148 relations: Acceptor (semiconductors), Alan Herries Wilson, Alexander Graham Bell, Ambipolar diffusion, Amorphous silicon, Anisotropy, Anode, Arsenic, Arthur Schuster, Band gap, Bell Labs, Boltzmann constant, Boron, Bravais lattice, Carbon group, Carrier generation and recombination, Cathode, Charge carrier, Charles Fritts, Charles Kittel, Chlorofluorocarbon, Conservation of energy, Crystal detector, Crystal structure, Crystal twinning, Cutoff frequency, Delocalized electron, Diode, Dislocation, Dispersion relation, Donor (semiconductors), Doping (semiconductor), Drude model, Edmond Becquerel, Edwin Hall, Effective mass (solid-state physics), Electric current, Electric field, Electrical conductor, Electrical junction, Electrical resistance and conductance, Electrical resistivity and conductivity, Electron, Electron hole, Electron mobility, Electronic band structure, Energy, Energy transformation, Extrinsic semiconductor, Felix Bloch, ..., Fermi level, Fermi–Dirac statistics, Field effect (semiconductor), Freon, Gallium, Gallium arsenide, Gate dielectric, Gerhard Klimeck, Germanium, H. J. Round, Hall effect, Herbert Mataré, Heterojunction, High-electron-mobility transistor, History of radio, Ideal gas, Ingot, Insulator (electricity), Integrated circuit, Intrinsic semiconductor, Ion, Ion implantation, Ionizing radiation, J. J. Thomson, Jagadish Chandra Bose, John Bardeen, Julius Edgar Lilienfeld, Karl Baedeker (scientist), Karl Ferdinand Braun, Laptop, Light-emitting diode, LOCOS, Metal–semiconductor junction, Metalloid, Michael Faraday, Mobile phone, Momentum, NanoHUB, Negative resistance, Nevill Francis Mott, Oleg Losev, Organic compound, Organic semiconductor, Pauli exclusion principle, P–n junction, Periodic table, Phonon, Phosphorus, Photolithography, Photomask, Photon, Photophone, Photoresist, Photovoltaic effect, Plasma (physics), Plasma etching, Quantum dot, Quantum mechanics, Quantum state, Quantum statistical mechanics, Radio frequency, Rectifier, Resistor, Russell Ohl, Selenium, Semiconductor characterization techniques, Semiconductor device, Semiconductor device fabrication, Semiconductor industry, Siege of Leningrad, Silicon, Silicon carbide, Silicon dioxide, Silver sulfide, Simon Sze, Solid-state physics, Steady state, Sulfide, Tellurium, Thermal energy, Thermal oxidation, Thermoelectric cooling, Thermoelectric generator, Thermoelectric materials, Thin film, Thomas Johann Seebeck, Titanium dioxide, Transistor, Ultraviolet, University of Colorado Boulder, Vacuum tube, Valence and conduction bands, Voltage, Wafer (electronics), Walter H. Schottky, William Grylls Adams, William Shockley, Willoughby Smith. Expand index (98 more) » « Shrink index
In semiconductor physics, an acceptor is a dopant atom that when added to a semiconductor can form a p-type region.
Sir Alan Herries Wilson (2 July 1906 – 30 September 1995), was a British mathematician and industrialist.
Alexander Graham Bell (March 3, 1847 – August 2, 1922) was a Scottish-born scientist, inventor, engineer, and innovator who is credited with inventing and patenting the first practical telephone.
Ambipolar diffusion is diffusion of positive and negative species with opposite electrical charge due to their interaction via an electric field.
Amorphous silicon (a-Si) is the non-crystalline form of silicon used for solar cells and thin-film transistors in LCDs.
Anisotropy, is the property of being directionally dependent, which implies different properties in different directions, as opposed to isotropy.
An anode is an electrode through which the conventional current enters into a polarized electrical device.
Arsenic is a chemical element with symbol As and atomic number 33.
Sir Franz Arthur Friedrich Schuster FRS FRSE (12 September 1851 – 17 October 1934) was a German-born British physicist known for his work in spectroscopy, electrochemistry, optics, X-radiography and the application of harmonic analysis to physics.
In solid-state physics, a band gap, also called an energy gap or bandgap, is an energy range in a solid where no electron states can exist.
Nokia Bell Labs (formerly named AT&T Bell Laboratories, Bell Telephone Laboratories and Bell Labs) is an American research and scientific development company, owned by Finnish company Nokia.
The Boltzmann constant, which is named after Ludwig Boltzmann, is a physical constant relating the average kinetic energy of particles in a gas with the temperature of the gas.
Boron is a chemical element with symbol B and atomic number 5.
In geometry and crystallography, a Bravais lattice, named after, is an infinite array of discrete points in three dimensional space generated by a set of discrete translation operations described by: where ni are any integers and ai are known as the primitive vectors which lie in different directions and span the lattice.
The carbon group is a periodic table group consisting of carbon (C), silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), tin (Sn), lead (Pb), and flerovium (Fl).
In the solid-state physics of semiconductors, carrier generation and recombination are processes by which mobile charge carriers (electrons and electron holes) are created and eliminated.
A cathode is the electrode from which a conventional current leaves a polarized electrical device.
In physics, a charge carrier is a particle free to move, carrying an electric charge, especially the particles that carry electric charges in electrical conductors.
Charles Fritts (1850 – 1903) was the American inventor credited with creating the first working Selenium Cell in 1883.
Charles Kittel (born July 18, 1916) is an American physicist.
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) are fully halogenated paraffin hydrocarbons that contain only carbon (С), chlorine (Cl), and fluorine (F), produced as volatile derivative of methane, ethane, and propane.
In physics, the law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of an isolated system remains constant, it is said to be ''conserved'' over time.
A crystal detector is an obsolete electronic component in some early 20th century radio receivers that used a piece of crystalline mineral as a detector (demodulator) to rectify the alternating current radio signal to extract the audio modulation which produced the sound in the earphones.
In crystallography, crystal structure is a description of the ordered arrangement of atoms, ions or molecules in a crystalline material.
Crystal twinning occurs when two separate crystals share some of the same crystal lattice points in a symmetrical manner.
In physics and electrical engineering, a cutoff frequency, corner frequency, or break frequency is a boundary in a system's frequency response at which energy flowing through the system begins to be reduced (attenuated or reflected) rather than passing through.
In chemistry, delocalized electrons are electrons in a molecule, ion or solid metal that are not associated with a single atom or a covalent bond.
A diode is a two-terminal electronic component that conducts current primarily in one direction (asymmetric conductance); it has low (ideally zero) resistance in one direction, and high (ideally infinite) resistance in the other.
In materials science, a dislocation or Taylor's dislocation is a crystallographic defect or irregularity within a crystal structure.
In physical sciences and electrical engineering, dispersion relations describe the effect of dispersion in a medium on the properties of a wave traveling within that medium.
In semiconductor physics, a donor is a dopant atom that, when added to a semiconductor, can form a n-type region.
In semiconductor production, doping is the intentional introduction of impurities into an intrinsic semiconductor for the purpose of modulating its electrical properties.
The Drude model of electrical conduction was proposed in 1900 by Paul Drude to explain the transport properties of electrons in materials (especially metals).
Alexandre-Edmond Becquerel (24 March 1820 – 11 May 1891), known as Edmond Becquerel, was a French physicist who studied the solar spectrum, magnetism, electricity and optics.
Edwin Herbert Hall (November 7, 1855 – November 20, 1938) was an American physicist who discovered the eponymous Hall effect.
In solid state physics, a particle's effective mass (often denoted) is the mass that it seems to have when responding to forces, or the mass that it seems to have when interacting with other identical particles in a thermal distribution.
An electric current is a flow of electric charge.
An electric field is a vector field surrounding an electric charge that exerts force on other charges, attracting or repelling them.
In physics and electrical engineering, a conductor is an object or type of material that allows the flow of an electrical current in one or more directions.
An electrical junction may be either a thermoelectricity junction, a metal–semiconductor junction or a p–n junction (p-type semiconductor–n-type semiconductor junction).
The electrical resistance of an electrical conductor is a measure of the difficulty to pass an electric current through that conductor.
Electrical resistivity (also known as resistivity, specific electrical resistance, or volume resistivity) is a fundamental property that quantifies how strongly a given material opposes the flow of electric current.
The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol or, whose electric charge is negative one elementary charge.
In physics, chemistry, and electronic engineering, an electron hole (often simply called a hole) is the lack of an electron at a position where one could exist in an atom or atomic lattice.
In solid-state physics, the electron mobility characterizes how quickly an electron can move through a metal or semiconductor, when pulled by an electric field.
In solid-state physics, the electronic band structure (or simply band structure) of a solid describes the range of energies that an electron within the solid may have (called energy bands, allowed bands, or simply bands) and ranges of energy that it may not have (called band gaps or forbidden bands).
In physics, energy is the quantitative property that must be transferred to an object in order to perform work on, or to heat, the object.
Energy transformation, also termed as energy conversion, is the process of changing energy from one of its forms into another.
An extrinsic semiconductor is one that has been doped, that is, into which a doping agent has been introduced, giving it different electrical properties than the intrinsic (pure) semiconductor.
Felix Bloch (23 October 1905 – 10 September 1983) was a Swiss physicist, working mainly in the U.S. He and Edward Mills Purcell were awarded the 1952 Nobel Prize for Physics for "their development of new ways and methods for nuclear magnetic precision measurements."Sohlman, M (Ed.) Nobel Foundation directory 2003. Vastervik, Sweden: AB CO Ekblad; 2003.
The Fermi level chemical potential for electrons (or electrochemical potential for electrons), usually denoted by µ or EF, of a body is a thermodynamic quantity, whose significance is the thermodynamic work required to add one electron to the body (not counting the work required to remove the electron from wherever it came from).
In quantum statistics, a branch of physics, Fermi–Dirac statistics describe a distribution of particles over energy states in systems consisting of many identical particles that obey the Pauli exclusion principle.
In physics, the field effect refers to the modulation of the electrical conductivity of a material by the application of an external electric field.
Freon is a registered trademark of The Chemours Company, which uses it for a number of halocarbon products.
Gallium is a chemical element with symbol Ga and atomic number 31.
Gallium arsenide (GaAs) is a compound of the elements gallium and arsenic.
A gate dielectric is a dielectric used between the gate and substrate of a field-effect transistor.
Gerhard Klimeck is a German-American scientist and author in the field of nanotechnology.
Germanium is a chemical element with symbol Ge and atomic number 32.
Captain Henry Joseph Round (2 June 1881 – 17 August 1966) was an English engineer and one of the early pioneers of radio.
The Hall effect is the production of a voltage difference (the Hall voltage) across an electrical conductor, transverse to an electric current in the conductor and to an applied magnetic field perpendicular to the current.
Herbert Franz Mataré (22 September 1912 – 2 September 2011) was a German physicist.
A heterojunction is the interface that occurs between two layers or regions of dissimilar crystalline semiconductors.
A High-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT), also known as heterostructure FET (HFET) or modulation-doped FET (MODFET), is a field-effect transistor incorporating a junction between two materials with different band gaps (i.e. a heterojunction) as the channel instead of a doped region (as is generally the case for MOSFET).
The early history of radio is the history of technology that produces and uses radio instruments that use radio waves.
An ideal gas is a theoretical gas composed of many randomly moving point particles whose only interactions are perfectly elastic collisions.
An ingot is a piece of relatively pure material, usually metal, that is cast into a shape suitable for further processing.
An electrical insulator is a material whose internal electric charges do not flow freely; very little electric current will flow through it under the influence of an electric field.
An integrated circuit or monolithic integrated circuit (also referred to as an IC, a chip, or a microchip) is a set of electronic circuits on one small flat piece (or "chip") of semiconductor material, normally silicon.
An intrinsic(pure) semiconductor, also called an undoped semiconductor or i-type semiconductor, is a pure semiconductor without any significant dopant species present.
An ion is an atom or molecule that has a non-zero net electrical charge (its total number of electrons is not equal to its total number of protons).
Ion implantation is low-temperature process by which ions of one element are accelerated into a solid target, thereby changing the physical, chemical, or electrical properties of the target.
Ionizing radiation (ionising radiation) is radiation that carries enough energy to liberate electrons from atoms or molecules, thereby ionizing them.
Sir Joseph John Thomson (18 December 1856 – 30 August 1940) was an English physicist and Nobel Laureate in Physics, credited with the discovery and identification of the electron; and with the discovery of the first subatomic particle.
Sir Jagadish Chandra Bose, CSI, CIE, FRS (30 November 1858 – 23 November 1937), also spelled Jagdish and Jagadis, was a polymath, physicist, biologist, biophysicist, botanist and archaeologist, and an early writer of science fiction.
John Bardeen (May 23, 1908 – January 30, 1991) was an American physicist and electrical engineer.
Julius Edgar Lilienfeld (April 18, 1882 – August 28, 1963) was a Jewish Austro-Hungarian-born German-American physicist and electronic engineer, credited with the first patents on the field-effect transistor (FET) (1925) and electrolytic capacitor (1931).
. Karl Wilhelm Sali Baedeker (3 February 1877 – 6 August 1914) was a German physicist, and a professor at the University of Jena.
Karl Ferdinand Braun (6 June 1850 – 20 April 1918) was a German inventor, physicist and Nobel laureate in physics.
A laptop, also called a notebook computer or just notebook, is a small, portable personal computer with a "clamshell" form factor, having, typically, a thin LCD or LED computer screen mounted on the inside of the upper lid of the "clamshell" and an alphanumeric keyboard on the inside of the lower lid.
A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light source.
LOCOS, short for LOCal Oxidation of Silicon, is a microfabrication process where silicon dioxide is formed in selected areas on a silicon wafer having the Si-SiO2 interface at a lower point than the rest of the silicon surface.
In solid-state physics, a metal–semiconductor (M–S) junction is a type of junction in which a metal comes in close contact with a semiconductor material.
A metalloid is any chemical element which has properties in between those of metals and nonmetals, or that has a mixture of them.
Michael Faraday FRS (22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867) was an English scientist who contributed to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.
A mobile phone, known as a cell phone in North America, is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link while the user is moving within a telephone service area.
In Newtonian mechanics, linear momentum, translational momentum, or simply momentum (pl. momenta) is the product of the mass and velocity of an object.
nanoHUB.org is a science and engineering gateway comprising community-contributed resources and geared toward educational applications, professional networking, and interactive simulation tools for nanotechnology.
In electronics, negative resistance (NR) is a property of some electrical circuits and devices in which an increase in voltage across the device's terminals results in a decrease in electric current through it.
Sir Nevill Francis Mott (30 September 1905 – 8 August 1996) was a British physicist who won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1977 for his work on the electronic structure of magnetic and disordered systems, especially amorphous semiconductors.
Oleg Vladimirovich Losev (Оле́г Влади́мирович Ло́сев, sometimes spelled Lossev or Lossew in English) (10 May 1903 – 22 January 1942) was a Russian scientist and inventor, An English translation is on the Springer archive who made significant discoveries in the field of semiconductor junctions.
In chemistry, an organic compound is generally any chemical compound that contains carbon.
Organic semiconductors are solids whose building blocks are pi-bonded molecules or polymers made up by carbon and hydrogen atoms and – at times – heteroatoms such as nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen.
The Pauli exclusion principle is the quantum mechanical principle which states that two or more identical fermions (particles with half-integer spin) cannot occupy the same quantum state within a quantum system simultaneously.
A p–n junction is a boundary or interface between two types of semiconductor materials, p-type and n-type, inside a single crystal of semiconductor.
The periodic table is a tabular arrangement of the chemical elements, ordered by their atomic number, electron configuration, and recurring chemical properties, whose structure shows periodic trends.
In physics, a phonon is a collective excitation in a periodic, elastic arrangement of atoms or molecules in condensed matter, like solids and some liquids.
Phosphorus is a chemical element with symbol P and atomic number 15.
Photolithography, also termed optical lithography or UV lithography, is a process used in microfabrication to pattern parts of a thin film or the bulk of a substrate.
A photomask is an opaque plate with holes or transparencies that allow light to shine through in a defined pattern.
The photon is a type of elementary particle, the quantum of the electromagnetic field including electromagnetic radiation such as light, and the force carrier for the electromagnetic force (even when static via virtual particles).
The photophone is a telecommunications device that allows transmission of speech on a beam of light.
A photoresist is a light-sensitive material used in several processes, such as photolithography and photoengraving, to form a patterned coating on a surface.
The photovoltaic effect is the creation of voltage and electric current in a material upon exposure to light and is a physical and chemical property/phenomenon.
Plasma (Henry George Liddell, Robert Scott, A Greek English Lexicon, on Perseus) is one of the four fundamental states of matter, and was first described by chemist Irving Langmuir in the 1920s.
Plasma etching is a form of plasma processing used to fabricate integrated circuits.
Quantum dots (QD) are very small semiconductor particles, only several nanometres in size, so small that their optical and electronic properties differ from those of larger particles.
Quantum mechanics (QM; also known as quantum physics, quantum theory, the wave mechanical model, or matrix mechanics), including quantum field theory, is a fundamental theory in physics which describes nature at the smallest scales of energy levels of atoms and subatomic particles.
In quantum physics, quantum state refers to the state of an isolated quantum system.
Quantum statistical mechanics is statistical mechanics applied to quantum mechanical systems.
Radio frequency (RF) refers to oscillatory change in voltage or current in a circuit, waveguide or transmission line in the range extending from around twenty thousand times per second to around three hundred billion times per second, roughly between the upper limit of audio and the lower limit of infrared.
A rectifier is an electrical device that converts alternating current (AC), which periodically reverses direction, to direct current (DC), which flows in only one direction.
A resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that implements electrical resistance as a circuit element.
Russell Shoemaker Ohl (January 30, 1898 – March 20, 1987) was an American engineer who is generally recognized for patenting the modern solar cell (US Patent 2402662, "Light sensitive device").
Selenium is a chemical element with symbol Se and atomic number 34.
The purpose of this article is to summarize the methods used to experimentally characterize a semiconductor material or device (PN junction, Schottky diode, etc.). Some examples of semiconductor quantities that could be characterized include depletion width, carrier concentration, optical generation and recombination rate, carrier lifetimes, defect concentration, trap states, etc.
Semiconductor devices are electronic components that exploit the electronic properties of semiconductor materials, principally silicon, germanium, and gallium arsenide, as well as organic semiconductors.
Semiconductor device fabrication is the process used to create the integrated circuits that are present in everyday electrical and electronic devices.
The semiconductor industry is the aggregate collection of companies engaged in the design and fabrication of semiconductor devices.
The Siege of Leningrad (also known as the Leningrad Blockade (Блокада Ленинграда, transliteration: Blokada Leningrada) and the 900-Day Siege) was a prolonged military blockade undertaken from the south by the Army Group North of Nazi Germany and the Finnish Army in the north, against Leningrad, historically and currently known as Saint Petersburg, in the Eastern Front theatre of World War II.
Silicon is a chemical element with symbol Si and atomic number 14.
Silicon carbide (SiC), also known as carborundum, is a semiconductor containing silicon and carbon.
Silicon dioxide, also known as silica (from the Latin silex), is an oxide of silicon with the chemical formula, most commonly found in nature as quartz and in various living organisms.
Silver sulfide is the sulfide of silver.
Solid-state physics is the study of rigid matter, or solids, through methods such as quantum mechanics, crystallography, electromagnetism, and metallurgy.
In systems theory, a system or a process is in a steady state if the variables (called state variables) which define the behavior of the system or the process are unchanging in time.
Sulfide (systematically named sulfanediide, and sulfide(2−)) (British English sulphide) is an inorganic anion of sulfur with the chemical formula S2− or a compound containing one or more S2− ions.
Tellurium is a chemical element with symbol Te and atomic number 52.
Thermal energy is a term used loosely as a synonym for more rigorously-defined thermodynamic quantities such as the internal energy of a system; heat or sensible heat, which are defined as types of transfer of energy (as is work); or for the characteristic energy of a degree of freedom in a thermal system kT, where T is temperature and k is the Boltzmann constant.
In microfabrication, thermal oxidation is a way to produce a thin layer of oxide (usually silicon dioxide) on the surface of a wafer.
Thermoelectric cooling uses the Peltier effect to create a heat flux between the junction of two different types of materials.
A thermoelectric generator (TEG), also called a Seebeck generator, is a solid state device that converts heat flux (temperature differences) directly into electrical energy through a phenomenon called the Seebeck effect (a form of thermoelectric effect).
Thermoelectric materials show the thermoelectric effect in a strong or convenient form.
A thin film is a layer of material ranging from fractions of a nanometer (monolayer) to several micrometers in thickness.
Thomas Johann Seebeck (9 April 1770 – 10 December 1831) was a Baltic German physicist, who, in 1821, discovered the thermoelectric effect.
Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium(IV) oxide or titania, is the naturally occurring oxide of titanium, chemical formula.
A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power.
Ultraviolet (UV) is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength from 10 nm to 400 nm, shorter than that of visible light but longer than X-rays.
The University of Colorado Boulder (commonly referred to as CU or Colorado) is a public research university located in Boulder, Colorado, United States.
In electronics, a vacuum tube, an electron tube, or just a tube (North America), or valve (Britain and some other regions) is a device that controls electric current between electrodes in an evacuated container.
In solid-state physics, the valence band and conduction band are the bands closest to the Fermi level and thus determine the electrical conductivity of the solid.
Voltage, electric potential difference, electric pressure or electric tension (formally denoted or, but more often simply as V or U, for instance in the context of Ohm's or Kirchhoff's circuit laws) is the difference in electric potential between two points.
A wafer, also called a slice or substrate, is a thin slice of semiconductor material, such as a crystalline silicon, used in electronics for the fabrication of integrated circuits and in photovoltaics for conventional, wafer-based solar cells.
Walter Hans Schottky (23 July 1886 – 4 March 1976) was a German physicist who played a major early role in developing the theory of electron and ion emission phenomena, invented the screen-grid vacuum tube in 1915 and the pentode in 1919 while working at Siemens, co-invented the ribbon microphone and ribbon loudspeaker along with Dr.
William Grylls Adams FRS (18 February 1836 in Laneast, Cornwall – 10 April 1915) was professor of Natural Philosophy at King's College, London.
William Bradford Shockley Jr. (February 13, 1910 – August 12, 1989) was an American physicist and inventor.
Willoughby Smith (6 April 1828, Great Yarmouth, Norfolk – 17 July 1891, Eastbourne, Sussex) was an English electrical engineer who discovered the photoconductivity of the element selenium.
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