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Seljuq dynasty

Index Seljuq dynasty

The Seljuq dynasty, or Seljuqs (آل سلجوق Al-e Saljuq), was an Oghuz Turk Sunni Muslim dynasty that gradually became a Persianate society and contributed to the Turco-Persian tradition in the medieval West and Central Asia. [1]

113 relations: Abbasid Caliphate, Afghanistan, Ahmad Sanjar, Ala ad-Din Tekish, Alp Arslan, Anatolia, Aq Sunqur al-Hajib, Aral Sea, Arran (Caucasus), Arslan Shah I, Artuqids, Asphalt, Atsiz ibn Uvaq, Azerbaijan, Azerbaijan (Iran), Baghdad, Barkiyaruq, Battle of Dandanaqan, British Museum, Burid dynasty, Caspian Sea, Caucasian Albania, Central Asia, Charles William Previté-Orton, Clifford Edmund Bosworth, Damascus, Dehqan, Duqaq, Dynasty, Eldiguzids, Emir, Encyclopædia Britannica, Encyclopædia Iranica, Fakhr al-Mulk Radwan, First Crusade, Fritware, Ghaznavids, Greater Iran, Greater Khorasan, Herat, Institute of Ismaili Studies, Iran, Isfahan, Jibal, Kaykaus I, Kaykaus II, Kaykhusraw I, Kaykhusraw II, Kaykhusraw III, Kayqubad I, ..., Kayqubad II, Kayqubad III, Kazakh Steppe, Kınık (tribe), Kerman Province, Khanate, Kharraqan towers, Khwarazmian dynasty, Kilij Arslan I, Kilij Arslan II, Kilij Arslan III, Kilij Arslan IV, List of rulers of Aleppo, List of rulers of Damascus, List of Sunni Muslim dynasties, Mahmud I of Great Seljuq, Mahmud II of Great Seljuq, Malik Dinar (Oghuz chief), Malik Shah (Rûm), Malik-Shah I, Malik-Shah II, Malik-Shah III, Mesud I, Mesud II, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Muhammad I Tapar, Muhammad II ibn Mahmud, Muhammad-Shah ibn Bahram-Shah, Oghuz Turks, Oman, Ottoman dynasty, Persian art, Persian language, Persian literature, Persianate society, Pitcher (container), Qutalmish, Saljuq-nama, Seljuk (warlord), Seljuk Empire, Seljuq dynasty, Shatranj, Shirvan, Suleiman ibn Qutulmish, Suleiman II (Rûm), Sultan, Sultanate of Rum, Sunni Islam, Syr Darya, Tehran, Tilku, Toghrul III, Toghtekin, Tughril, Tughrul Tower, Turco-Persian tradition, Turkestan, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Tutush I, UNESCO, Western Asia, Yabghu. Expand index (63 more) »

Abbasid Caliphate

The Abbasid Caliphate (or ٱلْخِلافَةُ ٱلْعَبَّاسِيَّة) was the third of the Islamic caliphates to succeed the Islamic prophet Muhammad.

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Afghanistan (Pashto/Dari:, Pashto: Afġānistān, Dari: Afġānestān), officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia.

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Ahmad Sanjar

Ahmad Sanjar (Persian: احمد سنجر; full name: Muizz ad-Dunya wa ad-Din Adud ad-Dawlah Abul-Harith Ahmad Sanjar ibn Malik-Shah) (b. 1085 – d. 8 May 1157) was the Seljuq ruler of Khorasan from 1097 until in 1118 Encyclopædia Iranica when he became the Sultan of the Seljuq Empire, which he ruled as until his death in 1157.

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Ala ad-Din Tekish

Ala ad-Din Tekish (Persian: علاء الدين تكش; full name: Ala ad-Dunya wa ad-Din Abul Muzaffar Tekish ibn Il-Arslan) or Tekesh or Takesh was the Shah of Khwarezmian Empire from 1172 to 1200.

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Alp Arslan

Alp Arslan (honorific in Turkish meaning "Heroic Lion"; in آلپ ارسلان; full name: Diya ad-Dunya wa ad-Din Adud ad-Dawlah Abu Shuja Muhammad Alp Arslan ibn Dawud ابو شجاع محمد آلپ ارسلان ابن داود; 20 January 1029 – 15 December 1072), real name Muhammad bin Dawud Chaghri, was the second Sultan of the Seljuk Empire and great-grandson of Seljuk, the eponymous founder of the dynasty.

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Anatolia (Modern Greek: Ανατολία Anatolía, from Ἀνατολή Anatolḗ,; "east" or "rise"), also known as Asia Minor (Medieval and Modern Greek: Μικρά Ἀσία Mikrá Asía, "small Asia"), Asian Turkey, the Anatolian peninsula, or the Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey.

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Aq Sunqur al-Hajib

Abu Said Aq Sunqur al-Hajib (also Qasim ad-Dawla or Aksungur al-Hajib) was the Seljuk governor of Aleppo under Sultan Malik Shah I. He was considered the de facto ruler of most of Syria from 1087.

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Aral Sea

The Aral Sea was an endorheic lake (one with no outflow) lying between Kazakhstan (Aktobe and Kyzylorda Regions) in the north and Uzbekistan (Karakalpakstan autonomous region) in the south.

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Arran (Caucasus)

Arran (Middle Persian form), also known as Aran, Ardhan (in Parthian), Al-Ran (in Arabic), Aghvank and Alvank (in Armenian), (რანი-Ran-i) or Caucasian Albania (in Latin), was a geographical name used in ancient and medieval times to signify the territory which lies within the triangle of land, lowland in the east and mountainous in the west, formed by the junction of Kura and Aras rivers, including the highland and lowland Karabakh, Mil plain and parts of the Mughan plain, and in the pre-Islamic times, corresponded roughly to the territory of modern-day Republic of Azerbaijan.

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Arslan Shah I

Arslan Shah I was Sultan of Kerman (1101–1142), a city in Iran situated at the center of Kerman province.

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The Artquids or Artuqid dynasty (Modern Turkish: Artuklu Beyliği or Artıklılar, sometimes also spelled as Artukid, Ortoqid or Ortokid; Turkish plural: Artukoğulları; Azeri Turkish: Artıqlı) was a Turkmen dynasty that ruled in Eastern Anatolia, Northern Syria and Northern Iraq in the eleventh and twelfth centuries.

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Asphalt, also known as bitumen, is a sticky, black, and highly viscous liquid or semi-solid form of petroleum.

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Atsiz ibn Uvaq

Atsiz Ibn Uwaq al-Khwarizmi, also known as al-Aqsis, Atsiz ibn Uvaq, Atsiz ibn Oq and Atsiz ibn Abaq (died 1078 or 1079), was a Khwarezmian Turkish mercenary commander who established a principality in Palestine and southern Syria after seizing these from the Fatimid Caliphate in 1071.

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No description.

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Azerbaijan (Iran)

Azerbaijan or Azarbaijan (آذربایجان Āzarbāijān; آذربایجان Azərbaycan), also known as Iranian Azerbaijan, is a historical region in northwestern Iran that borders Iraq, Turkey, the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic, Armenia, and the Republic of Azerbaijan.

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Baghdad (بغداد) is the capital of Iraq.

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Abu al-Muzaffar Rukn ud-Din Barkyaruq ibn Malikshah, better known as Barkyaruq.

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Battle of Dandanaqan

The Battle of Dandanaqan was fought in 1040 between the Seljuqs and the Ghaznavid Empire.

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British Museum

The British Museum, located in the Bloomsbury area of London, United Kingdom, is a public institution dedicated to human history, art and culture.

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Burid dynasty

The Burid dynasty was a Turkish Muslim dynastyBurids, R. LeTourneau, The Encyclopedia of Islam, Vol.

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Caspian Sea

The Caspian Sea is the largest enclosed inland body of water on Earth by area, variously classed as the world's largest lake or a full-fledged sea.

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Caucasian Albania

Albania, usually referred to as Caucasian Albania for disambiguation with the modern state of Albania (the endonym is unknownRobert H. Hewsen. "Ethno-History and the Armenian Influence upon the Caucasian Albanians", in: Samuelian, Thomas J. (Ed.), Classical Armenian Culture. Influences and Creativity. Chicago: 1982, pp. 27-40.Bosworth, Clifford E.. Encyclopædia Iranica.), is a name for the historical region of the eastern Caucasus, that existed on the territory of present-day republic of Azerbaijan (where both of its capitals were located) and partially southern Dagestan.

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Central Asia

Central Asia stretches from the Caspian Sea in the west to China in the east and from Afghanistan in the south to Russia in the north.

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Charles William Previté-Orton

Charles William Previté-Orton (16 January 1877 – 11 March 1947) was a British medieval historian and the first Professor of Medieval History at the University of Cambridge on the establishment of the position in 1937.

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Clifford Edmund Bosworth

Clifford Edmund Bosworth FBA (29 December 1928 – 28 February 2015) was an English historian and Orientalist, specialising in Arabic and Iranian studies.

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Damascus (دمشق, Syrian) is the capital of the Syrian Arab Republic; it is also the country's largest city, following the decline in population of Aleppo due to the battle for the city.

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The dihqan (دهقان), were a class of land-owning magnates during the Sasanian and early Islamic period, found throughout Iranian-speaking lands.

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Abu Nasr Shams al-Muluk Duqaq (died June 8, 1104) was the Seljuq ruler of Damascus from 1095 to 1104.

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A dynasty is a sequence of rulers from the same family,Oxford English Dictionary, "dynasty, n." Oxford University Press (Oxford), 1897.

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The Ildegizids, EldiguzidsC.E. Bosworth, "Ildenizids or Eldiguzids", Encyclopaedia of Islam, Edited by P.J. Bearman, Th.

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An emir (أمير), sometimes transliterated amir, amier, or ameer, is an aristocratic or noble and military title of high office used in a variety of places in the Arab countries, West African, and Afghanistan.

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Encyclopædia Britannica

The Encyclopædia Britannica (Latin for "British Encyclopaedia"), published by Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc., is a general knowledge English-language encyclopaedia.

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Encyclopædia Iranica

Encyclopædia Iranica is a project whose goal is to create a comprehensive and authoritative English language encyclopedia about the history, culture, and civilization of Iranian peoples from prehistory to modern times.

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Fakhr al-Mulk Radwan

Fakhr al-Mulk Radwan (also Ridwan or Rudwan; died 10 December 1113) was a Seljuq ruler of Aleppo from 1095 to 1113.

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First Crusade

The First Crusade (1095–1099) was the first of a number of crusades that attempted to recapture the Holy Land, called for by Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont in 1095.

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Fritware, also known as stone-paste, is a type of pottery in which frit (ground glass) is added to clay to reduce its fusion temperature.

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The Ghaznavid dynasty (غزنویان ġaznaviyān) was a Persianate Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin, at their greatest extent ruling large parts of Iran, Afghanistan, much of Transoxiana and the northwest Indian subcontinent from 977 to 1186.

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Greater Iran

Greater Iran (ایران بزرگ) is a term used to refer to the regions of the Caucasus, West Asia, Central Asia, and parts of South Asia that have significant Iranian cultural influence due to having been either long historically ruled by the various imperial dynasties of Persian Empire (such as those of the Medes, Achaemenids, Parthians, Sassanians, Samanids, Safavids, and Afsharids and the Qajars), having considerable aspects of Persian culture due to extensive contact with the various imperial dynasties of Iran (e.g., those regions and peoples in the North Caucasus that were not under direct Iranian rule), or are simply nowadays still inhabited by a significant amount of Iranic peoples who patronize their respective cultures (as it goes for the western parts of South Asia, Bahrain and Tajikistan).

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Greater Khorasan

Khorasan (Middle Persian: Xwarāsān; خراسان Xorāsān), sometimes called Greater Khorasan, is a historical region lying in northeast of Greater Persia, including part of Central Asia and Afghanistan.

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Herat (هرات,Harât,Herât; هرات; Ἀλεξάνδρεια ἡ ἐν Ἀρίοις, Alexándreia hē en Aríois; Alexandria Ariorum) is the third-largest city of Afghanistan.

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Institute of Ismaili Studies

The Institute of Ismaili Studies (IIS) is a research institute in London, United Kingdom.

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Iran (ایران), also known as Persia, officially the Islamic Republic of Iran (جمهوری اسلامی ایران), is a sovereign state in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th-most-populous country. Comprising a land area of, it is the second-largest country in the Middle East and the 17th-largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. The country's central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the country's capital and largest city, as well as its leading economic and cultural center. Iran is home to one of the world's oldest civilizations, beginning with the formation of the Elamite kingdoms in the fourth millennium BCE. It was first unified by the Iranian Medes in the seventh century BCE, reaching its greatest territorial size in the sixth century BCE, when Cyrus the Great founded the Achaemenid Empire, which stretched from Eastern Europe to the Indus Valley, becoming one of the largest empires in history. The Iranian realm fell to Alexander the Great in the fourth century BCE and was divided into several Hellenistic states. An Iranian rebellion culminated in the establishment of the Parthian Empire, which was succeeded in the third century CE by the Sasanian Empire, a leading world power for the next four centuries. Arab Muslims conquered the empire in the seventh century CE, displacing the indigenous faiths of Zoroastrianism and Manichaeism with Islam. Iran made major contributions to the Islamic Golden Age that followed, producing many influential figures in art and science. After two centuries, a period of various native Muslim dynasties began, which were later conquered by the Turks and the Mongols. The rise of the Safavids in the 15th century led to the reestablishment of a unified Iranian state and national identity, with the country's conversion to Shia Islam marking a turning point in Iranian and Muslim history. Under Nader Shah, Iran was one of the most powerful states in the 18th century, though by the 19th century, a series of conflicts with the Russian Empire led to significant territorial losses. Popular unrest led to the establishment of a constitutional monarchy and the country's first legislature. A 1953 coup instigated by the United Kingdom and the United States resulted in greater autocracy and growing anti-Western resentment. Subsequent unrest against foreign influence and political repression led to the 1979 Revolution and the establishment of an Islamic republic, a political system that includes elements of a parliamentary democracy vetted and supervised by a theocracy governed by an autocratic "Supreme Leader". During the 1980s, the country was engaged in a war with Iraq, which lasted for almost nine years and resulted in a high number of casualties and economic losses for both sides. According to international reports, Iran's human rights record is exceptionally poor. The regime in Iran is undemocratic, and has frequently persecuted and arrested critics of the government and its Supreme Leader. Women's rights in Iran are described as seriously inadequate, and children's rights have been severely violated, with more child offenders being executed in Iran than in any other country in the world. Since the 2000s, Iran's controversial nuclear program has raised concerns, which is part of the basis of the international sanctions against the country. The Joint Comprehensive Plan of Action, an agreement reached between Iran and the P5+1, was created on 14 July 2015, aimed to loosen the nuclear sanctions in exchange for Iran's restriction in producing enriched uranium. Iran is a founding member of the UN, ECO, NAM, OIC, and OPEC. It is a major regional and middle power, and its large reserves of fossil fuels – which include the world's largest natural gas supply and the fourth-largest proven oil reserves – exert considerable influence in international energy security and the world economy. The country's rich cultural legacy is reflected in part by its 22 UNESCO World Heritage Sites, the third-largest number in Asia and eleventh-largest in the world. Iran is a multicultural country comprising numerous ethnic and linguistic groups, the largest being Persians (61%), Azeris (16%), Kurds (10%), and Lurs (6%).

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Isfahan (Esfahān), historically also rendered in English as Ispahan, Sepahan, Esfahan or Hispahan, is the capital of Isfahan Province in Iran, located about south of Tehran.

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Jibāl (جبال) was the name given by the Arabs to a region and province located in western Iran, under the Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates.

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Kaykaus I

Kaykaus I or Kayka'us I or Keykavus I (كَیکاوس, عز الدين كيكاوس بن كيخسرو ʿIzz ad-Dīn Kaykāwūs ibn Kaykhusraw) was the Sultan of Rum from 1211 until his death in 1220.

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Kaykaus II

Kaykaus II or Kayka'us II (عز الدين كيكاوس بن كيخسرو, ʿIzz ad-Dīn Kaykāwus ibn Kaykhusraw) was the sultan of the Seljuqs of Rûm from 1246 until 1257.

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Kaykhusraw I

Kaykhusraw I (كَیخُسرو or Ghiyāth ad-Dīn Kaykhusraw bin Qilij Arslān; غياث الدين كيخسرو بن قلج ارسلان), the eleventh and youngest son of Kilij Arslan II, was Seljuk Sultan of Rûm.

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Kaykhusraw II

Ghiyath al-Din Kaykhusraw II or Ghiyāth ad-Dīn Kaykhusraw bin Kayqubād (غياث الدين كيخسرو بن كيقباد) was the sultan of the Seljuqs of Rûm from 1237 until his death in 1246.

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Kaykhusraw III

Kaykhusraw III (كَیخُسرو سوم) or Ghiyāth ad-Dīn Kaykhusraw bin Qilij Arslān (غياث الدين كيخسرو بن قلج ارسلان; ca. 1259-1263 - 1284) was between two and six years old when in 1265 he was named Seljuq Sultan of Rûm.

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Kayqubad I

Kayqubad I or Alā ad-Dīn Kayqubād bin Kaykāvūs (علاء الدين كيقباد بن كيكاوس; I., 1188–1237) was the Seljuq Sultan of Rûm who reigned from 1220 to 1237.

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Kayqubad II

Kayqubad II (كیقباد; علاء الدين كيقباد بن كيخسرو, ʿAlāʾ ad-Dīn Kayqubād bin Kaykhusraw) was the youngest of the three sons of the Seljuq Sultan of Rûm Kaykhusraw II.

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Kayqubad III

Kayqubad III (كَیقُباد سوم or ʿAlāʾ ad-Dīn Kayqubād bin Farāmurz (علاء الدین کیقباد بن فرامرز) was briefly sultan of the Sultanate of Rum between the years of 1298 and 1302. He was a nephew of the deposed Kaykaus II and had strong support among the Turkmen. As sultan he was a vassal of the Mongols and exercised no real power.

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Kazakh Steppe

The Kazakh Steppe (Qazaq dalasy, Қазақ даласы, also Uly dala, Ұлы дала "Great Steppe"), also called the Great Dala, ecoregion, of the Palearctic temperate grasslands, savannas, and shrublands biome, is a vast region of open grassland in northern Kazakhstan and adjacent portions of Russia, extending to the east of the Pontic steppe and to the west of the Emin Valley steppe, with which it forms part of the Eurasian steppe.

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Kınık (tribe)

Kınık (Qinik) was an Oghuz Turkic tribe.

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Kerman Province

Kerman Province (استان کرمان, Ostān-e Kermān) is one of the 31 provinces of Iran.

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A Khanate or Khaganate is a political entity ruled by a Khan or Khagan.

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Kharraqan towers

The Kharraqan towers are mausoleums, built in 1067 and 1093, located on the plains in northern Iran, near Qazvin.

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Khwarazmian dynasty

The Khwarazmian dynasty (also known as the Khwarezmid dynasty, the Anushtegin dynasty, the dynasty of Khwarazm Shahs, and other spelling variants; from ("Kings of Khwarezmia") was a PersianateC. E. Bosworth:. In Encyclopaedia Iranica, online ed., 2009: "Little specific is known about the internal functioning of the Khwarazmian state, but its bureaucracy, directed as it was by Persian officials, must have followed the Saljuq model. This is the impression gained from the various Khwarazmian chancery and financial documents preserved in the collections of enšāʾdocuments and epistles from this period. The authors of at least three of these collections—Rašid-al-Din Vaṭvāṭ (d. 1182-83 or 1187-88), with his two collections of rasāʾel, and Bahāʾ-al-Din Baḡdādi, compiler of the important Ketāb al-tawaṣṣol elā al-tarassol—were heads of the Khwarazmian chancery. The Khwarazmshahs had viziers as their chief executives, on the traditional pattern, and only as the dynasty approached its end did ʿAlāʾ-al-Din Moḥammad in ca. 615/1218 divide up the office amongst six commissioners (wakildārs; see Kafesoğlu, pp. 5-8, 17; Horst, pp. 10-12, 25, and passim). Nor is much specifically known of court life in Gorgānj under the Khwarazmshahs, but they had, like other rulers of their age, their court eulogists, and as well as being a noted stylist, Rašid-al-Din Vaṭvāṭ also had a considerable reputation as a poet in Persian." Sunni Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk origin. The dynasty ruled large parts of Central Asia and Iran during the High Middle Ages, in the approximate period of 1077 to 1231, first as vassals of the Seljuqs and Qara-Khitan, and later as independent rulers, up until the Mongol invasion of Khwarezmia in the 13th century. The dynasty was founded by commander Anush Tigin Gharchai, a former Turkish slave of the Seljuq sultans, who was appointed as governor of Khwarezm. His son, Qutb ad-Din Muhammad I, became the first hereditary Shah of Khwarezm.Encyclopædia Britannica, "Khwarezm-Shah-Dynasty",.

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Kilij Arslan I

Kilij Arslan (قِلِج اَرسلان; قلج ارسلان Qilij Arslān; Modern Turkish: Kılıç Arslan, meaning "Sword Lion") (‎1079–1107) was the Seljuq Sultan of Rûm from 1092 until his death in 1107.

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Kilij Arslan II


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Kilij Arslan III

Kilij Arslan III (قِلِج اَرسلان, قلج ارسلان Qilij Arslān; Modern Turkish: Kılıç Arslan, meaning "Sword Lion") was the Seljuq Sultan of Rûm for a short period between 1204 and 1205.

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Kilij Arslan IV

Kilij Arslan IV (قِلِج اَرسلان) or Rukn ad-Dīn Qilij Arslān bin Kaykhusraw (رکن الدین قلج ارسلان بن کیخسرو) was Seljuq Sultan of Rûm after the death of his father Kaykhusraw II in 1246.

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List of rulers of Aleppo

The rulers of Aleppo ruled as kings, Emirs and Sultans of the city and its region since the later half of the 3rd millennium BC, starting with the kings of Armi, followed by the Amorite dynasty of Yamhad, and ending with the Ayyubid dynasty which was ousted by the Mongol conquest in 1260.

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List of rulers of Damascus

This is a list of rulers of Damascus from ancient times to the present.

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List of Sunni Muslim dynasties

The following is a list of Sunni Muslim dynasties.

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Mahmud I of Great Seljuq

Nasir ad-Din Mahmud I was the sultan of the Seljuk Empire from 1092 to 1094.

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Mahmud II of Great Seljuq

Mahmud II (1105 – 1131) was the Seljuq sultan of Baghdad in 1118 following the death of his father Muhammad I. At the time Mahmud was fourteen, and ruled over Iraq and Persia.

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Malik Dinar (Oghuz chief)

Malik Dinar (died 1195) was the Ghuzz ruler of Sarakhs from c. 1153 until 1179.

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Malik Shah (Rûm)

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Malik-Shah I

Jalāl al-Dawla Mu'izz al-Dunyā Wa'l-Din Abu'l-Fatḥ ibn Alp Arslān (8 August 1053 – 19 November 1092, full name: معزالدنیا و الدین ملکشاه بن محمد الب ارسلان قسیم امیرالمومنین), better known by his regnal name of Malik-Shah I (ملکشاه) (Melikşah), was Sultan of the Seljuq Empire from 1072 to 1092.

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Malik-Shah II

Malik-Shah II (ملک شاه دوم) or Mu'izz ad-Din Malik Shah II was Seljuq Sultan in Baghdad during 1105.

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Malik-Shah III

Malik-Shah III (died 1160) ruled as Sultan of Great Seljuq from 1152–53.

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Mesud I

Mesud I, Masud I or Ma'sud I (Modern I. or Rukn al-Dīn Mas'ūd was the sultan of the Seljuks of Rum from 1116 until his death in 1156.

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Mesud II

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Metropolitan Museum of Art

The Metropolitan Museum of Art of New York, colloquially "the Met", is the largest art museum in the United States.

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Muhammad I Tapar

Muhammad I (also known as Ghiyath ad-Din Muhammad or Muhammad Tapar, died 1118) was a son of Seljuq Sultan Malik Shah I. In Turkish, Tapar means "he who obtains, finds".

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Muhammad II ibn Mahmud

Muhammad II ibn Mahmud (1128–1159) was Sultan of Seljuq Empire from 1153 to 1159.

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Muhammad-Shah ibn Bahram-Shah

Muhammad-Shah was the last Seljuq amir of Kerman, from 1183 until 1186.

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Oghuz Turks

The Oghuz, Oguz or Ghuzz Turks were a western Turkic people who spoke the Oghuz languages from the Common branch of Turkic language family.

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Oman (عمان), officially the Sultanate of Oman (سلطنة عُمان), is an Arab country on the southeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula in Western Asia.

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Ottoman dynasty

The Ottoman dynasty (Osmanlı Hanedanı) was made up of the members of the imperial House of Osman (خاندان آل عثمان Ḫānedān-ı Āl-ı ʿOsmān), also known as the Ottomans (Osmanlılar).

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Persian art

Persian art or Iranian art has one of the richest art heritages in world history and has been strong in many media including architecture, painting, weaving, pottery, calligraphy, metalworking and sculpture.

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Persian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi (فارسی), is one of the Western Iranian languages within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family.

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Persian literature

Persian literature (ادبیات فارسی adabiyāt-e fārsi), comprises oral compositions and written texts in the Persian language and it is one of the world's oldest literatures.

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Persianate society

A Persianate society, or Persified society, is a society that is based on or strongly influenced by the Persian language, culture, literature, art and/or identity.

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Pitcher (container)

In American English, a pitcher is a container with a spout used for storing and pouring contents which are liquid in form.

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Qutalmish (قُتَلمِش, قتلمش) (alternative spellings: Qutulmush, Kutalmish, Kutalmış) was a Turkic prince who was a member of Seljukid house in the 11th century.

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The Saljūq-Nāma (Selçuknâme; سلجوق‌نامه, "Book of Seljuk ") is a history of the Great Seljuk Empire written by the Persian historian Ẓāhir al-Dīn Nīshāpūrī around 1175.

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Seljuk (warlord)

Seljuk (Saljūq; also romanized Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; modern Turkish: Selçuk; died 1038) was an Oghuz Turkic warlord, eponymous founder of the Seljuk dynasty.

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Seljuk Empire

The Seljuk Empire (also spelled Seljuq) (آل سلجوق) was a medieval Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim empire, originating from the Qiniq branch of Oghuz Turks.

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Seljuq dynasty

The Seljuq dynasty, or Seljuqs (آل سلجوق Al-e Saljuq), was an Oghuz Turk Sunni Muslim dynasty that gradually became a Persianate society and contributed to the Turco-Persian tradition in the medieval West and Central Asia.

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Shatranj (شطرنج, from Middle Persian chatrang) is an old form of chess, as played in the Persian Empire.

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Shirvan (from translit; Şirvan; Tat: Şirvan), also spelled as Sharvān, Shirwan, Shervan, Sherwan and Šervān, is a historical region in the eastern Caucasus, known by this name in both Islamic and modern times.

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Suleiman ibn Qutulmish

Kutalmışoglu Suleiman (سُلَیمان بن قُتَلمِش, سلیمان بن قتلمش) founded an independent Seljuq Turkish state in Anatolia and ruled as Seljuq Sultan of Rûm from 1077 until his death in 1086.

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Suleiman II (Rûm)

Suleiman II, also known as Rukn ad-Din Suleiman Shah (رکن الدین سلیمان شاه), was the Seljuk Sultan of Rûm between 1196 and 1204.

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Sultan (سلطان) is a position with several historical meanings.

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Sultanate of Rum

The Sultanate of Rûm (also known as the Rûm sultanate (سلجوقیان روم, Saljuqiyān-e Rum), Anatolian Seljuk Sultanate, Sultanate of Iconium, Anatolian Seljuk State (Anadolu Selçuklu Devleti) or Turkey Seljuk State (Türkiye Selçuklu Devleti)) was a Turko-Persian Sunni Muslim state established in the parts of Anatolia which had been conquered from the Byzantine Empire by the Seljuk Empire, which was established by the Seljuk Turks.

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Sunni Islam

Sunni Islam is the largest denomination of Islam.

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Syr Darya

The Syr Darya is a river in Central Asia. The Syr Darya originates in the Tian Shan Mountains in Kyrgyzstan and eastern Uzbekistan and flows for west and north-west through Uzbekistan and southern Kazakhstan to the northern remnants of the Aral Sea. It is the northern and eastern of the two main rivers in the endorrheic basin of the Aral Sea, the other being the Amu Darya. In the Soviet era, extensive irrigation projects were constructed around both rivers, diverting their water into farmland and causing, during the post-Soviet era, the virtual disappearance of the Aral Sea, once the world's fourth-largest lake.

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Tehran (تهران) is the capital of Iran and Tehran Province.

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Tilku (تيلكو, also Romanized as Tīlkū; also known as Īrān Khvāh, Īrān Shāh, Mīrānshāh, Mīrzā Īrānshāh, and Tīlkūh) is a village in Tilakuh Rural District, Ziviyeh District, Saqqez County, Kurdistan Province, Iran.

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Toghrul III

Toghrul III (طغرل سوم) (died 1194) was the last sultan of the Great Seljuq Empire.

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Toghtekin (Modern Tuğtekin; Arabicised epithet: ظاهر الدين طغتكين Zahir ad-Din Toghtekin; died February 12, 1128), also spelled Tughtigin, was a Turkic military leader, who was atabeg of Damascus from 1104 to 1128.

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Tughril Beg (full name: Rukn al-Dunya wa al-Din Abu Talib Muhammad Toghrul-Beg ibn Mikail) also spelled Toghrul I, Tugril, Toghril, Tugrul or Toghrïl Beg; (Tuğrul) (990 – September 4, 1063) was the Turkic founder of the Seljuk Empire, ruling from 1037 to 1063.

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Tughrul Tower

Tuğrul Tower (also transliterated Toghrul, Tughrol, or Tughrul) is a 12th-century monument, located in the city of Rey, Iran.

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Turco-Persian tradition

The composite Turco-Persian tradition, Turko-Persia in historical perspective, Cambridge University Press, 1991 refers to a distinctive culture that arose in the 9th and 10th centuries (AD) in Khorasan and Transoxiana (present-day Afghanistan, Iran, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, Tajikistan, minor parts of Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan).

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Turkestan, also spelt Turkistan (literally "Land of the Turks" in Persian), refers to an area in Central Asia between Siberia to the north and Tibet, India and Afghanistan to the south, the Caspian Sea to the west and the Gobi Desert to the east.

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Turkey (Türkiye), officially the Republic of Turkey (Türkiye Cumhuriyeti), is a transcontinental country in Eurasia, mainly in Anatolia in Western Asia, with a smaller portion on the Balkan peninsula in Southeast Europe.

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Turkmenistan (or; Türkmenistan), (formerly known as Turkmenia) is a sovereign state in Central Asia, bordered by Kazakhstan to the northwest, Uzbekistan to the north and east, Afghanistan to the southeast, Iran to the south and southwest, and the Caspian Sea to the west.

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Tutush I

Abu Sa'id Taj ad-Dawla Tutush I (I.) (died 1095) was the Seljuq emir of Damascus from 1078 to 1092, and Seljuq sultan of Damascus from 1092 to 1094.

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The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO; Organisation des Nations unies pour l'éducation, la science et la culture) is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris.

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Western Asia

Western Asia, West Asia, Southwestern Asia or Southwest Asia is the westernmost subregion of Asia.

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Yabghu (Old Turkic:, yabγu, Traditional Chinese: 葉護, Simplified Chinese: 叶护, Jabgu, Djabgu, literally, "pioneer", "guide") or Yabgu was a state office in the early Turkic states, roughly equivalent to viceroy.

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[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seljuq_dynasty

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