Get it on Google Play
New! Download Unionpedia on your Android™ device!
Faster access than browser!

Self-organizing map

Index Self-organizing map

A self-organizing map (SOM) or self-organizing feature map (SOFM) is a type of artificial neural network (ANN) that is trained using unsupervised learning to produce a low-dimensional (typically two-dimensional), discretized representation of the input space of the training samples, called a map, and is therefore a method to do dimensionality reduction. [1]

54 relations: Aalto University, Alan Turing, Aleksandr Gorban, Approximation error, Artificial neural network, Backpropagation, Bootstrapping (statistics), Cerebral cortex, Competitive learning, Deep learning, Dimensionality reduction, Eigenvalues and eigenvectors, Elastic energy, Elastic map, Emergence, Euclidean distance, Feedforward neural network, Finland, Gaussian function, Generative topographic map, Gradient descent, Growing self-organizing map, Hexagon, Human brain, Hybrid Kohonen self-organizing map, International Journal of Neural Systems, Iris flower data set, K-means clustering, Learning vector quantization, Least squares, Liquid state machine, Monotonic function, Moore neighborhood, Morphogenesis, Multidimensional scaling, Neocognitron, Neural coding, Neural gas, Principal component analysis, Rectangle, Scientific visualization, Sense, Sparse distributed memory, Spline interpolation, Teuvo Kohonen, Topological data analysis, Topology, Torus, U-matrix, Unit cube, ..., Unit vector, Unsupervised learning, Vector quantization, Von Neumann neighborhood. Expand index (4 more) »

Aalto University

Aalto University (Aalto-yliopisto, Aalto-universitetet) is a university primarily located in Greater Helsinki, Finland.

New!!: Self-organizing map and Aalto University · See more »

Alan Turing

Alan Mathison Turing (23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English computer scientist, mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst, philosopher, and theoretical biologist.

New!!: Self-organizing map and Alan Turing · See more »

Aleksandr Gorban

Alexander Nikolaevich Gorban (Александр Николаевич Горба́нь.) is a scientist of Soviet origin, working in the United Kingdom.

New!!: Self-organizing map and Aleksandr Gorban · See more »

Approximation error

The approximation error in some data is the discrepancy between an exact value and some approximation to it.

New!!: Self-organizing map and Approximation error · See more »

Artificial neural network

Artificial neural networks (ANNs) or connectionist systems are computing systems vaguely inspired by the biological neural networks that constitute animal brains.

New!!: Self-organizing map and Artificial neural network · See more »


Backpropagation is a method used in artificial neural networks to calculate a gradient that is needed in the calculation of the weights to be used in the network.

New!!: Self-organizing map and Backpropagation · See more »

Bootstrapping (statistics)

In statistics, bootstrapping is any test or metric that relies on random sampling with replacement.

New!!: Self-organizing map and Bootstrapping (statistics) · See more »

Cerebral cortex

The cerebral cortex is the largest region of the cerebrum in the mammalian brain and plays a key role in memory, attention, perception, cognition, awareness, thought, language, and consciousness.

New!!: Self-organizing map and Cerebral cortex · See more »

Competitive learning

Competitive learning is a form of unsupervised learning in artificial neural networks, in which nodes compete for the right to respond to a subset of the input data.

New!!: Self-organizing map and Competitive learning · See more »

Deep learning

Deep learning (also known as deep structured learning or hierarchical learning) is part of a broader family of machine learning methods based on learning data representations, as opposed to task-specific algorithms.

New!!: Self-organizing map and Deep learning · See more »

Dimensionality reduction

In statistics, machine learning, and information theory, dimensionality reduction or dimension reduction is the process of reducing the number of random variables under consideration by obtaining a set of principal variables.

New!!: Self-organizing map and Dimensionality reduction · See more »

Eigenvalues and eigenvectors

In linear algebra, an eigenvector or characteristic vector of a linear transformation is a non-zero vector that changes by only a scalar factor when that linear transformation is applied to it.

New!!: Self-organizing map and Eigenvalues and eigenvectors · See more »

Elastic energy

Elastic energy is the potential mechanical energy stored in the configuration of a material or physical system as work is performed to distort its volume or shape.

New!!: Self-organizing map and Elastic energy · See more »

Elastic map

Elastic maps provide a tool for nonlinear dimensionality reduction.

New!!: Self-organizing map and Elastic map · See more »


In philosophy, systems theory, science, and art, emergence occurs when "the whole is greater than the sum of the parts," meaning the whole has properties its parts do not have.

New!!: Self-organizing map and Emergence · See more »

Euclidean distance

In mathematics, the Euclidean distance or Euclidean metric is the "ordinary" straight-line distance between two points in Euclidean space.

New!!: Self-organizing map and Euclidean distance · See more »

Feedforward neural network

A feedforward neural network is an artificial neural network wherein connections between the nodes do not form a cycle.

New!!: Self-organizing map and Feedforward neural network · See more »


Finland (Suomi; Finland), officially the Republic of Finland is a country in Northern Europe bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Norway to the north, Sweden to the northwest, and Russia to the east.

New!!: Self-organizing map and Finland · See more »

Gaussian function

In mathematics, a Gaussian function, often simply referred to as a Gaussian, is a function of the form: for arbitrary real constants, and.

New!!: Self-organizing map and Gaussian function · See more »

Generative topographic map

Generative topographic map (GTM) is a machine learning method that is a probabilistic counterpart of the self-organizing map (SOM), is probably convergent and does not require a shrinking neighborhood or a decreasing step size.

New!!: Self-organizing map and Generative topographic map · See more »

Gradient descent

Gradient descent is a first-order iterative optimization algorithm for finding the minimum of a function.

New!!: Self-organizing map and Gradient descent · See more »

Growing self-organizing map

A growing self-organizing map (GSOM) is a growing variant of a self-organizing map (SOM).

New!!: Self-organizing map and Growing self-organizing map · See more »


In geometry, a hexagon (from Greek ἕξ hex, "six" and γωνία, gonía, "corner, angle") is a six-sided polygon or 6-gon.

New!!: Self-organizing map and Hexagon · See more »

Human brain

The human brain is the central organ of the human nervous system, and with the spinal cord makes up the central nervous system.

New!!: Self-organizing map and Human brain · See more »

Hybrid Kohonen self-organizing map

In artificial neural networks, a hybrid Kohonen self-organizing map is a type of self-organizing map (SOM) named for the Finnish professor Teuvo Kohonen, where the network architecture consists of an input layer fully connected to a 2–D SOM or Kohonen layer.

New!!: Self-organizing map and Hybrid Kohonen self-organizing map · See more »

International Journal of Neural Systems

The International Journal of Neural Systems is a bimonthly peer-reviewed scientific journal founded in 1989.

New!!: Self-organizing map and International Journal of Neural Systems · See more »

Iris flower data set

The Iris flower data set or Fisher's Iris data set is a multivariate data set introduced by the British statistician and biologist Ronald Fisher in his 1936 paper The use of multiple measurements in taxonomic problems as an example of linear discriminant analysis.

New!!: Self-organizing map and Iris flower data set · See more »

K-means clustering

k-means clustering is a method of vector quantization, originally from signal processing, that is popular for cluster analysis in data mining.

New!!: Self-organizing map and K-means clustering · See more »

Learning vector quantization

In computer science, learning vector quantization (LVQ), is a prototype-based supervised classification algorithm.

New!!: Self-organizing map and Learning vector quantization · See more »

Least squares

The method of least squares is a standard approach in regression analysis to approximate the solution of overdetermined systems, i.e., sets of equations in which there are more equations than unknowns.

New!!: Self-organizing map and Least squares · See more »

Liquid state machine

A liquid state machine (LSM) is a particular kind of spiking neural network.

New!!: Self-organizing map and Liquid state machine · See more »

Monotonic function

In mathematics, a monotonic function (or monotone function) is a function between ordered sets that preserves or reverses the given order.

New!!: Self-organizing map and Monotonic function · See more »

Moore neighborhood

In cellular automata, the Moore neighborhood is defined on a two-dimensional square lattice and is composed of a central cell and the eight cells which surround it.

New!!: Self-organizing map and Moore neighborhood · See more »


Morphogenesis (from the Greek morphê shape and genesis creation, literally, "beginning of the shape") is the biological process that causes an organism to develop its shape.

New!!: Self-organizing map and Morphogenesis · See more »

Multidimensional scaling

Multidimensional scaling (MDS) is a means of visualizing the level of similarity of individual cases of a dataset.

New!!: Self-organizing map and Multidimensional scaling · See more »


The neocognitron is a hierarchical, multilayered artificial neural network proposed by Kunihiko Fukushima in the 1980s.

New!!: Self-organizing map and Neocognitron · See more »

Neural coding

Neural coding is a neuroscience field concerned with characterising the hypothetical relationship between the stimulus and the individual or ensemble neuronal responses and the relationship among the electrical activity of the neurons in the ensemble.

New!!: Self-organizing map and Neural coding · See more »

Neural gas

Neural gas is an artificial neural network, inspired by the self-organizing map and introduced in 1991 by Thomas Martinetz and Klaus Schulten.

New!!: Self-organizing map and Neural gas · See more »

Principal component analysis

Principal component analysis (PCA) is a statistical procedure that uses an orthogonal transformation to convert a set of observations of possibly correlated variables into a set of values of linearly uncorrelated variables called principal components.

New!!: Self-organizing map and Principal component analysis · See more »


In Euclidean plane geometry, a rectangle is a quadrilateral with four right angles.

New!!: Self-organizing map and Rectangle · See more »

Scientific visualization

Scientific visualization (also spelled scientific visualisation) is an interdisciplinary branch of science.

New!!: Self-organizing map and Scientific visualization · See more »


A sense is a physiological capacity of organisms that provides data for perception.

New!!: Self-organizing map and Sense · See more »

Sparse distributed memory

Sparse distributed memory (SDM) is a mathematical model of human long-term memory introduced by Pentti Kanerva in 1988 while he was at NASA Ames Research Center.

New!!: Self-organizing map and Sparse distributed memory · See more »

Spline interpolation

In the mathematical field of numerical analysis, Spline interpolation is a form of interpolation where the interpolant is a special type of piecewise polynomial called a spline.

New!!: Self-organizing map and Spline interpolation · See more »

Teuvo Kohonen

Teuvo Kalevi Kohonen (born July 11, 1934) is a prominent Finnish academic (Dr. Eng.) and researcher.

New!!: Self-organizing map and Teuvo Kohonen · See more »

Topological data analysis

In applied mathematics, topological data analysis (TDA) is an approach to the analysis of datasets using techniques from topology.

New!!: Self-organizing map and Topological data analysis · See more »


In mathematics, topology (from the Greek τόπος, place, and λόγος, study) is concerned with the properties of space that are preserved under continuous deformations, such as stretching, crumpling and bending, but not tearing or gluing.

New!!: Self-organizing map and Topology · See more »


In geometry, a torus (plural tori) is a surface of revolution generated by revolving a circle in three-dimensional space about an axis coplanar with the circle.

New!!: Self-organizing map and Torus · See more »


The U-matrix (unified distance matrix) is a representation of a self-organizing map (SOM) where the Euclidean distance between the codebook vectors of neighboring neurons is depicted in a grayscale image.

New!!: Self-organizing map and U-matrix · See more »

Unit cube

A unit cube, more formally a cube of side 1, is a cube whose sides are 1 unit long.

New!!: Self-organizing map and Unit cube · See more »

Unit vector

In mathematics, a unit vector in a normed vector space is a vector (often a spatial vector) of length 1.

New!!: Self-organizing map and Unit vector · See more »

Unsupervised learning

Unsupervised machine learning is the machine learning task of inferring a function that describes the structure of "unlabeled" data (i.e. data that has not been classified or categorized).

New!!: Self-organizing map and Unsupervised learning · See more »

Vector quantization

Vector quantization (VQ) is a classical quantization technique from signal processing that allows the modeling of probability density functions by the distribution of prototype vectors.

New!!: Self-organizing map and Vector quantization · See more »

Von Neumann neighborhood

In cellular automata, the von Neumann neighborhood is classically defined on a two-dimensional square lattice and is composed of a central cell and its four adjacent cells.

New!!: Self-organizing map and Von Neumann neighborhood · See more »

Redirects here:

Kohonen, Kohonen map, Kohonen maps, Kohonen network, SOFM, Self Organising Map, Self Organizing Map, Self organising map, Self organizing map, Self organizing maps, Self-Organizing Map, Self-organising map, Self-organising maps, Self-organizing feature map, Self-organizing nets, Sofm.


[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Self-organizing_map

Hey! We are on Facebook now! »