199 relations: Achaeus (son of Seleucus I Nicator), Afghanistan, Agathocles (son of Lysimachus), Agathocles of Syracuse, Alexander IV of Macedon, Alexander the Great, Alexandria, Anatolia, Anchor, Ancient Greek religion, Antigenes (general), Antigonus I Monophthalmus, Antioch, Antiochus (father of Seleucus I Nicator), Antiochus I Soter, Antipater, Apama, Apamea, Syria, Aphrodisiac, Apollo, Appian, Arachosia, Archon of Pella, Argyraspides, Aria, Aria (region), Arrian, Asander, Asia, Athenaeus, Athens, Babylon, Babylonia, Bactria, Balikh River, Balochistan, Pakistan, Basileus, Battle of Corupedium, Battle of Gabiene, Battle of Gaza (312 BC), Battle of Ipsus, Battle of Paraitakene, Battle of the Hydaspes, Bhavishya Purana, Bihar, Bindusara, Calinipaxa, Cappadocia, Caria, Cassander, ..., Chaldea, Chandragupta Maurya, Chiliarch, Chronology of European exploration of Asia, Cilicia, Cleopatra of Macedon, Companion cavalry, Cornelius Nepos, Craterus, Darius III, Demetrius I of Macedon, Diadem, Diadochi, Didyma, Didymeia (sister of Seleucus I Nicator), Diodorus Siculus, Docimus, Dura-Europos, Edicts of Ashoka, Egypt, Elam, Epigamia, Erythrae, Eudemus (general), Eumenes, Europos (Macedonia), Eurydice, Eusebius, Gallipoli, Ganges, Gedrosia, Greek language, Harvard University Press, Hephaestion, Herat, Herculaneum, Hindu Kush, India, Indian campaign of Alexander the Great, Indus River, Iran, Jhelum River, John Malalas, Justin (historian), Kabul River, Kandahar, Kassites, Laodice of Macedonia, Laodicea in Syria, Latin, Lemnos, Leonnatus, List of monarchs of Persia, List of Seleucid rulers, Lydia, Lysandra, Lysimachia (Thrace), Lysimachus, Macedonia (ancient kingdom), Mallian Campaign, Maurya Empire, Media (region), Medius of Larissa, Megasthenes, Menelaus (son of Lagus), Mesopotamia, Miletus, Motilal Banarsidass, National Archaeological Museum, Naples, Near East, Nicanor (satrap), Nusaybin, Olympias, Orontes River, Paeonia (kingdom), Page (servant), Pakistan, Palestine (region), Paropamisadae, Parthia, Partition of Babylon, Partition of Triparadisus, Pataliputra, Patna, Patrocles (geographer), Peithon, Peithon (son of Agenor), Pelusium, Perdiccas, Pergamon, Persian Empire, Persian Gulf, Persis, Peucestas, Phila (daughter of Antipater), Phila (daughter of Seleucus), Philetaerus, Philip II of Macedon, Philip III of Macedon, Phoenicia, Pliny the Elder, Polyaenus, Polyperchon, Porus, Ptolemy (son of Seleucus), Ptolemy I Soter, Ptolemy II Philadelphus, Ptolemy Keraunos, Puranas, Rhodes, Rise of Macedon, Satrap, Seleucia, Seleucia Pieria, Seleucid Empire, Seleucid era, Seleucid–Mauryan war, Seleucus I Nicator, Serapis, Sibyrtius, Sidon, Sinai Peninsula, Sogdia, Somatophylakes, Spitamenes, Stasanor, Strabo, Stratonice of Syria, Susa, Susa weddings, Sutlej, Syr Darya, Syria, Syrian Wars, Taurus Mountains, The Anabasis of Alexander, Thrace, Thracia, Tigris, Tripoli, Lebanon, Trireme, Troy, Tyre, Lebanon, Vincent Arthur Smith, Walter Eugene Clark, War elephant, Wars of the Diadochi, Yamuna, Yona. Expand index (149 more) » « Shrink index
Achaeus (Ἀχαιός; flourished 3rd century BC) was a Greek Macedonian nobleman and was the second son born to King and founder of the Seleucid Empire Seleucus I Nicator and Persian noblewoman Apama I. Achaeus was of Greek and Persian descent.
Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.
Agathocles (Ἀγαθοκλῆς; between 320–310s – 284 BC) was a Greek prince of Macedonian and Thessalian descent.
Agathocles (Ἀγαθοκλῆς, Agathoklḗs; 361–289 BC) was a Greek tyrant of Syracuse (317–289 BC) and king of Sicily (304–289 BC).
Alexander IV (Greek: Ἀλέξανδρος Δ΄; 323–309 BC), erroneously called sometimes in modern times Aegus, was the son of Alexander the Great (Alexander III of Macedon) and Princess Roxana of Bactria.
Alexander III of Macedon (20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great (Aléxandros ho Mégas), was a king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty.
Alexandria (or; Arabic: الإسكندرية; Egyptian Arabic: إسكندرية; Ⲁⲗⲉⲝⲁⲛⲇⲣⲓⲁ; Ⲣⲁⲕⲟⲧⲉ) is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country.
Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.
An anchor is a device, normally made of metal, used to connect a vessel to the bed of a body of water to prevent the craft from drifting due to wind or current.
Ancient Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs, rituals, and mythology originating in ancient Greece in the form of both popular public religion and cult practices.
Antigenes (Aντιγένης; died 316 BC) was a general of Alexander the Great, who also served under Philip II of Macedon, and lost an eye at the siege of Perinthus (340 BC).
Antigonus I Monophthalmus (Antigonos ho Monophthalmos, Antigonus the One-eyed, 382–301 BC), son of Philip from Elimeia, was a Macedonian nobleman, general, and satrap under Alexander the Great.
Antioch on the Orontes (Antiókheia je epi Oróntou; also Syrian Antioch)Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Ὀρόντου; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ ἐπὶ Δάφνῃ, "Antioch on Daphne"; or Ἀντιόχεια ἡ Μεγάλη, "Antioch the Great"; Antiochia ad Orontem; Անտիոք Antiok; ܐܢܛܝܘܟܝܐ Anṭiokya; Hebrew: אנטיוכיה, Antiyokhya; Arabic: انطاكية, Anṭākiya; انطاکیه; Antakya.
Antiochus (Greek: Ἀντίοχος; fl. 4th century BC) was a Macedonian man who lived during the time of Philip II of Macedon (ruled 359-336 BC).
Antiochus I Soter (Ἀντίοχος Α΄ ὁ Σωτήρ; epithet means "the Saviour"; c. 324/3261 BC), was a king of the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire.
Antipater (Ἀντίπατρος Antipatros; c. 397 BC319 BC) was a Macedonian general and statesman under kings Philip II of Macedon and Alexander the Great, and father of King Cassander.
Apama (Apáma), sometimes known as Apama I or Apame I, was the wife of the first ruler of the Seleucid Empire, Seleucus I Nicator.
Apamea (Ἀπάμεια, Apameia; آفاميا, Afamia), on the right bank of the Orontes River, was an ancient Greek and Roman city.
An aphrodisiac or love drug is a substance that increases libido when consumed.
Apollo (Attic, Ionic, and Homeric Greek: Ἀπόλλων, Apollōn (Ἀπόλλωνος); Doric: Ἀπέλλων, Apellōn; Arcadocypriot: Ἀπείλων, Apeilōn; Aeolic: Ἄπλουν, Aploun; Apollō) is one of the most important and complex of the Olympian deities in classical Greek and Roman religion and Greek and Roman mythology.
Appian of Alexandria (Ἀππιανὸς Ἀλεξανδρεύς Appianòs Alexandreús; Appianus Alexandrinus) was a Greek historian with Roman citizenship who flourished during the reigns of Emperors of Rome Trajan, Hadrian, and Antoninus Pius.
Arachosia is the Hellenized name of an ancient satrapy in the eastern part of the Achaemenid, Seleucid, Parthian, Greco-Bactrian, and Indo-Scythian empires.
Archon (Ancient Greek: Ἄρχων; died 321 BC) was a Pellaean, appointed satrap of Babylonia after the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC.
The Argyraspides (in Ἀργυράσπιδες "Silver Shields"), were a division of the Macedonian army of Alexander the Great, who were so called because they carried silver-plated shields.
An aria (air; plural: arie, or arias in common usage, diminutive form arietta or ariette) in music was originally any expressive melody, usually, but not always, performed by a singer.
Aria (Ἀρ(ε)ία Ar(e)ía, آريا; Latin Aria, representing Old Persian. Haraiva, Avestan Haraeuua) is the name of an Achaemenid region centered on the Herat city of present-day western Afghanistan.
Arrian of Nicomedia (Greek: Ἀρριανός Arrianos; Lucius Flavius Arrianus) was a Greek historian, public servant, military commander and philosopher of the Roman period.
Asander (Άσανδρoς; lived 4th century BC) was the son of Philotas and brother of Agathon.
Asia is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern and Northern Hemispheres.
Athenaeus of Naucratis (Ἀθήναιος Nαυκρατίτης or Nαυκράτιος, Athēnaios Naukratitēs or Naukratios; Athenaeus Naucratita) was a Greek rhetorician and grammarian, flourishing about the end of the 2nd and beginning of the 3rd century AD.
Athens (Αθήνα, Athína; Ἀθῆναι, Athênai) is the capital and largest city of Greece.
Babylon (KA2.DIĜIR.RAKI Bābili(m); Aramaic: בבל, Babel; بَابِل, Bābil; בָּבֶל, Bavel; ܒܒܠ, Bāwēl) was a key kingdom in ancient Mesopotamia from the 18th to 6th centuries BC.
Babylonia was an ancient Akkadian-speaking state and cultural area based in central-southern Mesopotamia (present-day Iraq).
Bactria or Bactriana was the name of a historical region in Central Asia.
The Balikh River (نهر البليخ) is a perennial river that originates in the spring of 'Ayn al-'Arus in Syria.
Balochistan (bəloːt͡ʃɪs't̪ɑːn) (بلوچِستان), is one of the five provinces of Pakistan.
Basileus (βασιλεύς) is a Greek term and title that has signified various types of monarchs in history.
The Battle of Corupedium, also called Corupedion or Curupedion (Κύρου πεδίον or Κόρου πεδίον, "the plain of Kyros or Koros") is the name of the last battle of the Diadochi, the rival successors to Alexander the Great.
Battle of Gabiene (316 BC) was a second great battle (after the Battle of Paraitakene) between two of Alexander the Great's successors: Antigonus and Eumenes in the Wars of the Diadochi.
The Battle of Gaza was a battle of the Third war of the Diadochi between Ptolemy and Seleucus against Demetrius (son of Antigonus I Monophthalmus).
The Battle of Ipsus (Ἱψός) was fought between some of the Diadochi (the successors of Alexander the Great) in 301 BC near the village of that name in Phrygia.
The Battle of Paraitakene (also called Paraetacene; Παραιτακηνή) was a battle in the wars of the successors of Alexander the Great (see Diadochi) between Antigonus I Monophthalmus and Eumenes.
The Battle of the Hydaspes was fought in 326 BC between Alexander the Great and King Porus of the Paurava kingdom on the banks of the river Jhelum (known to the Greeks as Hydaspes) in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent (modern-day Punjab, Pakistan).
The Bhavishya Purana is one of the eighteen major works in the Purana genre of Hinduism, written in Sanskrit.
Bihar is an Indian state considered to be a part of Eastern as well as Northern India.
Bindusara was the second Mauryan emperor of India.
Calinipaxa is a city in northern India described in ancient sources, and thought to be the modern Kanouge (Kannauj), on the Ganges.
Cappadocia (also Capadocia; Καππαδοκία, Kappadokía, from Katpatuka, Kapadokya) is a historical region in Central Anatolia, largely in the Nevşehir, Kayseri, Kırşehir, Aksaray, and Niğde Provinces in Turkey.
Caria (from Greek: Καρία, Karia, Karya) was a region of western Anatolia extending along the coast from mid-Ionia (Mycale) south to Lycia and east to Phrygia.
Cassander (Greek: Κάσσανδρος Ἀντιπάτρου, Kassandros Antipatrou; "son of Antipatros": c. 350 BC – 297 BC), was king of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon from 305 BC until 297 BC, and de facto ruler of much of Greece from 317 BC until his death.
Chaldea or Chaldaea was a Semitic-speaking nation that existed between the late 10th or early 9th and mid-6th centuries BC, after which it and its people were absorbed and assimilated into Babylonia.
Chandragupta Maurya (reign: 321–297 BCE) was the founder of the Maurya Empire in ancient India.
Chiliarch (from χιλίαρχος, chiliarchos, sometimes χιλιάρχης, chiliarches or χειλίαρχος, cheiliarchos; meaning "commander of a thousand" and occasionally rendered "thousandman" in English) is a military rank dating back to Antiquity.
This is a chronology of the early European exploration of Asia.
In antiquity, Cilicia(Armenian: Կիլիկիա) was the south coastal region of Asia Minor and existed as a political entity from Hittite times into the Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia during the late Byzantine Empire.
Cleopatra of Macedonia (Κλεοπάτρα; c. 355/354 BC – 308 BC), or Cleopatra of Epirus, was a Greek Epirote-Macedonian princess and later queen regent of Epirus.
The Companions (ἑταῖροι, hetairoi) were the elite cavalry of the Macedonian army from the time of king Philip II of Macedon, achieved their greatest prestige under Alexander the Great, and have been regarded as the best cavalry in the ancient world and the first shock cavalry.
Cornelius Nepos (c. 110 BC – c. 25 BC) was a Roman biographer.
Craterus or Krateros (Κρατερός; c. 370 BC – 321 BC) was an ancient Macedonian general under Alexander the Great and one of the Diadochi.
Darius III (c. 380 – July 330 BC), originally named Artashata and called Codomannus by the Greeks, was the last king of the Achaemenid Empire of Persia from 336 BC to 330 BC.
Demetrius I (Δημήτριος; 337–283 BC), called Poliorcetes (Πολιορκητής, "The Besieger"), son of Antigonus I Monophthalmus and Stratonice, was a Macedonian Greek nobleman, military leader, and finally king of Macedon (294–288 BC).
A diadem is a type of crown, specifically an ornamental headband worn by monarchs and others as a badge of royalty.
The Diadochi (plural of Latin Diadochus, from Διάδοχοι, Diádokhoi, "successors") were the rival generals, families, and friends of Alexander the Great who fought for control over his empire after his death in 323 BC.
Didyma (Δίδυμα) was an ancient Greek sanctuary on the coast of Ionia.
Didymeia (flourished 4th and 3rd centuries BC, Greek: η Δηιδάμεια) was a Greek Macedonian noblewoman.
Diodorus Siculus (Διόδωρος Σικελιώτης Diodoros Sikeliotes) (1st century BC) or Diodorus of Sicily was a Greek historian.
Antigonos Dokimos, commonly shortened and Latinized as Docimus (in Greek Δόκιμoς; lived 4th century BC), was one of the officers in the Macedonian army.
Dura-Europos (Δοῦρα Εὐρωπός), also spelled Dura-Europus, was a Hellenistic, Parthian and Roman border city built on an escarpment above the right bank of the Euphrates river.
The Edicts of Ashoka are a collection of 33 inscriptions on the Pillars of Ashoka as well as boulders and cave walls made by the Emperor Ashoka of the Mauryan Empire during his reign from 269 BCE to 232 BCE.
Egypt (مِصر, مَصر, Khēmi), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula.
Elam (Elamite: haltamti, Sumerian: NIM.MAki) was an ancient Pre-Iranian civilization centered in the far west and southwest of what is now modern-day Iran, stretching from the lowlands of what is now Khuzestan and Ilam Province as well as a small part of southern Iraq.
In ancient Athens "epigamia" (ἐπιγαμία) designated the legal right to contract a marriage.
Erythrae or Erythrai (Ἐρυθραί) later Litri, was one of the twelve Ionian cities of Asia Minor, situated 22 km north-east of the port of Cyssus (modern name: Çeşme), on a small peninsula stretching into the Bay of Erythrae, at an equal distance from the mountains Mimas and Corycus, and directly opposite the island of Chios.
Eudemus (Εὔδημος; died 316 BC) was one of Alexander the Great's generals.
Eumenes of Cardia (Εὐμένης; c. 362 – 316 BC) was a Greek general and scholar.
Europos (Εὐρωπός) was the name of a number of cities in ancient Macedonia, in the regions of Bottiaea, Almopia, Axius and lower Paionia.
In Greek mythology, Eurydice (Εὐρυδίκη, Eurydikē) was an oak nymph or one of the daughters of Apollo.
Eusebius of Caesarea (Εὐσέβιος τῆς Καισαρείας, Eusébios tés Kaisareías; 260/265 – 339/340), also known as Eusebius Pamphili (from the Εὐσέβιος τοῦ Παμϕίλου), was a historian of Christianity, exegete, and Christian polemicist. He became the bishop of Caesarea Maritima about 314 AD. Together with Pamphilus, he was a scholar of the Biblical canon and is regarded as an extremely learned Christian of his time. He wrote Demonstrations of the Gospel, Preparations for the Gospel, and On Discrepancies between the Gospels, studies of the Biblical text. As "Father of Church History" (not to be confused with the title of Church Father), he produced the Ecclesiastical History, On the Life of Pamphilus, the Chronicle and On the Martyrs. During the Council of Antiochia (325) he was excommunicated for subscribing to the heresy of Arius, and thus withdrawn during the First Council of Nicaea where he accepted that the Homoousion referred to the Logos. Never recognized as a Saint, he became counselor of Constantine the Great, and with the bishop of Nicomedia he continued to polemicize against Saint Athanasius of Alexandria, Church Fathers, since he was condemned in the First Council of Tyre in 335.
The Gallipoli peninsula (Gelibolu Yarımadası; Χερσόνησος της Καλλίπολης, Chersónisos tis Kallípolis) is located in the southern part of East Thrace, the European part of Turkey, with the Aegean Sea to the west and the Dardanelles strait to the east.
The Ganges, also known as Ganga, is a trans-boundary river of Asia which flows through the nations of India and Bangladesh.
Gedrosia (Γεδρωσία) is the Hellenized name of the part of coastal Baluchistan that roughly corresponds to today's Makran.
Greek (Modern Greek: ελληνικά, elliniká, "Greek", ελληνική γλώσσα, ellinikí glóssa, "Greek language") is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea.
Harvard University Press (HUP) is a publishing house established on January 13, 1913, as a division of Harvard University, and focused on academic publishing.
Hephaestion (Ἡφαιστίων Hephaistíon; c. 356 BC – 324 BC), son of Amyntor, was an ancient Macedonian nobleman and a general in the army of Alexander the Great.
Herat (هرات,Harât,Herât; هرات; Ἀλεξάνδρεια ἡ ἐν Ἀρίοις, Alexándreia hē en Aríois; Alexandria Ariorum) is the third-largest city of Afghanistan.
Located in the shadow of Mount Vesuvius, Herculaneum (Italian: Ercolano) was an ancient Roman town destroyed by volcanic pyroclastic flows in 79 AD.
The Hindu Kush, also known in Ancient Greek as the Caucasus Indicus (Καύκασος Ινδικός) or Paropamisadae (Παροπαμισάδαι), in Pashto and Persian as, Hindu Kush is an mountain range that stretches near the Afghan-Pakistan border,, Quote: "The Hindu Kush mountains run along the Afghan border with the North-West Frontier Province of Pakistan".
India (IAST), also called the Republic of India (IAST), is a country in South Asia.
The Indian campaign of Alexander the Great began in 326BC.
The Indus River (also called the Sindhū) is one of the longest rivers in Asia.
Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).
The Jhelum River, Vitasta (Sanskrit: वितस्ता, fem., also, Vetastā, Kashmiri: Vyeth(ویتھ/व्यथा)), is a river of northwestern India and eastern Pakistan. It is the westernmost of the five rivers of Punjab, and passes through Srinager District. It is a tributary of the Indus River and has a total length of about.
John Malalas (Ἰωάννης Μαλάλας, Iōánnēs Malálas; – 578), was a Greek chronicler from Antioch.
Justin (Marcus Junianus Justinus Frontinus; century) was a Latin historian who lived under the Roman Empire.
The Kabul River (کابل سیند, دریای کابل), the classical Cophes, is a long river that emerges in the Sanglakh Range of the Hindu Kush mountains in Afghanistan and empties into the Indus River near Attock, Pakistan.
Kandahār or Qandahār (کندهار; قندهار; known in older literature as Candahar) is the second-largest city in Afghanistan, with a population of about 557,118.
The Kassites were people of the ancient Near East, who controlled Babylonia after the fall of the Old Babylonian Empire c. 1531 BC and until c. 1155 BC (short chronology).
Laodice (in Greek Λαοδίκη) was a Greek noblewoman and wife of Antiochus (fl. 4th century BC), a general of distinction in the service of Philip II of Macedon.
Laodicea was a port city and an important colonia of the Roman empire in ancient Syria.
Latin (Latin: lingua latīna) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages.
Lemnos (Λήμνος) is a Greek island in the northern part of the Aegean Sea.
Leonnatus (Λεοννάτος; 356 BC – 322 BC) was a Macedonian officer of Alexander the Great and one of the diadochi. He was a member of the royal house of Lyncestis, a small kingdom that had been included in Macedonia by King Philip II of Macedon.
This article lists the monarchs of Persia, who ruled over the area of modern-day Iran from the establishment of the Achaemenid dynasty by Achaemenes around 705 BCE until the deposition of the Pahlavi dynasty in 1979.
The Seleucid dynasty or the Seleucidae (from Σελευκίδαι, Seleukídai) was a Greek Macedonian royal family, founded by Seleucus I Nicator ("the Victor"), which ruled the Seleucid Empire centered in the Near East and regions of the Asian part of the earlier Achaemenid Persian Empire during the Hellenistic period.
Lydia (Assyrian: Luddu; Λυδία, Lydía; Lidya) was an Iron Age kingdom of western Asia Minor located generally east of ancient Ionia in the modern western Turkish provinces of Uşak, Manisa and inland İzmir.
Lysandra (Greek: Λυσάνδρα, meaning "Liberator, Emancipator"; lived 281 BC) was a Queen of Macedonia, daughter of Ptolemy I Soter and Eurydice, a daughter of Antipater.
Lysimachia (Λυσιμάχεια) was an important Hellenistic Greek town on the north-western extremity of the Thracian Chersonese (the modern Gallipoli peninsula) in the neck where the peninsula joins the mainland in what is now the European part of Turkey, not far from the bay of Melas (the modern Gulf of Saros).
Lysimachus (Greek: Λυσίμαχος, Lysimachos; c. 360 BC – 281 BC) was a Macedonian officer and diadochus (i.e. "successor") of Alexander the Great, who became a basileus ("King") in 306 BC, ruling Thrace, Asia Minor and Macedon.
Macedonia or Macedon (Μακεδονία, Makedonía) was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece, and later the dominant state of Hellenistic Greece.
The Mallian Campaign was conducted by Alexander the Great from November 326 to February 325 BC, against the Malli of the Punjab.
The Maurya Empire was a geographically-extensive Iron Age historical power founded by Chandragupta Maurya which dominated ancient India between 322 BCE and 180 BCE.
Media (Old Persian: Māda, Middle Persian: Mād) is a region of north-western Iran, best known for having been the political and cultural base of the Medes.
Medius or Medeios (Μήδιος, Mήδειoς), son of Oxythemis, was a native of Larissa in Thessaly, an officer and friend of Alexander the Great, and a senior commander under Antigonus I Monophthalmus.
Megasthenes (Μεγασθένης, c. 350 – c. 290 BC) was an ancient Greek historian, diplomat and Indian ethnographer and explorer in the Hellenistic period.
Menelaus (Μενέλαος, Menelaos), son of Lagus and brother of Ptolemy I Soter (ruler of Egypt), served as priest of the eponymous state cult of Alexander, and was for a time king in Cyprus, under his brother.
Mesopotamia is a historical region in West Asia situated within the Tigris–Euphrates river system, in modern days roughly corresponding to most of Iraq, Kuwait, parts of Northern Saudi Arabia, the eastern parts of Syria, Southeastern Turkey, and regions along the Turkish–Syrian and Iran–Iraq borders.
Miletus (Milētos; Hittite transcription Millawanda or Milawata (exonyms); Miletus; Milet) was an ancient Greek city on the western coast of Anatolia, near the mouth of the Maeander River in ancient Caria.
Motilal Banarsidass (MLBD) is a leading Indian publishing house on Sanskrit and Indology since 1903, located in Delhi, India.
The National Archaeological Museum of Naples (italic, sometimes abbreviated to MANN) is an important Italian archaeological museum, particularly for ancient Roman remains.
The Near East is a geographical term that roughly encompasses Western Asia.
Nicanor (Nικάνωρ Nikā́nōr) was a Macedonian officer of distinction who served as satrap of Media under Antigonus.
Nusaybin (Akkadian: Naṣibina; Classical Greek: Νίσιβις, Nisibis; نصيبين., Kurdish: Nisêbîn; ܢܨܝܒܝܢ, Nṣībīn; Armenian: Մծբին, Mtsbin) is a city and multiple titular see in Mardin Province, Turkey.
Olympias (Ὀλυμπιάς,, c. 375–316 BC) was a daughter of king Neoptolemus I of Epirus, sister to Alexander I of Epirus, fourth wife of Philip II, the king of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedonia, and mother of Alexander the Great.
The Orontes (Ὀρόντης) or Asi (العاصي, ‘Āṣī; Asi) is a northward-flowing river which begins in Lebanon and flows through Syria and Turkey before entering the Mediterranean Sea.
In antiquity, Paeonia or Paionia (Παιονία) was the land and kingdom of the Paeonians (Παίονες).
A page or page boy is traditionally a young male attendant or servant, but may also have been used for a messenger at the service of a nobleman.
Pakistan (پاکِستان), officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan (اِسلامی جمہوریہ پاکِستان), is a country in South Asia.
Palestine (فلسطين,,; Παλαιστίνη, Palaistinē; Palaestina; פלשתינה. Palestina) is a geographic region in Western Asia.
The Paropamisadae, also known by other names, were a people and district of Gandhara, which stretched along the Hindu Kush range and lying between Kabul Valley of Afghanistan and Peshawar Valley of Pakistan.
Parthia (𐎱𐎼𐎰𐎺 Parθava; 𐭐𐭓𐭕𐭅 Parθaw; 𐭯𐭫𐭮𐭥𐭡𐭥 Pahlaw) is a historical region located in north-eastern Iran.
The Partition of Babylon designates the attribution of the territories of Alexander the Great between his generals after his death in 323 BC.
The Partition of Triparadisus was a power-sharing agreement passed at Triparadisus in 321 BCE between the generals (Diadochi) of Alexander the Great, in which they named a new regent and arranged the repartition of the satrapies of Alexander's empire among themselves.
Pataliputra (IAST), adjacent to modern-day Patna, was a city in ancient India, originally built by Magadha ruler Udayin in 490 BCE as a small fort near the Ganges river.
Patna is the capital and largest city of the state of Bihar in India.
Patrocles (Greek: Πατροκλῆς) (active 312 – 270 BCE) was a Greek and specifically a Macedonian general and writer on geographical subjects.
Peithon or Pithon (Greek: Πείθων or Πίθων, circa 355 – c. 314 BC) was the son of Crateuas, a nobleman from Eordaia in western Macedonia.
Peithon, son of Agenor (died 312 BCE) was an officer in the expedition of Alexander the Great to India, who became satrap of the Indus from 325 to 316 BCE, and then satrap of Babylon, from 316 to 312 BCE, until he died at the Battle of Gaza in 312 BCE.
Pelusium (الفرما; Ⲡⲉⲣⲉⲙⲟⲩⲛ or Ⲡⲉⲣⲉⲙⲟⲩⲏ), was an important city in the eastern extremes of Egypt's Nile Delta, 30 km to the southeast of the modern Port Said, becoming a Roman provincial capital and Metropolitan archbishopric, remaining a multiple Catholic titular see.
Perdiccas (Περδίκκας, Perdikkas; c. 355 BC – 321/320 BC) became a general in Alexander the Great's army and participated in Alexander's campaign against Persia.
Pergamon, or Pergamum (τὸ Πέργαμον or ἡ Πέργαμος), was a rich and powerful ancient Greek city in Aeolis.
The Persian Empire (شاهنشاهی ایران, translit., lit. 'Imperial Iran') refers to any of a series of imperial dynasties that were centred in Persia/Iran from the 6th-century-BC Achaemenid Empire era to the 20th century AD in the Qajar dynasty era.
The Persian Gulf (lit), (الخليج الفارسي) is a mediterranean sea in Western Asia.
Persis (Περσίς), better known as Persia (Parsa; پارس, Pars), or "Persia proper", was originally a name of a region near the Zagros mountains at Lake Urmia.
Peucestas (in Greek Πευκέστας; lived 4th century BC) was a native of the town of Mieza, in Macedonia, and a distinguished officer in the service of Alexander the Great.
Phila (Greek: Φίλα; died 287 BC), daughter of Antipater, the regent of Macedonia, is celebrated by the ancient sources as one of the noblest and most virtuous women of the age in which she lived.
Phila (Φίλα) a daughter of Seleucus I Nicator and Stratonice.
Philetaerus (Φιλέταιρος, Philetairos, c. 343 –263 BC) was the founder of the Attalid dynasty of Pergamon in Anatolia.
Philip II of Macedon (Φίλιππος Β΄ ὁ Μακεδών; 382–336 BC) was the king (basileus) of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon from until his assassination in.
Philip III Arrhidaeus (Φίλιππος Γ΄ ὁ Ἀρριδαῖος; c. 359 BC – 25 December, 317 BC) reigned as king of Macedonia from after 11 June 323 BC until his death.
Phoenicia (or; from the Φοινίκη, meaning "purple country") was a thalassocratic ancient Semitic civilization that originated in the Eastern Mediterranean and in the west of the Fertile Crescent.
Pliny the Elder (born Gaius Plinius Secundus, AD 23–79) was a Roman author, naturalist and natural philosopher, a naval and army commander of the early Roman Empire, and friend of emperor Vespasian.
Polyaenus or Polyenus (see ae (æ) vs. e; Πoλύαινoς, Polyainos, "much-praised") was a 2nd-century Macedonian author, known best for his Stratagems in War (in Greek, Στρατηγήματα), which has been preserved.
Polyperchon (Πολυπέρχωνής Polyperkhones; b. unknown – d. after 304,Heckel, W., 'The Marshals of Alexander's Empire' (1992), p. 204 possibly into 3rd century BCBillows, R., 'Antigonos the One-Eyed and the Creation of the Hellenistic State' (1990), p. 172, n. 20), was a Macedonian general who served both Philip II and Alexander the Great and then played an active role in the ensuing battles for control between Alexander's generals (the Wars of the Diadochi).
Porus or Poros (from Ancient Πῶρος, Pôros), was a great Indian king from the Punjab region, whose territory spanned the region between the Hydaspes (River of Jhelum) and Acesines (Chenab River), in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent.
Ptolemy (Πτολεμαῖος); died 333 BC) son of Seleucus from Orestis or Tymphaia, was one of the select officers called Somatophylaces, or guards of the king's person; he combined with that distinguished post the command of one of the divisions of the phalanx. Ptolemy was from an upper noble family. He was lately married when he accompanied Alexander on his expedition to Asia, 334 BC, on which account he was selected by the king to command the body of Macedonians, who were allowed to return home for the winter at the end of the first campaign. In the following spring he rejoined Alexander at Gordium, with the troops under his command, accompanied by fresh reinforcements. At the Battle of Issus (333 BC) his division of the phalanx was one of those opposed to the Greek mercenaries under Darius III, and upon which the real brunt of the action consequently devolved; and he himself fell in the conflict, after displaying the utmost valour.
Ptolemy I Soter (Πτολεμαῖος Σωτήρ, Ptolemaĩos Sōtḗr "Ptolemy the Savior"; c. 367 BC – 283/2 BC), also known as Ptolemy of Lagus (Πτολεμαῖος ὁ Λάγου/Λαγίδης), was a Macedonian Greek general under Alexander the Great, one of the three Diadochi who succeeded to his empire.
Ptolemy II Philadelphus (Πτολεμαῖος Φιλάδελφος, Ptolemaîos Philádelphos "Ptolemy Beloved of his Sibling"; 308/9–246 BCE) was the king of Ptolemaic Egypt from 283 to 246 BCE.
Ptolemy Keraunos (Πτολεμαῖος Κεραυνός, after 321 BC – 279 BC) was the King of Macedon from 281 BC to 279 BC.
The Puranas (singular: पुराण), are ancient Hindu texts eulogizing various deities, primarily the divine Trimurti God in Hinduism through divine stories.
Rhodes (Ρόδος, Ródos) is the largest of the Dodecanese islands of Greece in terms of land area and also the island group's historical capital.
The rise of Macedon, from a small kingdom at the periphery of classical Greek affairs to one which came to dominate the entire Hellenic world (and beyond), occurred in the span of just 25 years, between 359 and 336 BC.
Satraps were the governors of the provinces of the ancient Median and Achaemenid Empires and in several of their successors, such as in the Sasanian Empire and the Hellenistic empires.
Seleucia, also known as or, was a major Mesopotamian city of the Seleucid, Parthian, and Sasanian empires.
Seleucia in Pieria (Greek Σελεύκεια ἐν Πιερίᾳ), also known in English as Seleucia by the Sea, and later named Suedia, was a Hellenistic town, the seaport of Antioch ad Orontes (Syria Prima), the Seleucid capital, modern Antakya (Turkey).
The Seleucid Empire (Βασιλεία τῶν Σελευκιδῶν, Basileía tōn Seleukidōn) was a Hellenistic state ruled by the Seleucid dynasty, which existed from 312 BC to 63 BC; Seleucus I Nicator founded it following the division of the Macedonian empire vastly expanded by Alexander the Great.
The Seleucid era or Anno Graecorum (literally "year of the Greeks" or "Greek year"), sometimes denoted "AG", was a system of numbering years in use by the Seleucid Empire and other countries among the ancient Hellenistic civilizations.
The Seleucid–Mauryan War was fought between 305 and 303 BCE.
Seleucus I Nicator (Σέλευκος Α΄ Νικάτωρ Séleukos Α΄ Nikátōr; "Seleucus the Victor") was one of the Diadochi.
Serapis (Σέραπις, later form) or Sarapis (Σάραπις, earlier form, from Userhapi "Osiris-Apis") is a Graeco-Egyptian deity.
Sibyrtius (Greek:Σιβύρτιος; lived 4th century BC) was a Greek officer from Crete in the service of Alexander the Great, who was the satrap of Arachosia and Gedrosia shortly after the death of Alexander until about 303 BC.
Sidon (صيدا, صيدون,; French: Saida; Phoenician: 𐤑𐤃𐤍, Ṣīdūn; Biblical Hebrew:, Ṣīḏōn; Σιδών), translated to 'fishery' or 'fishing-town', is the third-largest city in Lebanon.
The Sinai Peninsula or simply Sinai (now usually) is a peninsula in Egypt, and the only part of the country located in Asia.
Sogdia or Sogdiana was an ancient Iranian civilization that at different times included territory located in present-day Tajikistan and Uzbekistan such as: Samarkand, Bukhara, Khujand, Panjikent and Shahrisabz.
Somatophylakes (Σωματοφύλακες; singular: somatophylax, σωματοφύλαξ), in its literal English translation from Greek, means "bodyguards".
Spitamenes (in old Persian Spitamaneh; Greek Σπιταμένης; 370 BC – 328 BC) was a Sogdian warlord, leader of the uprising in Sogdiana and Bactria against Alexander the Great, King of Macedon, in 329 BC.
Stasanor (in Στασάνωρ; lived 4th century BC) was a native of Soli in Cyprus who held a distinguished position among the officers of Alexander the Great.
Strabo (Στράβων Strábōn; 64 or 63 BC AD 24) was a Greek geographer, philosopher, and historian who lived in Asia Minor during the transitional period of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire.
Stratonice (Στρατoνίκη) of Syria was Greek Queen of the Seleucid Empire from 300 BC until 294 BC and from 281 BC until 268 BC.
Susa (fa Šuš;; שׁוּשָׁן Šušān; Greek: Σοῦσα; ܫܘܫ Šuš; Old Persian Çūšā) was an ancient city of the Proto-Elamite, Elamite, First Persian Empire, Seleucid, Parthian, and Sasanian empires of Iran, and one of the most important cities of the Ancient Near East.
The Susa weddings was a mass wedding arranged by Alexander of Macedon in 324 BC in the Persian city of Susa.
The Sutlej River (alternatively spelled as Satluj River) (सतलुज, ਸਤਲੁਜ, शतद्रुम (shatadrum), is the longest of the five rivers that flow through the historic crossroads region of Punjab in northern India and Pakistan. The Sutlej River is also known as Satadree. It is the easternmost tributary of the Indus River. The waters of the Sutlej are allocated to India under the Indus Waters Treaty between India and Pakistan, and are mostly diverted to irrigation canals in India. There are several major hydroelectric projects on the Sutlej, including the 1,000 MW Bhakra Dam, the 1,000 MW Karcham Wangtoo Hydroelectric Plant, and the 1,530 MW Nathpa Jhakri Dam. The river basin area in India is located in Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Jammu and Kashmir, Rajasthan and Haryana states.
The Syr Darya is a river in Central Asia. The Syr Darya originates in the Tian Shan Mountains in Kyrgyzstan and eastern Uzbekistan and flows for west and north-west through Uzbekistan and southern Kazakhstan to the northern remnants of the Aral Sea. It is the northern and eastern of the two main rivers in the endorrheic basin of the Aral Sea, the other being the Amu Darya. In the Soviet era, extensive irrigation projects were constructed around both rivers, diverting their water into farmland and causing, during the post-Soviet era, the virtual disappearance of the Aral Sea, once the world's fourth-largest lake.
Syria (سوريا), officially known as the Syrian Arab Republic (الجمهورية العربية السورية), is a country in Western Asia, bordering Lebanon and the Mediterranean Sea to the west, Turkey to the north, Iraq to the east, Jordan to the south, and Israel to the southwest.
The Syrian Wars were a series of six wars between the Seleucid Empire and the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, successor states to Alexander the Great's empire, during the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC over the region then called Coele-Syria, one of the few avenues into Egypt.
The Taurus Mountains (Turkish: Toros Dağları, Armenian: Թորոս լեռներ, Ancient Greek: Ὄρη Ταύρου) are a mountain complex in southern Turkey, separating the Mediterranean coastal region of southern Turkey from the central Anatolian Plateau.
The Anabasis of Alexander (Ἀλεξάνδρου Ἀνάβασις, Alexándrou Anábasis; Anabasis Alexandri) was composed by Arrian of Nicomedia in the second century AD, most probably during the reign of Hadrian.
Thrace (Modern Θράκη, Thráki; Тракия, Trakiya; Trakya) is a geographical and historical area in southeast Europe, now split between Bulgaria, Greece and Turkey, which is bounded by the Balkan Mountains to the north, the Aegean Sea to the south and the Black Sea to the east.
Thracia or Thrace (Θρᾴκη Thrakē) is the ancient name given to the southeastern Balkan region, the land inhabited by the Thracians.
Batman River The Tigris (Sumerian: Idigna or Idigina; Akkadian: 𒁇𒄘𒃼; دجلة Dijlah; ܕܹܩܠܵܬ.; Տիգրիս Tigris; Դգլաթ Dglatʿ;, biblical Hiddekel) is the eastern member of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia, the other being the Euphrates.
Tripoli (طرابلس / ALA-LC: Ṭarābulus; Lebanese Arabic: Ṭrāblos; Trablusşam) is the largest city in northern Lebanon and the second-largest city in the country.
A trireme (derived from Latin: trirēmis "with three banks of oars"; τριήρης triērēs, literally "three-rower") was an ancient vessel and a type of galley that was used by the ancient maritime civilizations of the Mediterranean, especially the Phoenicians, ancient Greeks and Romans.
Troy (Τροία, Troia or Τροίας, Troias and Ἴλιον, Ilion or Ἴλιος, Ilios; Troia and Ilium;Trōia is the typical Latin name for the city. Ilium is a more poetic term: Hittite: Wilusha or Truwisha; Truva or Troya) was a city in the far northwest of the region known in late Classical antiquity as Asia Minor, now known as Anatolia in modern Turkey, near (just south of) the southwest mouth of the Dardanelles strait and northwest of Mount Ida.
Tyre (صور, Ṣūr; Phoenician:, Ṣūr; צוֹר, Ṣōr; Tiberian Hebrew, Ṣōr; Akkadian:, Ṣurru; Greek: Τύρος, Týros; Sur; Tyrus, Տիր, Tir), sometimes romanized as Sour, is a district capital in the South Governorate of Lebanon.
Vincent Arthur Smith,, (1848–1920) was a British Indologist and art historian.
Walter Eugene Clark (September 8, 1881 – September 30, 1960), was an American philologist.
A war elephant is an elephant that is trained and guided by humans for combat.
The Wars of the Diadochi (Πόλεμοι των Διαδόχων), or Wars of Alexander's Successors, were a series of conflicts fought between Alexander the Great's generals over the rule of his vast empire after his death.
The Yamuna (Hindustani: /jəmʊnaː/), also known as the Jumna, (not to be mistaken with the Jamuna of Bangladesh) is the longest and the second largest tributary river of the Ganges (Ganga) in northern India.
The word Yona in Pali and the Prakrits, and the analogue "Yavana" in Sanskrit, are words used in Ancient India to designate Greek speakers.
Selecus I Nikator, Seleucis I, Seleucis Nicator, Seleucus I, Seleucus I Nikator, Seleucus Nicator, Seleucus Nikator, Seleukos I, Seleukos I Nicator, Seleukos I Nikator, Seleukos II Kallinikos, Seleukos Nikator, Σέλευκος Α΄ Νικάτωρ.