278 relations: Aeronautical Systems Center, Aerospace Defense Center, Aerospace Defense Command, Air Defense Artillery Branch, Air Defense Direction Center, Air Defense, Tactical Air Command, Air Force Research Laboratory, Air Force Systems Command, Air Materiel Command, Air Route Surveillance Radar, Air traffic control, Airborne early warning and control, Albuquerque Air Defense Sector, Albuquerque, New Mexico, AN/FPS-24 Radar, AN/FPS-26 Radar, AN/FSQ-32, AN/FSQ-7 Combat Direction Central, AN/FSQ-8 Combat Control Central, AN/FYQ-93, Analog computer, Andrews Air Force Base, Anti-aircraft warfare, Arctic Tower, Assembly language, AT&T Corporation, Autopilot, Autovon, Back-Up Interceptor Control, Ballistic Missile Early Warning System, Bangor Air Defense Sector, Battle of Britain, Beale Air Force Base, Bedford, Massachusetts, Bell Labs, Bell System, Belleville Air Force Station, Boston Air Defense Sector, Burroughs AN/FST-2 Coordinate Data Transmitting Set, Burroughs AN/GSA-51 Radar Course Directing Group, Burroughs Corporation, C. Robert Wieser, Calgary Herald, Cambria Air Force Station, Canada, Cape Canaveral, Central Air Defense Force, Cf., CFB North Bay, Chain Home, ..., Cheyenne Mountain Complex, Chicago Air Defense Sector, Chidlaw Building, CIM-10 Bomarc, Cold War, Colossus: The Forbin Project, Command guidance, Command, control, and coordination system, Commander-in-Chief of the North American Aerospace Defense Command, Comprehensive Display System, Computer art, Computer History Museum, Computer network, CONELRAD, Continental Air Defense Command, Convair F-106 Delta Dart, Covance, Custer Air Force Station, DATAR, DEFCON, Defense Support Program, Delta, Utah, Denver Air Defense Sector, Detroit Air Defense Sector, Distant Early Warning Line, Dobbins Air Reserve Base, Dowding system, Dr. Strangelove, Duluth Air Defense Sector, Duncanville Air Force Station, Earle E. Partridge, Early-warning radar, Eastern Air Defense Force, Eastern Air Defense Sector, Electronic Systems Center, Emergency War Order, England Air Force Base, Ent Air Force Base, Fighter aircraft, Flight simulator, Formerly Used Defense Sites, Fort Banks (Massachusetts), Fort Heath radar station, Fort Knox, Fort Lee Air Force Station, Francis Wheeler Loomis, Fuel efficiency, Full operational capability, GE AN/GPA-37 Course Directing Group, GE AN/GPA-73 Radar Course Directing Group, Google Books, Google News Archive, Goose Air Defense Sector, Grand Forks Air Defense Sector, Grand Forks Air Force Base, Great Falls Air Defense Sector, Ground Air Transmit Receive, Ground Equipment Facility J-31, Ground-controlled interception, Gunter Annex, Hamilton Army Airfield, Hancock Field Air National Guard Base, Hanscom Air Force Base, Hanscom Field, Highlands Air Force Station, Houma Air Force Station, Hughes AN/TSQ-51 Air Defense Command and Coordination System, Human factors and ergonomics, Human–computer interaction, IBM, Identification friend or foe, Interceptor aircraft, James Rhyne Killian, Jay Wright Forrester, Jerome Wiesner, Joint Surveillance System, JOVIAL, K. I. Sawyer Air Force Base, Kansas City Air Defense Sector, Kilobyte, Kingston, New York, Kirtland Air Force Base, Larry Niven, Larson Air Force Base, Lashup Radar Network, Lexington, Massachusetts, Light gun, List of United States Air Force aircraft control and warning squadrons, Lockheed EC-121 Warning Star, Lockheed F-104 Starfighter, Lockheed F-94 Starfire, Lockheed Martin Systems Integration – Owego, Louis Ridenour, Luke Air Force Base, Mainframe computer, Malmstrom Air Force Base, Man-hour, Manhattan Project, March Air Reserve Base, Martin AN/FSG-1 Antiaircraft Defense System, Martin AN/GSG-5 Battery Integration and Radar Display Equipment, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, McChord Field, McClellan Air Force Base, McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II, McDonnell F-101 Voodoo, McGuire Air Force Base, Microcomputer, Mid-Canada Line, MIM-3 Nike Ajax, Minot Air Defense Sector, Minot Air Force Base, Missile Master, MIT Lincoln Laboratory, MIT Press, MIT Radiation Laboratory, MIT Tech Talk, Mitre Corporation, Modem, Moffett Federal Airfield, Mounds, Oklahoma, Mountain View, California, National Military Command Center, National Security Act of 1947, Naval Air Station Fallon, Naval Tactical Data System, NORAD Control Center, North American Aerospace Defense Command, North Truro Air Force Station, Northrop F-89 Scorpion, Norton Air Force Base, Office of Naval Research, Offutt Air Force Base, Oklahoma City Air Defense Sector, Olathe Air Force Station, Operation Skyshield, Osceola Air Force Station, Otis Air National Guard Base, Permanent System radar stations, Peterson Air Force Base, Phoenix Air Defense Sector, Photographic Display Unit, Pinetree Line, Poly(methyl methacrylate), Portland Air Defense Sector, Post-Attack Command and Control System Facility, Hadley, Preface, Project Charles, Project Nike, Project Wizard, Radar, Radar horizon, Radioteletype, Raleigh, North Carolina, Raven Rock Mountain Complex, RCA, RDS-1, Reno Air Defense Sector, Richards-Gebaur Memorial Airport, Robins Air Force Base, Royal Air Force, Royal Canadian Navy, Royal Navy, Sacramento Air Logistics Center, SAGE radar stations, San Antonio, San Francisco Air Defense Sector, Sandia Base, Sault Sainte Marie Air Defense Sector, Scott Air Force Base, Shreveport, Louisiana, Sioux City Air Defense Sector, Sioux City Air National Guard Base, Southam, Southeast Air Defense Sector, Southwest Air Defense Sector, Space Detection and Tracking System, Spokane Air Defense Sector, Spokane International Airport, St. Louis, Stewart Air National Guard Base, Strategic Air Command, Structure of the United States Air Force, Submarine-launched ballistic missile, Super Combat Center, Surface-to-air missile, Syracuse Air Defense Sector, System Development Corporation, System of systems, Tactical Air Command, Tactical Data Link, Teleprinter, Texas Towers, The Atlantic, The Computer Museum, Boston, The Pentagon, The Time Tunnel, To be announced, Tonopah Air Force Station, Topsham Air Force Station, Transistor, Tri-City Herald, Truax Field Air National Guard Base, United States Air Force, United States Army Air Forces, United States Department of Defense, United States government role in civil aviation, United States National Security Council, United States Navy, University of Minnesota Duluth, Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea, Washington Air Defense Sector, Waterfall model, Weapon, Webb Air Force Base, Western Air Defense Force, Western Air Defense Sector, Western Electric, Westinghouse AN/FPS-27 Radar, Whirlwind I, World War II, Worldwide Military Command and Control System, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, WS-201, YouTube, 23rd Air Division (United States), 4620th Air Defense Wing, 646th Radar Squadron. 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The Aeronautical Systems Center (ASC) is an inactivated Air Force product center that designed, developed and delivered dominant aerospace weapon systems and capabilities for U.S. Air Force, other U.S. military, allied and coalition-partner warfighters, in support of Air Force leadership priorities.
The Aerospace Defense Center (ADC) was a unit of the United States Air Force.
Aerospace Defense Command was a major command of the United States Air Forces, responsible for continental air defence.
The Air Defense Artillery branch of the United States Army that specializes in anti-aircraft weapons (such as surface to air missiles).
An Air Defense Direction Center (ADDC) was a type of United States command post for assessing Cold War radar tracks, assigning height requests to available height-finder radars, and for "Weapons Direction": coordinating command guidance of aircraft from more than 1 site for ground-controlled interception ("weapons assignment").
Air Defense, Tactical Air Command (ADTAC) was a Named Unit of the United States Air Force, and operated at the Numbered Air Force echelon of Tactical Air Command.
The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL) is a scientific research organization operated by the United States Air Force Materiel Command dedicated to leading the discovery, development, and integration of affordable aerospace warfighting technologies, planning and executing the Air Force science and technology program, and providing warfighting capabilities to United States air, space, and cyberspace forces.
The Air Force Systems Command (AFSC) is an inactive United States Air Force Major Command.
Air Materiel Command (AMC) was a United States Army Air Forces and United States Air Force command.
The Air Route Surveillance Radar is used by the United States Air Force and the Federal Aviation Administration to control airspace within and around the borders of the United States.
Air traffic control (ATC) is a service provided by ground-based air traffic controllers who direct aircraft on the ground and through controlled airspace, and can provide advisory services to aircraft in non-controlled airspace.
An airborne early warning and control (AEW&C) system is an airborne radar picket system designed to detect aircraft, ships and vehicles at long ranges and perform command and control of the battlespace in an air engagement by directing fighter and attack aircraft strikes.
The Albuquerque Air Defense Sector (AADS) is an inactive United States Air Force organization.
Albuquerque (Beeʼeldííl Dahsinil; Arawageeki; Vakêêke; Gołgéeki) is the most populous city in the U.S. state of New Mexico.
The AN/FPS-24 Radar was a Long Range Search Radar used by the United States Air Force Air Defense Command.
The Avco AN/FPS-26 Radar was an Air Defense Command height finder radar developed in the Frequency Diversity Program with a tunable 3-cavity power klystron for electronic counter-countermeasures (e.g. to counter jamming).
The AN/FSQ-32 SAGE Solid State Computer (AN/FSQ-7A before December 1958, colloq. "Q-32") was a planned military computer central for deployment to Super Combat Centers in nuclear bunkers and to some above-ground military installations.
The AN/FSQ-7 Combat Direction Central, referred to as the Q7 for short, was a computerized command and control system for Cold War ground-controlled interception used in the USAF Semi-Automatic Ground Environment (SAGE) air defense network.
The AN/FSQ-8 Combat Control Central was a United States Air Force computerized command and control system.
FYQ-93 was a computer system used from 1983–2006, and built for the Joint Surveillance System (JSS) by the Hughes Aircraft Company.
An analog computer or analogue computer is a form of computer that uses the continuously changeable aspects of physical phenomena such as electrical, mechanical, or hydraulic quantities to model the problem being solved.
Andrews Air Force Base is the airfield portion of Joint Base Andrews which is under the jurisdiction of the United States Air Force.
Anti-aircraft warfare or counter-air defence is defined by NATO as "all measures designed to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of hostile air action."AAP-6 They include ground-and air-based weapon systems, associated sensor systems, command and control arrangements and passive measures (e.g. barrage balloons).
An Arctic Tower (Tower AB-343/FPS) is a 20 ft diameter cylindrical radar station structure of the AN/GPA-33 Radar Set Group for protecting a USAF radar's antenna and electronic cabinets.
An assembly (or assembler) language, often abbreviated asm, is a low-level programming language, in which there is a very strong (but often not one-to-one) correspondence between the assembly program statements and the architecture's machine code instructions.
AT&T Corp., originally the American Telephone and Telegraph Company, is the subsidiary of AT&T that provides voice, video, data, and Internet telecommunications and professional services to businesses, consumers, and government agencies.
An autopilot is a system used to control the trajectory of an aircraft without constant 'hands-on' control by a human operator being required.
The Automatic Voice Network (AUTOVON, military designation 490-L), Aviation Week & Space Technology, September 23, 1963, v. 79, no.
Backup Interceptor Control (BUIC) was the Electronic Systems Division 416M System to backup the SAGE 416L System in the United States and Canada.
The RCA 474L Ballistic Missile Early Warning System (BMEWS, "474L System", Project 474L) was a United States Air Force Cold War early warning radar, computer, and communications system, for ballistic missile detection.
The Bangor Air Defense Sector (BaADS) is an inactive United States Air Force organization.
The Battle of Britain (Luftschlacht um England, literally "The Air Battle for England") was a military campaign of the Second World War, in which the Royal Air Force (RAF) defended the United Kingdom (UK) against large-scale attacks by Nazi Germany's air force, the Luftwaffe.
Beale Air Force Base (AFB) is a United States Air Force base located approximately east of Marysville, California.
Bedford is a town in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States.
Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named AT&T Bell Laboratories, Bell Telephone Laboratories and Bell Labs) is an American research and scientific development company, owned by Finnish company Nokia.
The Bell System was the system of companies, led by the Bell Telephone Company and later by AT&T, which provided telephone services to much of the United States and Canada from 1877 to 1984, at various times as a monopoly.
Belleville Air Force Station is a closed United States Air Force General Surveillance Radar station.
The Boston Air Defense Sector (BADS) is an inactive United States Air Force Air Defense Command (ADC) organization.
The Burroughs AN/FST-2 Coordinate Data Transmitting Set (CDTS) was a Cold War military computer system at SAGE radar stations for displaying aircraft tracks and converting them for digital transmission to IBM AN/FSQ-7 Combat Direction Centrals at air defense data centers.
The Burroughs AN/GSA-51 Radar Course Directing Group was a United States Air Force air defense command, control, and coordination system, part of the Semi-Automatic Ground Environment system.
The Burroughs Corporation was a major American manufacturer of business equipment.
C.Robert Wieser qualified from MIT as an electrical engineer and later became a developer of electrical and computing technology.
The Calgary Herald is a daily newspaper published in Calgary, Alberta, Canada.
Cambria Air Force Station is a closed United States Air Force General Surveillance Radar station.
Canada is a country located in the northern part of North America.
Cape Canaveral, from the Spanish Cabo Cañaveral, is a cape in Brevard County, Florida, United States, near the center of the state's Atlantic coast.
The Central Air Defense Force (CADF) is an inactive United States Air Force organization.
The abbreviation cf. (short for the confer/conferatur, both meaning "compare") is used in writing to refer the reader to other material to make a comparison with the topic being discussed.
Canadian Forces Base North Bay, also CFB North Bay, is an air force base located at the City of North Bay, Ontario about north of Toronto.
Chain Home, or CH for short, was the codename for the ring of coastal Early Warning radar stations built by the Royal Air Force (RAF) before and during the Second World War to detect and track aircraft.
The Cheyenne Mountain Complex is a military installation and defensive bunker located in unincorporated El Paso County, Colorado, next to Colorado Springs, at the Cheyenne Mountain Air Force Station, which hosts the activities of several tenant units.
The Chicago Air Defense Sector (CADS) is an inactive United States Air Force organization.
The Chidlaw Building is a former United States Air Force facility located in the Knob Hill neighborhood of Colorado Springs, Colorado.
The Boeing CIM-10 Bomarc (IM-99 Weapon System prior to September 1962) was a supersonic long-range surface-to-air missile (SAM) used during the Cold War for the air defense of North America.
The Cold War was a state of geopolitical tension after World War II between powers in the Eastern Bloc (the Soviet Union and its satellite states) and powers in the Western Bloc (the United States, its NATO allies and others).
Colossus: The Forbin Project (a.k.a. The Forbin Project) is a 1970 American science fiction thriller film from Universal Pictures, produced by Stanley Chase, directed by Joseph Sargent, that stars Eric Braeden, Susan Clark, Gordon Pinsent, and William Schallert.
Command guidance is a type of missile guidance in which a ground station or aircraft relay signals to a guided missile via radio control or through a wire connecting the missile to the launcher and tell the missile where to steer in order to intercept its target.
A command, control, and coordination system (CCCS) was a Cold War computer system for United States command posts (e.g., Army Air Defense Command Posts) to use a single location to coordinate multiple units' ground-controlled interception (e.g., USAF interceptor squadrons at various locations by Semi-Automatic Ground Environment Direction Centers) and may refer to.
The NORAD commander-in-chief is always a United States Department of Defense four-star General or equivalent confirmed by the US Senate and is also in command of USNORTHCOM, while the Deputy Commander is always Canadian.
The Comprehensive Display System (CDS) was a command, control, and coordination system of the British Royal Navy (RN) that worked with the detection/search Type 984 radar.
Computer art is any art in which computers play a role in production or display of the artwork.
The Computer History Museum (CHM) is a museum established in 1996 in Mountain View, California, US.
A computer network, or data network, is a digital telecommunications network which allows nodes to share resources.
CONELRAD (Control of Electromagnetic Radiation) was a method of emergency broadcasting to the public of the United States in the event of enemy attack during the Cold War.
Continental Air Defense Command (CONAD) was a Unified Combatant Command of the United States Department of Defense, tasked with air defense for the Continental United States.
The Convair F-106 Delta Dart was the primary all-weather interceptor aircraft of the United States Air Force from the 1960s through the 1980s.
Covance Inc. is a contract research organization (CRO) headquartered in Princeton, New Jersey, providing drug development and animal testing services.
Custer Air Force Station (ADC ID: P-67 DC-6, NORAD ID: Z-67, DC-6) is a closed United States Air Force General Surveillance Radar and Direction Center station.
DATAR, short for Digital Automated Tracking and Resolving, was a pioneering computerized battlefield information system.
The defense readiness condition (DEFCON) is an alert state used by the United States Armed Forces.
Supply support for what was known as the 1st Communications Squadron at Buckley Air National Guard Base in early 1970 was provided by Operating Location AB of the 4600/Supply Squadron and 2 personnel from Space Command.
Delta is a city in Millard County, Utah, United States.
The Denver Air Defense Sector was a United States Air Force geographic area designated during the Cold War for both air defense and air traffic control, as well as the name of the planned military unit for conducting radar surveillance and fighter-interceptor operations in the sector area.
The Detroit Air Defense Sector (DEADS) is an inactive United States Air Force organization.
The Distant Early Warning Line, also known as the DEW Line or Early Warning Line, was a system of radar stations in the far northern Arctic region of Canada, with additional stations along the North Coast and Aleutian Islands of Alaska, in addition to the Faroe Islands, Greenland, and Iceland.
Dobbins Air Reserve Base or Dobbins ARB is a United States Air Force reserve air base located in Marietta, Georgia, a suburb about northwest of Atlanta.
The Dowding system was the world's first wide-area ground-controlled interception network, controlling the airspace across the United Kingdom from northern Scotland to the southern coast of England.
The Duluth Air Defense Sector (DUADS) is an inactive United States Air Force organization.
Duncanville Air Force Station (ADC ID: P-78) is a closed United States Air Force General Surveillance Radar station.
Earle Everard "Pat" Partridge (July 7, 1900 – September 7, 1990) was a 4-star general in the United States Air Force and a Command Pilot.
An early-warning radar is any radar system used primarily for the long-range detection of its targets, i.e., allowing defences to be alerted as early as possible before the intruder reaches its target, giving the air defences the maximum time in which to operate.
The Eastern Air Defense Force (EADF) is an inactive United States Air Force organization.
The Eastern Air Defense Sector (EADS) is a United States Air Force Air Combat Command (ACC) unit permanently assigned to the North American Aerospace Defense Command.
Electronic Systems Center was a product center of Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC) headquartered at Hanscom Air Force Base, Massachusetts.
Emergency War Orders (EWO) are a shift in the standard operating procedure of the United States Armed Forces from a peacetime to wartime contingency.
England Air Force Base is a former United States Air Force base in Louisiana, located Northwest of Alexandria and about Northwest of New Orleans.
Ent Air Force Base was an Air Force base located in the Knob Hill neighborhood of Colorado Springs, Colorado.
A fighter aircraft is a military aircraft designed primarily for air-to-air combat against other aircraft, as opposed to bombers and attack aircraft, whose main mission is to attack ground targets.
A flight simulator is a device that artificially re-creates aircraft flight and the environment in which it flies, for pilot training, design, or other purposes.
Formerly Used Defense Sites (FUDS) are properties that were owned by, leased to, or otherwise possessed by the United States and under the jurisdiction of the United States Secretary of Defense.
Fort Banks was a U.S. Coast Artillery fort located in Winthrop, Massachusetts.
The Fort Heath radar station was a USAF radar site and US Army Missile Master installation of the joint-use site system (JUSS) for North American Air Defense.
Fort Knox is a United States Army post in Kentucky, south of Louisville and north of Elizabethtown.
Fort Lee Air Force Station is a closed United States Air Force station.
Francis Wheeler Loomis (August 4, 1889 – February 9, 1976), born in Parkersburg, West Virginia, was an American scientist most widely known for his contributions in the field of physics.
Fuel efficiency is a form of thermal efficiency, meaning the ratio from effort to result of a process that converts chemical potential energy contained in a carrier (fuel) into kinetic energy or work.
In military acquisition, full operational capability (FOC) is the completion of a development effort.
The GE AN/GPA-37 Course Directing Group was a USAF Cold War air defense command, control, and coordination system for weapons direction (ground-controlled interception).
The GE AN/GPA-73 Radar Course Directing Group (mobile version AN/CPA-73) was a US Cold War air defense command, control, and coordination system developed for the Electronic Systems Division 412L Air Weapons Control System (colloq. "AWCS 412L") for weapons direction (ground-controlled interception, GCI, by "Fire Direction and Control Equipment").
Google Books (previously known as Google Book Search and Google Print and by its codename Project Ocean) is a service from Google Inc. that searches the full text of books and magazines that Google has scanned, converted to text using optical character recognition (OCR), and stored in its digital database.
Google News Archive is an extension of Google News that provides free access to scanned archives of newspapers and links to other newspaper archives on the web, both free and paid.
The Goose Air Defense Sector (GADS) is an inactive United States Air Force organization.
The Grand Forks Air Defense Sector (GFADS) is an inactive United States Air Force organization.
Grand Forks Air Force Base (AFB) is a United States Air Force installation in northeastern North Dakota, located north of Emerado and west of Grand Forks.
The Great Falls Air Defense Sector (GFADS) is an inactive United States Air Force organization.
Ground Air Transmit Receive (GATR) "control sites" were the radio stations of a Cold War communications network in the Burroughs 416L SAGE Defense System deployed to automate ground-controlled interception using manned interceptors.
Ground Equipment Facility J-31 (San Pedro Hill Air Force Station during the Cold War) is a Joint Surveillance System radar site of the Western Air Defense Sector (WADS) and the Federal Aviation Administration's air traffic control radar network for the Los Angeles Air Route Traffic Control Center.
Ground-controlled interception (GCI) is an air defence tactic whereby one or more radar stations or other observational stations are linked to a command communications centre which guides interceptor aircraft to an airborne target.
Gunter Annex is a United States Air Force installation located in the North-northeast suburbs of Montgomery, Alabama.
Hamilton Field (Hamilton AFB) was a United States Air Force base, which was deactivated in 1973, decommissioned in 1974, and put into a caretaker status with the Air Force Reserves until 1976.
Hancock Field Air National Guard Base is a United States Air Force base, co-located with Syracuse Hancock International Airport.
Hanscom Air Force Base (AFB) is a United States Air Force base located predominantly within Bedford, Massachusetts, with portions extending into the adjoining towns of Lincoln, Concord and Lexington.
Hanscom Field (Laurence G. Hanscom Field) is a public use airport operated by the Massachusetts Port Authority, located 6 miles from the central business district of Bedford, a town in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States.
Highlands Air Force Station was a military installation in Middletown Township near the borough of Highlands, New Jersey.
Houma Air Force Station (ADC ID: M-126 NORAD ID: Z-126) is a closed United States Air Force General Surveillance Radar station.
The Hughes AN/TSQ-51 Air Defense Command and Coordination System was a transportable electronic fire distribution center for automated command and control of remote Nike missile launch batteries.
Human factors and ergonomics (commonly referred to as Human Factors), is the application of psychological and physiological principles to the (engineering and) design of products, processes, and systems.
Human–computer interaction (HCI) researches the design and use of computer technology, focused on the interfaces between people (users) and computers.
The International Business Machines Corporation (IBM) is an American multinational technology company headquartered in Armonk, New York, United States, with operations in over 170 countries.
Identification, friend or foe (IFF) is an identification system designed for command and control.
An interceptor aircraft, or simply interceptor, is a type of fighter aircraft designed specifically to attack enemy aircraft, particularly bombers and reconnaissance aircraft, as they approach.
James Rhyne Killian Jr. (July 24, 1904 – January 29, 1988) was the 10th president of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, from 1948 until 1959.
Jay Wright Forrester (July 14, 1918 – November 16, 2016) was a pioneering American computer engineer and systems scientist.
Jerome Bert Wiesner (May 30, 1915 – October 21, 1994) was a professor of electrical engineering, chosen by President John F. Kennedy as chairman of his Science Advisory Committee (PSAC).
The Joint Surveillance System (JSS) is a joint United States Air Force and Federal Aviation Administration system for the atmospheric air defense of North America.
JOVIAL is a high-level computer programming language similar to ALGOL, specialized for the development of embedded systems (specialized computer systems designed to perform one or a few dedicated functions, usually embedded as part of a complete device including mechanical parts).
The Kansas City Air Defense Sector (KCADS) is an inactive United States Air Force organization.
The kilobyte is a multiple of the unit byte for digital information.
Kingston is a city in and the county seat of Ulster County, New York, United States.
Kirtland Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base located in the southeast quadrant of the Albuquerque, New Mexico urban area, adjacent to the Albuquerque International Sunport.
Laurence van Cott Niven (born April 30, 1938) is an American science fiction writer.
Larson Air Force Base is a former United States Air Force base located five miles (8 km) northwest of the central business district (CBD) of Moses Lake, in Grant County, Washington.
The Lashup Radar Network was a United States Cold War radar netting system for air defense surveillance which followed the post-World War II "five-station radar net" and preceded the "high Priority Permanent System".
Lexington is a town in Middlesex County, Massachusetts, United States.
A light gun is a pointing device for computers and a control device for arcade and video games, typically shaped to resemble a pistol.
The Lockheed EC-121 Warning Star is a United States Navy and United States Air Force Airborne early warning and control radar surveillance aircraft.
The Lockheed F-104 Starfighter is a single-engine, supersonic interceptor aircraft which later became widely used as an attack aircraft.
The Lockheed F-94 Starfire was a first-generation jet aircraft of the United States Air Force.
Lockheed Martin Systems Integration – Owego (LMSI) was a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin, in the Electronic Systems sector, located in Owego, New York, with approximately 4,000 employees.
Luke Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base located west of the central business district of Glendale, in Maricopa County, Arizona, United States.
Mainframe computers (colloquially referred to as "big iron") are computers used primarily by large organizations for critical applications; bulk data processing, such as census, industry and consumer statistics, enterprise resource planning; and transaction processing.
Malmstrom Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base and census-designated place (CDP) in Great Falls, Cascade County, Montana, United States.
A man-hour, or less commonly person-hour, is the amount of work performed by the average worker in one hour.
The Manhattan Project was a research and development undertaking during World War II that produced the first nuclear weapons.
March Air Reserve Base (March ARB), previously known as March Air Force Base (March AFB) is located in Riverside County, California between the cities of Riverside, Moreno Valley, and Perris.
The Martin AN/FSG-1 Antiaircraft Defense System, better known as Missile Master, was an electronic fire distribution center to computerize Cold War air defense (AD) command posts from manual plotting board operations to automated command and control of remote surface-to-air missile (SAM) launch batteries.
The Martin AN/GSG-5 Battery Integration and Radar DIsplay Equipment (BIRDIE) was a transportable electronic fire distribution center for automated command and control of remote surface-to-air missile launch batteries.
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) is a private research university located in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
McChord Field is a United States Air Force base in the northwest United States, in Pierce County, Washington.
McClellan Air Force Base (1935–2001) is a former United States Air Force base located in the North Highlands area of Sacramento County, northeast of Sacramento, California.
The McDonnell Douglas F-4 Phantom II is a tandem two-seat, twin-engine, all-weather, long-range supersonic jet interceptor and fighter-bomber originally developed for the United States Navy by McDonnell Aircraft.
The McDonnell F-101 Voodoo was a supersonic jet fighter which served the United States Air Force (USAF) and the Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF).
McGuire AFB/McGuire, the common name of the McGuire unit of Joint Base McGuire-Dix-Lakehurst, is a United States Air Force base located in Burlington County, New Jersey, United States, approximately south-southeast of Trenton.
A microcomputer is a small, relatively inexpensive computer with a microprocessor as its central processing unit (CPU).
The Mid-Canada Line (MCL), also known as the McGill Fence, was a line of radar stations running east-west across the middle of Canada, used to provide early warning of a Soviet bomber attack on North America.
The United States Army's Nike Ajax was the world's first operational surface-to-air missile (SAM), entering service in 1954.
The Minot Air Defense Sector (MADS) is an inactive United States Air Force organization.
Minot Air Force Base is a U.S. Air Force installation in Ward County, North Dakota, north of the city of Minot via U.S. 83.
Missile Master was a type of US Army Missile Command military installation for the Cold War Project Nike, each which were a complex of systems and facilities for surface-to-air missile command and control.
The MIT Lincoln Laboratory, located in Lexington, Massachusetts, is a United States Department of Defense research and development center chartered to apply advanced technology to problems of national security.
The MIT Press is a university press affiliated with the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (United States).
The Radiation Laboratory, commonly called the Rad Lab, was a microwave and radar research laboratory located at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Cambridge, Massachusetts (US).
MIT Tech Talk (abbreviated Tech Talk) was the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's official newspaper until September 2009 when it ceased publication.
The Mitre Corporation (stylized as The MITRE Corporation and MITRE) is an American not-for-profit organization based in Bedford, Massachusetts, and McLean, Virginia.
A modem (modulator–demodulator) is a network hardware device that modulates one or more carrier wave signals to encode digital information for transmission and demodulates signals to decode the transmitted information.
Moffett Federal Airfield, also known as Moffett Field, is a joint civil-military airport located in an unincorporated part of Santa Clara County between northern Mountain View and northern Sunnyvale, California.
Mounds is a village in Creek County, Oklahoma, United States.
Mountain View is a city located in Santa Clara County, California, United States, named for its views of the Santa Cruz Mountains.
The National Military Command Center (NMCC) is a Pentagon command and communications center for the National Command Authority (i.e., the President of the United States and the United States Secretary of Defense).
The National Security Act of 1947 was a major restructuring of the United States government's military and intelligence agencies following World War II.
Naval Air Station Fallon or NAS Fallon is the United States Navy's premier air-to-air and air-to-ground training facility.
Naval Tactical Data System, commonly known as NTDS, refers to a computerized information processing system developed by the United States Navy in the 1950s and first deployed in the early 1960s for use in combat ships.
NORAD Control Centers (NCCs) were Cold War "joint direction centers" for command, control, and coordination of ground-controlled interception by both USAF Air Defense Command (ADC) and Army Air Defense Command (ARADCOM).
North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD), known until March 1981 as the North American Air Defense Command, is a combined organization of the United States and Canada that provides aerospace warning, air sovereignty, and protection for Northern America.
North Truro Air Force Station (AFS) is a closed United States Air Force General Surveillance Radar station.
The Northrop F-89 Scorpion was an American all-weather interceptor built during the 1950s, the first jet-powered aircraft designed as such from the outset to enter service.
Norton Air Force Base (1942–1994) was a United States Air Force facility east of downtown San Bernardino, California, in San Bernardino County.
The Office of Naval Research (ONR) is an organization within the United States Department of the Navy that coordinates, executes, and promotes the science and technology programs of the U.S. Navy and Marine Corps through schools, universities, government laboratories, nonprofit organizations, and for-profit organizations.
Offutt Air Force Base is a U.S. Air Force installation near Omaha, and lies adjacent to Bellevue in Sarpy County, Nebraska.
The Oklahoma City Air Defense Sector (OCADS) is an inactive United States Air Force organization.
Olathe Air Force Station is a former United States Air Force radar station that was located in Gardner, Kansas.
Operation Sky Shield was a series of three large-scale military exercises conducted in the United States in 1960, 1961, and 1962 by the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) and the Strategic Air Command (SAC) to test defenses against a Soviet air attack.
Osceola Air Force Station (ADC ID: P-35, NORAD ID: Z-35) is a closed United States Air Force General Surveillance Radar station.
Otis Air National Guard Base is an Air National Guard installation located within Joint Base Cape Cod, a military training facility located on the western portion of Cape Cod in Barnstable County, Massachusetts, United States.
The Permanent System ("P system") was a 1950s radar network ("P radar net") used for the CONUS "manual air defense system" and which had a USAF aircraft control and warning (AC&W) organization of personnel and military installations with radars to allow Air Defense Command ground-controlled interception of Cold War bombers attacking the United States.
Peterson Air Force Base is a U.S. Air Force Base that shares an airfield with the adjacent Colorado Springs Municipal Airport, home to the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD), the Air Force Space Command headquarters, and United States Northern Command (USNORTHCOM) headquarters.
The Phoenix Air Defense Sector (PhADS) is an inactive United States Air Force organization.
The Photographic Display Unit, or PDU, was a large-format display system used by the Royal Air Force to present radar images for interpretation by a number of operators and commanders.
The Pinetree Line was a series of radar stations located across the northern United States and southern Canada at about the 50th parallel north, along with a number of other stations located on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts.
Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), also known as acrylic or acrylic glass as well as by the trade names Crylux, Plexiglas, Acrylite, Lucite, and Perspex among several others (see below), is a transparent thermoplastic often used in sheet form as a lightweight or shatter-resistant alternative to glass.
The Portland Air Defense Sector (PADS) is an inactive United States Air Force organization.
Post-Attack Command and Control System Facility, Hadley is a defunct Post-Attack Command and Control System facility that operated from June 2, 1958 until 1970.
A preface or proem is an introduction to a book or other literary work written by the work's author.
Project Charles was a summer study group held at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), of which F.W. Loomis was the appointed head.
Project Nike, (Greek: Νίκη, "Victory", pronounced), was a U.S. Army project, proposed in May 1945 by Bell Laboratories, to develop a line-of-sight anti-aircraft missile system.
Project Wizard was a Cold War-era anti-ballistic missile system to defend against short and medium-range threats of the V-2 rocket type.
Radar is an object-detection system that uses radio waves to determine the range, angle, or velocity of objects.
The radar horizon is a critical area of performance for aircraft detection systems that is defined by the distance at which the radar beam rises enough above the Earth's surface to make detection of a target at low level impossible.
Radioteletype (RTTY) is a telecommunications system consisting originally of two or more electromechanical teleprinters in different locations connected by radio rather than a wired link.
Raleigh is the capital of the state of North Carolina and the seat of Wake County in the United States.
The Raven Rock Mountain Complex (RRMC) is a U.S. military installation with an underground nuclear bunker near Blue Ridge Summit, Pennsylvania, at Raven Rock Mountain that has been called an "underground Pentagon." The bunker has emergency operations centers for the United States Army, Navy, and Air Force.
The RCA Corporation was a major American electronics company, which was founded as the Radio Corporation of America in 1919.
The RDS-1 (РДС-1), also known as Izdeliye 501 (device 501) and First Lightning, was the nuclear bomb used in the Soviet Union's first nuclear weapon test.
The Reno Air Defense Sector (ReADS) is an inactive United States Air Force organization.
Richards-Gebaur Memorial Airport is a former airport that operated alongside Richards-Gebaur Air Reserve Station until the base's closure in 1994, and until it was closed in 1999.
Robins Air Force Base is a major United States Air Force installation located in Houston County, Georgia, United States.
The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom's aerial warfare force.
The Royal Canadian Navy (RCN; French: Marine royale canadienne) is the naval force of Canada.
The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare force.
Sacramento Air Logistics Center is a former United States Air Force unit based at McClellan Air Force Base from 1935 until its closure as part of the 1995 Base Realignment and Closure Commission.
The SAGE radar stations of Air Defense Command (Aerospace Defense Command after 1968) were the military installations operated by USAF squadrons using the 1st automated air defense environment (Semi-Automatic Ground Environment) and networked by the SAGE System, a computer network.
San Antonio (Spanish for "Saint Anthony"), officially the City of San Antonio, is the seventh most populous city in the United States and the second most populous city in both Texas and the Southern United States.
The San Francisco Air Defense Sector (SFADS) is an inactive United States Air Force organization.
Sandia Base was, from 1946 to 1971, the principal nuclear weapons installation of the United States Department of Defense.
The Sault Sainte Marie Air Defense Sector (SsmADS) is an inactive United States Air Force organization.
Scott Air Force Base is a United States Air Force base in St. Clair County, Illinois, near Belleville and O'Fallon, 25 miles East of downtown St. Louis.
Shreveport is the third-largest city in the state of Louisiana and the 122nd-largest city in the United States.
The Sioux City Air Defense Sector (SCADS) is an inactive United States Air Force organization.
Sioux City Air National Guard Base is a United States Air Force base, located at Sioux Gateway Airport It is located south-southeast of Sioux City, Iowa.
Southam is a small market town and civil parish in the Stratford-on-Avon district of Warwickshire, England.
The Southeast Air Defense Sector (SEADS), was a unit of the US Air Force located at Tyndall Air Force Base near Panama City, Florida.
The Southwest Air Defense Sector (SWADS) is an inactive United States Air Force organization.
Space Detection and Tracking System, or SPADATS, was built in 1960 to integrate defense systems built by different branches of the United States Armed Forces and was placed under North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD).
The Spokane Air Defense Sector (SPADS) is an inactive United States Air Force organization.
Spokane International Airport is a commercial airport approximately west of downtown Spokane, Washington.
Stewart Air National Guard Base is the home of the 105th Airlift Wing (105 AW), an Air Mobility Command (AMC)-gained unit of the New York Air National Guard and "host" wing for the installation.
Strategic Air Command (SAC) was both a Department of Defense Specified Command and a United States Air Force (USAF) Major Command (MAJCOM), responsible for Cold War command and control of two of the three components of the U.S. military's strategic nuclear strike forces, the so-called "nuclear triad," with SAC having control of land-based strategic bomber aircraft and intercontinental ballistic missiles or ICBMs (the third leg of the triad being submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBM) of the U.S. Navy).
The structure of the United States Air Force refers to the unit designators and organizational hierarchy of the United States Air Force, which starts at the most senior commands.
A submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) is a ballistic missile capable of being launched from submarines.
A Super Combat Center (SCC) was a planned Cold War command and control facility for ten NORAD regions/Air Divisions in Canada and the United States.
A surface-to-air missile (SAM, pronunced), or ground-to-air missile (GTAM, pronounced), is a missile designed to be launched from the ground to destroy aircraft or other missiles.
The Syracuse Air Defense Sector (SADS) is an inactive United States Air Force organization.
System Development Corporation (SDC) was a computer software company based in Santa Monica, California.
System of systems is a collection of task-oriented or dedicated systems that pool their resources and capabilities together to create a new, more complex system which offers more functionality and performance than simply the sum of the constituent systems.
Tactical Air Command (TAC) is an inactive United States Air Force organization.
A Tactical Data Link (TDL) uses a data link standard in order to provide communication via radio waves or cable used by the U.S. armed forces and NATO nations.
A teleprinter (teletypewriter, Teletype or TTY) is an electromechanical typewriter that can be used to send and receive typed messages through various communications channels, in both point-to-point and point-to-multipoint configurations.
The Texas Towers were a set of three radar facilities off the eastern seaboard of the United States which were used for surveillance by the United States Air Force during the Cold War.
The Atlantic is an American magazine and multi-platform publisher, founded in 1857 as The Atlantic Monthly in Boston, Massachusetts.
The Computer Museum was a Boston, Massachusetts, museum that opened in 1979 and operated in three different locations until 1999.
The Pentagon is the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense, located in Arlington County, Virginia, across the Potomac River from Washington, D.C. As a symbol of the U.S. military, The Pentagon is often used metonymically to refer to the U.S. Department of Defense.
The Time Tunnel is an American color science-fiction TV series, written around a theme of time travel adventure and starring James Darren and Robert Colbert.
To be announced (TBA), to be confirmed (TBC), and to be determined (or to be decided) (TBD) are placeholder terms used very broadly in event planning to indicate that although something is scheduled or expected to happen, a particular aspect of that remains to be arranged or confirmed.
Tonopah Air Force Station (ADC ID: SM-164, NORAD ID: Z-164) is a closed United States Air Force General Surveillance Radar station.
Topsham Air Force Station is a closed United States Air Force station.
A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power.
The Tri-City Herald is a daily newspaper based in Kennewick, Washington, in the United States.
Truax Field Air National Guard Base, also known as Truax Field, is a military facility located at Dane County Regional Airport.
The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial and space warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces.
The United States Army Air Forces (USAAF or AAF), informally known as the Air Force, was the aerial warfare service of the United States of America during and immediately after World War II (1939/41–1945), successor to the previous United States Army Air Corps and the direct predecessor of the United States Air Force of today, one of the five uniformed military services.
The Department of Defense (DoD, USDOD, or DOD) is an executive branch department of the federal government of the United States charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government concerned directly with national security and the United States Armed Forces.
The Air Commerce Act of 1926 created an Aeronautic Branch of the United States Department of Commerce.
The White House National Security Council (NSC) is the principal forum used by the President of the United States for consideration of national security, military matters, and foreign policy matters with senior national security advisors and Cabinet officials and is part of the executive office of the president of the United States.
The United States Navy (USN) is the naval warfare service branch of the United States Armed Forces and one of the seven uniformed services of the United States.
The University of Minnesota Duluth (UMD) is a regional branch of the University of Minnesota system located in Duluth, Minnesota, United States.
Voyage to the Bottom of the Sea is a 1961 American science fiction disaster film from 20th Century Fox, produced and directed by Irwin Allen, that stars Walter Pidgeon as Admiral Harriman Nelson, and Robert Sterling as Captain Lee Crane.
The Washington Air Defense Sector (WaADS) is an inactive United States Air Force organization.
The waterfall model is a relatively linear sequential design approach for certain areas of engineering design.
A weapon, arm or armament is any device used with intent to inflict damage or harm.
Webb Air Force Base, previously named Big Spring Air Force Base, was a United States Air Force facility of the Air Training Command that operated from 1951 to 1977 in West Texas within the current city limits of Big Spring.
The Western Air Defense Force (WADF) is an inactive United States Air Force organization.
The Western Air Defense Sector (WADS) is a unit of the Washington Air National Guard located at Joint Base Lewis-McChord, Tacoma, Washington.
Western Electric Company (WE, WECo) was an American electrical engineering and manufacturing company that served as the primary supplier to AT&T from 1881 to 1996.
The AN/FPS-27 Radar was a Long Range search radar used by the United States Air Force Air Defense Command.
Whirlwind I was a Cold War-era vacuum tube computer developed by the MIT Servomechanisms Laboratory for the U.S. Navy.
World War II (often abbreviated to WWII or WW2), also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although conflicts reflecting the ideological clash between what would become the Allied and Axis blocs began earlier.
The Worldwide Military Command and Control System, or WWMCCS, was a military command and control system implemented for the command and control of the United States military.
Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) is a United States Air Force base and census-designated place just east of Dayton, Ohio, in Greene and Montgomery counties.
WS-201A, informally known as the 1954 interceptor, was a US Air Force project to develop a dedicated interceptor aircraft that would enter service in 1954.
YouTube is an American video-sharing website headquartered in San Bruno, California.
The 23rd Air Division is an inactive United States Air Force intermediate echelon command and control organization.
The 4620th Air Defense Wing (Air Def Wg) is a discontinued wing of the United States Air Force.
The 646th Aircraft Control and Warning Squadron was the operational USAF unit of Highlands Air Force Station.