46 relations: Apsis, Astronomy, Cartesian coordinate system, Center of mass, Conic section, Coordinate system, Diameter, Eccentric anomaly, Eccentricity (mathematics), Ellipse, Elliptic orbit, Empirical evidence, Exoplanet, Focus (geometry), Frame of reference, Geometric mean, Geometry, Gravitational constant, Hyperbola, Hyperbolic trajectory, Impact parameter, Isaac Newton, Kepler's laws of planetary motion, Line segment, Mass, Mean anomaly, Orbit, Orbital elements, Orbital mechanics, Orbital period, Orbital state vectors, Parabola, Perimeter, Polar coordinate system, Radius, Right angle, Rotational symmetry, Semidiameter, Solar mass, Solar System, Specific orbital energy, Specific relative angular momentum, Standard gravitational parameter, True anomaly, Two-body problem, Vertex (curve).

## Apsis

An apsis (ἁψίς; plural apsides, Greek: ἁψῖδες) is an extreme point in the orbit of an object.

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## Astronomy

Astronomy (from ἀστρονομία) is a natural science that studies celestial objects and phenomena.

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## Cartesian coordinate system

A Cartesian coordinate system is a coordinate system that specifies each point uniquely in a plane by a pair of numerical coordinates, which are the signed distances to the point from two fixed perpendicular directed lines, measured in the same unit of length.

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## Center of mass

In physics, the center of mass of a distribution of mass in space is the unique point where the weighted relative position of the distributed mass sums to zero, or the point where if a force is applied it moves in the direction of the force without rotating.

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## Conic section

In mathematics, a conic section (or simply conic) is a curve obtained as the intersection of the surface of a cone with a plane.

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## Coordinate system

In geometry, a coordinate system is a system which uses one or more numbers, or coordinates, to uniquely determine the position of the points or other geometric elements on a manifold such as Euclidean space.

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## Diameter

In geometry, a diameter of a circle is any straight line segment that passes through the center of the circle and whose endpoints lie on the circle.

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## Eccentric anomaly

In orbital mechanics, eccentric anomaly is an angular parameter that defines the position of a body that is moving along an elliptic Kepler orbit.

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## Eccentricity (mathematics)

In mathematics, the eccentricity, denoted e or \varepsilon, is a parameter associated with every conic section.

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## Ellipse

In mathematics, an ellipse is a curve in a plane surrounding two focal points such that the sum of the distances to the two focal points is constant for every point on the curve.

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## Elliptic orbit

In astrodynamics or celestial mechanics, an elliptic orbit or elliptical orbit is a Kepler orbit with an eccentricity of less than 1; this includes the special case of a circular orbit, with eccentricity equal to 0.

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## Empirical evidence

Empirical evidence, also known as sensory experience, is the information received by means of the senses, particularly by observation and documentation of patterns and behavior through experimentation.

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## Exoplanet

An exoplanet or extrasolar planet is a planet outside our solar system.

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## Focus (geometry)

In geometry, focuses or foci, singular focus, are special points with reference to which any of a variety of curves is constructed.

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## Frame of reference

In physics, a frame of reference (or reference frame) consists of an abstract coordinate system and the set of physical reference points that uniquely fix (locate and orient) the coordinate system and standardize measurements.

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## Geometric mean

In mathematics, the geometric mean is a mean or average, which indicates the central tendency or typical value of a set of numbers by using the product of their values (as opposed to the arithmetic mean which uses their sum).

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## Geometry

Geometry (from the γεωμετρία; geo- "earth", -metron "measurement") is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, size, relative position of figures, and the properties of space.

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## Gravitational constant

The gravitational constant (also known as the "universal gravitational constant", the "Newtonian constant of gravitation", or the "Cavendish gravitational constant"), denoted by the letter, is an empirical physical constant involved in the calculation of gravitational effects in Sir Isaac Newton's law of universal gravitation and in Albert Einstein's general theory of relativity.

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## Hyperbola

In mathematics, a hyperbola (plural hyperbolas or hyperbolae) is a type of smooth curve lying in a plane, defined by its geometric properties or by equations for which it is the solution set.

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## Hyperbolic trajectory

In astrodynamics or celestial mechanics, a hyperbolic trajectory is the trajectory of any object around a central body with more than enough speed to escape the central object's gravitational pull.

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## Impact parameter

The impact parameter b is defined as the perpendicular distance between the path of a projectile and the center of a potential field U(r) created by an object that the projectile is approaching (see diagram).

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## Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1726/27) was an English mathematician, astronomer, theologian, author and physicist (described in his own day as a "natural philosopher") who is widely recognised as one of the most influential scientists of all time, and a key figure in the scientific revolution.

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## Kepler's laws of planetary motion

In astronomy, Kepler's laws of planetary motion are three scientific laws describing the motion of planets around the Sun.

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## Line segment

In geometry, a line segment is a part of a line that is bounded by two distinct end points, and contains every point on the line between its endpoints.

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## Mass

Mass is both a property of a physical body and a measure of its resistance to acceleration (a change in its state of motion) when a net force is applied.

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## Mean anomaly

In celestial mechanics, the mean anomaly is an angle used in calculating the position of a body in an elliptical orbit in the classical two-body problem.

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## Orbit

In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an object, such as the trajectory of a planet around a star or a natural satellite around a planet.

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## Orbital elements

Orbital elements are the parameters required to uniquely identify a specific orbit.

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## Orbital mechanics

Orbital mechanics or astrodynamics is the application of ballistics and celestial mechanics to the practical problems concerning the motion of rockets and other spacecraft.

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## Orbital period

The orbital period is the time a given astronomical object takes to complete one orbit around another object, and applies in astronomy usually to planets or asteroids orbiting the Sun, moons orbiting planets, exoplanets orbiting other stars, or binary stars.

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## Orbital state vectors

In astrodynamics and celestial dynamics, the orbital state vectors (sometimes state vectors) of an orbit are cartesian vectors of position (\mathbf) and velocity (\mathbf) that together with their time (epoch) (t\) uniquely determine the trajectory of the orbiting body in space.

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## Parabola

In mathematics, a parabola is a plane curve which is mirror-symmetrical and is approximately U-shaped.

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## Perimeter

A perimeter is a path that surrounds a two-dimensional shape.

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## Polar coordinate system

In mathematics, the polar coordinate system is a two-dimensional coordinate system in which each point on a plane is determined by a distance from a reference point and an angle from a reference direction.

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## Radius

In classical geometry, a radius of a circle or sphere is any of the line segments from its center to its perimeter, and in more modern usage, it is also their length.

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## Right angle

In geometry and trigonometry, a right angle is an angle of exactly 90° (degrees), corresponding to a quarter turn.

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## Rotational symmetry

Rotational symmetry, also known as radial symmetry in biology, is the property a shape has when it looks the same after some rotation by a partial turn.

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## Semidiameter

In geometry, the semidiameter or semi-diameter of a set of points may be one half of its diameter; or, sometimes, one half of its extent along a particular direction.

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## Solar mass

The solar mass is a standard unit of mass in astronomy, equal to approximately.

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## Solar System

The Solar SystemCapitalization of the name varies.

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## Specific orbital energy

In the gravitational two-body problem, the specific orbital energy \epsilon\,\! (or vis-viva energy) of two orbiting bodies is the constant sum of their mutual potential energy (\epsilon_p\,\!) and their total kinetic energy (\epsilon_k\,\!), divided by the reduced mass.

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## Specific relative angular momentum

In celestial mechanics the specific relative angular momentum \vec plays a pivotal role in the analysis of the two-body problem.

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## Standard gravitational parameter

In celestial mechanics, the standard gravitational parameter μ of a celestial body is the product of the gravitational constant G and the mass M of the body.

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## True anomaly

In celestial mechanics, true anomaly is an angular parameter that defines the position of a body moving along a Keplerian orbit.

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## Two-body problem

In classical mechanics, the two-body problem is to determine the motion of two point particles that interact only with each other.

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## Vertex (curve)

In the geometry of planar curves, a vertex is a point of where the first derivative of curvature is zero.

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## Redirects here:

Average distance, Conjugate axis, Major axis, Minor axis, Orbital distance, Semi minor axis, Semi-axis, Semi-conjugate axis, Semi-major axes, Semi-major axis, Semi-minor and semi-major axes, Semi-minor axis, Semi-transverse axis, Semiaxis, Semimajor Axis, Semimajor axes, Semimajor axis, Semiminor axis.

## References

[1] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Semi-major_and_semi-minor_axes