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Semantics

Index Semantics

Semantics (from σημαντικός sēmantikós, "significant") is the linguistic and philosophical study of meaning, in language, programming languages, formal logics, and semiotics. [1]

210 relations: ABAP, Ada (programming language), Agent (grammar), Alfred Tarski, ALGOL, ALGOL 68, Analytic philosophy, Anaphora (linguistics), Ancient Greek, Archetype, Artificial neural network, Asemic writing, Assembly language, Axiomatic semantics, BASIC, Batch file, BCPL, Bertrand Russell, C (programming language), C Sharp (programming language), C++, Caché ObjectScript, Carl Jung, Charles E. Osgood, COBOL, Cognitive linguistics, Cognitive semantics, Colorless green ideas sleep furiously, Common Lisp, Communication, Community, Compound (linguistics), Computational semantics, Computer science, Connotation, Denotation, Denotational semantics, Description logic, Directed graph, Discourse, Discourse analysis, Discourse representation theory, Donald Davidson (philosopher), Dylan (programming language), Eiffel (programming language), Eleanor Rosch, Embodied cognition, Episodic memory, Eskimo words for snow, Etymology, ..., Ferdinand de Saussure, First-order logic, Formal semantics (linguistics), Forth (programming language), Fortran, Friedrich Nietzsche, Game semantics, Gödel's incompleteness theorems, General semantics, Generative lexicon, Generative semantics, Gottlob Frege, Graph database, Hermeneutics, Holonymy, Homonym, Hyponymy and hypernymy, Ideasthesia, Indexicality, Intel 8086, International Encyclopedia of Unified Science, International scientific vocabulary, Jacques Derrida, James Pustejovsky, Java (programming language), JavaScript, Jerry Fodor, John Wiley & Sons, JSON-LD, Knowledge representation and reasoning, Lambda calculus, Language, Language of thought hypothesis, Latent semantic analysis, Learning theory (education), Lexical item, Lexicology, Linguistic relativity, Linguistics, Link relation, Linked data, Logical consequence, Lua (programming language), Ludwig Wittgenstein, Mathematical logic, MATLAB, Mīmāṃsā, Meaning (linguistics), Mental rotation, Meronymy, Metadata, Metaphor, Metonymy, Michel Bréal, Microdata (HTML), MIT Press, Model theory, Modula-2, Montague grammar, Named graph, Natural language processing, Natural semantic metalanguage, Noam Chomsky, Nyaya, Oberon (programming language), Object Pascal, OCaml, Onomasiology, Ontology, Operational semantics, Opposite (semantics), Palgrave Macmillan, Parsing, Pascal (programming language), Perl, Philology, Philosophy, Philosophy of language, Phono-semantic matching, PHP, Phrase, Post-structuralism, PostScript, Pragmatic maxim, Pragmaticism, Pragmatics, Pragmatism, Problem of universals, Programming language, Proof-theoretic semantics, Proposition, Prototype theory, Proxemics, Psychological nativism, Psychology, Python (programming language), Qualia, RDFa, Reference, Resource Description Framework, Richard Montague, Ruby (programming language), Semantic analysis (machine learning), Semantic change, Semantic class, Semantic compression, Semantic data model, Semantic differential, Semantic feature, Semantic field, Semantic HTML, Semantic integration, Semantic interpretation, Semantic lexicon, Semantic memory, Semantic network, Semantic primes, Semantic property, Semantic reasoner, Semantic service-oriented architecture, Semantic spectrum, Semantic theory of truth, Semantic triple, Semantic unification, Semantic Web, Semantics (computer science), Semantics of logic, Semasiology, Sememe, Semiosis, Semiotics, SETL, Sign, Sign (semiotics), Simula, Situation semantics, Skeletal animation, Smalltalk, SPL notation, Standard ML, Support vector machine, Symbol, Synonym, Syntax, Syntax (logic), Thematic relation, Truth condition, Truth value, Truth-value semantics, Underspecification, University of Chicago Press, University of Minnesota Press, VHDL, Vyākaraṇa, Web Ontology Language, Willard Van Orman Quine, Word, Word sense, WordNet, World Wide Web. Expand index (160 more) »

ABAP

ABAP (Advanced Business Application Programming, originally Allgemeiner Berichts-Aufbereitungs-Prozessor, German for "general report creation processor") is a high-level programming language created by the German software company SAP SE.

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Ada (programming language)

Ada is a structured, statically typed, imperative, and object-oriented high-level computer programming language, extended from Pascal and other languages.

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Agent (grammar)

In linguistics, a grammatical agent is the thematic relation of the cause or initiator to an event.

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Alfred Tarski

Alfred Tarski (January 14, 1901 – October 26, 1983), born Alfred Teitelbaum,School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews,, School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews.

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ALGOL

ALGOL (short for "Algorithmic Language") is a family of imperative computer programming languages, originally developed in the mid-1950s, which greatly influenced many other languages and was the standard method for algorithm description used by the ACM in textbooks and academic sources for more than thirty years.

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ALGOL 68

ALGOL 68 (short for Algorithmic Language 1968) is an imperative computer programming language that was conceived as a successor to the ALGOL 60 programming language, designed with the goal of a much wider scope of application and more rigorously defined syntax and semantics.

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Analytic philosophy

Analytic philosophy (sometimes analytical philosophy) is a style of philosophy that became dominant in the Western world at the beginning of the 20th century.

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Anaphora (linguistics)

In linguistics, anaphora is the use of an expression whose interpretation depends upon another expression in context (its antecedent or postcedent).

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Ancient Greek

The Ancient Greek language includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD.

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Archetype

The concept of an archetype appears in areas relating to behavior, modern psychological theory, and literary analysis.

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Artificial neural network

Artificial neural networks (ANNs) or connectionist systems are computing systems vaguely inspired by the biological neural networks that constitute animal brains.

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Asemic writing

Asemic writing is a wordless open semantic form of writing.

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Assembly language

An assembly (or assembler) language, often abbreviated asm, is a low-level programming language, in which there is a very strong (but often not one-to-one) correspondence between the assembly program statements and the architecture's machine code instructions.

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Axiomatic semantics

Axiomatic semantics is an approach based on mathematical logic for proving the correctness of computer programs.

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BASIC

BASIC (an acronym for Beginner's All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) is a family of general-purpose, high-level programming languages whose design philosophy emphasizes ease of use.

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Batch file

A batch file is a kind of script file in DOS, OS/2 and Microsoft Windows.

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BCPL

BCPL ("Basic Combined Programming Language"; or 'Before C Programming Language' (a common humorous backronym)) is a procedural, imperative, and structured computer programming language.

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Bertrand Russell

Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, writer, social critic, political activist, and Nobel laureate.

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C (programming language)

C (as in the letter ''c'') is a general-purpose, imperative computer programming language, supporting structured programming, lexical variable scope and recursion, while a static type system prevents many unintended operations.

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C Sharp (programming language)

C# (/si: ʃɑːrp/) is a multi-paradigm programming language encompassing strong typing, imperative, declarative, functional, generic, object-oriented (class-based), and component-oriented programming disciplines.

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C++

C++ ("see plus plus") is a general-purpose programming language.

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Caché ObjectScript

Caché ObjectScript is a part of the Caché database system sold by InterSystems.

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Carl Jung

Carl Gustav Jung (26 July 1875 – 6 June 1961) was a Swiss psychiatrist and psychoanalyst who founded analytical psychology.

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Charles E. Osgood

Charles Egerton Osgood (November 20, 1916 – September 15, 1991) was an American psychologist who developed a technique for measuring the connotative meaning of concepts, known as the semantic differential.

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COBOL

COBOL (an acronym for "common business-oriented language") is a compiled English-like computer programming language designed for business use.

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Cognitive linguistics

Cognitive linguistics (CL) is an interdisciplinary branch of linguistics, combining knowledge and research from both psychology and linguistics.

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Cognitive semantics

Cognitive semantics is part of the cognitive linguistics movement.

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Colorless green ideas sleep furiously

Colorless green ideas sleep furiously is a sentence composed by Noam Chomsky in his 1957 book Syntactic Structures as an example of a sentence that is grammatically correct, but semantically nonsensical.

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Common Lisp

Common Lisp (CL) is a dialect of the Lisp programming language, published in ANSI standard document ANSI INCITS 226-1994 (R2004) (formerly X3.226-1994 (R1999)).

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Communication

Communication (from Latin commūnicāre, meaning "to share") is the act of conveying intended meanings from one entity or group to another through the use of mutually understood signs and semiotic rules.

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Community

A community is a small or large social unit (a group of living things) that has something in common, such as norms, religion, values, or identity.

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Compound (linguistics)

In linguistics, a compound is a lexeme (less precisely, a word) that consists of more than one stem.

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Computational semantics

Computational semantics is the study of how to automate the process of constructing and reasoning with meaning representations of natural language expressions.

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Computer science

Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information and computation, together with practical techniques for the implementation and application of these foundations.

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Connotation

A connotation is a commonly understood cultural or emotional association that some word or phrase carries, in addition to its explicit or literal meaning, which is its denotation.

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Denotation

Denotation is a translation of a sign to its meaning, precisely to its literal meaning, more or less like dictionaries try to define it.

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Denotational semantics

In computer science, denotational semantics (initially known as mathematical semantics or Scott–Strachey semantics) is an approach of formalizing the meanings of programming languages by constructing mathematical objects (called denotations) that describe the meanings of expressions from the languages.

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Description logic

Description logics (DL) are a family of formal knowledge representation languages.

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Directed graph

In mathematics, and more specifically in graph theory, a directed graph (or digraph) is a graph that is a set of vertices connected by edges, where the edges have a direction associated with them.

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Discourse

Discourse (from Latin discursus, "running to and from") denotes written and spoken communications.

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Discourse analysis

Discourse analysis (DA), or discourse studies, is a general term for a number of approaches to analyze written, vocal, or sign language use, or any significant semiotic event.

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Discourse representation theory

In formal linguistics, discourse representation theory (DRT) is a framework for exploring meaning under a formal semantics approach.

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Donald Davidson (philosopher)

Donald Herbert Davidson (March 6, 1917 – August 30, 2003) was an American philosopher.

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Dylan (programming language)

Dylan is a multi-paradigm programming language that includes support for functional and object-oriented programming, and is dynamic and reflective while providing a programming model designed to support efficient machine code generation, including fine-grained control over dynamic and static behaviors.

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Eiffel (programming language)

Eiffel is an object-oriented programming language designed by Bertrand Meyer (an object-orientation proponent and author of Object-Oriented Software Construction) and Eiffel Software.

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Eleanor Rosch

Eleanor Rosch (once known as Eleanor Rosch Heider; born 1938) is a professor of psychology at the University of California, Berkeley, specializing in cognitive psychology and primarily known for her work on categorization, in particular her prototype theory, which has profoundly influenced the field of cognitive psychology.

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Embodied cognition

Embodied cognition is the theory that many features of cognition, whether human or otherwise, are shaped by aspects of the entire body of the organism.

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Episodic memory

Episodic memory is the memory of autobiographical events (times, places, associated emotions, and other contextual who, what, when, where, why knowledge) that can be explicitly stated or conjured.

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Eskimo words for snow

The claim that Eskimo languages (specifically, Yupik and Inuit) have an unusually large number of words for "snow", first loosely attributed to the work of anthropologist Franz Boas, has become a cliché often used to support the controversial linguistic-relativity hypothesis: the idea that a language's structure (sound, grammar, vocabulary, etc.) shapes its speakers' view of the world.

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Etymology

EtymologyThe New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p. 633 "Etymology /ˌɛtɪˈmɒlədʒi/ the study of the class in words and the way their meanings have changed throughout time".

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Ferdinand de Saussure

Ferdinand de Saussure (26 November 1857 – 22 February 1913) was a Swiss linguist and semiotician.

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First-order logic

First-order logic—also known as first-order predicate calculus and predicate logic—is a collection of formal systems used in mathematics, philosophy, linguistics, and computer science.

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Formal semantics (linguistics)

In linguistics, formal semantics seeks to understand linguistic meaning by constructing precise mathematical models of the principles that speakers use to define relations between expressions in a natural language and the world that supports meaningful discourse.

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Forth (programming language)

Forth is an imperative stack-based computer programming language and environment originally designed by Charles "Chuck" Moore.

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Fortran

Fortran (formerly FORTRAN, derived from Formula Translation) is a general-purpose, compiled imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing.

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Friedrich Nietzsche

Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (15 October 1844 – 25 August 1900) was a German philosopher, cultural critic, composer, poet, philologist and a Latin and Greek scholar whose work has exerted a profound influence on Western philosophy and modern intellectual history.

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Game semantics

Game semantics (dialogische Logik, translated as dialogical logic) is an approach to formal semantics that grounds the concepts of truth or validity on game-theoretic concepts, such as the existence of a winning strategy for a player, somewhat resembling Socratic dialogues or medieval theory of Obligationes.

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Gödel's incompleteness theorems

Gödel's incompleteness theorems are two theorems of mathematical logic that demonstrate the inherent limitations of every formal axiomatic system containing basic arithmetic.

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General semantics

General semantics is a self improvement and therapy program begun in the 1920s that seeks to regulate human mental habits and behaviors.

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Generative lexicon

Generative Lexicon (GL) is a theory of linguistic semantics which focuses on the distributed nature of compositionality in natural language.

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Generative semantics

Generative semantics is the name of a research program within linguistics, initiated by the work of various early students of Noam Chomsky: John R. Ross, Paul Postal, and later James McCawley.

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Gottlob Frege

Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege (8 November 1848 – 26 July 1925) was a German philosopher, logician, and mathematician.

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Graph database

In computing, a graph database (GDB) is a database that uses graph structures for semantic queries with nodes, edges and properties to represent and store data.

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Hermeneutics

Hermeneutics is the theory and methodology of interpretation, especially the interpretation of biblical texts, wisdom literature, and philosophical texts.

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Holonymy

Holonymy (in Greek ὅλον holon, "whole" and ὄνομα onoma, "name") is a semantic relation.

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Homonym

In linguistics, homonyms, broadly defined, are words which sound alike or are spelled alike, but have different meanings.

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Hyponymy and hypernymy

In linguistics, a hyponym (from Greek hupó, "under" and ónoma, "name") is a word or phrase whose semantic field is included within that of another word, its hyperonym or hypernym (from Greek hupér, "over" and ónoma, "name").

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Ideasthesia

Ideasthesia (alternative spelling ideaesthesia) is defined as a phenomenon in which activations of concepts (inducers) evoke perception-like experiences (concurrents).

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Indexicality

In semiotics, linguistics, anthropology and philosophy of language, indexicality is the phenomenon of a sign pointing to (or indexing) some object in the context in which it occurs.

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Intel 8086

The 8086 (also called iAPX 86) is a 16-bit microprocessor chip designed by Intel between early 1976 and mid-1978, when it was released.

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International Encyclopedia of Unified Science

The International Encyclopedia of Unified Science (IEUS) was a series of publications devoted to unified science.

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International scientific vocabulary

International scientific vocabulary (ISV) comprises scientific and specialized words whose language of origin may or may not be certain, but which are in current use in several modern languages (that is, translingually).

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Jacques Derrida

Jacques Derrida (born Jackie Élie Derrida;. See also. July 15, 1930 – October 9, 2004) was a French Algerian-born philosopher best known for developing a form of semiotic analysis known as deconstruction, which he discussed in numerous texts, and developed in the context of phenomenology.

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James Pustejovsky

James Pustejovsky (born 1956) is the TJX Feldberg professor of computer science at Brandeis University in Waltham, Massachusetts, United States.

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Java (programming language)

Java is a general-purpose computer-programming language that is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible.

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JavaScript

JavaScript, often abbreviated as JS, is a high-level, interpreted programming language.

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Jerry Fodor

Jerry Alan Fodor (April 22, 1935 – November 29, 2017) was an American philosopher and cognitive scientist.

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John Wiley & Sons

John Wiley & Sons, Inc., also referred to as Wiley, is a global publishing company that specializes in academic publishing.

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JSON-LD

JSON-LD (JavaScript Object Notation for Linked Data), is a method of encoding Linked Data using JSON.

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Knowledge representation and reasoning

Knowledge representation and reasoning (KR, KR², KR&R) is the field of artificial intelligence (AI) dedicated to representing information about the world in a form that a computer system can utilize to solve complex tasks such as diagnosing a medical condition or having a dialog in a natural language.

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Lambda calculus

Lambda calculus (also written as λ-calculus) is a formal system in mathematical logic for expressing computation based on function abstraction and application using variable binding and substitution.

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Language

Language is a system that consists of the development, acquisition, maintenance and use of complex systems of communication, particularly the human ability to do so; and a language is any specific example of such a system.

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Language of thought hypothesis

The language of thought hypothesis (LOTH), sometimes known as thought ordered mental expression (TOME), is a view in linguistics, philosophy of mind and cognitive science, forwarded by American philosopher Jerry Fodor.

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Latent semantic analysis

Latent semantic analysis (LSA) is a technique in natural language processing, in particular distributional semantics, of analyzing relationships between a set of documents and the terms they contain by producing a set of concepts related to the documents and terms.

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Learning theory (education)

Learning theories are conceptual frameworks that describe how students absorb, process, and retain knowledge during learning.

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Lexical item

In lexicography, a lexical item (or lexical unit/ LU, lexical entry) is a single word, a part of a word, or a chain of words (.

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Lexicology

Lexicology is the part of linguistics that studies words.

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Linguistic relativity

The hypothesis of linguistic relativity holds that the structure of a language affects its speakers' world view or cognition.

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Linguistics

Linguistics is the scientific study of language, and involves an analysis of language form, language meaning, and language in context.

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Link relation

A link relation is a descriptive attribute attached to a hyperlink in order to define the type of the link, or the relationship between the source and destination resources.

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Linked data

In computing, linked data (often capitalized as Linked Data) is a method of publishing structured data so that it can be interlinked and become more useful through semantic queries.

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Logical consequence

Logical consequence (also entailment) is a fundamental concept in logic, which describes the relationship between statements that hold true when one statement logically follows from one or more statements.

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Lua (programming language)

Lua (from meaning moon) is a lightweight, multi-paradigm programming language designed primarily for embedded use in applications.

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Ludwig Wittgenstein

Ludwig Josef Johann Wittgenstein (26 April 1889 – 29 April 1951) was an Austrian-British philosopher who worked primarily in logic, the philosophy of mathematics, the philosophy of mind, and the philosophy of language.

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Mathematical logic

Mathematical logic is a subfield of mathematics exploring the applications of formal logic to mathematics.

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MATLAB

MATLAB (matrix laboratory) is a multi-paradigm numerical computing environment and proprietary programming language developed by MathWorks.

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Mīmāṃsā

Mimansa (purv mi mansa) is a Sanskrit word that means "reflection" or "critical investigation".

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Meaning (linguistics)

In linguistics, meaning is the information or concepts that a sender intends to convey, or does convey, in communication with a receiver.

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Mental rotation

Mental rotation is the ability to rotate mental representations of two-dimensional and three-dimensional objects as it is related to the visual representation of such rotation within the human mind.

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Meronymy

Meronymy (from Greek μέρος meros, "part" and ὄνομα onoma, "name") is a semantic relation specific to linguistics, distinct from the similar meronomy.

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Metadata

Metadata is "data that provides information about other data".

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Metaphor

A metaphor is a figure of speech that directly refers to one thing by mentioning another for rhetorical effect.

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Metonymy

Metonymy is a figure of speech in which a thing or concept is referred to by the name of something closely associated with that thing or concept.

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Michel Bréal

Michel Jules Alfred Bréal (26 March 183225 November 1915), French philologist, was born at Landau in Rhenish Bavaria.

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Microdata (HTML)

Microdata is a WHATWG HTML specification used to nest metadata within existing content on web pages.

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MIT Press

The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States).

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Model theory

In mathematics, model theory is the study of classes of mathematical structures (e.g. groups, fields, graphs, universes of set theory) from the perspective of mathematical logic.

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Modula-2

Modula-2 is a computer programming language designed and developed between 1977 and 1985 by Niklaus Wirth at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich (ETH Zurich) as a revision of Pascal to serve as the sole programming language for the operating system and application software for the personal workstation Lilith.

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Montague grammar

Montague grammar is an approach to natural language semantics, named after American logician Richard Montague.

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Named graph

Named graphs are a key concept of Semantic Web architecture in which a set of Resource Description Framework statements (a graph) are identified using a URI, allowing descriptions to be made of that set of statements such as context, provenance information or other such metadata.

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Natural language processing

Natural language processing (NLP) is an area of computer science and artificial intelligence concerned with the interactions between computers and human (natural) languages, in particular how to program computers to process and analyze large amounts of natural language data.

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Natural semantic metalanguage

The Natural semantic metalanguage (NSM) is a linguistic theory based on the conception of Polish professor Andrzej Bogusławski.

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Noam Chomsky

Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, cognitive scientist, historian, social critic and political activist.

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Nyaya

(Sanskrit: न्याय, ny-āyá), literally means "rules", "method" or "judgment".

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Oberon (programming language)

Oberon is a general-purpose programming language created in 1986 by Niklaus Wirth and the latest member of the Wirthian family of ALGOL-like languages (Euler, Algol-W, Pascal, Modula, and Modula-2).

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Object Pascal

Object Pascal refers to a branch of object-oriented derivatives of Pascal, mostly known as the primary programming language of Delphi.

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OCaml

OCaml, originally named Objective Caml, is the main implementation of the programming language Caml, created by Xavier Leroy, Jérôme Vouillon, Damien Doligez, Didier Rémy, Ascánder Suárez and others in 1996.

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Onomasiology

Onomasiology (from ὀνομάζω (onomāzο)—to name, which in turn is from ὄνομα—name) is a branch of linguistics concerned with the question "how do you express X?" It is in fact most commonly understood as a branch of lexicology, the study of words (although some apply the term also to grammar and conversation).

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Ontology

Ontology (introduced in 1606) is the philosophical study of the nature of being, becoming, existence, or reality, as well as the basic categories of being and their relations.

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Operational semantics

Operational semantics is a category of formal programming language semantics in which certain desired properties of a program, such as correctness, safety or security, are verified by constructing proofs from logical statements about its execution and procedures, rather than by attaching mathematical meanings to its terms (denotational semantics).

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Opposite (semantics)

In lexical semantics, opposites are words lying in an inherently incompatible binary relationship, like the opposite pairs big: small, long: short, and precede: follow.

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Palgrave Macmillan

Palgrave Macmillan is an international academic and trade publishing company.

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Parsing

Parsing, syntax analysis or syntactic analysis is the process of analysing a string of symbols, either in natural language, computer languages or data structures, conforming to the rules of a formal grammar.

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Pascal (programming language)

Pascal is an imperative and procedural programming language, which Niklaus Wirth designed in 1968–69 and published in 1970, as a small, efficient language intended to encourage good programming practices using structured programming and data structuring. It is named in honor of the French mathematician, philosopher and physicist Blaise Pascal. Pascal was developed on the pattern of the ALGOL 60 language. Wirth had already developed several improvements to this language as part of the ALGOL X proposals, but these were not accepted and Pascal was developed separately and released in 1970. A derivative known as Object Pascal designed for object-oriented programming was developed in 1985; this was used by Apple Computer and Borland in the late 1980s and later developed into Delphi on the Microsoft Windows platform. Extensions to the Pascal concepts led to the Pascal-like languages Modula-2 and Oberon.

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Perl

Perl is a family of two high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming languages, Perl 5 and Perl 6.

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Philology

Philology is the study of language in oral and written historical sources; it is a combination of literary criticism, history, and linguistics.

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Philosophy

Philosophy (from Greek φιλοσοφία, philosophia, literally "love of wisdom") is the study of general and fundamental problems concerning matters such as existence, knowledge, values, reason, mind, and language.

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Philosophy of language

Philosophy of language explores the relationship between language and reality.

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Phono-semantic matching

Phono-semantic matching (PSM) is the incorporation of a word into one language from another, often creating a neologism), where the word's non-native quality is hidden by replacing it with phonetically and semantically similar words or roots from the adopting language. Thus, the approximate sound and meaning of the original expression in the source language are preserved, though the new expression (the PSM) in the target language may sound native. Phono-semantic matching is distinct from calquing, which includes (semantic) translation but does not include phonetic matching (i.e. retaining the approximate sound of the borrowed word through matching it with a similar-sounding pre-existent word or morpheme in the target language). At the same time, phono-semantic matching is also distinct from homophonic translation, which retains the sound of a word but not the meaning.

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PHP

PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor (or simply PHP) is a server-side scripting language designed for Web development, but also used as a general-purpose programming language.

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Phrase

In everyday speech, a phrase may be any group of words, often carrying a special idiomatic meaning; in this sense it is roughly synonymous with expression.

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Post-structuralism

Post-structuralism is associated with the works of a series of mid-20th-century French, continental philosophers and critical theorists who came to be known internationally in the 1960s and 1970s.

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PostScript

PostScript (PS) is a page description language in the electronic publishing and desktop publishing business.

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Pragmatic maxim

The pragmatic maxim, also known as the maxim of pragmatism or the maxim of pragmaticism, is a maxim of logic formulated by Charles Sanders Peirce.

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Pragmaticism

Pragmaticism is a term used by Charles Sanders Peirce for his pragmatic philosophy starting in 1905, in order to distance himself and it from pragmatism, the original name, which had been used in a manner he did not approve of in the "literary journals".

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Pragmatics

Pragmatics is a subfield of linguistics and semiotics that studies the ways in which context contributes to meaning.

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Pragmatism

Pragmatism is a philosophical tradition that began in the United States around 1870.

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Problem of universals

In metaphysics, the problem of universals refers to the question of whether properties exist, and if so, what they are.

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Programming language

A programming language is a formal language that specifies a set of instructions that can be used to produce various kinds of output.

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Proof-theoretic semantics

Proof-theoretic semantics is an approach to the semantics of logic that attempts to locate the meaning of propositions and logical connectives not in terms of interpretations, as in Tarskian approaches to semantics, but in the role that the proposition or logical connective plays within the system of inference.

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Proposition

The term proposition has a broad use in contemporary analytic philosophy.

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Prototype theory

Prototype theory is a mode of graded categorization in cognitive science, where some members of a category are more central than others.

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Proxemics

Proxemics is the study of human use of space and the effects that population density has on behaviour, communication, and social interaction.

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Psychological nativism

In the field of psychology, nativism is the view that certain skills or abilities are "native" or hard-wired into the brain at birth.

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Psychology

Psychology is the science of behavior and mind, including conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought.

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Python (programming language)

Python is an interpreted high-level programming language for general-purpose programming.

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Qualia

In philosophy and certain models of psychology, qualia (or; singular form: quale) are defined to be individual instances of subjective, conscious experience.

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RDFa

RDFa (or Resource Description Framework in Attributes) is a W3C Recommendation that adds a set of attribute-level extensions to HTML, XHTML and various XML-based document types for embedding rich metadata within Web documents.

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Reference

Reference is a relation between objects in which one object designates, or acts as a means by which to connect to or link to, another object.

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Resource Description Framework

The Resource Description Framework (RDF) is a family of World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) specifications originally designed as a metadata data model.

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Richard Montague

Richard Merritt Montague (September 20, 1930 – March 7, 1971) was an American mathematician and philosopher.

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Ruby (programming language)

Ruby is a dynamic, interpreted, reflective, object-oriented, general-purpose programming language.

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Semantic analysis (machine learning)

In machine learning, semantic analysis of a corpus is the task of building structures that approximate concepts from a large set of documents.

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Semantic change

Semantic change (also semantic shift, semantic progression, semantic development, or semantic drift) is the evolution of word usage—usually to the point that the modern meaning is radically different from the original usage.

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Semantic class

A semantic class contains words that share a semantic feature.

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Semantic compression

In natural language processing, semantic compression is a process of compacting a lexicon used to build a textual document (or a set of documents) by reducing language heterogeneity, while maintaining text semantics.

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Semantic data model

A semantic data model in software engineering has various meanings.

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Semantic differential

Semantic Differential (SD) is a type of a rating scale designed to measure the connotative meaning of objects, events, and concepts.

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Semantic feature

Semantic features represent the basic conceptual components of meaning for any lexical item.

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Semantic field

In linguistics, a semantic field is a set of words grouped semantically (by meaning) that refers to a specific subject.

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Semantic HTML

Semantic HTML is the use of HTML markup to reinforce the semantics, or meaning, of the information in webpages and web applications rather than merely to define its presentation or look.

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Semantic integration

Semantic integration is the process of interrelating information from diverse sources, for example calendars and to do lists, email archives, presence information (physical, psychological, and social), documents of all sorts, contacts (including social graphs), search results, and advertising and marketing relevance derived from them.

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Semantic interpretation

Semantic interpretation is an important component in dialog systems.

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Semantic lexicon

A semantic lexicon is a digital dictionary of words labeled with semantic classes so associations can be drawn between words that have not previously been encountered.

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Semantic memory

Semantic memory is one of the two types of declarative or explicit memory (our memory of facts or events that is explicitly stored and retrieved).

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Semantic network

A semantic network, or frame network is a knowledge base that represents semantic relations between concepts in a network.

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Semantic primes

Semantic primes or semantic primitives are a set of semantic concepts that are innately understood but cannot be expressed in simpler terms.

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Semantic property

Semantic properties or meaning properties are those aspects of a linguistic unit, such as a morpheme, word, or sentence, that contribute to the meaning of that unit.

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Semantic reasoner

A semantic reasoner, reasoning engine, rules engine, or simply a reasoner, is a piece of software able to infer logical consequences from a set of asserted facts or axioms.

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Semantic service-oriented architecture

A Semantic Service Oriented Architecture (SSOA) is an architecture that allows for scalable and controlled Enterprise Application Integration solutions.

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Semantic spectrum

The semantic spectrum (sometimes referred to as the ontology spectrum or the smart data continuum or semantic precision) is a series of increasingly precise or rather semantically expressive definitions for data elements in knowledge representations, especially for machine use.

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Semantic theory of truth

A semantic theory of truth is a theory of truth in the philosophy of language which holds that truth is a property of sentences.

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Semantic triple

A semantic triple, or simply triple, is the atomic data entity in the Resource Description Framework (RDF) data model.

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Semantic unification

Semantic unification, in philosophy, linguistics, and computer science, is the process of unifying lexically different concept representations that are judged to have the same semantic content (i.e., meaning).

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Semantic Web

The Semantic Web is an extension of the World Wide Web through standards by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).

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Semantics (computer science)

In programming language theory, semantics is the field concerned with the rigorous mathematical study of the meaning of programming languages.

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Semantics of logic

In logic, the semantics of logic is the study of the semantics, or interpretations, of formal and (idealizations of) natural languages usually trying to capture the pre-theoretic notion of entailment.

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Semasiology

Semasiology (from σημασία,, "signification") is a discipline of linguistics concerned with the question "what does the word X mean?".

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Sememe

A sememe is a semantic language unit of meaning, analogous to a morpheme.

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Semiosis

Semiosis (from the σημείωσις, sēmeíōsis, a derivation of the verb σημειῶ, sēmeiô, "to mark") is any form of activity, conduct, or process that involves signs, including the production of meaning.

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Semiotics

Semiotics (also called semiotic studies) is the study of meaning-making, the study of sign process (semiosis) and meaningful communication.

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SETL

SETL (SET Language) is a very high-level programming language based on the mathematical theory of sets.

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Sign

A sign is an object, quality, event, or entity whose presence or occurrence indicates the probable presence or occurrence of something else.

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Sign (semiotics)

In semiotics, a sign is anything that communicates a meaning that is not the sign itself to the interpreter of the sign.

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Simula

Simula is the name of two simulation programming languages, Simula I and Simula 67, developed in the 1960s at the Norwegian Computing Center in Oslo, by Ole-Johan Dahl and Kristen Nygaard.

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Situation semantics

Situation semantics, pioneered by Jon Barwise and John Perry in the early 1980s, attempts to provide a solid theoretical foundation for reasoning about common-sense and real world situations, typically in the context of theoretical linguistics, philosophy, or applied natural language processing,.

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Skeletal animation

Skeletal animation is a technique in computer animation in which a character (or other articulated object) is represented in two parts: a surface representation used to draw the character (called skin or mesh) and a hierarchical set of interconnected bones (called the skeleton or rig) used to animate (pose and keyframe) the mesh.

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Smalltalk

Smalltalk is an object-oriented, dynamically typed, reflective programming language.

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SPL notation

SPL (Sentence Plan Language) is an abstract notation representing the semantics of a sentence in natural language.

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Standard ML

Standard ML (SML; "Standard Meta Language") is a general-purpose, modular, functional programming language with compile-time type checking and type inference.

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Support vector machine

In machine learning, support vector machines (SVMs, also support vector networks) are supervised learning models with associated learning algorithms that analyze data used for classification and regression analysis.

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Symbol

A symbol is a mark, sign or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an idea, object, or relationship.

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Synonym

A synonym is a word or phrase that means exactly or nearly the same as another word or phrase in the same language.

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Syntax

In linguistics, syntax is the set of rules, principles, and processes that govern the structure of sentences in a given language, usually including word order.

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Syntax (logic)

In logic, syntax is anything having to do with formal languages or formal systems without regard to any interpretation or meaning given to them.

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Thematic relation

In linguistics, thematic relations, within certain theories, are the various roles that a noun phrase may play with respect to the action or state described by a governing verb, commonly the sentence's main verb.

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Truth condition

In semantics and pragmatics, a truth condition is the condition under which a sentence is true.

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Truth value

In logic and mathematics, a truth value, sometimes called a logical value, is a value indicating the relation of a proposition to truth.

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Truth-value semantics

In formal semantics, truth-value semantics is an alternative to Tarskian semantics.

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Underspecification

In theoretical linguistics, underspecification is a phenomenon in which certain features are omitted in underlying representations.

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University of Chicago Press

The University of Chicago Press is the largest and one of the oldest university presses in the United States.

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University of Minnesota Press

The University of Minnesota Press is a university press that is part of the University of Minnesota.

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VHDL

VHDL (VHSIC Hardware Description Language) is a hardware description language used in electronic design automation to describe digital and mixed-signal systems such as field-programmable gate arrays and integrated circuits.

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Vyākaraṇa

Vyākaraṇa (Sanskrit: "explanation, analysis") refers to one of the six ancient Vedangas, ancillary science connected with the Vedas, which are scriptures in Hinduism.

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Web Ontology Language

The Web Ontology Language (OWL) is a family of knowledge representation languages for authoring ontologies.

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Willard Van Orman Quine

Willard Van Orman Quine (known to intimates as "Van"; June 25, 1908 – December 25, 2000) was an American philosopher and logician in the analytic tradition, recognized as "one of the most influential philosophers of the twentieth century." From 1930 until his death 70 years later, Quine was continually affiliated with Harvard University in one way or another, first as a student, then as a professor of philosophy and a teacher of logic and set theory, and finally as a professor emeritus who published or revised several books in retirement.

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Word

In linguistics, a word is the smallest element that can be uttered in isolation with objective or practical meaning.

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Word sense

In linguistics, a word sense is one of the meanings of a word (some words have multiple meanings, some words have only one meaning).

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WordNet

WordNet is a lexical database for the English language.

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World Wide Web

The World Wide Web (abbreviated WWW or the Web) is an information space where documents and other web resources are identified by Uniform Resource Locators (URLs), interlinked by hypertext links, and accessible via the Internet.

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Linguistic semantics, Natural language semantics, Psychological semantics, Psychosemantics, Semantic, Semantically, Semantician, Semanticist, Semantics (linguistics), Sematics, Sepersontics, Theories of semantics.

References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semantics

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