally Eumenes II of Pergamum, and the army of Antiochus III the Great of the Seleucid Empire.
The Battle of Panium (also known as Paneion, Πάνειον, or Paneas, Πανειάς) was fought in 200 BC near Paneas (Caesarea Philippi) between Seleucid and Ptolemaic forces as part of the Fifth Syrian War.
The Battle of Raphia, also known as the Battle of Gaza, was a battle fought on 22 June 217 BC near modern Rafah between the forces of Ptolemy IV Philopator, king and pharaoh of Ptolemaic Egypt and Antiochus III the Great of the Seleucid Empire during the Syrian Wars.
The Battle of the Arius was an engagement that was fought in 208 BC between the Seleucid Empire and the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom.
The Battle of Thermopylae was fought in 191 BC between a Roman army led by consul Manius Acilius Glabrio and a Seleucid force led by King Antiochus III the Great.
Bihar is an Indian state considered to be a part of Eastern as well as Northern India.
Bindusara was the second Mauryan emperor of India.
Bithynia (Koine Greek: Βιθυνία, Bithynía) was an ancient region, kingdom and Roman province in the northwest of Asia Minor, adjoining the Propontis, the Thracian Bosporus and the Euxine Sea.
Buddhism is the world's fourth-largest religion with over 520 million followers, or over 7% of the global population, known as Buddhists.
A business person (also businessman or businesswoman) is a person involved in the business sector – in particular someone undertaking activities (commercial or industrial) for the purpose of generating cash flow, sales, and revenue utilizing a combination of human, financial, intellectual and physical capital with a view to fuelling economic development and growth.
Cappadocia (also Capadocia; Καππαδοκία, Kappadokía, from Katpatuka, Kapadokya) is a historical region in Central Anatolia, largely in the Nevşehir, Kayseri, Kırşehir, Aksaray, and Niğde Provinces in Turkey.
Carthage (from Carthago; Punic:, Qart-ḥadašt, "New City") was the center or capital city of the ancient Carthaginian civilization, on the eastern side of the Lake of Tunis in what is now the Tunis Governorate in Tunisia.
The Celts (see pronunciation of ''Celt'' for different usages) were an Indo-European people in Iron Age and Medieval Europe who spoke Celtic languages and had cultural similarities, although the relationship between ethnic, linguistic and cultural factors in the Celtic world remains uncertain and controversial.
Chandragupta Maurya (reign: 321–297 BCE) was the founder of the Maurya Empire in ancient India.
Chiliarch (from χιλίαρχος, chiliarchos, sometimes χιλιάρχης, chiliarches or χειλίαρχος, cheiliarchos; meaning "commander of a thousand" and occasionally rendered "thousandman" in English) is a military rank dating back to Antiquity.
Cilician pirates dominated the Mediterranean Sea from the 2nd century BC until their speedy suppression by Pompey in 67-66 BC.
Coele-Syria, Coele Syria, Coelesyria (Κοίλη Συρία, Koílē Syría), also rendered as Coelosyria and Celesyria, otherwise Hollow Syria (Cava Syria, Hohl Syrien), was a region of Syria in classical antiquity.
The Companions (ἑταῖροι, hetairoi) were the elite cavalry of the Macedonian army from the time of king Philip II of Macedon, achieved their greatest prestige under Alexander the Great, and have been regarded as the best cavalry in the ancient world and the first shock cavalry.
Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.
The Dardanelles (Çanakkale Boğazı, translit), also known from Classical Antiquity as the Hellespont (Ἑλλήσποντος, Hellespontos, literally "Sea of Helle"), is a narrow, natural strait and internationally-significant waterway in northwestern Turkey that forms part of the continental boundary between Europe and Asia, and separates Asian Turkey from European Turkey.
Darius III (c. 380 – July 330 BC), originally named Artashata and called Codomannus by the Greeks, was the last king of the Achaemenid Empire of Persia from 336 BC to 330 BC.
Deimachus (Greek Δηίμαχος) was a Greek of the Seleucid Empire who lived during the third-century BCE.
Demetrius I (Greek: Δημήτριος Α΄) was a Greek king (reigned c. 200–180 BC) of Gandhara.
Demetrius I (Greek: Δημήτριος Α`, born 185 BC, reigned 161–150 BC), surnamed Soter (Greek: Σωτήρ - "Savior"), was a ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire.
Demetrius II (Δημήτριος Β`, Dēmḗtrios B; died 125 BC), called Nicator (Νικάτωρ, Nikátōr, "the Victor"), was one of the sons of Demetrius I Soter possibly by Laodice V, as was his brother Antiochus VII Sidetes.
The Diadochi (plural of Latin Diadochus, from Διάδοχοι, Diádokhoi, "successors") were the rival generals, families, and friends of Alexander the Great who fought for control over his empire after his death in 323 BC.
Diodorus Siculus (Διόδωρος Σικελιώτης Diodoros Sikeliotes) (1st century BC) or Diodorus of Sicily was a Greek historian.
Diodotus I Soter (Greek: Διόδοτος Α' ὁ Σωτήρ; epithet means "the Saviour"; c. 285 BC – c. 239 BC) was Seleucid satrap of Bactria, rebelled against Seleucid rule soon after the death of Antiochus II in c. 255 or 246 BC, and wrested independence for his territory, the Greco-Bactrian Kingdom.
Diodotus Tryphon (Διόδοτος Τρύφων) was a king of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire who initially acted as regent and tutor for the son of Alexander Balas, but soon declared himself king in 142 BC after the death of his charge, Antiochus VI Dionysus, and reigned until his own death in 138 BC.
Dionysius (Διονύσιος) was a Greek of the 3rd century BCE, who was sent as ambassador to the court of the Indian emperor Ashoka, by Ptolemy Philadelphus.
The Edicts of Ashoka are a collection of 33 inscriptions on the Pillars of Ashoka as well as boulders and cave walls made by the Emperor Ashoka of the Mauryan Empire during his reign from 269 BCE to 232 BCE.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Elephants are large mammals of the family Elephantidae and the order Proboscidea.
Evelyn Shirley Shuckburgh (12 July 1843 – 10 July 1906) was an English academic and schoolmaster, known as classical scholar and translator.
Gaius Popillius Laenas (the alternative spellings Popilius and Laena are fairly common) twice served as one of the two consuls of the Roman Republic, in 172 and 158 BC.
Ancient Galatia (Γαλατία, Galatía) was an area in the highlands of central Anatolia (Ankara, Çorum, Yozgat Province) in modern Turkey.
Gedrosia (Γεδρωσία) is the Hellenized name of the part of coastal Baluchistan that roughly corresponds to today's Makran.
The Geographica (Ancient Greek: Γεωγραφικά Geōgraphiká), or Geography, is an encyclopedia of geographical knowledge, consisting of 17 'books', written in Greek by Strabo, an educated citizen of the Roman Empire of Greek descent.
The Greco-Bactrian Kingdom was – along with the Indo-Greek Kingdom – the easternmost part of the Hellenistic world, covering Bactria and Sogdiana in Central Asia from 250 to 125 BC.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
The Greeks or Hellenes (Έλληνες, Éllines) are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, southern Albania, Italy, Turkey, Egypt and, to a lesser extent, other countries surrounding the Mediterranean Sea. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world.. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, but the Greek people have always been centered on the Aegean and Ionian seas, where the Greek language has been spoken since the Bronze Age.. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, the Black Sea coast, Cappadocia in central Anatolia, Egypt, the Balkans, Cyprus, and Constantinople. Many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of ancient Greek colonization. The cultural centers of the Greeks have included Athens, Thessalonica, Alexandria, Smyrna, and Constantinople at various periods. Most ethnic Greeks live nowadays within the borders of the modern Greek state and Cyprus. The Greek genocide and population exchange between Greece and Turkey nearly ended the three millennia-old Greek presence in Asia Minor. Other longstanding Greek populations can be found from southern Italy to the Caucasus and southern Russia and Ukraine and in the Greek diaspora communities in a number of other countries. Today, most Greeks are officially registered as members of the Greek Orthodox Church.CIA World Factbook on Greece: Greek Orthodox 98%, Greek Muslim 1.3%, other 0.7%. Greeks have greatly influenced and contributed to culture, arts, exploration, literature, philosophy, politics, architecture, music, mathematics, science and technology, business, cuisine, and sports, both historically and contemporarily.
Hannibal Barca (𐤇𐤍𐤁𐤏𐤋 𐤁𐤓𐤒 ḥnb‘l brq; 247 – between 183 and 181 BC) was a Carthaginian general, considered one of the greatest military commanders in history.
Hanukkah (חֲנֻכָּה, Tiberian:, usually spelled rtl, pronounced in Modern Hebrew, or in Yiddish; a transliteration also romanized as Chanukah or Ḥanukah) is a Jewish holiday commemorating the rededication of the Holy Temple (the Second Temple) in Jerusalem at the time of the Maccabean Revolt against the Seleucid Empire.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
The Hasmonean dynasty (חַשְׁמוֹנַּאִים, Ḥašmōna'īm) was a ruling dynasty of Judea and surrounding regions during classical antiquity.
Heliodorus (Ἡλιόδωρος) was a legate of Seleucus IV Philopator c. 187 BC – 175 BC.
In the context of ancient Greek art, architecture, and culture, Hellenistic Greece corresponds to the period between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the annexation of the classical Greek heartlands by the Roman Republic.
The Hellenistic period covers the period of Mediterranean history between the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC and the emergence of the Roman Empire as signified by the Battle of Actium in 31 BC and the subsequent conquest of Ptolemaic Egypt the following year.
Hellenization or Hellenisation is the historical spread of ancient Greek culture, religion and, to a lesser extent, language, over foreign peoples conquered by Greeks or brought into their sphere of influence, particularly during the Hellenistic period following the campaigns of Alexander the Great in the fourth century BC.
The Hindu Kush, also known in Ancient Greek as the Caucasus Indicus (Καύκασος Ινδικός) or Paropamisadae (Παροπαμισάδαι), in Pashto and Persian as, Hindu Kush is an mountain range that stretches near the Afghan-Pakistan border,, Quote: "The Hindu Kush mountains run along the Afghan border with the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan".
The history of Afghanistan, (تاریخ افغانستان, د افغانستان تاريخ) began in 1747 with its establishment by Ahmad Shah Durrani.
The Kingdom of Israel and the Kingdom of Judah were related kingdoms from the Iron Age period of the ancient Levant.
The history of India includes the prehistoric settlements and societies in the Indian subcontinent; the advancement of civilisation from the Indus Valley Civilisation to the eventual blending of the Indo-Aryan culture to form the Vedic Civilisation; the rise of Hinduism, Jainism and Buddhism;Sanderson, Alexis (2009), "The Śaiva Age: The Rise and Dominance of Śaivism during the Early Medieval Period." In: Genesis and Development of Tantrism, edited by Shingo Einoo, Tokyo: Institute of Oriental Culture, University of Tokyo, 2009.
Ilium or Ilion (Ίλιον) was an ancient Greek city in the region of Epirus.
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indo-Greek Kingdom or Graeco-Indian Kingdom was an Hellenistic kingdom covering various parts of Afghanistan and the northwest regions of the Indian subcontinent (parts of modern Pakistan and northwestern India), during the last two centuries BC and was ruled by more than thirty kings, often conflicting with one another.
The Indus River (also called the Sindhū) is one of the longest rivers in Asia.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
Jews (יְהוּדִים ISO 259-3, Israeli pronunciation) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and a nation, originating from the Israelites Israelite origins and kingdom: "The first act in the long drama of Jewish history is the age of the Israelites""The people of the Kingdom of Israel and the ethnic and religious group known as the Jewish people that descended from them have been subjected to a number of forced migrations in their history" and Hebrews of the Ancient Near East.
John Hyrcanus (Yōḥānān Hurqanōs; Ἰωάννης Ὑρκανός Iōánnēs Urkanós) was a Hasmonean (Maccabeean) leader and Jewish high priest of the 2nd century BCE (born 164 BCE, reigned from 134 BCE until his death in 104 BCE).
Judaism (originally from Hebrew, Yehudah, "Judah"; via Latin and Greek) is the religion of the Jewish people.
Judea or Judæa (from יהודה, Standard Yəhuda, Tiberian Yəhûḏāh, Ἰουδαία,; Iūdaea, يهودا, Yahudia) is the ancient Hebrew and Israelite biblical, the exonymic Roman/English, and the modern-day name of the mountainous southern part of Canaan-Israel.
Kandahār or Qandahār (کندهار; قندهار; known in older literature as Candahar) is the second-largest city in Afghanistan, with a population of about 557,118.
The Kingdom of Armenia, also the Kingdom of Greater Armenia, or simply Greater Armenia (Մեծ Հայք; Armenia Maior), was a monarchy in the Ancient Near East which existed from 321 BC to 428 AD.
The Kingdom of Pontus or Pontic Empire was a state founded by the Persian Mithridatic dynasty,http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/pontus which may have been directly related to Darius the Great and the Achaemenid dynasty.
Kuwait (الكويت, or), officially the State of Kuwait (دولة الكويت), is a country in Western Asia.
The Levant is an approximate historical geographical term referring to a large area in the Eastern Mediterranean.
The Seleucid dynasty or the Seleucidae (from Σελευκίδαι, Seleukídai) was a Greek Macedonian royal family, founded by Seleucus I Nicator ("the Victor"), which ruled the Seleucid Empire centered in the Near East and regions of the Asian part of the earlier Achaemenid Persian Empire during the Hellenistic period.
The Syrian monarchs ruled Syria as kings and queens regnant.
Lord of Asia (Κύριος της Ασίας) was the title given to Alexander the Great after the Battle of Gaugamela in 331 BC.
Lucius Licinius Lucullus (118 – 57/56 BC) was an optimate politician of the late Roman Republic, closely connected with Lucius Cornelius Sulla.
Lysimachus (Greek: Λυσίμαχος, Lysimachos; c. 360 BC – 281 BC) was a Macedonian officer and diadochus (i.e. "successor") of Alexander the Great, who became a basileus ("King") in 306 BC, ruling Thrace, Asia Minor and Macedon.
The Maccabean Revolt (מרד החשמונאים) was a Jewish rebellion, lasting from 167 to 160 BC, led by the Maccabees against the Seleucid Empire and the Hellenistic influence on Jewish life.
The Maccabees, also spelled Machabees (מכבים or, Maqabim; or Maccabaei; Μακκαβαῖοι, Makkabaioi), were a group of Jewish rebel warriors who took control of Judea, which at the time was part of the Seleucid Empire.
Macedonia or Macedon (Μακεδονία, Makedonía) was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece, and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece.
The Maurya Empire was a geographically-extensive Iron Age historical power founded by Chandragupta Maurya which dominated ancient India between 322 BCE and 180 BCE.
The Medes (Old Persian Māda-, Μῆδοι, מָדַי) were an ancient Iranian people who lived in an area known as Media (northwestern Iran) and who spoke the Median language. At around 1100 to 1000 BC, they inhabited the mountainous area of northwestern Iran and the northeastern and eastern region of Mesopotamia and located in the Hamadan (Ecbatana) region. Their emergence in Iran is thought to have occurred between 800 BC and 700 BC, and in the 7th century the whole of western Iran and some other territories were under Median rule. Its precise geographical extent remains unknown. A few archaeological sites (discovered in the "Median triangle" in western Iran) and textual sources (from contemporary Assyrians and also ancient Greeks in later centuries) provide a brief documentation of the history and culture of the Median state. Apart from a few personal names, the language of the Medes is unknown. The Medes had an ancient Iranian religion (a form of pre-Zoroastrian Mazdaism or Mithra worshipping) with a priesthood named as "Magi". Later during the reigns of the last Median kings, the reforms of Zoroaster spread into western Iran.
Megasthenes (Μεγασθένης, c. 350 – c. 290 BC) was an ancient Greek historian, diplomat and Indian ethnographer and explorer in the Hellenistic period.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
Mithridates or Mithradates I (Parthian: Mihrdat, مهرداد, Mehrdād), (ca. 195 BC – 132 BC) was king of the Parthian Empire from 165 BC to 132 BC, succeeding his brother Phraates I. His father was King Phriapatius of Parthia, who died ca.
Mithridates VI or Mithradates VI (Μιθραδάτης, Μιθριδάτης), from Old Persian Miθradāta, "gift of Mithra"; 135–63 BC, also known as Mithradates the Great (Megas) and Eupator Dionysius, was king of Pontus and Armenia Minor in northern Anatolia (now Turkey) from about 120–63 BC.
The Nabataean Kingdom (المملكة النبطية), also named Nabatea, was a political state of the Arab Nabataeans during classical antiquity.
The Near East is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia.
The Nisean horse, or Nisaean horse is an extinct horse breed, once native to the town of Nisaia, located in the Nisaean Plains at the foot of the southern region of the Zagros Mountains, Iran.
Otava Publishing Company Ltd (Kustannusosakeyhtiö Otava, Förlagsaktiebolaget Otava) is a major Finnish publisher of books.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
The Parni (Πάρνοι, Parnoi) or Aparni (Ἄπαρνοι, Aparnoi) were an east Iranian people.
In 247 BC, Andragoras, the Seleucid governor (satrap) of Parthia ("roughly western Khurasan".) proclaimed independence from the Seleucids, when - following the death of Antiochus II - Ptolemy III seized control of the Seleucid capital at Antioch, and "so left the future of the Seleucid dynasty for a moment in question.". Meanwhile, "a man called Arsaces, of Scythian or Bactrian origin, elected leader of the Parni tribes." Following the secession of Parthia from the Seleucid Empire and the resultant loss of Seleucid military support, Andragoras had difficulty in maintaining his borders, and about 238 BCE—under the command of "Arsaces and his brother Tiridates".
Parthia (𐎱𐎼𐎰𐎺 Parθava; 𐭐𐭓𐭕𐭅 Parθaw; 𐭯𐭫𐭮𐭥𐭡𐭥 Pahlaw) is a historical region located in north-eastern Iran.
The Parthian Empire (247 BC – 224 AD), also known as the Arsacid Empire, was a major Iranian political and cultural power in ancient Iran and Iraq.
The Partition of Babylon designates the attribution of the territories of Alexander the Great between his generals after his death in 323 BC.
The Partition of Triparadisus was a power-sharing agreement passed at Triparadisus in 321 BCE between the generals (Diadochi) of Alexander the Great, in which they named a new regent and arranged the repartition of the satrapies of Alexander's empire among themselves.
Pataliputra (IAST), adjacent to modern-day Patna, was a city in ancient India, originally built by Magadha ruler Udayin in 490 BCE as a small fort near the Ganges river.
Patna is the capital and largest city of the state of Bihar in India.
Pen and Sword Books is a British publisher which specializes in printing and distributing books on military history, militaria and other niche subjects.
Perdiccas (Περδίκκας, Perdikkas; c. 355 BC – 321/320 BC) became a general in Alexander the Great's army and participated in Alexander's campaign against Persia.
Pergamon, or Pergamum (τὸ Πέργαμον or ἡ Πέργαμος), was a rich and powerful ancient Greek city in Aeolis.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.
The Persians--> are an Iranian ethnic group that make up over half the population of Iran.
Philip II Philoromaeus (Φίλιππος ὁ Φιλορωμαῖος, "Friend of the Romans") or Barypous (Βαρύπους, "Heavy-foot"), a ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid kingdom, was the son of the Seleucid king Philip I Philadelphus.
Philip V (Φίλιππος; 238–179 BC) was King (Basileus) of the ancient kingdom of Macedonia from 221 to 179 BC.
Phraates II was king of the Parthian Empire from 132 BC to 126 BC.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus (29 September 106 BC – 28 September 48 BC), usually known in English as Pompey or Pompey the Great, was a military and political leader of the late Roman Republic.
Pontus (translit, "Sea") is a historical Greek designation for a region on the southern coast of the Black Sea, located in modern-day eastern Black Sea Region of Turkey.
A proconsul was an official of ancient Rome who acted on behalf of a consul.
The Ptolemaic Kingdom (Πτολεμαϊκὴ βασιλεία, Ptolemaïkḕ basileía) was a Hellenistic kingdom based in Egypt.
Ptolemy I Soter (Πτολεμαῖος Σωτήρ, Ptolemaĩos Sōtḗr "Ptolemy the Savior"; c. 367 BC – 283/2 BC), also known as Ptolemy of Lagus (Πτολεμαῖος ὁ Λάγου/Λαγίδης), was a Macedonian Greek general under Alexander the Great, one of the three Diadochi who succeeded to his empire.
Ptolemy II Philadelphus (Πτολεμαῖος Φιλάδελφος, Ptolemaîos Philádelphos "Ptolemy Beloved of his Sibling"; 308/9–246 BCE) was the king of Ptolemaic Egypt from 283 to 246 BCE.
Ptolemy III Euergetes (Πτολεμαῖος Εὐεργέτης, Ptolemaĩos Euergétēs "Ptolemy the Benefactor"; 284–222 BC) was the third king of the Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt from 246 to 222 BCE.
Ptolemy IV Philopator (Πτολεμαῖος Φιλοπάτωρ, Ptolemaĩos Philopátōr "Ptolemy Beloved of his Father"; 245/4–204 BC), son of Ptolemy III and Berenice II, was the fourth Pharaoh of Ptolemaic Egypt from 221 to 204 BC.
Ptolemy Keraunos (Πτολεμαῖος Κεραυνός, after 321 BC – 279 BC) was the King of Macedon from 281 BC to 279 BC.
Ptolemy V Epiphanes (Πτολεμαῖος Ἐπιφανής, Ptolemaĩos Epiphanḗs "Ptolemy the Illustrious"); 210–181 BC), son of Ptolemy IV Philopator and Arsinoe III of Egypt, was the fifth ruler of the Ptolemaic dynasty from 204 to 181 BC. He inherited the throne at the age of five, and under a series of regents, the kingdom was paralyzed. The Rosetta Stone was produced during his reign as an adult.
The Punjab, also spelled Panjab (land of "five rivers"; Punjabi: پنجاب (Shahmukhi); ਪੰਜਾਬ (Gurumukhi); Πενταποταμία, Pentapotamia) is a geographical and cultural region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, comprising areas of eastern Pakistan and northern India.
Rhodes (Ρόδος, Ródos) is the principal city and a former municipality on the island of Rhodes in the Dodecanese, Greece.
The Roman army (Latin: exercitus Romanus) is a term that can in general be applied to the terrestrial armed forces deployed by the Romans throughout the duration of Ancient Rome, from the Roman Kingdom (to c. 500 BC) to the Roman Republic (500–31 BC) and the Roman Empire (31 BC – 395), and its medieval continuation the Eastern Roman Empire.
In Ancient Rome, a province (Latin: provincia, pl. provinciae) was the basic and, until the Tetrarchy (from 293 AD), the largest territorial and administrative unit of the empire's territorial possessions outside Italy.
The Roman Republic (Res publica Romana) was the era of classical Roman civilization beginning with the overthrow of the Roman Kingdom, traditionally dated to 509 BC, and ending in 27 BC with the establishment of the Roman Empire.
Syria was an early Roman province, annexed to the Roman Republic in 64 BC by Pompey in the Third Mithridatic War, following the defeat of Armenian King Tigranes the Great.
The Roman–Seleucid War (192–188 BC), also known as the War of Antiochos or the Syrian War, was a military conflict between two coalitions led by the Roman Republic and the Seleucid Empire.
A rump state is the remnant of a once much larger state, left with a reduced territory in the wake of secession, annexation, occupation, decolonization, or a successful coup d'état or revolution on part of its former territory.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism; a philosophical language of Hinduism, Sikhism, Buddhism and Jainism; and a former literary language and lingua franca for the educated of ancient and medieval India.
Satraps were the governors of the provinces of the ancient Median and Achaemenid Empires and in several of their successors, such as in the Sasanian Empire and the Hellenistic empires.
Seleucia, also known as or, was a major Mesopotamian city of the Seleucid, Parthian, and Sasanian empires.
The Seleucid army was the army of the Seleucid Empire, one of the numerous Hellenistic states that emerged after the death of Alexander the Great.
The Seleucid–Mauryan War was fought between 305 and 303 BCE.
Seleucus I Nicator (Σέλευκος Α΄ Νικάτωρ Séleukos Α΄ Nikátōr; "Seleucus the Victor") was one of the Diadochi.
Seleucus II Callinicus Pogon (Σέλευκος Β΄ ὁ Καλλίνικος ὁ Πώγων; Kallinikos means "gloriously triumphant"; Pogon means "the Beard"; 265–225 BCE), was a ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire, who reigned from 246 to 225 BC.
Seleucus IV Philopator (Greek: Σέλευκος Δ΄ Φιλοπάτωρ; c. 218 – 175 BC), ruler of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire, reigned from 187 BC to 175 BC over a realm consisting of Syria (now including Cilicia and Judea), Mesopotamia, Babylonia and Nearer Iran (Media and Persia).
The Siege of Bactra was a siege of the Hellenistic period that lasted from 208 to 206 BC.
Sogdia or Sogdiana was an ancient Iranian civilization that at different times included territory located in present-day Tajikistan and Uzbekistan such as: Samarkand, Bukhara, Khujand, Panjikent and Shahrisabz.
Sophagasenos also spelt Sophagasenus or Sophagasenas (Sanskrit: Subhagasena) was a local Indian king ruling in Kabul and Kapisa valley (Paropamisade of the classical writings) during the last decade of 3rd century BCE.
Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
Lucius Cornelius Sulla Felix (c. 138 BC – 78 BC), known commonly as Sulla, was a Roman general and statesman.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
The Syrian Wars were a series of six wars between the Seleucid Empire and the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, successor states to Alexander the Great's empire, during the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC over the region then called Coele-Syria, one of the few avenues into Egypt.
The Taurus Mountains (Turkish: Toros Dağları, Armenian: Թորոս լեռներ, Ancient Greek: Ὄρη Ταύρου) are a mountain complex in southern Turkey, separating the Mediterranean coastal region of southern Turkey from the central Anatolian Plateau.
The tetradrachm (τετράδραχμον, tetrádrakhmon) was an Ancient Greek silver coin equivalent to four drachmae.
The Journal of Hellenic Studies is a peer-reviewed academic journal covering research in Hellenic studies.
Thrace (Modern Θράκη, Thráki; Тракия, Trakiya; Trakya) is a geographical and historical area in southeast Europe, now split between Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey, which is bounded by the Balkan Mountains to the north, the Aegean Sea to the south and the Black Sea to the east.
Tigranes II, more commonly known as Tigranes the Great (Տիգրան Մեծ, Tigran Mets; Τιγράνης ὁ Μέγας Tigránes ho Mégas; Tigranes Magnus) (140 – 55 BC) was King of Armenia under whom the country became, for a short time, the strongest state to Rome's east.
The Treaty of Apamea of 188 BC, was peace treaty between the Roman Republic and Antiochus III, ruler of the Seleucid Empire.
Turkmenistan (or; Türkmenistan), (formerly known as Turkmenia) is a sovereign state in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west.
Vincent Arthur Smith,, (1848–1920) was a British Indologist and art historian.
A war elephant is an elephant that is trained and guided by humans for combat.
War reparations are payments made after a war by the vanquished to the victors.
The Wars of the Diadochi (Πόλεμοι των Διαδόχων), or Wars of Alexander's Successors, were a series of conflicts fought between Alexander the Great's generals over the rule of his vast empire after his death.
Zoroastrianism, or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, which is monotheistic in having a single creator god, has dualistic cosmology in its concept of good and evil, and has an eschatology which predicts the ultimate destruction of evil.
Hellenistic Babylonia, Seleucid, Seleucid Babylonia, Seleucid Dynasty, Seleucid Iraq, Seleucid Kingdom, Seleucid Ruler, Seleucid Syria, Seleucid empire, Seleucid kingdom, Seleucid rulers, Seleucidae, Seleucids, Seleukid, Seleukid Empire, Seleukid Kingdom, Seleukid kingdom, Selucid, Solucid Empire, The Seleucid Dynasty, The Seleucids.